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cussion at meetings of the Society or of its Divisions or Sections, or printed in its publications.
Discussion is printed only if the paper is published in an ASME Journal Papers are available
e from ASME for fifteen months after the meeting.
Printed in USA.
Copyright © 1991 by ASME

Detection of Axial Compressor Fouling in High Ambient

Temperature Conditions
Member ASME
Graduate student
Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Abstract The paper describes condition monitoring experience with

a fleet of ten identical units operated by a major resources
This paper discusses gas turbine engine health monitoring with company in the Persian Gulf. Particular attention was paid
a fleet of 3 MW units operating at ambient temperatures up to to four engines. All ten units were critical to the operation
45 °C. The engines operate continuously near the topping tem- and cleaning was scheduled at 1250 fired hours. The date of
perature and cannot tolerate a significant performance loss due cleaning for these engines was scheduled by the planning de-
to compressor fouling. Various parameters indicating engine partment. The decision to stop the engine for cleaning did not
health condition were investigated and the single best param- take into account the degree of compressor fouling, varying sea-
eter was found to be compressor delivery pressure. A simple sonal conditions or other proximity factors and was based solely
predictive monitoring scheme was developed for assessing the on running hours. It was also required by the management to
degree of compressor fouling to help in optimizing the time decrease the frequency of various maintenance programmes on
between compressor washes. the critical equipment. Therefore, it was desirable to develop
a predictive monitoring scheme so that washing of the com-
pressors could be carried out after an acceptable level of loss
Introduction in performance.

It has long been recognized that compressor fouling causes a

deterioration in performance, resulting in an increase in heat Machine Description
rate and a loss in power available. In locations where the am-
bient temperature is high, gas turbines usually operate close to The units considered were Solar Centaurs, rated at 3830 shp(2880
their limiting temperatures. The environment of high ambient kw) ISO. The Centaur is a two shaft gas turbine with an eleven
temperature considerably reduces the performance of even a stage axial compressor incorporating variable geometry inlet
perfectly healthy engine and this performance loss cannot be guide vanes(IGV) and the first two rows of stators. Air is
avoided. Fouling of the compressor further increases the loss drawn through filters using a rotary oil wetted screen and an
in performance. It then becomes essential to know the deteri- inertial extraction fan. The operating speed of the power tur-
oration in performance due to compressor fouling in order to bine is about 15,000 rpm, driving a natural gas compressor
permit optimum scheduling of compressor washing. train at 19,000 rpm via a step-up gear box. The units boost
Generally, it was observed that the prime factors contribut- the pressure of the gas for re-injection to the wells.
ing to compressor fouling are dust and oil mist. The prevailing
wind direction entrained the oil mist vented by the oil sump
of the adjacent machines. The deposition of the mixture of Site Considerations
oil and dust on the compressor blades affects the performance,
but suitable washing procedures can recover performance. Five oil and gas gathering stations, with two engines each, were
For many years industrial gas turbine users have scheduled located in the desert environment at an altitude of about 170
preventative maintenance on the basis of fired hours. In par- metres. The engines were exposed to the long summer season
ticular, compressor washing and inspection is carried out at with intense heat. For five months of the year (May to Septem-
specified intervals; if the interval chosen is too long, not all of ber) the minimum daily temperature was about 32 °C and the
the performance loss can be recovered and if the interval is too maximum went as high as 49 °C. The annual temperature vari-
short excessive down time and maintenance costs are incurred. ation is shown in Figure 1.
A more recent development is predictive maintenance, which Dust storms of mild to severe intensity and large quantities
requires careful monitoring of engine operation and presenta- of locusts are also encountered during some periods. At the
tion of adequate information to the engineers responsible for maximum operating speed, which varied from engine to engine
planning, scheduling and maintenance. depending on condition (i.e. age), the limiting temperature
of 625 °C was usually reached at an ambient temperature of
'Formerly with Shell(Petroleum Development Oman), Persian Gulf.
about 32 °C.
Presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition
Orlando, FL June 3-6, 1991

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being measured simply and reliably. Aker and Saravanamuttoo
45 o / o (1988) suggested CDP while Scott (1979) suggested measuring
the air intake depression to indicate loss of air flow. Other pos-
o/ sibilities considered included exhaust gas temperature (EGT),
40 compressor discharge temperature, compressor isentropic effi-
Z 0
ciency and site horsepower.
36 / o ff

° •__•/•___•
30 / \ o Use of Existing Instrumentation

w 25 • Instrumentation provided by the manufacturer was used for
0 / recording the data, although this instrumentation was pri-
marily concerned with safe operation rather than performance
monitoring. The basic aims were to provide the watchkeeper
with a historical picture of the engine operating conditions,
d without any increase or upgrading of the existing instrumen-
/ •
tation. The instruments were re-calibrated.

10 0 Maximum
The gauges used were about 10 cm in diameter. The minor
scale division of the gauges for gas generator speed, engine
exhaust temperature and the compressor discharge pressure
were 2%, 10°C and 5 KPa respectively. A spared pressure tap
0 '
of compressor discharge was also utilized via a quick connector
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 to measure the pressure by a master gauge, with 1 KPa as a
Month minor scale division, in order to counter check the pressure as
recorded by the panel gauge.
Fig. 1 Ambient Temperature Variation. Due to the high ambient temperature condition and the pro-
cess load demand, all the engines were running at the maximum
At the very high ambient temperatures experienced the re- possible gas generator speed. Data was recorded by keeping
sulting loss of power may result in the re-cycle valve on the load the gas generator speed as a fixed reference over the increasing
compressor opening, with a consequent loss in production. A ambient temperature. The selection of the gas generator speed
simple and reliable system for detecting power loss was needed, was based on the factors of maximum available speed and the
so that compressor washing can be scheduled to restore power. inlet temperature at which the specific engine reached the lim-
iting EGT. When the engine reached the limiting EGT, this
resulted in a loss of maximum available speed; as a result, the
Compressor Fouling Detection and Cleaning gas generator speed of the engine was selected at 1% less than
Procedures the maximum available. The main purpose of selecting the
speed with this criterion was to record the operational data
Fouling Detection over the wider range of inlet temperatures before the engine
reaches the limiting EGT at this gas generator speed.
The normal practice of detecting a dirty compressor was based Referring to Figure 1, the considerable temperature vari-
on the manufacturer's recommended methods described as fol- ations during the day were quite predictable with respect to
lows. time, making it feasible to analyze data at a specified ambi-
ent temperature; it was felt that the use of non-dimensional
1. Whenever any one of the following symptoms becomes parameters was too complicated for on site use, especially by
apparent; engine fails to accelerate to full speed, general semi-skilled operators.
lowered acceleration, engine compressor surge, high engine
exhaust temperature, inability of the engine to pull full
load. Test Program
2. After certain fired hours, or as often as possible, inspect
air inlet screen, walls of air inlet duct and the inlet guide Preliminary investigation included all ten engines. Initial anal-
vanes for any build-up of oily, dusty or salty deposits. ysis was aimed at establishing the effect of compressor washing
on CDP and EGT after fired hours of around 1250. Figures 2
3. While engine is operating, frequently observe the compres- & 3 show the variation of these parameters as a function of am-
sor discharge pressure (CDP) gauge. Plot actual CDP on bient temperature, with gas generator speed fixed. It should
appropriate speed coordinate over constant air inlet tem- be noted in Figure 2 that Engine K-612 was capable of oper-
perature. If plotted pressure falls more than 5% from the ating at 101% gas generator speed before reaching the limiting
new engine baseline pressure, which is established when temperature of 625°C at an inlet temperature of about 32°C,
the unit is first started up on site, the compressor should therefore, its gas generator speed was selected at 100%.
be cleaned. A clean engine dropped CDP(KPa) as much as 7% and in-
creased EGT(°C) by about 1% as the ambient temperature
Cleaning Procedures increased from 28 °C to 42 °C. Performance comparison of the
engines before and after cleaning is given in Table 1, which
The compressor was cleaned by the manufacturer's approved indicates that CDP behaviour is consistent on all engines.
methods. These are kerosene-water-detergent washing and abra- To further investigate the parameters of the engines a test
sive cleaning. The compressor blades were normally contami- sequence was planned with the aim of increasing the fired hours
nated with oily deposits, therefore the kerosene-water-detergent on the engines before washing. Two pairs of engines were se-
washing method was frequently used. Abrasive cleaning method lected and their deterioration in performance was compared.
was occasionally used when it was noticed that the perfor- One pair of engines, K-516 and K-522, both relatively old, were
mance was not recovered by washing the compressor two or run to the normal planned fired hours of 1250. The other pair
three times with kerosene-water-detergent. of engines, K-517 and K-523, both relatively new, were planned
No base line data was available for any of the engines. It was to run about 2000 fired hours. The performance of these en-
also necessary to identify parameters suitable for detection of gines was monitored twice per week. The engines K-516/517
engine performance deterioration, which should be capable of had a single stage air filtration system and were located at

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`Charlie' station whereas K-522 / 523 had a three stage system Choice of Monitoring Parameters
and were located at `Echo' station. The distance between the
two stations is 20 km and site conditions were quite similar. The ideal characteristics of a parameter to monitor the com-
pressor condition were deemed as follows:
• It should provide an accurate/repeatable indication of com-
K - 612 pressor condition.
Ngg 100
A Clean • It should be unaffected by change in external variables
760 Dirty e.g., ambient, process load etc.
• Data collection should be simple and quick.
• Interpretation of the data should be simple and indepen-
cs 750 dent of the operator's knowledge of turbomachinery.
It must be stated that these ideal characteristics were never
found for any parameter or combination of parameters exam-
740 • ined. The parameters considered and examined in detail were
as follows;

1) Engine exhaust temperature

730 - e
Under constant load and constant gas generator speed, EGT
was found to vary uniformly with ambient temperature, as
shown in Figure 3. Data was analyzed under constant air in-
720 let temperature and constant gas generator speeds to ascertain
25 30 35 40 the relationship between compressor condition and EGT that
will vary directly with compressor condition — increasing pro-
Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C) gressively as compressor cleanliness decreases.
However, the change in EGT was generally found to be
Fig. 2 Effect of Washing on CDP. below 1% (or about 6 °C) which is not sufficiently sensitive
630 to monitor, particularly if instrumentation errors/limitations
are considered. EGT proved particularly sensitive to load
K - 513 change, this is reflected in the widely differing characteristics
Ngg 95 %
of the curve of engine K-517 shown in Figure 4. Note, the
A Clean
. Dirty
final readings are the figures recorded following the first wash.
EGT was not thought suitable as a sole parameter for evalu-
ating compressor condition.
T (inlet) : 32 Deg. C
Ngg 99 7 "llll
620 620 o K - 517
I- • K - 523

810 590
25 30 35 40

Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)

Fig. 3 Effect of Washing on EGT.
Table 1 Performance at Inlet Temperature of 32°C.
N gg(%) ire a - ite EGT °C -Site 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
Unit (Site) hours Change X Change
(%) (%) Fired Hours
K-513 95 1439 710 726 +2.2 617 623 +0.9
K-514 99 1270 735 749 +1.9 610 808 -0.3 Fig. 4 Change in EGT.
-518 99 1240 785 781 +2.1 818 815 -0.5
517 99 1298 •770 783 +1.7 61B 828 +0.8
• 1 4 +.8 1a 2) Compressor Discharge Temperature and Efficiency
°Rfl 97 t5 i +, Compressor dl haP a temperstur was n t )0•Bti'11msnt®d to
bs mred uiariy ®n any @; glno, and for toot uses a
I mod CDP tappIng Was itI1lse4 a grit X=429 making 0 54-
F4&411têF WH'd5 4 f &!!1I1 @@VPf5119fl1:
^i^l ^ lhg €8fPF@§§8F ffei
(9:@: = Bef fg @lgal1i$g. I A:@: = AfgF @l€aR1I1 )

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ry 3) Site Horsepower
T1 z
n= 1 Horsepower was not measured but estimated by using the man-
(T2 —T1 ) P11
ufacturer's provided program, using a HP-97 programable cal-
culator. These calculations, of course, are only valid for a
where T & P represent the temperature and pressure and the
healthy engine; major discrepancies, however, may be indica-
corresponding subscripts denotes inlet and outlet conditions of
tive of deterioration.
the compressor, -y is the ratio of specific heat of air and taken as
The on-site power was derived by three methods that con-
1.4. An attempt was made to trend axial compressor efficiency
sidered the parameters CDP, EGT and gas generator speed.
as a guide to compressor condition. Figure 5 & 6 display the
If the horsepower calculations from these methods were found
reasonably close to each other, then an average of the three
320 was taken. The results can be seen in Figure 7.
T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0 3700

T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
Ngg 99 7.
A K - 517
• K - 523

L? 318

c 3500
317 d



0 300 600 900 1200 1500
3300 ' ' ' ' ' ' '

Fired Hours 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400

Fig. 5 Effect of Fouling on Compressor Discharge Fired Hours

Fig. 7 Change in Power.
T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0 The average horsepower was found to be sensitive to EGT,
Ngg 99 % which depended on the load. Figures 8 to 11 shows the trend-
K-522 ing of the parameters CDP, EGT and average horsepower. As
can be seen (Figures 8,10 & 11) for almost constant load con-
81.5 dition there was continuous decay in power as the compressor
condition deteriorated. Since it was observed (Figure 9) that
t\ the average power was considerably affected by EGT, it was
considered that estimated power was not a suitable indicator
for compressor fouling.
r. 81.0 5

U T (inlet) : 32 Deg. C
4 Ngg 99
3 e EGT -
80.5 ■ Ill,
ti 2

80.0 '
1500 cd
0 300 600 900 1200

Fired Hours —1

Fig. 6 Effect of Fouling on Compressor Efficiency. sp — 2

It can be seen that, as fouling progressed, compressor dis- cc
charge temperature and efficiency tend to decrease slightly.
The fall in temperature and efficiency, although as expected,
were only in the order of 0.8% and 0.5% respectively over
fired hours of 1290. These results also agree with the work of _5 1

Saravanamuttoo and Lakshminarasimha (1985). Taking into 0 300 600 900 1200 1500
account the difficulty of obtaining compressor discharge tem-
perature readings, the calculation required for compressor ef- Fired Hours
ficiency and the small change experienced, both parameters Fig. 8 Parameter Trending (K-516).
were thought unsuitable for monitoring compressor condition.

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4 4) Compressor Discharge Pressure

CDP was found to be by far the single most effective method
• 3 of plotting compressor deterioration. The trends obtained are
shown in Figure 12 & 13.
i- 2
T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
c0 Ngg 99
Cs 0 790 • x - 516
O K-522
9D -2
Cs T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
•r~ -3 Ngg 99 %

• lip U
-5 760
0 300 600 900 1200 1600 1800 2100 2400

Fired Hours
Fig. 9 Parameter Trending (K-517).

4 _ T (motel) : 32 Deg.0 740 '

0 300 600 900 1200 1500

0 3
Fired Hours
s. 2 Fig. 12 Effect of Fouling on CDP.
T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
Ngg 99 %
C 0 • K - 517
0 790
O K - 523

go -2
e 780
-3 a
5 1 I U
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 760

Fired Hours
Fig. 10 Parameter Trending (K-522). 750

T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
Ngg 99 % 740
o CDP 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
0 3
m 2 • lip Fired Hours
Fig. 13 Effect of Fouling on CDP.
It can be seen that there is always a downward trend as
I.. the fouling progressed. A maximum drop of 3.5% from the
a original starting point was noticed (Figure 11). Readings were
easily taken and local gauges were found to be surprisingly
accurate and remained in calibration, when counter checked
with the readings as taken by the master gauge, during the
oA - 2
major service interval , hence they are considered reliable.
Cs Because of the inherent accuracy and ease of reading the
,13 -3
U gauge, CDP was thought to be the most suitable parameter
for a monitoring application.

-5 I 5) Air Intake Depression

0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
Knowing the importance of this parameter, an effort was made
Fired Hours to obtain it on the units . Unfortunately, due to the in-
Fig. 11 Parameter Trending (K-523).

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herent complexity at the intake of the compressor section no
space/provision was found for tapping a hole for connecting 790 Ngg 100
the manometer tube. Therefore, this measurement had to be
• Wash 1
eliminated. 780
• Wash 2
♦ Wash 3
Self-cleaning phenomena
During examination of several units, with respect to CDP a

degradation, it became evident that all units had a common 750
characteristic of recovering CDP unaided. As much as 1% re- a
covery in CDP was noticed. This characteristic was investi- 740
gated and it was found that recovery occurred at approximately
300, 600 and 900 fired hours. It can be seen on Figures 12 & 730
13, but a more detailed representation is shown on Figure 14.
780 720

T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0 710

Ngg 99

775 700
15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)

Fig. 15 CDP Recovery Following Cleaning (K-612).
830, I I

820 Ngg 99
a • Wash 1
765 • Wash 2
. Wash 3
• Wash 4

0 300 600 900 1200 1500 770

Fired Hours 760

Fig. 14 CDP Self-Cleaning Phenomenon (K-522).
Here, readings were taken every 24 fired hours. Attempts
were made to perform vibration analyses during these `self- 740
cleaning' periods to see the unbalance amplitude level but no
positive results were obtained. The phenomena does not ap- 730 '
' 1
pear to re-occur after 1000 hours. 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
One possible explanation is that the accumulation of dust Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)
on the front blades of rotor/stator reaches the extent where it
breaks away due to centrifugal action, the heavy dust particles Fig. 16 CDP Recovery Following Cleaning (K-517).
then act as a mild jet blast providing some abrasive cleaning 810 III

of later stages.
800 ngg 99 %
• • Wash 1

Irregularity of Effectiveness of Compressor 790 • ■ Wash 2
• Wash 3
Washing 780

To monitor the effectiveness of compressor washing, curves 770

were drawn of CDP vs. ambient temperature, readings taken 0.
on the day following the wash. As temperature increases, CDP
decreases giving the characteristic curves shown in Figure 15,16 a
& 17. These curves are drawn by taking the past data on these
units. As each unit shown generally has a 1250 hour interval
between washes, 3 washes would be carried out over a period
of 5 — 6 months, hence a seasonal shift of curve is shown across
the X-axis.
Effective washing of an engine, K-612, is shown in Figure
15 where the CDP generated following washing always returns
to the original with a virtually linear characteristic. Unit K-
517, in Figure 16, shows a similar degree of effective water
washing although the fourth wash may not have been as good 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
as possible. Unit K-522, in Figure 17, however, shows the
third wash to have been extremely inefficient and the unit is Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)
Fig. 17 CDP Recovery Following Cleaning (K-522).

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still suffering from compressor fouling. CDP is some 15 KPa Table 2 Filtration Effect on Fouling Rate Over
below normal "clean" levels for the same ambient temperature. 1000 hours.

Unit Change in CDP (%) Average (%)

Bleed Air Valve Failure Indication of the Unit
K-516 K-516 -1.9 -1.8
K-517 - 1.7
While monitoring compressor wash effectiveness, unit K-516 K-522 - 1.4 - 1.2
was found to be behaving radically differently to the other units K-523 - 1.1
(see Figure 18). Initially performance was satisfactory, good
baseline data being obtained following wash 1. Wash 2 was The percent drop in CDP after 1000 hours is taken as an
performed in the lower ambient part of the year and, although average. The table shows that there is a substantial gain from
performance recovery was not quite as expected, nothing ab- going to three stage filtration. Assuming linear deterioration
normal was suspected. Wash 3 was carried out during similar with time, it would be possible to increase the fired hours from
ambient conditions and a distinct fall in CDP recovery was 1000 to 1500 before reaching 1.8% loss in CDP.
noted. Ineffective washing was suspected and the compressor
was re-washed using the best available methods to ensure good
800 Effect of Extended Running

■ Ngg 99 Unit K-517 was run for a period of 1972 fired hours without
• Wash 1 washing (Figure 19). Initial CDP deterioration was as ex-
• • Wash 2 pected, with a `self-clean' recovery at approximately 270 hours
■ • Wash 3 and another at approximately 880 hours. The minimum CDP
■ ♦ Wash 4
level was reached at about 1500 hours run, this was still op-
• 770 ■ . O Wash 5
• ❑ Wash 6
erationally acceptable and the unit ran with no known faults.
Past 1500 hours, deterioration appeared to have halted, CDP
a remaining fairly constant at 766 KPa as an average. No fur-
ther deterioration was noted until the unit was shutdown after
1972 hours.
740 800

730 T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0

Ngg 99

1 ' co Wash 4
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0.
Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)
Fig. 18 Bleed Valve Failure (K-516). Wash 3

Subsequent readings after wash 4 showed a continuing de-

terioration. The mechanical system was now suspect and the 770

j \ Wash a
condition of IGV bushings and air inlet filter was checked and
both were found in normal order. The readings taken follow- Wash 1

ing wash 5 showed a more pronounced deterioration and two

possibilities were left open;
1. Compressor damage (F.O.D. or erosion). 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
2. Bleed valve passing/joint leaking. Fired Hours
During normal running vibration analysis did not indicate F.O.D. Fig. 19 Extended Run and Subsequent Recovery
and no joint leak could be detected. At the ensuing service the (K-517).
compressor condition was ascertained as good and the bleed
valve was overhauled. During this overhaul it was found that The unit was inspected and washed with no defects found.
the bleed valve had been passing, thereby dumping CDP to Upon restart, however, it was noticeable that the wash had
exhaust. Following wash 6, performance had recovered con- only a marginal effect. The following day a second wash was
siderably, as shown. The incident demonstrated that CDP done leaving more `soak' time and longer `rinse'. Again some
monitoring can give early indication of mechanical problems. improvement was noted but, in order to regain all lost perfor-
mance, a further two washes were required to attain a satis-
factory level (i.e. CDP return to 785 KPa). Unit K-523 was
Filtration Effect on Fouling Rate washed after 1750 hours since it had become fouled by 3.5% and
an acceptable recovery in CDP was obtained in one wash(see
As mentioned earlier, units K-522/523 are equipped with a Figure 13).
three stage air filtration system whereas K-516/517 have a sin- From examination of other runs it was observed that none
gle stage. The CDP deterioration after an arbitrary period of of the engines experienced a drop in the CDP even close to
1000 run hours can be used to estimate any improvement in the manufacturer's recommended level over the examined fired
fouling rate given by three stage filtration, as shown in Table hours. Therefore, it was concluded that 1600 fired hours is the
2. best compromise for maximum possible wash interval and the

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established washing method ( crank-soak-rinse) and equipment 820
(hand held sprays) can be used for cleaning the compressor.
810 Ngg 99
o.. 0

Elimination of Constants 800

790 0
1) Barometric pressure 0

Variations of barometric pressure have a distinct effect on CDP. ^y 780

To eliminate this effect the compression ratio can be calculated
and trended, as shown in Figure 20. 770
760 `t.
T (inlet) : 32 Deg.0
Ngg 99 750 ^•`.^ ^.
• o Clean
7.7 740

0 730

7.6 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

m Air Inlet Temp. (Deg.C)

I.. Fig. 21 Establishment of Cleaned and Fouled Curves
Development of Predictive Monitoring Scheme
To ascertain the maximum allowable fouling in terms of CDP
74 • vs air inlet temperature curves, several factors had to be taken
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
into account;

Fired Hours
1. 1600 fired hours was the maximum allowable running pe-
Fig. 20 Trending of Compressor Pressure Ratio (K-522).
2. Effect on process parameters e.g. loss of throughput, re-
cycle time.
Comparison of these plots to CDP plots shows little change
of shape. Barometric pressure varies little in that region, more 3. Machine health restrictions e.g. length of time spent at
important is air inlet depression caused by filter condition. topping temperature , number of starts etc.
This can cause a fairly large drop of compressor suction pres-
Fouling had to be restricted to avoid causing excessive re-
sure and hence CDP, thus giving false indications of compressor cycling (due to power loss) of the process gas through the
condition. During the survey a negligible change was observed centrifugal compressor during the peak summer season. A rela-
in OP across the air filters. The usual level of OP was between tionship can be established between CDP and flow transmitter
2.5 — 3.0 inches of water on all the units. output at fixed air inlet temperature and process suction con-
Because of the slight barometric variation found both di- ditions. This relationship has virtual linear characteristics so,
urnally and annually, barometric pressure can safely be elimi- if the recycle point (the flow at which the recycle valve opens )
nated. is known, then 'CDP at recycle' can be established for those
prevailing conditions. At nearly all ambient and process condi-
2) Ambient Temperature tions this 'CDP at recycle' was found to be below the expected
CDP after 1600 fired hours, so, increasing the wash interval
All time-based curves discussed so far have been curves relating would not increase summer recycle time.
to data taken at either constant or increasing air inlet tempera- The condition of fouled compressors immediately prior to
ture. This is inconvenient and requires a lot of non-productive present wash (1250 hours) varies considerably; for each ma-
waiting time to collect the data. Obviously any acceptable chine an average base line (CDP vs air inlet temperature)
monitoring effort must eliminate this to be cost-effective. needed to be established to ascertain fouling limits. This was
To assess compressor condition on an ad-hoc basis we must done by repetitive monitoring prior to washing. Curves es-
know both air inlet temperature and CDP, and the unit must tablished by this method represent the mean level of fouling
be running at constant gas generator speed. Looking again at achieved after 1250 hours. The increased level of fouling ex-
Figure 18, the deteriorating condition of K-516 can be seen. pected by 1600 hours could be calculated from data previously
Clearly, air inlet temperature, CDP and gas generator speed collected (extended runs to 1750 and 1972 hours) and existing
were known and an estimation of compressor condition had curves extrapolated to these new limits. The baselines thus
been easily established. Several curves of CDP vs air inlet established are shown in Figure 21.
temperature at constant gas generator speed were made for Interpolation between 'clean' and `fouled' curves would give
the units in cleaned and fouled conditions, as shown in Figure a number of curves representing degrees of fouling (percent ) .
21. These curves can be transposed into a numerical matrix. This
matrix is applicable only to a specific engine running at specific
gas generator speed (Figure 22). It should be noted that when
an engine is initially installed at a site, the IGV setting is
optimized for the particular installation and then fixed; the
variable stators are fully open by about 82% speed, so are
always fully open when performance measurements are made.

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Gas generator speed: 99% IGV Setting: 4.5° References
Air Inlet
Aker, G.F. and Saravanamuttoo, H.I.H., 1989,"Predict-
22 24 26 28 30 32
34 36 38 40 ing Gas Turbine Performance Degradation due to Compres-
sor Fouling Using Computer Simulation Techniques," ASME
795 790 785 779 774 769 763 758 753 748 343 — 350.
20 790 785 781 775 770 765 760 755 750 744
40 785 781 776 771 766 761 756 752 747 741 Scott, J.N., 1979, "Axial Compressor Monitoring by Mea-
60 781 776 772 766 762 758 753 748 744 738 suring Air Intake Depression". Third Symposium on Gas Tur-
80 776 772 767 762 758 754 749 745 741 734 bine Operations and Maintenance, National Research Council
100 771 767 763 758 754 750 746 742 738 730
of Canada.
Anon (1976), Solar Gas Turbine Operation and Mainte-
Fig. 22 CDP Status Matrix Sheet (K-522). nance Instructions Manual.
Anon (1980), Training and Technical Resources Develop-
To utilise such a matrix, the gas producer has to be set ment, Solar Turbines Incorporated.
at specified gas generator speed, inlet air temperature is then
measured and CDP recorded. Compressor condition can then Saravanamuttoo, H.I.H. and Lakshminarasimha, A.N., 1985,
be assessed. Note `% fouled' is relative to maximum permissi- "A Preliminary Assessment of Compressor Fouling". ASME
ble fouling. Paper No. 85-GT-153.
The success of this matrix was proven by attending the ma-
chine several times with widely differing ambient temperatures. Anon (1980), Solar Centaur 3830 HP(ISO) Performance
Evaluation Report.
Condition indicated differed by only around +0.3% to -0.3%
and results obtained were considered accurate when fired hours
were taken into account.

Potential Savings
Increasing the interval between the washes from 1250 to 1600
hours offers significant benefits in terms of decreased down time
and man hours. Applying the increased interval to all 10 units,
for example, decreases the down time from 455 to 358 hours,
the man hours required from 2310 to 1815 and eliminates 15
washes. This can be achieved for a total of 6 man hours per
week and no capital or equipment costs.

1. The effect of high ambient temperature and compressor
fouling on the performance of a fleet of gas turbine engines
is examined. A maximum washing interval of 1600 fired
hours was determined, however, to achieve this interval
without increased risk would require continuous monitor-
ing of the compressor condition. This could be done for
about 300 man hours per annum.
2. The `matrix — method' of predictive monitoring is quick
and simple to use, however, each matrix is unique to each
machine and may require updating every year or so.
3. Predictive monitoring would certainly preclude ineffective
washing, readings being taken the following day.
4. The old interval of 1250 hours was a satisfactory compro-
mise. In the winter season the units may be run even
more than 1600 hours (depending upon the compressor
condition) because of low ambient temperature.

The authors wish to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineer-
ing Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for financial sup-
port. They would also like to thank Shell (Petroleum Develop-
ment Oman), Sultanate of Oman, Persian Gulf for permission
to publish these results.

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