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Evolution of Public Park is a major component of urban
landscape in USA? Explain with the works of famous pioneers in

Subject- Theory of Landscape Architecture

Made By-
Pranav Gupta
3rd SEM
Master in Landscape Architecture
Dec, 2017
Q- Evolution of Public Park is a major component of urban landscape in USA? Explain with the works
of famous pioneers in USA?


Lovejoy Fountain Park, Portland, Oregon

After discharge from military service, he joined the firm of San Francisco landscape architect Thomas
DolliverChurch.Theprojects he worked on in this period included the Dewey Donnell Garden (El Novillero)
in Sonoma County.

Halprinopened his own office in 1949, becoming one of Church's professional heirs and competitors.

Halprin'swife, accomplished avant-garde dancer Anna Halprin, is a long-time collaborator, with whom he
explored the common areas between choreography and the way users move through a public space. They
are the parents of Daria Halprin, an American psychologist, author, dancer, and actress, and of
RanaHalprin, a photographer and activist for Romani and human rights.

Halprin'swork is marked by his attention to human scale, user experience, and the social impact of his
designs, in the egalitarian tradition of Frederick Law Olmsted. Halprinwas the creative force behind the
interactive, 'playable' civic fountains most common in the 1970s, an amenity which continues to greatly
contribute to the pedestrian social experience in Portland Oregon,

Recently many of Halprin'sworks have become the source of some controversy. Some have fallen victim
to neglect, and are in states of disrepair. Critics argue his pieces have become dated and no longer reflect
the direction their cities want to take. Budgetary constraints and the urge to "revitalize" threaten some
of his projects. In response foundations have been set up to improve care for some of thesites and to try
to preserve them in their original state.


United Nations Plaza, Civic Center, San Francisco serpentine transitway, Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis

Halprin'srange of projects demonstrate his vision of the garden or open space as a stage.
Halprinrecognized that "the garden in your own immediate neighborhood, preferably at your own
doorstep, is the most significant garden;" and as part of a seamless whole, hevalued "wilderness areas
where we can be truly alone with ourselves and where nature can be sensed as the primeval source of
life. The interplay of perspectives informed projects which encompassed urban parks, plazas, commercial
and cultural centers and other places of congregation:

•Ferris House landscape, Spokane, Washington, 1955

•Washington Water Power (now AvistaCorporation) campus, Spokane, Washington, 1959
•master landscaping plan for the 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Seattle, 1958–1962
•landscape plan for the West Coast Memorial to the Missing of World War II, Presidio of San Francisco,
•Ghirardelli Square in San Francisco, California, an early model for adaptive reuse of historic buildings,
•Master landscape plan for Sea Ranch, California, a historically significant planned
communitycollaborationwith developer Al Boekeand architects Joseph Esherick, Charles Willard Moore
and others, 1964
•master planning for sections of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system, San Francisco, 1964–1966
•Landscape work for Oakbrook Center in Oak Brook, Illinois, exterior landscaping and 'horsehead' fountain
scheme for Northwest Plaza in St. Louis, Missouri, among many other post-war suburban shopping plazas,
•Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, one of the nation's first transitways, 1968
•Park Central Square, Springfield, Missouri, 1970


Gardens Are for People, McGraw-Hill

In 1955, Church published his book Gardens are for People that included the essence of his design
philosophy –Unity, Function, Simplicity, and Scale -and much practical advice.
In this book, Church outlines four principles for his design process. They are–
1. UNITY, which is the consideration of the schemes as a whole, both house and garden.
2. FUNCTION, which is the relation of the practical service areas to the needs of the household and the
relation of the decorative areas to the desires and pleasures of those who use it.
3. SIMPLICITY, upon which may rest both the economic and aesthetic success of the layout.
4. SCALE, which gives us a pleasant relation of part stone another.
Some of the principles which church followed in garden design on small scale residential projects are–
• Creating a close relationship between indoors and outdoors,
• With constant attention given to paving, edgings, containers, decking, walls
• The use of low maintenance planting reflecting the dry climate
• The most of contrast in texture, colour and form, and doing whatever was right to make the garden
liveable in rather than conforming to stiff old rules.
Till1976 he had designed some 4000 gardens, mostly residential, but with some notable exceptions such
as the General Motors Technical Centre with a 22 acre lake and work at Stanford and Berkley University.
Church's success was a result of his skill in being able to combine the rational with the romantic, tolerate
with the site and concern for detail and materials.

Most of the existing California live oak trees were spared
 The pool was the garden's central feature
 Surrounded by extensive paved areas for use by family and friends
 Where the hill fell quickly, these concrete surfaces were extended as wooden
 Decking, configured to embrace the existing trees
The garden represented everything modern about California living and helped promote a lifestyle in which
living outdoors shared equal importance with life inside the home.

 The site, which had no buildings when Church was commissioned, was in the middle of a cattle
ranch in Sonoma County, overlooked the rolling hills and salt marshes of Sonoma Valley, and
contained groves of Quercus agrifolia, the native California live oak.

 Although not a true kidney-shaped pool, this free-form -style swimming pool was a sensation
when it was designed for the Donnell family in 1948.
 Interestingly, the swimming pool, patio and garden were built before the house was erected. The
Donnell family chose a favorite spot in Sonoma on top of a hill overlooking San Francisco Bay,
where they frequently gathered for picnics and family parties.

 While considered free-form, the boomerang shape (or kidney) consists of two shapes set at 45-
degree angles. The island-situated sculpture in the middle of the pool was created by
Adaline Kent.

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