Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Halipah binti Harun (P-PM0092/16)

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and its proponent: David Nunan

David Nunan was born in October, 11th, in 1949 in Broken Hill, Australia. He is an
Australian linguist who has focused on the teaching of English. His notion on CLT has brought a
wider view that “ language can be thought as a tool for communication rather than sets of
phonological, grammatical and lexical items to be memorized...”. Compared to both Grammar
Translation and Audio-Lingual Method, Communicative Language Teaching or CLT, according to
this prolific linguist has five basic characteristics as follows:

(1) An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target


language.

(2) The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

(3) The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also
on the learning process itself.

(4) An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important


contributing elements to classroom learning.

(5) An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside
the classroom.

The table below presents contrasts in relation to theories of language and learning, and is
related to objectives, syllabus, classroom activities and the roles of learners, teachers and
material that sums up the notional-functional language teaching (communicative approaches)
which exists ever since its being introduced,
Teaching Traditionalism (GTM,ALM) Communicative language (CLT)
Language is a system of rule Language is a system for the
Theory of language governed structures hierarchically expression of meaning: primary
arranged. function – interaction.
Activities involving real
Habit formation; skills are
communication; carrying out
learned more effectively if oral
Theory of learning meaningful tasks and using
precedes written; analogy not
language that is meaningful to
analysis.
the learner to promote learning.
Control of the structures of Objectives will reflect the
sound, form and order, mastery needs of the learner; they will
Objectives
over symbols of the language; include functional skills as
goal – native speaker mastery. well as linguistic objective
Syllabus Graded syllabus of phonology, Will include some or all of the
morphology, and syntax. following:structures,functions,
Contrastive analysis. notions, themes and
Halipah binti Harun (P-PM0092/16)

tasks. Ordering will be guided


by learner needs.
Engage learners in communication;
Dialogues and drills; repetition involve (communicative) process
Activities and memorization; pattern such as information sharing,
practice. negotiation of meaning and
interaction.
Organisms that can be directed
Learner as negotiator, interactor,
Role of a learner by skilled training techniques
giving as well taking.
to produce correct responses.
Central and active; teacher
Facilitator of the communication
dominated method. Provides
Role of a teacher process,needs analyst,counselor,
model; controls direction and
process manager.
pace.
Primarily teacher oriented. Primary role of promoting
Role of materials Tapes and visuals; language communicative language use;
lab often used. task based, authentic materials.

Source: Nunan and Lamb 2001:3

To conclude, CLT is seen as more than an approach in language teaching by this scholar. It
lies on meaning (messages that are created and task which are completed) rather than form
(correctness of language and language structure) - as in first language acquisition. He re-
evaluates the learning process that occurred before from ‘knowing what’ (in Grammar
Translation) and ‘knowing how’ (in Audio-Lingual Method) to a more practical way of learning a
language through the emphasis of ‘real communication’ in the realm of English Language
Teaching. The syllabus and activities hinge upon communicative curricula that highlight the role
of a learner, teacher and material in sustaining communication in language classroom context.

References

Nunan, D. (2006). Task-based language teaching. Ernst Klett Sprachen.

Nunan, D. and C. Lamb. 2001. “Managing the learning process” [in:] D.R. Hall, A.
Hewings (eds.) Innovation in English Language Teaching. A Reader. London and
New York in association with Macquarie University and The Open University. 27-45

Nunan, D. (1991). Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum. TESOL


Quarterly, 25(2), 279-295. doi:10.2307/3587464
Halipah binti Harun (P-PM0092/16)

COMMUNICATION IN THE ESOL CLASSROOM

_________________________________________________________________________

A SUMMARY OF

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)

FROM

DAVID NUNAN’S PERSPECTIVES

____________________________________________

BY:

HALIPAH BINT HARUN


(P-PM0092/16)

FOR:

ASSOC. PROFESSOR DR. MOHAMAD JAFRE BIN ZAINOL ABIDIN


COORDINATOR
Halipah binti Harun (P-PM0092/16)

UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA