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Bogi Diyansah
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ENGLISH FOR AGRICULTURE

Bogi Diyansah

2010

Hi, I’m Bogi Diyansah 0810480131 from


agroecotechnology. This is my work for
middle final exam .

AGROEKOTEKNOLOGI
AGRICULTURE FACULTY
BRAWIJAYA UNIVERSITY
MALANG
CHapteR 1

CLAUSE,SENTENCE AND
PHRASE
CLAUSE
A clause is a group of word containing a subject and a verb.

Some examples are:

a) In Peninsular Malaysia, the soils are distributed widely in the coastal plains of the
west Coast.
b) The elimination of soluble Al from the soil system can also be by production of
hydroxyl ions resulting from ligand exchange reactions.

The analysis of which would be:


a) In Peninsular Malaysia, the soils are distributed widely in the coastal plains of the
Subject verb
west Coast.

b) The elimination of soluble Al from the soil system can also be by production of
hydroxyl ions resulting from ligand exchange reactions.
Subject verb

1
SENTENCE
A Sentence may consist of one or more clauses.

The example is :

a) We find ourselves with deeply held values that are in conflict.


b) The humanitarian in all of us drives us to produce more and better food for the
starving and undernourished family of man.

The analysis of which would be:


a) We find ourselves with deeply held values that are in conflict.
Subject verb

b) The humanitarian in all of us drives us to produce more and better food for the
Subject verb

starving and undernourished family of man.

Phrase
A phrase is a group of words lacking either a subject or a verb.

The example is :

a) nominal phrase
One way of reducing the effects of the dry periods is through deeper root growth.
b) verbal phrase
In order to further investigate the practical aspects of Ca leaching,soil colomne
experiments were initiated in the laboratory.
c) adjectival phrase
However , the loss of N from the ecosystem could be partielly responsible for the
reduced level of production.
d) Adverbial phrase
Selected chemical properties of the soil columns in the first experiment
before and after leaching are listed in Table 1.

2
CHapteR 2

Contextual Reference
In both general and scientific English, words like who, whom, which, that, whose, about,
whom, to which, where, when, of whom, of which andmany more are used to refer to
something that have been said before, or to what is going to be said.

For examples :

 Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) is normally grown in pure stands and produces
forage primarily on stolons growing along the soil surface. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for
Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

a) Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) is normally grown in pure stands.


a) Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) produces forage primarily on stolons
growing along the soil surface.

If Two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentence:

a) Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) is normally grown in pure stands which produces
forage primarily on stolons growing along the soil surface.
b) Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) is normally grown in pure stands that
produces forage primarily on stolons growing along the soil surface.

Analysis :
Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L) is normally grown in pure stands
Which/That produces forage primarily on stolons growing along
the soil surface.

3
 2. The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist who have contributed to so many past
successes in achieving greater food production should feel justifiable fried. (Phosphorus
Correlation Study for Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

a) The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist have contributed to so many past
successes in achieving greater food production.
b) The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist should feel justifiable fried.

If two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentence:

a) The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist who have contributed to so many
past successes in achieving greater food production should feel justifiable fried.
b) The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist that have contributed to so many
past successes in achieving greater food production should feel justifiable fried.

Analysis :
The agronomist, crop scientist, and soil scientist Who/That have
contributed to so many past successes in achieving greater food production
shouldfeel justifiable fried.

3. Soils were sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot. Its period
on six dates from Desember 2006 through September 2007. (Phosphorus Correlation Study
for Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

a) Soils have period on six dates from Desember 2006 through September 2007.
b) Soils were sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot.

If two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentence:

a) Soils whose period on six dates from Desember 2006 through September 2007,
were sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot.
b) Soils whom we sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot
have period on six dates from June Desember 2006 through September 2007.

Analysis :
Soils whose period on six dates from Desember 2006 through September 2007, were
sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot.
Soils whom we sampled and composited from fife random locations per plot
have period on six dates fron Desember 2006 through September 2007.

4
4. Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares of
the Cross Timbers vegetation. Much of that land has little economic value other than
ecreational use.( Effects of adding organic materials to an acid sulfate soil on the growth of cocoa (Theobroma
cacao L.) seedlings)
a) Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares of
the Cross Timbers vegetation.
b) Much of that land has little economic value other than recreational use

If two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentence:
a) Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares of
the Cross Timbers vegetation where they have little economic value other than
recreational use.
b) Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares of
the Cross Timbers vegetation which has little economic value other than recreational
use.

Analisis :
1. Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares
of the Cross Timbers vegetation where they have little economic value other than
recreational use.
2. Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia and Malaysia contain more than four million hectares
of the Cross Timbers vegetation which has little economic value other than
recreational use.

5. The worldwide food crisis is real. It is serious, and it will probably worsen. Worldwide
famine in all probability will be a recurring theme in our lifetime. (The Sustainable Utilization
of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)
a) The worldwide food crisis is real.
b) Worldwide famine in all probability will be a recurring theme in our lifetime.

If two clauses are joined together, we can have the following sentence:

a) The worldwide food crisis is real when it will be a recurring theme in our lifetime.
b) The worldwide food crisis is real which it will be a recurring theme in our lifetime.

Analysis :
The worldwide food crisis is real when/which it will be a recurring theme in
our lifetime.

5 4
CHapteR 3

Definition And
Description
Definition
Defining a part of a plant involves three things, namely:
1. naming it
2. stating the class it belongs to; and
3. Describing its function

Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics
including a large section of the southeastern. (Growth and yield of white guinea yam (Dioscorea
rotundata Poir.) influenced by NPK fertilization on a forest site in Nigeria)

Examples one :

Name : Guinea yam


Class : widely grown
Function : in tropics and subtropics
Definition : Guinea yam is widely grown in the tropics and
subtropics

6
Ca is important for the establishment of nodule, whilst P is essential for the
development and function of the formed nodule. P increased number of primordial, thus
also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be
concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean. (Phosphorus
Correlation Study for Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

Examples two :
Name : Ca and P
Class : most limiting nutrients
Function : for BNF of soybean
Definition : Caand P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of
soybean
Note
Now assume that A = name; B = class and function. Notice how definitions
using scientific English can be formulated as A-B-C or as B-C-A
o A Is/are (May be defined) as B Which C
o B Which C Is/are called Is/are known as A
Let us take the term Ca and P, for example.
Name : Ca and P
Class : most limiting nutrients
Function : biological nitrogen fixation of soybean

Then our definition would be either :


 Ca and P Is/are (May be defined) The most limiting nutrients Which For biological
nitrogen fixation of soybean
OR
 The most limiting nutrients Which For biological nitrogen fixation of soybean Is/are called
(Is/are known as) Ca and P
Put simply, there will be four ways of writing the definition of ‘Ca and P’ based on the given
information, namely:
1. Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients which for biological nitrogen fixation of soybean.
2. Ca and P may be defined as the most limiting nutrients which for biological nitrogen fixation
of soybean.
3. The most limiting nutrients which for biological nitrogen fixation of soybean are called Ca
and P.
4. The most limiting nutrients which for biological nitrogen fixation of soybean are known Ca
and P.

7
CHapteR 4

Impersonal Passive
Examine the following active and passive sentences and note that the passive sentences
contain some form of the verb to be and a past participle.

Examples:

We have shown the way in our own country. In 1870, the average farmer in the India
produced enough food and fiber for about five people. By 1930, farmers had doubled their
output to support 10; by 1955, production had again doubled so that the farmers was
feeding 20 people. Today, the same farmer has again more than doubled his
output,producing enough to feed himself and 51 other people. (Studies On Fruit Drop In
Mango Varieties)

These effects are also shown in Fig.3.Differences in the regression coefficients for the
uptake of fertilizer-derived N indicate a 22% reduction in the rate of uptake when beet
tops were incorporated, most likely a result of a dilution of fertilizer N in the soil solution
by N mineralized from tops and soil organic matter. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for
Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

Bahiagrass produces the majority of its forage in the form of vegetative tillers which
terminate stolons and bear a meristem near or at the soil surface. (Ten-Year Comparison
of the Influence of Organic andConventional Crop Management Practices on the Content of Flavonoids in
Tomatoes)

9
No ACTIVE PASSIVE

1 We have shown the way in our own The way in our own country has been
country shown by us

2 Figure 3 also shows these effects. These effects are also shown in figure 3.

3 Bahiagrass produces the majority of The majority of its forage in the form of
its forage in the form of vegetative vegetative tillers is produced by
tillers. Bahiagrass.

Notice that in examples 2 and 3, ‘these effects’ and ‘the majority of its forage in the
form of vegetative tillers’ are the OBJECTS in the active sentences and have become
the SUBJECT of the passive one.

Note also that the verbal of the passive sentences comprise ‘to be’+ ‘past participle’:

To Be Past Participle

Sentence 1 Has Been Shown

Sentence 2 Are Shown

Sentence 3 Is Produced

Generally, passive sentence in scientific writings are characterized by the


lack of a “by” phrase. This is assumed to be related to the fact that what is
importantto the development in science is what has been found out and not
so much who found out.

10
CHapteR 5

PARALLEL STRUCTURE &


PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS
Parallel Structure
One use of a conjuction is to connect words or phrases that have the same
grammatical function in a sentence. The single conjunction used in this pattern are
among others, and, but, or, nor. They are also reffered to as coordinating conjuctions.

1. The problems of providing food for the starving and undernourished millions in the
world are still with us. Despite the intermittent interest of the new media in the subject,
incipient famine and pervasive malnutrition continue to require our compassionate
professional attention. (The Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive
Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)

 The problems of providing food for the starving


The problems of providing food for the undernourished
Analysis :

The problems of providing food for the starving AND


The problems of providing food for the undernourished

The actors are same. The activities in two clauses are different. The two clauses
can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember that
because the activities are same in the two clauses, the activity can only be
mentioned once in the new sentences. Note that part of the activity is the same
“wants to”. Therefore “wants to” can only be mentioned once. Logics shows that
the conjunction is or the result will be:

 The problems of providing food for the starving And for the undernourished.

11
1. Statistics are a rather cold way to describe this very human problem, but the
clarify the issue. It is estimated that one out of six persons in the world is
undernourished. Most of these people live in the developing countries where
food production is still insufficient. (The Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources for a
Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)
 Statistics are a rather cold way to describe this very human problem.
 Statistics clarify the issue
Analysis :
 Statistics are a rather cold way to describe this very human problem.
 Statistics clarify the issue.
The activities are different. The actors in the two clauses are same. The two
clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure.
Remember that because the activities are same in the three clauses, the activity
can only be mentioned once in the new sentences. The result will be:
 Statistics are a rather cold way to describe this very human problem.
But clarify the issue.

2. And humanitarianism mainstream Korean values, it would marshall the


necessary resources and human talent that could, once and for all, end the
scourges of malnutrition, hunger,famine, and death by starvation. (The Sustainable
Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental
Education in Korea)
 Human talent that could, would marshall the necessary resources and
Human talent that could, once and for all, end the scourges of
malnutrition, hunger,famine, and death by starvation.
Analysis :

 Human talent that could, would marshall the necessary resources.


 Human talent that could, once and for all, end the scourges of
malnutrition, hunger,famine,
 Human talent that could death by starvation
The activities are different. The actors in the threeclauses are same. The three
clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure. Remember
that because the activities are same in the three clauses, the activity can only be
mentioned once in the new sentences. The result will be:

 Human talent that could, would marshall the necessary resources,talent


that could, once and for all, end the scourges of malnutrition,
hunger,famine, And death by starvation.

12
3. But whether the money comes from a shortfall or a new spending priority, it
is imperative that this nation, at this time, pledge the resources that must be
committed to this task. (The Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive
Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)
 The money comes from a shortfall.
 The money comes from a new spending priority.
Analysis
 The money comes from a shortfall.
 The money comes from a new spending priority.
The activities are different. The actors in the two clauses are same. The two
clauses can be made into one new sentence using a parallel structure.
Remember that because the activities are same in the two clauses, the activity
can only be mentioned once in the new sentences. Note that part of the activity
is the same “wants to”. Therefore “wants to” can only be mentioned once.
Logics shows that the conjunction is or The result will be:

 The present study was designed to evaluate in a comparative way the


interaction of The money comes from a shortfall Or a new spending
priority.

Paired conjuction
1. We can be proud of this record of achievement-one of the modern miracles of the
application of science and technology. The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure
similar growths in agricultural productivity, both at home and abroad. (The Sustainable
Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education
in Korea)

a) The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity at home.
b) The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity abroad.

Analysis
The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity at home.
The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity abroad.

13
In the case we can use the single conjunctions and
Paired conjunctions having the same meaning as and in the positive sense are
 Both A and B
 Not only A but also B and
 Not only A but B as well

Thus the new sentences can be:

a) The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity both at home and abroad.
b) The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity not only at home but also abroad.
c) The challenge for the next 25 years is to assure similar growths in agricultural
productivity not only at home as well abroad.

2. In cashew plantanations in Indonesia wasn’t found the desease.


In cashew plantanations in Beringin Jaya wasn’t found the desease. (Effects of adding
organic materials to an acid sulfate soil on the growth of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings)

Analysis
In cashew plantanations in Indonesia wasn’t found the desease.
In cashew plantanations in Beringin Jaya wasn’t found the desease.

The two causes are negative statements.


In this case we can use the single conjunctions and
The paired conjunctions having the same meaning as and in the negative sense is

 Neither A nor B

Thus the new sentences can be:


Neither in cashew plantanations in Indonesia nor in Beringin Jaya was found the
desease.

14
CHapteR 6

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
TIME
At Sentences Level
 AFTER, BEFORE, WHEN, AS SOON AS, WHILE.

The fate N within the ecosystem after disturbance is an environmental concern that has
been studied in a variety of forests and shrublands ( Likens et al., 1970; Hibbert et al,
1974; Knight et al, 1983; Lloyd-Reilley et al., 1984) . When disturbances such as clear
cutting and herbicide treatment occur on forest lands, large amounts of organic matter
can be mineralized resulting in an abundance of available N ( Vitousek, 1981). (Ten-Year
Comparison of the Influence of Organic and Conventional Crop Management Practices on the Content of
Flavonoids in Tomatoes)

Example:
a) Disturbance is an environmental concern that has been studied in a variety of
forests and shrublands.
b) The fate N within the ecosystem.

Analysis:
a) Disturbance is an environmental concern that has been studied in a forests and
shrubalands after the fate N within the ecosystem.
b) Before disturbance is an environmental concern that has been studied is a forets
and shrublands , the fate N with in the ecosystem

15
The vegetation of the area is dominated by post oak and blackjack oak. The site is in
upland forest on a sandy savannah range site. We established study plots on nearly level
topography of Stephenville sandy loam soils. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for Vegetables Grown in
the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

 UNTIL

There is something very special in the usage of the world UNTIL. In parallel
structure, UNTIL is always used in a paired conjunctions. How is used?
Look at the following sentence:
a. The vegetation of the area is dominated by post oak and blackjack oak..
b. We established study plots on nearly level topography of Stephenville sandy loam soils.
Logically and chronologically speaking sentence occurs before sentence b.
Therefore, if the two sentences above are made into a new sentence, we can have the
following:
1) First the vegetation of the area is dominated by post oak and blackjack oak, and
then we established study plots on nearly level topography of Stephenville sandy
loam soils.
2) After the vegetation of the area is dominated by post oak and blackjack oak, we
established study plots on nearly level topography of Stephenville sandy loam soils.
3) The vegetation of the area is dominated by post oak and blackjack oak before ,we
established study plots on nearly level topography of Stephenville sandy loam soils.
4) Before P and Ca increased number of nodule primordial, Ca was increased
considerably by the application of P.
5) P and Ca haven’t increased number of nodule primordial until Ca was increased
considerably by the application of P.

16
 THEN, DURING, THROUGHOUT, PRIOR TO, IF

The rhizosphere of rice plants will affect both productions an oxidation of CH4. During the
growth of rice plants, soil environmental conditions fluctuate due to changes in floodwater
level, temperature, root growth, and fertilizer. In such a dynamic system, it is important to
understand the factors which control CH4 emission to the atmosphere. Soils are one of the
key factors which play an important role in CH4 production and emission. However, data
on CH4 emission from different soil types and the characteristics affecting CH4,
3. production are lacking when compared to data on agronomic practices. (The Sustainable
Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education
in Korea)

Some examples are:


a) As the growth of rice plants, soil environmental conditions fluctuate due to changes in
floodwater level, temperature, root growth, and fertilizer.

Analysis:
During the growth of rice plants, soil environmental conditions fluctuate due to
changes in floodwater level, temperature, root growth, and fertilizer.

b) Data on CH4 emission from different soil types and the characteristics affecting CH4
production are lacking when compared to data on agronomic practices.

Analysis:
Data on CH4 emission from different soil types and the characteristics affecting CH4
production are lacking if compared to data on agronomic practices.

c) The seedlings begin to manufacture food for its self but fist it uses up the food
stored in the seed.

Analysis:
Prior to the seedlings begins to manufacturing food for its self, it uses up the food
stored in the seed.

17
CHapteR 7

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
CONSEQUENCE
 The relationship showing cause and effect between two English clauses is generally
shown by conjunctions like consequently, therefore, thus, since, and so, as aresult,
and hence.
 The conjunction showing a relationship of consequence can be devided into two
groups depending on the type of clause it precedes.

BEGINNING A CAUSE CLAUSE BEGINNING A RESULT CLAUSE


As Consequently
Since Therefore
Because Thus
If And So
Due To The Fact That Hence
Considering That As A Result
Etc. As A Consequence
Etc.

Example :

Reduced herbicide activity could also occur from excessive leaching. In our studies, little
or no drainage occurred from the pots after watering, although drainage holes were
provided. Consequently, evaluation of these herbicides under greenhouse conditions
should give a good indication of their effect on kleingrass and buffelgrass in the field. (The
Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental
Education in Korea)

18
Analysis:
Cause clause : Reduced herbicide activity could also occur from excessive leaching.
Result clause : It should give a good indication of their effect on kleingrass and
buffelgrass in the field.

way one Reduced herbicide activity could also occur from excessive
leaching, and so it should give a good indication of their effect on
kleingrass and bufflegrass in the field..

way two As reduced herbicide activity could also occur from excessive
leaching. It should give a good indication of their effect on
kleingrass and buffelgrass in the field.

way three Reduced herbicide activity could also occur from excessive
leaching; therefore, it should give a good indication of their
effect on kleingrass and buffelgrass in the field.

way four Reduced activity could also occur from excessive leaching.
Therefore, it should give a good indication of their effect on
kleingrass and bufflegrass in the field.

way five Reduced activity could also too occur from excessive leaching for
it should to give a good indication of their effect on kleingrass and
buffelgrass in the field.

way six Reducen activity could also occur from excessive leaching
consequently it should give a good indication of their effect on
kleingrass and buffelgras in the field .

way seven Reduced activity should give a good indication of their effect on
kleingrass ans buffelgrass in the field because it could also occur
from excessive leaching.

19
CHapteR 8

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
OPPOSITION
Although creativity is hard to predict and quantity history bears out its existence. Just as
Malthus could not foresee chemical fertilizer, the modern tractor, hybrid corn, or any of
the countless innovations that have helped create modern agriculture, we cannot today
predict the development which will take place in the future. But we can make one
forecast wit great confidence : innovation and new discoveries will continue to take
place as long as thinking man exists. (Mechanism Of Alumunium Toxicity Avoidance In Tropical Rice
(Oryza Sativa), Maize (Zea Maize), And Soybean (Glycine Max)

Study the two sentences below:


1. Creativity is hard to predict and quantity, history bears out its existence.
2. We can make one forecast with great confidence: innovation and new discoveries will
continue to take place as long as thinking man exists.

20
These two sentences can be joined into a new sentence by using a single or paired
conjunction showing opposition as shown in the seven ways below.

1. Creativity is hard to predict and quantity, history bears out its


existence, but we can make one forecast with great confidence:
innovation and new discoveries will continue to take place as long as
thinking man exists.
2. Even thought/ Although/ Though creativity is hard to
predict and quantity, history bears out its existence, we can make one
forecast with great confidence : innovation and new discoveries will
continue to take place as long as thinking man exists.
3. Creativity is hard to predict and history bears out its existence, but we
anyway can make one forecast with great confidence : innovation
and new discoveries will continue to take place as long as thinking man
exists.
4. Creativity is hard to predict and history bears out its existence, but we
still can make one forecast with great confidence : innovation and
new discoveries will continue to take place as long as thinking man
exits.
5. Creativity is hard to predict and quantity, history bears out its
existence, yet we still can make one forecast with great confidence:
innovation and new discoveries will continue to take place as long as
thinking man exists.
6. Creativity is hard to predict and quantity, history bears out its
Nevertheless/ Nonetheless/ However/ On
existence.
the other hand/ In contrast/ On the contrary, we can
make one forecast with great confidence: innovation and new
discoveries will continue to take place as long as thinking man exists.
7. Creativity is hard to predict and quantity, history bears out its
nevertheless/ Nonetheless/ However/ On
existence,
the other hand/ In contrast/ On the contrary, we can make
one forecast with great confidence: innovation and new discoveries will
continue to take place as long as thinking man exists.

21
CHapteR 9

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
EXEMPLIFICATION
It is reasoned that highest forage quality is in green grass leaves and highest yields are
obtained by mowing at a height of 3 cm or less when leaves start to die. In bahiagrass,
leaves live for 60 days or longer and maximum yields of harvest digestible forage can
probably be had by clipping at a height of 3 cm or less three times per year. Grazing
management for high forage and high digestibility requires that it be kept short to
prevent leaf death and accumulation. (Ten-Year Comparison of the Influence of Organic and
Conventional Crop Management Practices on the Content of Flavonoids in Tomatoes)

Study the sentence below:


1. Grazing management is kept to prevent leaf death and accumulation .
2. By doing mowing at a height of 3 cm will obtain the highest forage quality in green
grass leaves.
1. Grazing management is kept to prevent leaf death and accumulation. For
example, by doing mowing at a height of 3 cm will obtain the highest forage
quality in green grass leaves.

2. Grazing management is kept to prevent leaf death and accumulation, for


example, by doing mowing at a height of 3 cm will obtain the highest forage
quality in green grass leaves.
3. Grazing management is kept to prevent leaf death and accumulation. For
instance, by doing mowing at a height of 3 cm will obtain the highest forage
quality in green grass leaves.

4. Grazing management is kept to prevent leaf death and accumulation, for


instance, by doing mowing at a height of 3 cm will obtain the highest forage
quality in green grass leaves.

22
CHapteR 10

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
EXPLANATION
Some example are:
1. On the ane hand, we have a science of agriculture that has brought humankind
success by its skillfull and productive intervention in nature for man’s benefit. But on
the other hand, the same science is telling us more and more about the
often-dismaying consequences in our interventions. (The Sustainable Utilization of Water
Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)

a) The science of agriculture has brought humankind success.


b) It can tell us more and more about the often-dismaying consequences in our
interventions.

Analysis:
The science of agriculture has brought humankind success.That
is to say / in
other words / this indicates that / this means that It can tell us
more and more about the often-dismaying consequences in our interventions.

2. Methane (CH4) is one of the important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Without
the presence of the greenhouse gases, the air temperature of the earth’s surface
would be 2-3 times’ actual temperature we experience now. Methane (CH4) have
contributes to global warming and affects the chemical change in the atmosphere. (The
Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental
Education in Korea)

23
a. The increase of methane in the atmosphere contributes to global warming and
affects the chemical changes in atmosphere.
b. Methane is one of the important greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Analysis:
The increase of methane in the atmosphere contributes to global warming and affects
the chemical changes in atmosphere. That is to say / in other words / this
indicates that / this means that methane is one of the important greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.

3. Characteristics of soil originating from Kalimantan,Indonesia.

SOIL Banjarmasin Samarinda


pH 1:1 H 2 O 5,0 4.,1
1 1
39.8 24,7
CEC (meq 100 g )
Organic C (%) 1.50 1.24
N (%) 0.14 0.19
Active Fe (%) 1.47 3,89
Active Mn (%) 0.19 0.189
Clay (%) 71 45
Silt (%) 30 48
Sand (%) 7 4

Analysis:
That is to say / In other words / this indicates that / this means
that characteristics of soil in different place in Kalimantan,Indonesia.

24
CHapteR 11

RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
ADDITION :
REINFORCEMENT + SIMILARITY
Addition Showing Reinforcement:
Mango has high tolerance to drought, but also has the potential to produce good yields of
high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable natural growth conditions.
(Studies On Fruit Drop In Mango Varieties)

For example:
a) Mango has high tolerance to drought.
b) Mango has the potential to produce good yields of high quality,palatable
forage under irrigation or favorable natural growth conditions.

Analysis:

The two sentences above talk above talk about Mango. From these sentences, the
reader will know that to the subject Buffelgrass two attributes or characteristics are
given:

a) Has high tolerance to drought.


b) Has the potential to produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under
irrigation or favorable natural growth conditions.

25
Relationship showing additional information of reinforcement:

a. Mango has high tolerance to drought. In addition, it has the potential to produce
good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable natural
growth conditions.
b. Mango has high tolerance to drought.; in addition, it has has the potential
to produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable
natural growth conditions.
c. Mango has high tolerance to drought. Moreover, it has the potential to produce
good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable natural
growth conditions.
d. Mango has high tolerance to drought; moreover, it has the potential to produce
good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable natural
growth conditions.
e. Mango has high tolerance to drought. Furthermore, it has the potential to
produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable
natural growth conditions.
f. Mango has high tolerance to drought ; furthermore, it has the potential
to produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or
favorable natural growth conditions.
g. Mango has high tolerance to drought. Further, it has the potential to
produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable
natural growth conditions.
h. Mango has high tolerance to drought; further; it has the potential to
produce good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable
natural growth conditions.
i. Mango has high tolerance to drought It also has the potential to produce
good yields of high quality,palatable forage under irrigation or favorable natural
growth conditions.

26
25

Addition Showing Simmilarity


For wheat yield (Fig.2), both grain and total shoot yield reached a yield plateau
with about 62 kg fertilizer N ha -1 when kangkong tops were returned to the soil., but
when kangkong tops were not incorporated, 124 kg fertilizer N ha-1 were required to
reach a yield plateau. Thus, the farming practice of incorporating kangkong tops
provided N equivalent to about 62 kg fertilizer N ha-1. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for Vegetables
Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

For example:
 Kangkong tops yield need much of fertilizer from about 124 kg N ha-1 wheat yield
requires the minimum fertilizer during both grain and total shoot yield reaches a yield
plateau

Analysis
The two sentences above talk about the kangkong tops yield. From
these sentence, the reader will know that to the attribute wheat yield, two object
are given :
a. Kangkong tops (124 kg N ha-1)
b. Wheat yields (when reaches a yield plateau).

Relationship showing additional information of similarity:


a. Kangkong tops yield need much of fertilizer from about 124 kg N ha-1. Similarly,
wheat yield requires the minimum fertilizer during both grain and total shoot yield
reaches a yield plateau.
b. Kangkong tops yield need much of fertilizer from about 124 kg N ha-1. Likely,
wheat yield requires the minimum fertilizer during both grain and total shoot yield
reaches a yield plateau.
c. Kangkong tops yield need much of fertilizer from about 124 kg N ha-1. In the
Same way, wheat yield requires the minimum fertilizer during both grain and
total shoot yield reaches a yield plateau.
d. Kangkong tops yield need much of fertilizer from about 124 kg N ha-1.Also,
wheat yield requires the minimum fertilizer during both grain and total shoot yield
reaches a yield plateau.

27
26

CHapteR 12
RELATIONSHIP SHOWING
CONDITIONS
Residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated kangkong tops
are sources of N which may contribute to the N required by a subsequent crop. A reduction
in the amount of fertilizer N needed for the following crop can result in savings in energy
use, cost of crop production, and potential nitrate pollution. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for
Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia)

Some example:
a) Residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated kangkong
tops are sources of N.
b) A reduction in the amount of fertilizer N needed for the following crop.

In the surrounding nature, one may observe the following SYMPTOMS:


a) Residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated kangkong
Tops are sources of N which may contribute to the N required by a subsequent crop.
b) The reduction in the amount of fertilizer N needed for the following crop can result
in savings in energy use, cost of crop production, and potential nitrate pollution.

Still in his mind, he can make a DIAGNOSIS:

 A reduction in the amount of fertilizer Nitrogen is one of the important.

Observation:
Nitrogen is one of the important resource in reduction of amount of fertilizer which
can result in savings in energy use, cost of crop production, and potential nitrate
pollution.

28
27

Conclution:
a) This shows that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following
crop.
b) This is indicates that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
c) This is an indication that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
d) This is a sign that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
e) This means that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following
crop.
f) We may include that a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
g) So, a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following crop.
h) Therefore, a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following crop.

Generalizing:
a) If the residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated kangkong
tops are sources of N, a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
b) If residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated sugarbeet
tops are sources of N, a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.
c) When residual Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L) fertilizer and soil-incorporated
kangkong tops are sources of N, a reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the
following crop.

Recommendation:
Nitrogen is one of the important resource in reduction of amount of fertilizer which can
result in savings in energy use, cost of crop production, and potential nitrate pollution.

a) This show that the reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following
crop.
b) The deficiency should be corrected by reducing fertilizer such as Nitrogen.

29
28

Prediction:
a) If the reduction in the amount of fertilizer N is needed for the following crop.
b) The deficiency should be corrected by reducing fertilizer such as Nitrogen.

c) If the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (will be) needed for the following crop.
d) The deficiency can be corrected by the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (should
be) needed for the following crop.

e) If the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (will be) needed for the following crop.
f) In order to correct this deficiency the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (should
be) needed for the following crop.

g) If the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (will be) needed for the following crop.
h) In order to remedy this deficiency the reduction of amount of fertilizer of N (can be
reduced) to the crop.

NOTE :

The word IF (Is only used in making)

Generalizations + predictions

30
CHapteR 13
COMPARATIVE SENTENCES
Correlation Coefficient between Extracted P Value of 5 Extraction Methods with Chili
Relative Yield. (Phosphorus Correlation Study for Vegetables Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

Extraction Methods Linear Equation Coefficient Correlation

HCL 25% Y = 2.417 + 0.082 P 0.78478

Olsen Y = 25.991 + 1.923 P 0.90242

Bray 1 Y = 30.141 + 0.674 P 0.82256

Mehlich Y = 28.213 + 1.113 P 0.87930

Morgan Vanema Y = -15.970 + 10.881 P 0.71011

1. Comparisons that can be made in terms of their coefficient correlation content are:
a. The percentage of coefficient correlation in olsen is higher than
that in Bray 1
C C
O 0 b. The percentage of coefficient correlation in Bray 1 is lower than
that in olsen.
E R
c. The coefficient correlation content of Bray 1 is lower than that
F R in Olsen.
F E
d. The coefficient correlation content of olsen is higher than that
I L in bray 1.
C A e. In Bray 1 has a lower coefficient correlation content than in
I T Olsen .

E I f. In Olsen has a higher coefficient correlation content than in


Bray 1.
N O
g. The coefficient correlation content in Bray 1 is 0.8% whereas
T N
that in Olsen coefficient correlation content is 0.9%.
h. The coefficient correlation content in Olsen is 0.9% whereas
that in Bray 1 coefficient correlation content is 0.8%.
31
3

2. Comparisons that can be made in terms of their Linear Equation content in


Extraction Methods with Chili Relative Yield.

a. The amount of Linear Equation in Olsen is lower than that


in Bray 1.
L E
I Q b. The amount of Linear Equation in Banjarmasin is higher
than that in Olsen.
N U
c. The Linear Equation content of Olsen is lower than that
E A in Bray 1.
A T d. The Linear Equation content of Bray 1 is higher than that
R I in Olsen.
---O e. In Olsen has a lower Linear Equation content than in Bray
1.
--N
f. In Bray 1 has a higher Linear Equation content than in
Olsen.
g. The Linear Equation content in Olsen is Y = 25.991 + 1.923
P whereas that in Bray 1 content is Y = 30.141 + 0.674 P
h. The Linear Equation content in Bray 1 is Y = 30.141 +
0.674 P whereas that in Olsen content is Y = 25.991 +
1.923 P.

32
CHapteR 14
FACT AND FIGURE
Approxitemations are particularly useful when describing graphs which are not designed to
give exact information but rather to show overall picture.

Example:
The monthly precipitation varies greatly as shown in Figure below. (The Sustainable Utilization
of Water Resources for a Bioproductive Environment and the Role of Agro-Environmental Education in Korea)

According chart in above, we can see :


a) In January the monthly precipitation varies greatly korea was nearly fifty.
b) The figure was just under three hundreds in July.
c) The monthly precipitation in june and September, it was approximately one
hundred and seventy.
d) In the figure above for the monthly precipitation stood at just over two
hundreds.
e) The following the month it was like the precipitation figure coming up to
fourty.
f) Both figures were at same level in May and November, roughly fifty.

33
Content of this book page
Chapter 1 .................................................................................................1

Chapter 2 .................................................................................................3

Chapter 3 .................................................................................................6

Chapter 4 .................................................................................................9

Chapter 5 .............................................................................................. 11

Chapter 6 .............................................................................................. 15

Chapter 7 .............................................................................................. 18

Chapter 8 .............................................................................................. 20

Chapter 9 .............................................................................................. 22

Chapter 10 ............................................................................................ 23

Chapter 11 ............................................................................................ 25

Chapter 12 ............................................................................................ 28

Chapter 13 ............................................................................................ 31

Chapter 14 ............................................................................................ 33

Refference ............................................................................................ 34
Description
Example:

NAME OF PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF COURSE OF


ACTION

Sugarbeet Nitrogen gives fertilizer to


return to the soil following the
harvest of storage roots.

(Growth and yield of white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) influenced by NPK fertilization on a
forest site in Nigeria)

Definition a:
Sugarbeet are the process whereby Nitrogen gives fertilizer to return to the soil
following the harvest of storage roots.

Definition b:
Sugarbeet are the process by which Nitrogen gives fertilizer to return to the soil
following the harvest of storage roots.

Definition c:
In the process of sugarbeet, Nitrogen gives fertilizer to return to the soil following
the harvest of storage roots.

8
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