Anda di halaman 1dari 31

5.

Elastic Properties

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Question

“How are mechanical properties of materials


related to their inter-atomic bonding?

2
Learning objectives
• Describe how to perform a uni-axial tensile
test and what properties can be measured
• Perform conversions of force and elongation
to engineering and true stress and strain
• Describe the atomistic basis for Young’s
modulus
• Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear
modulus are and how they can be determined

3
Mechanical Properties of Materials
What do we mean by Mechanical Properties?
• Elastic (Young’s) Modulus, E
• Poisson’s Ratio, n
• Shear Modulus, G
• Yield Strength, sYS
• Ultimate Tensile Strength, sUTS
• Strain to Failure (Ductility), eUTS
• Fracture Toughness, KIC
• Hardness, Ri
• Fatigue Life
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Elastic Deformation
FORCE (N)
• Elastic deformation is
defined to be the region
of deformation where the
material returns to
original shape when a
load that is applied is
removed
• The relationship between
force and elongation can
ELONGATION
be linear (as shown) or
DL=L-L0 (m)
non-linear.

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Uniaxial Tensile Test
– This is the most common test used to
determine the relationship between load and
deformation in a material. Can be used to
measure:
• Elastic Properties (Elastic Modulus)
• Plastic Properties (Yield Stress)
• Failure Properties (Ultimate Tensile Stress)

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


The Test Equipment
Load Frame

• Need to Measure
– Load
– Displacement in Specimen
• How does one measure
load?
• How does one measure
displacement? - If you are
not careful, your measure
will include the
displacement in system

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Tensile Specimen
• Circular cross-section

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Standardized Testing Procedures
• ASTM (ASTM E-8), CSA, BS, DIN, JIS
– American Society for Testing and Materials
– Canadian Standards Association
– British Standards
– Deutsches Institut für Normung
– Japanese Industrial Standards
• Standards specify size and shape of sample
• Standards require calibration of testing machines
• Use of standards allows for material properties to
be measured in the same manner at any test
laboratory in the world
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Load-Displacement Curves

Load

Change in length
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Conversion of Load-Elongation to
Stress-Strain Curves
• Must take specimen dimension into
account when testing
• Convert load to stress:
F F
s true = s eng =
A Ao

N MN N
• units 2
 Pa 2
 2
 MPa
m m mm

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Conversion of Load-Elongation to
Stress-Strain Curves
• Convert elongation to strain:

Li
dL DL
etrue = ò L
e Eng =
Lo
L0

m
• Units  dimensionless
m

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Slope of Elastic Region
• “Hooke’s Law”
– 1635-1702

Ds
 E  Young's Modulus
De
• Robert Young
– 1773-1829
• E is probably the most
important material
property in design

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Modulus of Elasticity or Young’s Modulus
210 MPa
E steel   210 GPa
0.001

210 MPa
E aluminum   70 GPa
0.003

Ds
E
De

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Atomic Basis of Modulus

dU
F 
dr
Ds d s
E  
De de

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Atomic Basis of Modulus
Ds ds
E= =
De de
Recall
F dF
s true = ; ds =
A A
and
Li
dL dL dr
etrue = ò L
; de =
L
=
r
L0

substituting
r0 æ dF ö
E= ç ÷ at r = r0
A è dr ør0

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Atomic Basis of Modulus

Elastic modulus is a
function of
i) Bond Stiffness (dF/dr)
ii) density of bonds (i.e.
atomic packing)

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Significance of Modulus of Elasticity

• Ceramics 300-400 GPa


• Glass 70 GPa
• Metals 70-210 GPa
• Polymers 2-4 GPa

• High E value for design to


limit elastic deflection
• Value of E depends on
bonding energy

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Relationship between E and Tmelt
• A stronger bond
requires
– a higher temperature
to free the atoms from
their positions within
solids and
– higher stresses to
produce a given strain.
• Hence there is a
correlation between
melting temperature
and modulus of
elasticity Note: comparison is valid only for materials with similar
arrangements of atoms - i.e. metals, ionic solids etc.
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Poisson’s Ratio (v)
• characterizes the
contraction perpendicular
to the extension caused
by a tensile stress
• defined as the negative of
the ratio between lateral
and axial strains

ex ey
n 
ez ez
v values depend on atomic arrangements and bonding
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Shear Modulus
• shear stress = t = F/Ao
• shear strain = g = tan q
(or @ q for small strains)
• Shear modulus

G=
t
g

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Relationship between G, E, and v
E  2G1  n 
• Typically, v  0.3,
therefore

G
 0.38
E

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Tensile Test

• Tensile test
–small strain values for a
given force requires very
precise extensometer and
very accurate alignment F= s x Ao = 7500 N or 750 kg
–consider loading a steel rod
s FLo
which 5 mm x 5 mm in cross- E   210 GPa
section and is 800 mm long e Ao DL
–the stress applied is 300 MPa
which is the maximum the
steel can endure without  DL  300 MPa  800 mm  12 . mm
permanent deformation 210  10 MPa
3

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Cantilever Test

3
FL

3EI

1 3
where I = moment of inertia, e.g. for rect. X-section  ab
12

Thus, with a load of only 5 N (as opposed to 7500 N)

5  8003  12
  = 79 mm
3  210  103  5 4
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Vibration

• measure the natural


vibration frequency
• materials with high E
have high vibration
frequencies

16ML f 3 2
E 4
3d
APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip
Measurement of Young’s Modulus: Velocity
of Sound
• measure sound
velocity in materials
• velocity of
1
longitundinal waves  E 2
depends on E and r VL   
 r

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


The Complete Stress-Strain Curve

• Remember that
the elastic
component is
only the first
(though very
important) part
of the whole
stress-strain
curve

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


Question

“How are mechanical properties of materials


related to their inter-atomic bonding?

28
Learning objectives
• Describe how to perform a uni-axial tensile
test and what properties can be measured
• Perform conversions of force and elongation
to engineering and true stress and strain
• Describe the atomistic basis for Young’s
modulus
• Describe what Poisson’s ration and shear
modulus are and how they can be determined

29
Example problem
6.7 For a brass alloy, the stress at which plastic
deformation begins is 345 MPa (50,000 psi), and the
modulus of elasticity is 103 GPa (15.0 × 106 psi).
(a) What is the maximum load that can be
applied to a specimen with a cross-sectional area of
130 mm2 (0.2 in.2) without plastic deformation?
(b) If the original specimen length is 76 mm (3.0
in.), what is the maximum length to which it can be
stretched without causing plastic deformation?

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip


6.7 Solution
2
æ 1m ö = 44,850 N
a) Fy = s y A0 = (345 ´ 10 N/m )(133 mm ) ç
6 2 2
è 103 mm ÷ø

æs ö
b) li = e l0 + l0 = l0 (e + 1) li = l0 ç
èE
+ 1÷
ø

é 345 MPa ù
li = (76 mm) ê + 1ú = 76.25 mm (3.01 in.)
êë 103 ´ 103 MPa úû

APSC278 by Warren Poole and Anoush Poursartip