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Type 28 Gas Seals

Range introduction and operating principles

© John Crane
Programme Overview

 John Crane Introduction


 Dry Gas Seal Application Turbo-Machinery
 Brief History of Dry Gas Seals
 Seal Design & Operating Principles
 T28 Product Range
 T28 Gas Seal Configuration & Operation
 Control & Monitoring Systems
Q&A

© John Crane
John Crane Introduction

© John Crane
Smiths Group plc

 John Crane is a Division of Smiths Group plc


• 6,400 Employees
• £626 million sales 2008

 Smiths Group plc is a forward-thinking, focused engineering


company with worldwide market-leading positions in its
four chosen areas of specialization
• Medical
• Detection
• John Crane
• Flex-Tek & Interconnect

© John Crane
A Global Leader

 For over 80 years John Crane has had a passion for innovation

 We are the acknowledged world leader and the largest developer,


manufacturer and provider of:
Solutions:
Products:
• Service
• Engineered mechanical seals
• Reliability contracts
• Sealing support systems
• Asset management solutions
• Power transmission couplings
• Oil & water chemistry consultancy
• Engineered bearings

© John Crane
Organisation

North America Europe Middle East


Africa

Latin
America Asia Pacific

America’s Europe Asia Africa


© John Crane
Organisation

 Sales £500M

Quebec Czech Rep.


Hamilton Germany
France
Slough
Chicago Tianjin
Washington Italy Osaka

Mexico Venezuela Madras


Singapore

Sao Paulo
Sydney
Victoria

 184 facilities in 43 countries JCMSD Development  Over 80 service centres


JCMSD Manufacturing
 20 manufacturing plants  1350 customer support Ens.
JCMSD Sales/Service
© John Crane
John Crane Korea

John Crane KOREA는 1988년에 John Crane이 100% 투자하여 한국


내에 설립 되었고, 현재 서울 Headquarter , 부산 Factory & Sales
Office , 여수 Sales Office 를 운영하고 있으며 Sales Technical
Engineer가 전국에서 활동 중입니다.

John Crane KOREA는 Engineering Expertise , Technical Service,


Global Supply Channels , Contracted Seal Reconditioning , Alliance
등의 Capability를 갖고 있습니다.

© John Crane
John Crane Korea

Profile

 Established in 1988

 Wholly-owned Smiths subsidiary

 Headquarter in Seoul

 Factory & Sales office in Pusan

 Sales office in Yeochun

 Integrated Flexibox Korea in 1999

© John Crane
Head Office in Seoul

© John Crane
John Crane Facility in Busan

© John Crane
Workshop in Busan

© John Crane
Sales Offices

Sales in Busan

Sales in Yosu

© John Crane
Value Added Solutions

 Mechanical seals  Running spares  Asset management


 Power transmission couplings  Repair  Seal management
 Sealing support systems  Retro-fit  Stock management
 Spares

KNOWLEDGE SERVICE EXPERIENCE

John Crane has developed a world leading E-Business


solution providing us and our customers with an opportunity
to achieve mutual benefits

© John Crane
Dry Gas Seal Application
Turbo-Machinery

© John Crane
Dry Gas Seal Applications
Extraction & Production Refineries
Offshore Catalytic Reformer
Onshore Hydrotreater
Hydrocracker
Fluid Catalytic Cracker
GTL

Petrochemical Plants
Ethylene
Methanol
Gas Gathering &
Butyl Polymers
Transmission
Gas Treatment
Organic Chemicals
Gas Storage
Ammonia
Pipeline
Urea
LNG
Acetyls
GTL
Nitric Acid

© John Crane
Non-Contacting Seal Products

Type 28LD
Mixers CK728/738
Type 28EXP Blowers
Type 5280
Type 28XP

Compressors Turboexpander Type


Type 28AT 28GP/AT

Type 28GP
Type 28ST

Type 28GT Gas Turbines Steam


Turbines
Type 28SST
Pumps

Type 28LD Type 28VL Type 2800 Type 285 Type


Type 28SC Type 2800E 5620USP
© John Crane
Gas Compressor Sealing

Type 28AT

© John Crane
Turbomachinery Product

John Crane Dry Running Gas Seal

Compressors
© John Crane
Dry Gas Seal Applications

A between bearings
compressor normally
contains two Type 28
gas seals

© John Crane
Gas Seals in a Compressor

Gas Seal Gas Seal

Compressor
© John Crane
Typical Compressor

Man-Turbo Compressor

© John Crane
Typical Compressor

Nuovo Pignone 2BCL

Diaphragm Bundle
© John Crane
Compressor Train – Nuovo Pignone

© John Crane
Compressor Train - MHI

© John Crane
DGS Benefits

Dry Gas Seal Benefits over Oil Seals:


- Increased safety

- 98% power savings

- 97% reduction in gas losses

- Eliminate contamination

- Considerable reliability improvement

- Simple pipe work / support system

- No seal oil consumption - $US500k

© John Crane
Brief History of
Dry Gas Seals

© John Crane
Once Upon a Time ...

John Crane founded in 1917 – Chicago, Illinois, USA

Crane Packing Limited established in Slough, England, UK,


in 1923, by Frank Payne - the Company President.

Enlarged Berwick Avenue Works


Slough 1936
Frank Payne
© John Crane
Type 28 Gas Seal Milestones
 1968 First patent
 1975 First field applications
 1981 First beam type compressor
 1985 First steam turbine
 1985 First offshore
 1986 First H2 recycle compressor
 1991 Bi-directional seal
 1992 XP seal - 123 to 200 bar
 1994 Type 82 separation seal introduced
 1995 First H.P. re-injection
 1997 Worlds Largest 330mm Gas Seal
 1998 400 bar seal test
 1998 100,000,000 Operating hours
 2000 T28 EXP 350bar Tandem Seal
 2002 First fully operation service centre commissioned
 2004 Infrastructure investment for 500mm seal + 5 service centres operational
 2005 £3m investment in testing and development facilities
 2005 Reliability team founded
 2005 425 bar EXP seal with independently verified performance
 2006 5 new test rigs commissioned
 2007 Global service centre network
 2008 Next generation separation seals T83/T93FR launched

© John Crane
Gas Seal Performance Progress

450
400 em
d d
ua n

&
350 P Q Ta

C) te
X P

D ani
EX

r
Pressure (Bar)

(C
300 i ple
r

A
X PT
250
200
a ndem
X PT
150 ple
r i
A TT
100 em
nd
50 Ta
AT
0
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

© John Crane
Type 28 Gas Seal Experience

 John Crane invented the dry gas seal 30 years ago.


 Gas seals have revolutionised turbomachinery sealing

 Gas seals are installed


in the majority of new
centrifugal compressors
 Gas seals are fitted as
standard by all major
compressor OEMs
 Over 20,000 gas seals supplied
 Over 200 million operating hrs

© John Crane
Manufacturing Sites - Dry Gas Seals

JC UK, Slough

JC Inc, Chicago
JC Japan, Ritto

= Dry Gas Seal Manufacturing


and Reconditioning
© John Crane
Sales and Service Sites

JC Norway
JC Russia

JC Tianjin

JC Saudi Arabia
JC Singapore

JC Brazil

= Regional DGS Repair & Test Centres


© John Crane
Dry Gas Seal
Operating Principles

© John Crane
Operating Principles

Spiral Groove Comparison

UNIDIRECTIONAL BIDIRECTIONAL
SPIRAL GROOVE SPIRAL GROOVE
© John Crane
Spiral Groove Dry Gas Seals

 Features

• Cartridge seal - relatively simple to fit

• No wet seal system

• Gas lubricated – usually by the process gas

• Non-contacting faces

© John Crane
Type 28 Principles of Operation

Primary Ring

Spiral Groove

Shaft Mating Ring

© John Crane
Spiral Groove Sealing Surface

Rotating Mating Ring


clockwise
shaft rotation

spiral
groove
Inner
groove
diameter
Sealing
dam
Opposing outer
face inner diameter
diameter

© John Crane
Spiral Groove Pattern

The Spiral Groove pattern is uni-directional only

Direction of Rotation
Gas is pumped
inwards by
rotating spiral
grooves
Mating Ring

Gas is compressed &


Pressure increases
to set gap

© John Crane
Hydrodynamic Lift Optimisation -
Spiral Groove

Interface Face ID Dam

Pressure
Groove
a c e OD
Groove F

Face Groove
Profile Groove
tio n
a
R ot

© John Crane
Spiral Groove Geometry

Optimised spiral grooves


Maximum lift pressure generated.

CStedy bespoke design and analysis tool


© John Crane
Hydrodynamic Lift

© John Crane
Grooves for Dry Gas Seals

Rotating Seat
with Recessed Spring Loaded
Grooves of Carbon Face
Micrometers Depth

Sealing Interface Film


Thickness of Several
Micrometers

© John Crane
Dry Gas Seal Technology

Bi-directional Rotation Seal

John Crane Type 28ATBD / 28XPBD


High Performance BD Profile

© John Crane
Bi-Directional Groove Pattern

Type 28BD Pattern


© John Crane
Type 28 Principles of Operation
Bi-Directional Spiral Groove

Direction of Rotation Gas is induced


towards the
center.

Gas is Compressed &


Pressure increases to
set Gap.
Sealing Dam
© John Crane
Type 28BD Improved Groove

© John Crane
Why Use Grooves?

 The Opening Load is the summation of the


Hydrostatic force and the Hydrodynamic force.
 Hydrostatic pressure is generated by an
external source and controlled by the balance
ratio of the seal.
 Hydrodynamic pressure is self-generated where
the pumping and compression action is created
by the rotating grooves.
 Hydrodynamic pressure increases the operating
film thickness and the film stiffness of the
sealing gap.
 Hydrodynamic pressure maintains the non-
contacting sealing interface. Hence zero wear
and low frictional heating.

© John Crane
Spiral Groove Comparisons

SPIRAL GROOVE
UNI-DIRECTIONAL BI-DIRECTIONAL
SPIRAL GROOVE SPIRAL GROOVE
© John Crane
Spiral Groove Dry Gas Seals

 Some of the Benefits


• Non-contacting
• no wear - life of equipment (refurb 3-5 years)
• increased reliability - less downtime
• reduced maintenance
• reduced heat generation - no cooling
• Gas lubricated
• no oil system - reduced weight, increased space,
reduced maintenance
• low power consumption - typically <5kW
• improved operational safety.

© John Crane
Spiral Groove Principles

 The spiral grooves are the heart of the


non-contacting design
 Precision depth grooves generate lift
 No wear or frictional heat generation
 Grooved component rotates in Type 28
© John Crane
Sealing Interface (Normal Gap)

Approx. Gap = 0.003mm

Closing Force Opening Force

Compression

Expansion
Spring Load
and Hydrostatics

© John Crane
Sealing Interface (Reduced Gap)

Increased
Closing Force Opening Force

© John Crane
Sealing Interface (Normal Gap)

Approx. Gap = 0.003mm

Closing Force Opening Force

Compression

Expansion
Spring Load
and Hydrostatics

© John Crane
Sealing Interface (Increased Gap)

Reduced
Closing Force Opening Force

© John Crane
Sealing Interface (Normal Gap)

Approx. Gap = 0.003mm

Closing Force Opening Force

Compression

Expansion
Spring Load
and Hydrostatics

© John Crane
John Crane – World Leader in Dry Gas Seal Technology

© John Crane
T-28 Dry Gas Seal
Design Future

© John Crane
Type 28AT Design Features
Shrouded drive ring to contain Mating ring positively driven
rotating mating ring on outside diameter

Distortion free Retainer with profile milled drive lugs.


© John Crane
Type 28AT Design Features
Large diameter multiple Elastomer o-rings
springs prevent buckling Controlled contact

Tolerance strip to centralise mating ring on support sleeve


accommodating thermal, pressure and centrifugal effects.
© John Crane
Type 28AT Tandem Seal

Secondary Primary Vent Filtered Process


Vent Gas

Bearings Process Gas

Tolerance Strips
© John Crane
Centring Devices

Canted Coil
Standard
Tolerance
Strip

Finger Spring

© John Crane
Type 28AT Design Features
Compliant balanced stationary carbon Logarithmic spiral or
primary ring design providing maximum bi-directional
flexibility grooves

Tungsten carbide or silicon carbide


rotating mating ring
© John Crane
Type 28AT Seal Design Features
Compliant balanced stationary carbon Logarithmic spiral or
primary ring design providing maximum bi-directional
flexibility grooves

Tungsten carbide or silicone carbide


rotating mating ring
© John Crane
T-28 Dry Gas Seal
Product Range

© John Crane
DGS Applications

 A between bearings compressor typically


comprises two type 28 Dry Gas Seal cartridges.

© John Crane
DGS Application Range

John Crane DGS


Operating Range

 Temp: -140 to +315°C


 Pressure: to 425 Barg
 Speed: to 200m/s
 Shaft: to 330mm

© John Crane
Type 28 AT for duties up to 82 bar*

Carbon seal faces

Explosive decompression
at High Pressure! Elastomeric ‘O’ Ring
Chemical Attack! Secondary seal *some specific
designs to 120 bar
© John Crane
Seal Configuration & Operation
Gas Seals

© John Crane
Type 28AT Single Seal

 Often external labyrinth

• mainly to prevent ingress of bearing oil

• process gas is non-toxic

© John Crane
Type 28AT Single Seal

Bearings Process Gas

Maximum
Dynamic
Pressure:
82 bar g

Single seal configuration is used mainly with non-hazardous


gases such as air, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
© John Crane
Type 28AT Single Seal Cartridge
Filtered Process
Gas

Simplest arrangement for lower cost sealing of non-hazardous


process gases

© John Crane
Type 28AT Tandem Seal

 Flammable gases

 Hazardous gases

 Low toxicity gases

 90 - 95% applications use tandem seals

© John Crane
Type 28AT Tandem + Labyrinth

N2 Purge Secondary Vent Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearings

© John Crane
Type 28AT Tandem Seal Cartridge

N2 Purge Secondary Vent Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearing Proces
s Gas

For sealing of non-hazardous process gases, with second seal


for controlled shutdown in the event of seal failure

© John Crane
Tandem with Labyrinth

Secondary Vent N2 Buffer Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Tandem seal with intermediate Labyrinth configuration is


used with toxic, flammable and hazardous gases.
© John Crane
Labyrinth

© John Crane
Tandem Type 28AT with Intermediate Labyrinth

N2 Purge Secondary N2 Primary Vent Filtered


Vent Purge Process Gas

For sealing of hazardous process gases, with controlled


leakage to flare, atmospheric emissions limited to process gas
combustion products
© John Crane
Tandem with Labyrinth

Secondary Vent N2 Buffer Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Inboard seal failure will cause process gas leakage to atmosphere

© John Crane
Tandem with Labyrinth + Type 82

N2 Buffer (2) Secondary N2 Buffer (1) Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas
Vent

With external Type 82 or double purged labyrinth


No process gas leakage to atmosphere
© John Crane
Type 28AT - Double Seal
N2 Barrier at 2 bar above
process pressure

Bearings Process Gas

Used for highly toxic or abrasive process gases and


compressors with very low suction pressures
© John Crane
Type 28AT Double Cartridge

N2 Purge Vent N2 Buffer

Bearings Process
Gas

For sealing of hazardous process gases, with zero emissions to


atmosphere

© John Crane
Type 28AT / 82 - Double Seal
N2 Barrier at 2 bar above
N2 Buffer Vent process pressure

Bearings Process Gas

Used for highly toxic or abrasive process gases and


compressors with very low suction pressures
© John Crane
Type 28AT Tandem + Type 82

N2 Buffer Secondary Vent Primary Vent Filtered Process Gas

Bearings

© John Crane
Type 82 Barrier Seal

N2 at 0.4 bar differential

© John Crane
Improved Product - Type 83 Barrier Seal

Type 82 Bushing Upgrade - the Type 83 Barrier Seal

Wave Spring

Garter Spring

Carbon Segments
© John Crane
Basic System

© John Crane
Control & Monitoring System
of
Dry Gas Seals

© John Crane
Control and Monitoring System

Dry Gas Seal Control System


Design - Engineering - Manufacturing - Test
- All done in Singapore

© John Crane
Typical Nuovo Pignone Panel

© John Crane
Control and Monitoring System

 Control & Monitoring System :

• Filtration of Buffer Gas

• Regulation of Buffer Gas

• Monitoring of Seal Performance

© John Crane
Key System Functions

Filter Measure Control

Control Measure

Measure

Bearing

© John Crane
28XP Tandem Seal with Intermediate
Labyrinth Gas Seal Flow Diagram

FILTERED
SEPARATION N2 PURGE SEAL
GAS GAS GAS

SECONDARY PRIMARY
LEAKAGE LEAKAGE
BEARING CAVITY

PROCESS CAVITY
© John Crane
DGS Control System
Tandem Seal with Intermediate Labyrinth
I/P
PI PDIT PDIT
FIL. 2

SEALING PIT PDIT


GAS FE
PDCV SEPARATION
FILTER 1 PURGE GAS / PURGE
PDCV
GAS
FI FI
FILTER 1 FILTER 2
SEPARATION GAS
PCV
PI PI

SECONDARY SECONDARY
LEAKAGE LEAKAGE

PDIT FE FE PDIT

COMPR.
DISCH

PRIMARY PRIMARY
LEAKAGE LEAKAGE

© John Crane
Gas Seal Support Systems

 Primary Seal / Buffer Gas Supply

 Primary Seal Gas Leakage

 Secondary Seal Buffer Gas Supply

 Secondary Seal Leakage

 Separation Gas Supply

© John Crane
DGS Control System - Seal Gas Supply
EXTERNAL
GAS
FILTER
MODULE

PROCESS
GAS

Process Gas
© John Crane
DGS Control System - Filtration
EXTERNAL
GAS

FILTER Filtered Process Gas


MODULE

PROCESS
GAS
FI FI

Process Gas
© John Crane
DGS Control System - Primary Vent
EXTERNAL
GAS

FILTER Filtered Process Gas


MODULE

PROCESS
GAS
FI FI

Process
Gas to
Flare
PI PI

FO FO

FI FI
FLARE

Process Gas
© John Crane
DGS Control System – Buffer Gas (Nitrogen)
Injection
EXTERNAL
Filtered N2 Buffer Gas N2 SECONDARY
GAS FILTER MODULE
PCV
FILTER Filtered Process Gas
MODULE

PROCESS
GAS
FI FI FI FI

Process
Gas to
Flare
PI PI

FO FO

FI FI
FLARE

Process Gas
© John Crane
DGS Control System - Nitrogen Injection

Filtered N2 Secondary Gas


EXTERNAL N2 SECONDARY
GAS FILTER MODULE
PCV
FILTER Filtered Process Gas
MODULE

PROCESS FO FO
GAS
FI FI FI FI

Process
Gas to
Flare
PI PI

FO FO

FI FI
FLARE

Process Gas
© John Crane
DGS Control System - Secondary Vent

EXTERNAL
Filtered N2 Secondary Gas N2 SECONDARY
GAS FILTER MODULE
PCV
FILTER Filtered Process Gas
MODULE

PROCESS FO FO
GAS
FI FI FI FI

Process
Gas to
Flare
PI PI

FO FO

FI FI
FLARE VENT

Process Gas
N2 to Atmosphere
© John Crane
Basic System

1. Basic System
 Primary Seal / Buffer Gas Supply
 Primary Seal Gas Leakage
 Secondary Seal Buffer Gas supply
 Secondary Seal Leakage
 Separation / Barrier Gas Supply

© John Crane
Basic System

 System Functions
• Provide clean seal gas
(during normal operation)
• Monitor Dry Gas Seal
Performance (leakage flow /
pressure & separation
Seal / Buffer Gas Seal Leakage Secondary Seal Separation
seal pressure / flow) Supply Module Monitoring Module Buffer Gas Module Gas Module

 Functional Details
 Primary Seal / Buffer Gas Supply Module
• Pressure / Flow Control
• Filter – Particulate or Coalescing Filter
 Primary Seal Leakage Monitoring Module
• Monitors primary seal leakage and initiates alarm / shutdown
 Secondary Seal Buffer Gas Supply Module (option)
• Supplies a flow of clean dry nitrogen to the outboard seal
 Secondary Seal Leakage Monitoring Module
• Monitors secondary seal leakage and initiates alarm / shutdown
 Separation Gas Module
• Supplies a flow of clean dry nitrogen to the Separation Seal
(barrier seal)
• Monitors pressure or flow to the Separation Seal – Initiates Alarm
if it is low
© John Crane
Basic
Primary Seal / Buffer Gas Supply Module

To Seal

To Seal

Flow Meter

Seal Gas Filter

PDCV
Inlet

© John Crane
Primary Seal Leakage Monitoring Module

To Flare

Pressure
Transmitter

Flow Meter

From Seal
Leakage Block
with Orifice

© John Crane
Secondary Seal Buffer Gas Supply Module

To Seal

Flow Meter

Buffer Gas Filter

Inlet

© John Crane
Separation Gas Supply Module

To Barrier Seal

Orifice Union

Separation Gas Filter

Pressure Regulator

© John Crane
John Crane Dry Seal Control System INOVIT

© John Crane