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Writen By :

Name : Desinta Audia

NIM : 165100100111035

Class : AE

Lecturer : Dr. Erryana Martati, S.TP., MP



1. Introduction
Rosella (Hibiscus sabdarifa) is a member from Malvaceae’s family. Rosella tree can
growth well in thropic and sub-trophic climate. Its stem was round, stand up, woodness, and
red. The leaves are single, oval shaped, the repeating fingers, blunt but jagged edges,
grooved base. Roselle flower that comes out from the armpit of the leaves is a single flower
means that on each stalk there is only one flower. The flower has 8-11 strands of hairy petals,
1 cm in length, the base attached to each other and red. This part is often used as food and
beverage. The important content contained in roselle petals is the anthocyanin pigment that
forms the flavonoids that act as antioxidants. Flavonoid rosella consists of flavonols and
anthocyanin pigments. These anthocyanin pigments form a reddish purple in rosella petals.
Antosianin is believed to be an antioxidant that can cure various degenerative diseases.
(Mastuti et all, 2013).
Utilization of rosella trees lately begun to shift, at first rosella trees used as a fiber but
now the using of rosella shifts towards health product, such as rosella tea. In the brewing of
tea using hot water, it is fearedthat it will damage the antioxidant content. It has been found,
that the temperatures of the water used for brewing significantly affect on antioxidant
activity. The Levels of antioxidant activity in rosella tea are 25.13%, 15.71% and 12.89%
for brewing water temperature 100oC, 90 oC, and 80 oC, respectively. From this result we
may know that high temperature will affect the antioxidant activity. Anthocyanin pigment
unstable in high temperature, so during processing ‘Rosella Tea’ we have to take attention
to water temperature used.
Anthocyanin pigments are water soluble due to hydroxyl group. Anthocyanin
pigment contain lot of sugar (usually glucose). This make a non-enzymatic browning
reaction, called Maillard Reaction. Unexpected reaction was degradated because it causing
lost of antioxidant activity so that it will lost its nutritional value. Anthocyanin pigment has
several kind of colour based on its pH. They are red in low pH, reddish purple in neutral pH,
blue in pH 8-9, green in pH 10-11, and yellow in strong basic.
Stabilization of this product must be keeped in the low pH, low temperature, low
pressure, prevent to direct sunlight, and prevent from metals (especially Fe3+ and Al3+). It
will be a good product when it was produced in low pH to keep its red-colour, low
temperature to keep anthocyanin pigment so that will not be degradated, and package it with
aluminium foil to prevent from direct sunlight. The objective of this paper assignment is to
fulfill Food Chemistry I final exam assignment. Besides, will be analyzed what makes
stability on the product and what makes unstability on the product so we can serve the best
quality of this product.

2. Reaction in Food
The calyx of the roselle plant has long been recognized as a source of antioxidants.
The objective of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity, free radical-scavenging and
total phenolic content in other parts of the roselle plant. Roselle seed extracts were found to
have the highest antioxidant activity and strongest radical-scavenging activity of all plants
tested. Methanol extracts showed a positive correlation between phenolic content and
antioxidant activity, as measured by β-carotene bleaching assay and DPPH radical-
scavenging activity (Mohd-Esa et all, 2010).
Sugar in high concentration can stabilized anthocyanin. Stabilization occur caused
by water activity decreasing. In the low content doesn’t causes water activity decreasing but
make degradation become faster. Anthocyanin degradation rate is following sugar
degradation to create furfural. Furfural is the differentiate from aldo-pentose sugar and
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is differentiate from keto-hexose from Maillard reaction and
ascorbate acid. Furfural and HMF fastly condensated with anthocyanin to form brown
colour. Reaction rate is affected by temperature and accelerated by represent of oxygen.
Anthocyanin should be prevent to metal, especially ferri and alumina. The existence
of metals causes tannin complex formation that will from precipitation and the colour
changing to brown. Unsaturated anthocyanidin structure causing anthocyanin labile with
oxygen. It will pushed us to think much what the most suitable packaging to prevent
unexpected reaction that inhibit its shelf life and antioxidant activity.
Ascorbic acid also can push degradation indirectly. Degradation with ascorbic acid
will form Hydrogen peroxyde that will make anthocyanin be degradated. Cu ion will also
make the degradation become faster, but flavonols inhibit degradation caused ascorbic acid.
Hydrogen peroxyde make the aromatic structure of anthocyanin is unfolding so the colour
is wear off. The next degradation, will make polymerization. This reaction produced
browning precipitation that we usually know in juice when left it outdoor.

3. Requirement of Food Processing Technique

The antioxidant potential of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts was studied.
Different plant organs, including seeds, stems, leaves, and sepals, were analyzed with
respect to their water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and
tocopherol content, revealing that roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble
antioxidants, particularly γ-tocopherol. Roselle seed oil was extracted and characterized,
and its physicochemical parameters are summarized: acidity, 2.24%; peroxide index, 8.63
meq/kg; extinction coefficients at 232 (k232) and 270 nm (k270), 3.19 and 1.46,
respectively; oxidative stability, 15.53 h; refractive index, 1.477; density, 0.92 kg/L; and
viscosity, 15.9 cP. Roselle seed oil belongs to the linoleic/oleic category, its most abundant
fatty acids being C18:2 (40.1%), C18:1 (28%), C16:0 (20%), C18:0 (5.3%), and C19:1
(1.7%). Sterols include β-sitosterol (71.9%), campesterol (13.6%), Δ-5-avenasterol (5.9%),
cholesterol (1.35%), and clerosterol (0.6%). Total tocopherols were detected at an average
concentration of 2000 mg/kg, including α-tocopherol (25%), γ-tocopherol (74.5%), and δ-
tocopherol (0.5%). The global characteristics of roselle seed oil suggest that it could have
important industrial applications, adding to the traditional use of roselle sepals in the
elaboration of karkade tea (Mohammed et all, 2007).
Rosella tea identically known as red tea, in rosella plants we know that it contain
anthocyanin pigment. There are several kind of colour that anthocyanin create based on its
pH. To keep red colour and stability of anthocyanin we should keep in low pH, that is 1-4.
Most of anthocyanin is stable in low pH. In the next, anthocyanin is temperature unstable.
High temperature is potentially to make anthocyanin degradated so it will lost antioxidant
activity. The study was found that anthocyanin optimally produced in a boiled water and
will make the boiling point of this solution (around 78oC). This product will be degradated
when heated more then 100oC or very high temperature. Rosella seed can be processed to
become a tea with diastolic pressure is given 10,7%.
We know, from the structure of anthocyanins are contain many hydroxyl group. This
make anthocyanin pigments are water soluble. So that, ‘Rosella Tea’ is need high RH or
high water content. It is because the product is solution form. A study said that high water
activity make the anthocyanin easier to be degradated.
Because anthocyanin pigment should be prevent to direct sunlight to inhibit
degradation, packaging technique must we pay attention. If the product is being package in
a full and closed bottle the higer stability of the product we get. But, when its kept on opened
bottle easier to form browning colour. Another alternative is packaging by fulfilling nitrogen
gasses on a headspace. So, when packaging we pay more attention due to oksigen and
nitrogen proportion. Where nitrogen is more higher than oxygen because oxygen more
potential to deterioration.

4. Conclusion
Rosella (Hibiscus sabdarifa) is a member from Malvaceae’s family. Rosella contain
anthocyanin pigment in a red colour. Anthocyanin content in rosella is around 47,5%. In
this case, rosella is known as red tea. “Rosella Tea’ production is by extruction of rosella
plant. The product should be keep weel to keep good quality. The stability of the ‘Rosella
Tea’ is in the low pH, for about 1-4. And then, the ‘Rosella Tea’ should not be heated to
very high temperature. Packaging technique is must be prevent the product to prevent from
direct sunlight. This preparation just because to prevent degradation of anthocyanin pigment,
because when anthocyanin pigment degradated, the antioxidant activity will be lost.

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