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MANUAL DE

APRENDIZAJE

CÓDIGO : 89000032

Técnico de Nivel Operativo


AUTORIZACIÓN Y DIFUSIÓN
MATERIAL DIDÁCTICO ESCRITO

FAMILIA OCUPACIONAL MECÁNICA


AUTOMOTRIZ
MECÁNICO
OCUPACIÓN
AUTOMOTRIZ
NIVEL TÉCNICO OPERATIVO
Con la finalidad de facilitar el aprendizaje en el desarrollo de la formación y capacitación en la
ocupación del MECÁNICO AUTOMOTRIZ a nivel nacional y dejando la posibilidad de un
mejoramiento y actualización permanente, se autoriza la APLICACIÓN Y DIFUSIÓN de material
didáctico escrito referido a INGLÉS TÉCNICO PARA MECÁNICO AUTOMOTRIZ.

Los Directores Zonales y Jefes de Unidades Operativas son los responsables de su difusión y aplicación
oportuna.

Registro de derecho de autor: 7032-2003


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH
CONTENTS
COURSE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTERNAL
COMBUSTIONEÑGiÑžS¥FÞUhSTKOKÉCYÈLE
Page
OBJECTIVES 01
LESSON A
1. COMPONENTS 02
2. FOUR STROKE CYCLE : INTAKE STROKE 03
3. FOUR STROK. CYCLE COMPRESSION STROKE
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT LESSON A 06
LESSON B
1. FOUR STROKE CYCLE : POWER STROKE 09
2. FOUR STROKE CYCLE : EXHAUST STROKE 10
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 11
page
OBJECTIVES 12
LESSON A
1. STATIONARY PARTS 13
2. ENGINE COOLING 14
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 15
LESSON B
1. BASIC ENGINE TYPES : IN-LINE ENGINES 17
2. BASIC ENGINE TYPES : V - ENGINES 18
3. BASIC ENG. TYPES : HORIZONTAL OPPOSED 19
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT: LESSON B 20
Page

OBJECTIVES 22
LESSON A
1. MOVING PARTS 23
2. THE CRANKSHAFT 24
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 26

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE

LESSON B
1. VALVE SYSTEMS
2. VALVE IN-BLOCK ENGINES 29
3. VALVE IN-HEAD ENGINES 29
4. F-HEAD VALVE ENGINES 30
5. OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT (OHC) 31
31
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 32

UNITFOUR FUEL -AIR EXHAUST SYSTEMS


Page
OBJECTIVES 35
LESSON A
1. FUEL AIR SYSTEMS, GENERAL 36
2. THE FUEL SYSTEM 37
3. THE AIR SYSTEM 38

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 39


LESSON B
1. THE FUEL AIR MIXING SYSTEM (CARBURATOR) 42
2. THE EXHAUST SYSTEM 43

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 44


STARTfAND
page
OBJECTIVES 46
LESSON A
1. SMALL ENGINES : START AND IGNITION

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 49


LESSON B
1. MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINES : START AND IGNITION 52
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 55

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH CONTB•.rrs


COURSE

SIX COOLING SYSTEMS


Page
OBJECTIVES 59
LESSON A
1. SIMPLE AIR COOLING SYSTEM 60
2. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS 61
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 62
LESSON B
1. AUTOMOTIVE WATER COOLING SYSTEMS 64

2. FORCED AIR COOLING SYSTEMS 65


CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT •. LESSON B 66

Page
OBJECTIVES 69
LESSON A
1. LUBRICANTS 70
2. SPLASH LUBRICATION SYSTEM 71
3. PRESSURE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS 72
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 73
LESSON B
1. OIL COOLING 76
2. INSTRUMENTS 77

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 78


Page
OBJECTIVES 81
LESSON A
1. FUEL 82
2. INJECTION PUMP (DISTRIBUTOR TYPE) FUEL SYSTEM 83
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 85
LESSON B
1. FUEL INJECTION (UNIT INJECTOR TYPE) FUEL SYSTEM 88
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B 90

UNIT NINE GEARS


Page
OBJECTIVES 93
LESSON A
1 . GEARS 94
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A
LESSON B
1. TRANSMISSIONS 100
102
2. DIFFERENTIAL
103
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT: LESSON B
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 1

UNIT TEN
Page
OBJECTIVES 106
LESSON A
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS 107
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A 112
UNIT ONE

THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: THE FOUR STROKE CYCLE

OBJETIVES

1. Given a picture of a simple one cylinder internal combustion gasoline engine, the
student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following components: -
cylinder
- piston
- wrist pin or piston pin
- flywheel
- crankshaft
- crank pin
- crankshaft gear
- camshaft
- camshaft gear
- cam
- valve
- valve spring
- tappet
- port

2. Given a task of identifying the four strokes of a four stroke cycle internal combustion
engine, the student will oraly and/or in writing state that:
- The intake stroke is the piston movement that brings the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder
- The compression stroke is the piston movement that compresses the fuel-air mixture in the
top of the cylinder.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 2
- The power stroke is the downward piston movement caused by the expansion of the
burning fuel-air mixture.
- The exhaust stroke is the piston movement that pushes the burned gases or exhaust out of
the cylinder.

3. Given pictures of internal combustion engines showing the four strokes, the student will
orally and/or in writing correctly describe the position of each component.
UNIT ONE
THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: THE FOUR STROKE CYCLE

LESSON A
1. THE COMPONENTS

Figure 1.- Simple internal combustion engine


Figure 1 illustrates a simple one cylinder internal combustion gasoline engine. It is easier to
understand the operation if you think of the parts in groups as shown in the ilustration.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 3

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4


cylinder flywheel camshaft valve
piston crankshaft camshaftgear valve
springs
wrist pin crank pin cam tappet
connecting rod crankshaft gear port
The words tappet añd port are new to us. A tappet is a short metal piece that fits
between the end of the valve stem and the cam. It is used to adjust how far the valve moves.
The opening or hole that the valve opens and closes is called the port.

2. THE FOUR STROKE CYCLE: THE INTAKE STROKE

FUEL - AIR MIXTURE c


ENTERING CYLINDER AIR ENTERING
CARBURETOR

FUEL MIXEDWITH
AIR IN CARBURETOR
PISTON
MOVIN
DOWN
TAPPET
b
LIFTINGVALVE CAM

a LOBELIFTING
VALVETAPPET

Figure 2.- Intake stroke


Figure 2 shows the intake stroke. The intake stroke is the piston movement that brings
the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder.

Look at a. As the flywheel turns, the crankshaft is rotated. This causes the connecting
rod to pull the piston down. When the piston moves down, the space in the cylinder is
increased. This creates a negative pressure in the cylinder.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 4
Now look at h. When the crankshaft turned, the crankshaft gear also turned and
caused the camshaft gear to turn. The camshaft gear turned the camshaft so that cam lobe
lifted the valve tappet. The tappet lifted the intake valve to the open position.

Now look at C. When the intake valve is opened, the outside air is pulled through
the carburator to fill the increased space in the cylinder. The carburator is a device that
mixes the fuel, gasoline, with the air as it enters the engine.
Summary: As the piston moved down it pulled air through the carburator, where
it was mixed with fuel. The fuel-air mixture was then pulled through the intake port into the
cylinder.

3. FOUR STROKE CYCLE: THE COMPRESSION STROKE

c
FUEL
BEING

COMBUSTION PISTON
CHAMBER MOVING

Figure 3.- Compression stroke


Figure 3 shows the compression stroke. The compression stroke is the piston
movement that compresses the fuel-air mixture into a small space at the top of the cylinder,
called the combustion chamber.

Look at a. The flywheel has continued to turn the crankshaft. The crankpin has pushed
the connecting rod-piston unit back into the cylinder.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 5
Look at h. The crankshaft gear continued to turn the camshaft gear. The
camshaft has turned so the cam does not hold the valve open. The valve spring has
pushed the intake valve down so that the intake port is closed.

Now look at g. Both valves are closed and the piston is rising in the cylinder. The
space in the cylinder is decreasing and the fuel-air mixture is being compressed.
Summary : When the piston began to move up, the intake valve closed. The fuel-air
mixture was pushed into a smaller and smaller space. This stroke compressed the fuel-air
mixture.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 6
UNIT ONE
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT: LESSON A
The following comprehension exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's
assistance.

Figure 1. Figure 2.
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below a indicates the
b indicates the
c indicates
the
indicates the the piston moves in.

2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below: a indicates the


b indicates the
g indicates the
indicates the
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 7

Figure 3 Figure 4

3. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below: a indicates the


b indicates the c indicates the
indicates
the

4. Look at figure 4. Fill in the blanks below: a is the b is the


c is the
d is the
e is the f is the g
is the h
is the
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 8
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 9

h b
c

Figure 5.- Intake stoke Figure 6.- Compression stroke

5. Figure 5
showsstroke a indicates the it is
closed. indicates the, it is movingc indicates the intake
. It lifts d, the intakeThe intake tappet lifts e,
the intake When the intake valve is lifted, the intakeis
open. f indicates the entering the carburator. h indicates the mixture being
pulled into the

6. Figura 6 shows the stroke. a indicates the It is moving b


indicates the
valve and the valve. Both valves are

. c indicatesthe
mixture. It is in the top of the cylinder. The section it is
compressed into is called the chamber.

UNIT ONE
LESSON B
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 10
1. THE FOUR STROKE CYCLE: THE POWER STROKE

ELECTRIC SPARK BOTH VALVES a


IGNITES MIXTURECLOSED

PISTON
MOVING
DOWN

Figure 1 .- The power stroke


Figure 1 shows the power stroke. The power stroke is the piston movement that
provides the power or force to turn the crankshaft flywheel.

Look at a. When piston reached the top of the cylinder, the engine electrical system
caused an electric spark to occur suddenly in the top of the cylinder. The hot spark caused
the compressed fuel-air mixture to ignite, or begin burning. The compressed mixture burns
very rapidly and expands in all directions with a strong force.

Look at b. The very strong force of the rapidly expanding gas pushes the piston down
in the cylinder. This causes the crankshaft and the flywheel to turn rapidly. This movement
is what provide the output power or force.

Summary : When the piston compresses the fuel-air mixture in the top of the cylinder,
the mixture is ignited and burns rapidly. The force of the burning expanding gases pushes
the piston down with a strong force. The crankshaft changes this force to a rotating
movement.
2.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 11
THE FOUR STROKE CYCLE: EXHAUST STROKE
EXHAUST VALVE INTAKE VALVE
OPEN
CLOSED

PISTON
MOVINGUP

VALVE TAPPET
LIFTING VALVE
CAM LOBE LIFTING
VALVE TAPPET

Figure 2.- The exhaust stroke


Figure 2 shows the exhaust stroke. The exhaust is the piston movement that pushes the
burned gases, or exhaust, out of the cylinder.

Look at a. The flywheel continues to turn the crankshaft and the crankshaft gear with the
force it received from the power stroke.

Look at b. and g. The camshaft gear has turned the camshaft so that the lobe of
the second cam lifts the other valve tappet. This causes the exhaust valve to rise and
open the exhuast port.

Now look at d. As the piston rises, it forces the exhaust gases out through the exhaust port.

Summary: When the piston reached the bottom of the cylinder during the power
stroke, the flywheel continued to turn and caused the piston to start back up into the
cylinder. When the piston began to move up into the cylinder, the second cam on the
camshaft lifted the exhaust valve and opened the exahust port. As the piston rose, it forced
the exhaust gases out of the cylinder
UNIT ONE
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B
The following comprehension exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's
assistance:

c d

b a

Figure 1.- Power stroke Figure 2.- Exhaust stroke


1. Figure 1 shows the •stroke. the mixture has been by the electric spark. The
burning mixture is expanding and pushing against g, the a indicates the They are both
. The piston is pushing down quickly with a strong . This provides the power thaf
rotates d, the and e, the

2. Figure 2 shows the strokþ. a indicates the cam; it has lifted c, the . The exhaust is now
open. d, the valve, is closed. e the is rising and forcing
the or burned gases out of the cylinder.

3. The four strokes a four-stroke cycle engine are:


a.b.
c. d.
UNIT rwo
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 12

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 13


STATIONARY PARTS / ENGINE COOLING / BASIC ENGINE TYPES

OBJETIVES

1. Given the question: What are fixed or non-moving parts called ? the student will orally
and/or in writing state the fixed or non-moving parts are called stationary parts.

2. Given a picture of a simple one cylinder engine with carburator indicated, the student will
orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following terms:

- intake manifold
- exhaust manifold
- crankcase
- cylinder block
- cylinder head
- single cylinder engines
- water cooled
- absorb
- circulate
- air cooled
- cylinder barrel
- multi-cylinder
- flat

3. Given pictures of the different basic engine types the student will orally and/or in writing
identify each kind of engine, as follows:
- two cylinder in-line engine as an in-line or straight engine.
- two cylinder V-engine as a V engine
- two cylinder horizontal opposed engine as a a horizontal opposed or flat engine.
UNIT Two
STATIONARY PARTS / ENGINE COOLING / BASIC ENGINE TYPES

LESSON A
1. STATIONARY PARTS
It is useful to separate engine parts into two types, the moving parts and the fixed or
stationary parts. In this lesson we will talk about the stationary parts.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 14
exhaust •aifllt
d e
canrebr

Figure 1.- Single-cylinder internal combustion gasoline engine


The simple engine shown in figure 1 contains the five main stationary parts found in
most engines. a indicates the crankcase. The crankcase encloses or contains the crankshaft.
þ indicates the cylinder block, The block is the section above the crankcase that contains
the cylinder. C indicates the cylinder head. The cylinder head is the piece that covers the
top of the cylinder. indicates the exhaust manifold. The exhaust manifold is the tube that
carries the exhaust gases away from the cylinder. e indicates the intake manifold, The intake
manifold is the tube that carries the fuel-air mixture from the carburator to the cylinder.
2. ENGINE COOLING

The engine shown in figurel is a water cooled engine. Look at the figure 2. The cool
water is passed near the cylinder so that it absorbs (takes) some of the heat from the
cylinder block. The heated water is then taken from the block to another part of the system
where it is cooled. Then the water is returned to cool the cylinder again. The circulation
(moving in a circle) of the water cools the engine. Engine cooling is necessary because of the
heat produced by the combustion of the fuel air mixture.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 15

air teat

cyliller

Figure 2.- Water cooled engine Figure 3.- Air cooled engine
The engine shown in figure 3 is an air cooled engine. Cool air passes around the
cylinder barrel (cylinder unit) and cylinder head, and absorbs heat from the engine. Air
cooled engines are often used in airplanes because there is a constant circulation of air past
the engine when the aircraft is moving. When air cooled engines are used for other
purposes, it is usually necessary to have a method of forcing air past the engine. The cooling
system will be explained in more detail in a later lesson.
UNIT
TWO CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A
The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance:
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below.

a indicates the
indicates the c
indicates the d indicates the
e indicates the

The ilustration shows a cylinder


cycle gasoline It is a cooled engine. Water moves
around the and the head. The water
heat from the cylinder and cylinder The heat is
caused by the of the fuel-air mixture.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 16

Figure 2 Figure 3
2. Figure 2 shows a cylinder cooled engine.
The white arrows indicate the air. As it passes the
barrel and head, it the heat. The black arrows indicate the air as
it leaves the engine.

a indicates the
b indicates the C
indicates the

3. Figure 3 shows a cooled engine.


a indicates where the water enters the engine.
and indicate where the water heat.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 17
d indicates where the water leaves the engine. e indicates
the part of the system where the hot water is The water
in this system moves in a circle; we say it

4. What are fixed or non-moving parts called?

UNIT Two
LESSON B
1. BASIC ENGINE TYPES : IN-LINE ENGINES

Figure 1 ilustrates an in-line engine. In an in-line engine, the cylinders are in a row one
after the other. Each piston and connecting rod unit acts on its own throw of the crankshaft.
A typical in-line engine may have 2, 4, 6, 8, or more cylinders. Figure 2 shows the pistonvalve
arrangement of a 4 cylinder in-line engine. Figure 3 shows the cylinder block of a 6 cylinder
in-line engine. In-line engines are also called straight engines.
valves

camshaft
gear

crankshaft

Figure 2.- Piston-valve unit, 4 cyl. in-line engine. Figure 3. Cylinder block, 6 cyl, in-line engine.
2. BASIC ENGINE TYPES : «V» ENGINES

rods

pistons cylinder head

cylinder barrel

connecting

Figure 4.- «V» engine.


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 18
The engine shown in figure 4 is a V - engine. V -engines have the cylinders in pairs at
an angle to each other. A small 2 cylinder V-block engine such as the one in figure 4 usually
has separate cylinder barrels. Small air cooled 2 cylinder V-engines of this type are
frequently used to power motorcycles.
cylinder
head

cylinder block

Figure 5.- V-8 engine


Large V-engines often have the two rows of cylinders manufactured as a single
cylinder block. Figure 5 ilustrates a typical V-8 (V-block, 8 cylinder) engine such as is used in
automobiles and light trucks. These engines are usually water cooled engines. One of the
advantages of a V-block engine -is that it does not require as much space as a comparable
in-line engine. A straight 8 (in-line, 8 cylinder) engine would be much longer than the V-8
illustrated. The opposite pair of pistons may use the same throw of the crankshaft or each
piston may have its own throw.
3. BASIC ENGINE TYPES : HORIZONTAL - OPPOSED ENGINES
cylinder block crankshaft

rod
cylinder block

cylinder head cylinder head


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 19

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 20


crankcase
Figure 6.- Opposed engine

The engine shown in figure 6 is a horizontal-opposed engine. The cylinders are located
on opposite sides of the crankcase. The opposing pair of pistons may use the same
crankshaft throw or each piston unit may have its own throw. Horizontal opposed engines
are sometimes called flat engines or 180* V-engine. Figure 7 shows the top view of a 6
cylinder air cooled horizontal opposed engine of the type used in some aircraft.

crankcase
Figure 7.- Horizontal opposed 6 cylinder engine
Horizontal opposed engines also are made as water cooled engines. The cylinder
block system similar to that of the V-engine is used when the engine is water cooled.
UNIT Two
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B

Figure 1 Figure2
1 . Figure 1 shows a cylinder cooled engine. It also be
called a two.
a indicates the
indicates the
g indicates the

2. Figure 2 shows a cylinder cooled


engine. It could be called a two.

a indicates the indicates the


C indicates the
indicates the e
indicates the
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 21

Figure 3
3. Figure 3 shows a cylinder cooled
engine.

a indicates the indicates

the right

C indicates the
right indicates the right e
indicates the right

t indicates the g
indicates the left h
indicates the left j
indicates the left i indicates the
left

UNIT THREE
MOVING PARTS / VALVE SYSTEMS
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 22
OBJECTIVES

1 . Given a picture of a piston unit, the student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify
the following features: - head
- skirt
- grooves
- compression rings
- oill rings
- wrist pin

2. Given a picture of a crankshaft, the student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify
the following parts: - main journals
- intermediate main journals
- connecting rod journals
- flywheel
- crankshaft gear
- camshaft gear
- counterweights
- throws

3. Given the task of identifying the valve systems, the student will orally and/or in writing
identify each properly.

4. Given a picture of an overhead valve unit showing the crankshaft, camshaft and valve
mechanism, the student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following features:
- crankshaft
- camshaft gear
- camshaft
- camshaft lobe
- push rod
- rocker arm
- valve spring
- valve
- valve cover
UNIT THREE
MOVING PARTS / VALVE SYSTEMS
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 23
LESSON A
1. MOVING PARTS
The main moving parts of an engine are shown in figure 1. It is helpful to think of them
in the following four units:

a The piston-connecting rod unit.


b The flywheel-crankshaft unit.
c The camshaft unit
d The valve unit

compression rings oil ring rings


head

grooves

skirt

wrist pin
2. PISTON CONNECTING ROD UNIT (piston pin)
Figure 2 shows the piston assembly. The top of
the piston is called the head. The head receives the Figure 2.- Piston unit
force of the expanding burning gases. The side of the
piston is called the skirt. The skirt guides the piston
up and down in the cylinder. The rings fit in the
grooves in the piston. The upper rings, called

compression rings,
bolts
prevent the hot gases
crank from passing between the
piston and the cylinder.
The lower rings, called oil
rings, prevent lubricants
compression from entering the
rings combustion chamber.
The complete piston-
oil rings connecting rod unit is
wrist pin
shown in figure 3. As you
learn previously, the piston
connecting
pin passes through the hole
in rod the upper end of the
connecting rod and locks it
to the piston.
pin The hole in the lower
end of the connecting rod
has a removable section
crankshaft called the cap. The cap fits
around the crankpin and is
Figure 3.- Connecting rod bolted to the end of the
connecting rod.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 24

3. THE CRANKSHAFT
journals
main

intermediate main
main journal journal

connecting rod journals

Figure 4.- Crankshaft journals


The crankshaft shown in figure 4 is the type used in a four cylinder engine; It has four
throws. The crankshaft is suppored and held in place by sections of the crankcase. The
surfaces of the crankshaft that contact these supports are called journals and, as we learned
earlier, they are protected by journal bearings. The journals at each end of the crankshaft
are called main journals. If the center section of the crankshaft is also supported, the journals
that contact the center supports are called intermediate main journals.

The crankpins at the end of the throws are also journals. The connecting rods are
attached to the crankpins and, as we know, this attachment is protected by journal bearings.
The crankpin surfaces that the connecting rods are attached to are called connecting rod
journals. See figure 4.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 25

main journal connecting

main journal

flywheel

crankshaft gear

counterweights

Figure 5.- Complete crankshaft unit.


A complete crankshaft unit is shown in figure 5. The complete unit includes the flywheel
and the crankshaft gear. This crankshaft has only one intermediate main journal located
between the second and third throws. This crankshaft has counterweights located opposite
the crankpins. The counterweights equal or balance the weight of the throw so that the
crankshaft turns smoothly.
UNIT THREE

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 26

1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below •


Figure 1 shows the parts of a cylinder engine.

a indicates the
unit. Þ indicates
the

a
Figure 2
unit. C
indicates the unit. d indicates the
unit.

2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below :


Figure 2 shows a unit.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 27

a indicates the indicates the


c indicates the of the piston.
d indicates the of the piston.
e indicates the f indicates the
g indicates the rings.
indicates thering.
3. What are the upper rings of a piston called ?

4. What are the lower rings of a piston called?

it receives the force of the expanding j


indicates the piston ; it guides the as it moves up and

down in the i and k indicate the ; they fit in the


in the piston. The rings the space
between the and
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 28
the cylinder k indicates the upper rings, they are

I indicates the lower rings, they are

6. Look at figure 4. Fill in the blanks below :


Figure 4 shows the from a
cylinder engine. The sections of the crankshaft that are supported by the
crankcase are called Journals are protected by
bearings. The a at each end of the
crankshaft are called
Journals that support the middle of the crankshaft, b, are called
journals. The crankpins, c, are
also ; they are called journals.

g e h

Figure 5
7. Look at figure 5. Fill in the blanks below.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 29
Figure 5 shows a complete unit.
a indicates the
b indicates the
gear. c indicates ajournal. d ine rates the other
journal. e inajcates anjournal. f, g, b, and y indicate the
journals. g indicates the that
balance the weight of the throw.

UNIT THREE
LESSON B
1. VALVE SYSTEMS

TOP VIEW O

F-

o
SIDE VIEW

L - head
I - head
Figure 6.- Valve systems head

Figure 1 ilustrates the three main types of valve systems. Valves in L-head engine
are located in the side of the engine block. Valves in I-head engine are located in the
cylinder head over the cylinder. This is also called an overhead value system (OHV). The
valve system in an F-head engine combines the two systems; one valve is located in the
engine block, the other valve is located in the cylinder head.
2. VALVE IN BLOCK (L-HEAD)
ENGINES
Figure 2 shows the valve systems used
in L-head or valve in block engine. It is
the system you are already familiar
with. The crankshaft gear turns the
camshaft gear. As the camshaft
rotates, the lobes of the cams lift the
tappets. This lifs the different valves
so that the valve ports will be opened
or closed at the correct time for intake valves
or exhaust. The valve springs (not
shown) hold the valves closed until
they are lifted.

camshaft
gear

crankshaft Xcrankshaft gear

Figure 2.- L-head valve system


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 30
3. VALVE IN HEAD (I-HEAD) ENGINES

rocker arm

rocker arm
sh aft

valve

crankshaft

gear
crankshaft gear

Figure 3.- I-head valve system


Figure 3 shows the valve system used in I-head or overhead valve engine. The
crankshaft gear turns the camshaft gear and causes the camshaft to rotate. The camshaft
lobe lifts a long rod called push rod. The push rod is attached to one end of the rocker arm.
The rocker arm is pivoted on the rocker arm shaft. When the push rod lifts its side of the
rocker arm, the rocker arm pivots and the other side pushes the valve down so the valve
port is opened. When the camshaft has turned and the cam lobe does not lift the push
rod, the valve spring pushes the valve closed by lifting the valve side of the rocker arm.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 31

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 32

rocker arm

valve spring4—-valvecover

Figure 4.- Overhed valve system


Figure 4 illustrates a cylinder head with an overhead valve system for a four cylinder
engine unit. The valve mechanism is usually covered with a light metal unit called the valve
cover. The valve cover protects the valves from dirt and dust and keeps the lubricating oil
from leaving the engine unit.

4. F-HEAD VALVES

Since the valve system of F-head engine combines the system used in L-head and

I-head, it will not be illustrated here. The single overhead valve for each cylinder (usually
the intake valve) is operated by a pushrod moving a rocker arm as in I-head engine. The
valve in the block (usually the exhaust valve) is operated by a tappet lifting the valve as in
the L-head engine.

5. OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT (OHC)


In some engines with overhead valves, the camshaft is in the cylinder head also. In this
mechanism the pushrod is not necessary because the cam lobe lifts the rocker arm directly.
The camshaft gear and the crankshaft gear are connected by a chain.
UNIT THREE

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON e


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance

top view O

side view

Figure 1
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below:
Figure 1 shows the three main types of valve engine arrangements.

a shows the -head engine; it is also called a

in engine.

b shows the -head engine; it is also called a in


engine or an -head valve engine.

c shows an -head engine. It is a combination of the -head and -

head. The valves are located in the cylinder

, and the
are located in the cylinder
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 33

ab

Figure 2
2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below .

3. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below


Figure 2 shows the valve mechanism from a : cylinder
Figure 3 shows the cylinder from an over
engine.
Over head valve engines are also called valve in- engines. We also call this an

-head engine. a indicates the


indicates the ; it protects the valves from and damage.
4. Look at figure 4. Fill in the blanks below

Figure 4 shows the valve mechanism from a valve in-head engine.

a indicates
the
indicates a

C indicates
ajournal. d
indicates
theshaft.

e indicates
theshaft

Figure 4
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AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 35

f indicates the g indicates a h indicates the


j indicates therod.
i indicates the

k indicates thearm

I indicates the valve m indicates the n


indicates the valve
UNIT FOUR

FUEL - AIR - EXHAUST SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVES

1. Given pictures of a simple one-cylinder internal combustion engine, the student will orally
and/or in writing correctly identify the following components of the fuel - air - exhaust
system:

- fuel tank - fuel line - sump - fuel cap


- filler neck
- fuel line - air cleaner - fuel filter - carburator body
- fuel air
- intake manifold
- exhaust manifold
- exhaust line (pipe)
- muffler

2. Given a cutaway illustration of a simplified carburator and air cleaner, the student will
orally and/or in writing identify the following parts .

- float chamber - venturi


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 36
- discharge
- needle valve
nozzle
- float - throttle valve
UNIT FOUR
FUEL - AIR - EXHAUST SYSTEMS LESSON A
1. FUEL - AIR - EXHAUST SYSTEMS, GENERAL
Internal combustion engines burn a fuel-air mixture. After the mixture has been
burned, the burned gases, called exhaust, are forced out of the engine. Three different
systems work together to accomplish this process. A system is the combination of all of the
parts necessary to do one thing. The engine has a fuel system, an air system and an exhaust
system. Figure 1 shows these system, on the small gasoline engine we are familiar with.
c fuel filter
air cleaner

f carburetor

throttle valve

j muffler manifold

e air
filter
Figure 1.- Small engine fuel air exhaust systems
Fuel Sistem Air System
fuel tank (a) air cleaner (d)
fuel line (b) air filter (e)
fuel filter (c) air filter cartridge *
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 37
fuel pump*
Fuel-Air Mixture Exhaust System
carburetor (F) exhaust manifold
(i)
throttle valve (g) exhaust line*
intake manifold (h) muffler (k)
2. THE FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system stores (holds) the fuel oil and gasoline, and delivers it to the
carburator where it is mixed with air.

Figure 2 shows the fuel system of the one- cylinder gasoline engine. The fuel is stored
in the container called the fuel tank (a). The fuel is put into the tank through the opening
or tube called the filter neck (b). The filter neck usually has a removable cover called the
cap (c). The fuel line (d) is a tube that carries the fuel from the fuel tank to the carburetor.
Before the fuel reaches the carburetor, it must pass through a fuel filter (e). The fuel filter
contains a material that has many very small openning or holes. The liquid gasoline can pass
through the small holes but particles of dirt in the gasoline can not pass through the holes.
We say the material filters or cleans the gasoline.

The fuel system shown in figure 3 is the type that is found in a typical automobile. The
bottom of the tank has a lower section called the sump. Dirt or water in the gasoline will
collect in the sump because it is the lowest section of the tank. A fuel pump is attached to
the fuel line. The fuel pump forces the fuel to the carburetor. The small engine in figure 2
does •not need a fuel pump because the fuel line is short and the fuel tank is higher than
the carburetor. Gravity force pulls the fuel to the carburetor in the small engine fuel system.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 38
3. THE AIR SYSTEM
The engine air system provides the air to be mixed with the fuel. In small engines
the air system only consists of an Air cleaner attached to the top of the carburetor; it
removes dirt and dust from the air.

a air cleaner air cleaner

carburetor

fuel filter

Figure 4.- Small engine air system Figure 5.- Small engine air system
The air cleaner of the single-cylinder gasoline engine in figure 4 consits of a small metal
frame attached to the top of the carburetor. The air filter is a cloth-like material made from
wire. The spaces between the wires are very small. Often the filter is coated with oil. When
the air is pulled through the filter to the carburator, the dirt in the air cannot pass through
the holes in the filter and the dust sticks to the oil on the filter. The filter can be removed and
cleaned.

The system shown in figure 5 is used on small multi-cylinder engines. The air cleaner is
in the form of a metal cover that is bolted to the carburetor. The air is pulled in through the
air intake opening. Inside the air cleaner is
a repaceable air filter cartridge like the one
shown in figure 6. The air filter cartrigde is
often made of folded paper that has many
small holes in it. When the out side surface
of the filter becomes dirty, the filter is
removed and replaced with a new one.
UNIT FOUR

Figure 6.- Air filter cartridge


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 39
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A
The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :

1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below •

Figure 1 shows a cylinder gasoline engine.


a indicates
the indicates the

C indicates the

indicates the
e indicates the

f indicates the
g indicates
the b
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 40
indicates the j indicates the
i indicates the
manifold.
k indicates the
manifold. I indicates the

e
b Figure 2
2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below :
a indicates
the b indicates the

C indicates the
indicates the e
indicates the f
indicafes the replaceable
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 41

Figure 3 Figure 4
3. Look at the figures 3 and 4. Fill in the blanks below :
Figure 3 shows a simple fuel The fuel is moved from the
tank to the by force.

The is higher than the


a indicates the indicates the C indicates the d
indicates the e indicates the
f indicates the

Figure 4 shows an automotive-type system. The fuel is moved from


the fuel to the by an electric
fuel a
indicates the b indicates the C indicates
the d indicates the e indicates
the f indicates the electric
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 42
FOUR
LESSON B
1. THE FUEL -AIR MIXNG SYSTEM (CARBURATOR)
The fuel and the air are mixed in the carburator. The carburator changes the liquid
fuel into very small particles that are mixed with the air as it passes through the carburator.

fuel discharge nozzle


air

chamber

valve
fuel-air
line (a)

intake

Figure 1.- Carburator


The main feature of a simplified carburator are shown in figure 1. The fuel from the
fuel line (a) enters the small space called the float chamber (b). As a more fuel enters, the
float (a) rises because it is lighter than the fuel. When the float rises the connecting arm
pivots and pushes the needle valve (d) down so it closes the inlet to the float chamber.
When fuel is taken from the float chamber, the float goes down and causes the needle valve
to rise and open the inlet so more fuel can enter the chamber.

Air is pulled into the top of the carburator by the negative pressure that occurs when
the piston goes down. As air rapidly passes through the narrow section called the venturi, it
pulls small particles of fuel from the fuel discharge nozzle. These small particles of fuel mixed
in the air are carried into the cylinder.

The throttle valve is a round disc in the center of the carburetor opening. It can be
turned vertically so the air passes rapidly, or it can be turned horizontally so the air passes
more slowly. The throttle valve controls how fast the fuel air mixture enters the engine. It
controls the speed of the engine.
UNIT

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 43


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 44

2. THE EXHAUST SYSTEM


After the fuel - air mixture has been burned, the piston pushes the burned gases or
exhaustout of the cylinder into the exhaust system.

Figure 2.- Exhayst systems


The exhaust system of the simple single - cylinder engine only consists of the exhaust
manifold and the muffler. The muffler is a cylindrical pipe that contains material to slow the
speed of the exhaust gases to reduce the engine noise.

filter neck

Figure 3.- Automotive fuel -air-exhaust systems


The automotive fuel - air - exhaust system shown in figure 3 has a longer exhaust
system. The muffler is connected to the exhaust manifold by a long tube called the exhaust.
line or the exhaust pipe. There is often a shorter piece of tubing after the muffler called a
tail pipe. It carries the exhaust from the muffler to the rear of the vehicle.
FOUR

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :
air

Figure 1
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below

Figure 1 shows the main features of a simple

a indicates the indicates the

C indicates the chamber.


d indicates the e indicates the
f indicates the
g indicates the
indicates the
j indicates the
UNIT

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 45


SENAn

Figure 2

2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below •


Figure 2 shows an automotive type , air, system.
a indicates
the b
indicates the C indicates the d indicates
the
e indicates the f
indicates the
g indicates the i indicates the j indicates
the
k indicates the I
indicates the
m indicates the n indicates the

o indicates the

FIVE

START AND IGNITION SYSTEMS


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 46

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 47


OBJECTIVES

1. Given pictures of internal combustion engines, the student will orally and/or in writing
correctly identify the following starting systems :
- rope starter system
- hand crank starter system
- automotive electrical starter system

2. Given a picture of automotive electrical starting and ignition systems, the student will
orally and/or in writing identify the following features :
- battery
- starter motor
- generator
- ignition or booster coil
- distributor unit

3. Given cutaway picture of an engine with a magneto ignition system, the student will
orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following components:
- magneto - ignition
wire
- booster coil - spark
plugs
- breaker points - cam lobe
4. Given a cutaway picture of a spark plug, the student will orally and/or in writing
identifiy the following parts •
- insulation - side electrode
- center electrode - gap
UNIT FIVE

STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS


LESSON A
1. SMALL ENGINES : STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS
Most internal combustion engines have the same basic starting system. The flywheel
is rotated by an outside force. This causes the crankshaft to turn so that the intake and
compression movements of the piston take place. When the fuel - air mixture is
UNIT

compressed, the ignition system releases an electric spark that ignites the mixture. At this
time the power stroke takes place and the engine begins to run on its own power.

Small engines can be started manually (by hand). Figure 1 shows a rope - starting
system. The end of the starter rope is wound around the pulley on the flywheel and pulled
quickly. This rotates the flywheel and causes the intake - compression - ignition cycles to
take place. Figure 2 shows a crank starting system. The hand crank is inserted into the crank
fitting on the flywheel and turned. The crank fitting is similar to a spiral jaw clutch; when
the engine starts, the crank is automatically disengaged from the fitting.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 48
The fuel-air mixture is ignited by an electric spark. The ignition system must have a
source of electricity to provide the spark. Small engines usually use magnets to create the
electricity. The system is called a magneto system.
The magnets are attached to the flywheel. When the flywheel is turned to start the
engine, the rotating magnets create a weak electric current in the booster coil. At the end
of the compression cycle a cam on the camshaft separates two small pieces of metal called
the breaker points. When the breaker points separate, the booster coil releases a strong
electric current that flows through the ignition wire to the spark plug at the top of the
cylinder. The electric current flows through the center electrode of the spark plug; it cannot
pass through the insulator. The current jumps the gap or space between the center
electrode and the side electrode in the form of a spark. This is the spark that ignites the fuel-
air mixture. This process continues as long as the engines runs. See figure 3.

gnition
wire

Ireaker
points

electrode

electrode

Figure 3.- Magneto ignition system


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 49
UNIT
FIVE CLASSWORK ASSiGMENT : LESSON A
The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :

1. Look at figures 1 and 2. Fill in the blanks below.


Figure 1 shows a starter system. a indicates the

When the rope is wound around the pulley and pulled, the
cycles take place.
Figure 2 show a starter system. a indicates the
indicates the
. When the hand crank is inserted
into the crank fitting and turned, the
cycles take place.
2. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below.
Figure 3 shows

ignition system.
a indicates the

b indicates the
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 50

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 51


C indicates the

d indicates the

e indicates the below.

wire is attached to
electrode. The electric
flows through the
The current
There is a between the electrode and
the electrode. The current jumps the
in the form of a The electrical that
jumps the ignites the
mixture.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 52

Figure 5
4. Look at the figure 5. Fill in the blanks below :
Figure 5 shows the -points and the booster

a indicates the b
indicates the
C indicates the d indicates the

When the cam moves so that the points


are , the booster releases
an current to the spark
UNIT FIVE
LESSON B
1. MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINES : STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS
Larger engines can not be started by hand. Medium-size engines like those in cars and
trucks are usually started by an electric motor. A gear on the starter motor shaft engages
gear teeth cut around the edge of the flywheel. The starter motor turns the flywheel so that
the intake-compression-ignition cycles take place. When the engine starts, the starter motor
gear is automatically disengaged from the flywheel gear.
See figures 1 and 2.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 53
starter

gear

gear*

starter motor

Figure 1 Figure2
The electric current to operate the starter motor is provided by the battery. The
battery is a strong unit. When the engine is running, a pulley and belt connected to the
crankshaft turn the generator. The generator produces electrical energy. Some of the
electrical energy produced by the generator is stored in the battery. When the engine is
stopped the generator does not produce electricity. Electrical energy must be taken from
the battery to operate the starter motor to start the engine again. See figure 3 on the next
page.

generat01
battery

Figure 3.- Electrical starting system


When an engine has more than one cylinder, each cylinder is in a different cycle than the
others cylinders. This means that the ignition must take place in the different cylinders at
different times. The breaker points release the electricity at the correct time, then the
distributor directs the
electricity to the correct
spark plug. When the
breaker points open, the
booster or ignition coil
releases electricity to
the distributor. The
rotor (rotating switch) in
the distributor makes
the connection to the
ignition wire leading to
the spark plug in the
point cylinder that is in the
compressionignition
stroke. The distributor
housing is attached to
the top of the breaker
point housing. They are
c distyributor hou§ing usually located at the
Figure 4 side of the engine. See
figure 4.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 54

rotor

breaker

Figure 5.- Ignition system, 6 cylinder engine.


Figure 5 is an illustration of the ignition system for a 6 cylinder engine. The ignition
controls the flow of electricity from the battery to the system. In the illustration the breaker
point housing has been separated from its position under the distributor housing so that the
parts can be seen easily. The distributor has six connection points that the rotor contacts as
it rotates (note that the firing order is 3-6-24-1-5). A separate ignition wire connects each
spark plug to the correct switch point in the distributor.
Cylinder 3 is shown in the drawing to illustrate the cylinder, piston, combustion chamber and
valve.
UNIT FIVE
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 55

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance .

v-belt

Figure 1
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below :

Figure 1 shows a starting system.


a indicates
the
indicates the
C indicates the d indicates the

The does not produce

energy when the engine is stopped. The a storage unit


provides electrical motor
to start the engine.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 56

Figure 2
2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below :
Figure 2 shows how the starting system operates.

a is the motor.

bis the starter motor

It engages gear on the flywheel. When the starter

turns, the gear causes the flywheel to


When the flywheel turns, the
(d) also turns. This causes the

cycles to take place.


3

Figure 3
3. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below :
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 57

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH


Page 58
COURSE
Figure 3 shows the system for a cylinder engine.

a indicates
the
indicates the
C indicates the d indicates the

e indicates the (rotary switch).


f indicates the chamber.
g indicates the

cid

Figure 4
4. Look at figure 4. Fill in the blanks below :
Figure 4 shows the system of a -cylinder engine.
a is the
is the
C and indicate the and the

e indicates
the f
indicates the g is a
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 59

UNIT

COOLING SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVES
1 . Given a picture of an air cooled engine, the student will orally and/or in writing correctly
identify the following parts:
- fins
- heated air
- cool air

2. Given a picture of a simplified radiator and core unit with the direction of flow indicated,
the student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following features:
- inlet
- outlet
- radiator cap
- radiator
- radiator core

3. Given pictures of various water cooling systems the student will orally and/or in writing
identify the following features : - water pump
- thermostat
- inlet hose
- outlet hose
- water jacket
- radiator core
- radiator fan
- strainer
- cooler
- antifreeze

4. Given a picture of a simplified forced-air cooling system, the student will orally and/or in
writing identify the following features : - fan unit
- fan housing
- thermostat
- air ducts
UNIT
COOLING SYSTEMS
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 60
LESSON A
1. SIMPLE AIR COOLING SYSTEM
The purpose of a cooling system is to
remove heat from the engine. The heat is
produced by the combustion process.

Figure 1 shows a simple air cooling


system that we are already familiar with. As
the cool air passes around the cylinder
barrel it absorbs the heat from the metal.
The metal is raised into fins so that more
surface will be exposed to the cool air and
more heat will be absorbed from the
surface. See figu-

2. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS


A simplified water cooling system is
shown in figure 2. Heated water from the
engine is forced into the inlet at the top of the
radiator and through a series of small metal
Figure 1.- Air cooling
tubes that make up the radiator core. The tubes absorbs the heat from the water. Cool air
passing between and around the tubes absorbs the heat from the surface of the metal
tubes. By the time the water reaches the end of the tubes it has been cooled. The cooled
water is returned through the outlet to the engine and is circulated around the cylinder and
combustion chamber where it absorbs more heat. At that time it is circulated through the
radiator again. See figure 2.
heated (from water i engine}letSIDE VIEW

heated
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 61
core

cooled water Qulet


(to engine)

cool air

Figure 2.- Water cooling

A simplified small engine water cooling system is shown in figure 3. The camshaft gear
(or a crankshaft pulley in other engines) drives the water pump. The water pump pulls
cooled water from the bottom of the radiator through the radiator hose and forces it into
the engine. The water moves through the radiator jacket that carries the water around the
cylinders and the combustion chamber. As the water passes through these areas it absorbs
heat from the metal surfaces. The heated water is then forced through the upper radiator
hose to the top of the radiator and through the radiator core. As the water passes through
the radiator core it is cooled again and returned to the engine. See figure 3.
———--
- inlet hose
radiator
cap
radiator core

water
jacket
radiator

Figure 3.- Water cooling (small engine)


Cooling systems like one shown in figure 3 usually have an engine driven fan that
moves air through the radiator core. As the air passes through the core, it absorbs the heat
from the tubes that carry the water. The fan provides a continuous flow of air through the
radiator core.
UNIT SIX

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 62

1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below

Figure shows 1 shows the main parts of a


The radiator is used with acooled engine.

a indicates
the
indicates
the c
indicates the d indicates the e indicates
the

Now look at the side view. Hot water from


theenters the at the top of the
the

It is

the metal absorbs from the The white arrows represent air. The cool passes
around the metal and absorbs
When the water reaches theof the radiator, it is
much than it was when it entered at the The cooled
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 63

is pumped from the back to the


engine.
d

Figure 2
2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below a indicates the It carries water
from the to
the indicates
the . It is
removed if you want to add to the

C indicates
the . It moves a continuous flow of through
the radiator
the
water.

e indicates
the . It
carries water from the to the f indicates the

water from
. It pulls
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 64
and forces it through the g indicates the waterIt drives the water that circulates the
water.
indicates the The
water circulates through the
water and absorbs from the walls and the chamber.

UNIT SIX
COOLING SYSTEMS
LESSON : B
1. AUTOMOTIVE WATER COOLING SYSTEMS
thermostat inlet hose

adiator
core

water oulet hose


pump (cooled water)
Figure 1 Automotive cooling system
The water cooling system used with automobile and truck engines is very similar to
the small engine cooling system. The engine driven water pump pulls the cooled water from
the radiator into the engine and circulates it through the water jacket. The heated water is
then forced back into the radiator and through the core to be cooled again. The flow of water
is controlled by the thermostat. The thermostat is an automatic control that releases water
from the engine to the radiator when the engine is hot. When the engine is cold the
thermostat holds the water in the engine until the engine reaches the correct operating
temperature. The fan attached to the front of the engine is driven by a V-belt. See figure 1
and 2.
Water cooling systems for
engines are limited by the
characteristics of water. As you driven
know, water boils and turns to
steam, a gas, at 212* F, and
freezes and turns to ice, a solid, at
32* F. The cooling system
functions to keep the water from
boiling by keeping the
temperature of the water below
212* F. It does this by circulating
the water through the radiator.
The system can be protected Figure 2.- Engine driven fan
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 65
from freezing by adding a liquid chemical, anti-freeze, to the water in the cooling system.
The chemicals in the anti-freeze lower freezing point (temperature that a liquid freezes) of
the water.

2. FORCED AIR COOLING SYSTEMS


When we first talked about air cooled engines, we mentioned that they were
frequently used in small airplanes. They are practical in this situation as there is a constant
flow of cool air around the engine. However, air cooled engines are also used in
automobiles, small trucks, boats and in small power tools. Since these engines do not move
rapidly through the air like an airplane engine, it is necessary to mechanically force cool air
to move around the engine. This is called forced air cooling because the air is forced to pass
over the engine. An engine driven fan either pushes or pulls air into the large metal tubes
called ducts. The ducts guide the air around and over the cylinder barrels and crankcase so
that the engine is cooled. In some systems a thermostat unit controls how much air passes
through the ducts. When the engine is hot the ducts are opened so more air can pass to
cool the engine. See figure 3.
thermostat fan unit

crankcase cylinder barrels

Figure 3.- Forced air cooling


UNIT SIX

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 66

b
Figure 1
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below

Figure 1 shows an type


water system.
a indicates
the from the to the b
indicates the

C indicates
the It is an automatic control that releases to the when

the engine isand holds water in the engine until the correct
temperature is reached when the engine is d indicates the from the

to the e
indicates the
f indicates
the g indicates the

2. Water and turns to a gas at 212* F. The system operates to keep the water temperature
below
Water and turns to a solid, ice, at 32*F. When the engine is used in cold weather we add
to the water. Anti-freeze is a chemical that the
freezing point of water. If the water has
in it, it will not at 32*F. the
temperature will have to be before it freezes.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 67

Figure 2 Figure 3
3. Look at figures 2 and 3. Fill in the blanks below .
Figure 2 shows an cooled engine. The white arrows
indicate air. When the cool passes around the cylinder it absorbs

from the engine. The black arrows indicate theair.

a indicates the The fins expose


more to the air. This type cooling is often used forused in airplanes.

As the plane flies, air passes around the

Figure 3 also shows an engine. It does


not move through the like an airplane engine, it needs a
system to move around the engine. This is called
air cooling.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 68
a indicates the b indicates the
c indicates the
It controls how much
goes to the engine.
d indicates the They guide the around the
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UNIT SEVEN

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVES

1 . Given pictures of a splash lubrication system and of an automotive type pressure


lubrication system, the student will orally and/or in writing correctly identify the following
features :
- filler neck
- drain plug
- oil
- dipstick
- sump
- filter - thermostat - cooler
- by pass - oil lines
- oil passages

- oil temperature gage - oil temperature gage


- oil level
- spray
- grease

2. Given a task of explaining the main functions of a lubricant system, the student will orally
and/or in writing state that the main function of any lubrication system is to reduce friction
and as a second main function to cool the internal parts of an engine.
UNIT SEVEN
LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

LESSON A
1. LUBRICANTS
Lubricants are materials that reduce friction. The lubricants that are used in internal
combustion engines are usually petroleum products such as oil or grease. The moving parts
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 71
that contact each other are coated with lubricant to reduce friction. The lubrication system
of the engine circulates oil to the moving parts so that they are continuously lubricated.

2. SPLASH LUBRICATION SYSTEM


Most small engines such as the shown in figure 1, use a splash lubrication system.
Lubricating oil is poured in the crankcase through the filler neck, until the crankcase is
partially filled with oil. The dipstick, figure 2, is used to check that the amount of oil is correct.
When the crankshaft turns the crankshaft throw (or certain kind of spoon) hits the oil and
splashes (throws) oil around the inside of the crankcase and the lower part of the cylinder.
Since the crankshaft rotates 2000 or 3000 revolutions per minute (RPM) the splashing is
continuous and oil covers all surfaces. After certain length of time, 50-150 hours of engine
operation, the drain plug is opened and the old oil is removed and replaced with clean oil.

cap and
filter neck
dipstick

1
full mark
add 1 qt
add 2 qt
oil drain
plug

Figure 1.- Splash lubrication Figure 2.- Dipstick


3. PRESSURE LUBRICATION SYSTEM
An automotive type lubrication system circulates oil to the various moving parts. Look
at figure 3. The engine driven oil pump, a, pulls oil from the sump, h, through the oil strainer;
c. The oil pump then forces the oil under high pressure (40-80 psi) through the oil filter, d.
The oil filter removes dirt and small particles from the oil. The lines carry the high pressure
oii to the parts that require lubrication. The oil sprays from small holes in the oil lines onto
the parts that are to be lubricated. Special oil passages carry oil directly to the crankshaft
journals. The oil passages are holes in the metal of the engine block that lead to the journals.
The oil forms a coat on the moving parts; the excess or extra oil falls from the parts and flows
through holes in the block, back to the sump. The pumps pulls the oil from the sump and
circulates it again. This type system is called a pressure lubrication system. The oil pump
creates the pressure.
• oil
line to
rocker-
arm
shafts
and
rocker
arms

oil line
to

camshaft

oil passage

oil returning to
the sump

Figure 3.- Oil flow in an utomobile engine


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Much of the lubrication system is located inside the engine and can not be seen unless
the engine is taken apart. The parts on the exterior or outside of engine are easy to see.
Look at figure 4. Oil is added or replaced through the filler neck, a. When the oil is to be
changed, the drain plug, b, in the sump, g, is opened so the old dirty oil can run out. The
dipstick, d, is used to check the oil level to be sure that the engine has the correct amount
of oil. The filter, e, is removed and replaced after a specific period of time.

a
and cap

sump

Figure 4.- Automotive lubrication


UNIT SEVEN

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance.
2-3000

cb

Figure 1 Figure 2
1. Look at figures 1 and 2. Fill in the blanks below
Figure 1 shows a lubrication system. When the crankshaft rotates,
the of the crankshaft hits the oil and the
oil around the inside of the and lower cylinder. a
indicates the indicates the

C indicates the level. d is


the

Oil is added to the system through the


Oil is removed from the system by opening the
The is used to check the level.

Figure 2 shows a The mark indicated by a is the mark. If the oil is at this level, the
amount of oil is in the engine. When the oil level is at mark b,
quart should be to the oil. When the oil
level is at mark C, quarts should be
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 74

Figure 3
2- Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below .
Figure 3 shows the of an engine. This engine uses a
lubrication system. The oil pump moves the oil under

a indicates the indicates the


g indicates the
indicates the engine driven
e indicates the
f indicates the
g indicates oil being from small holes in the oil lines.

The oil pump pulls oil from the through the

Then the forces the oil through the filter.


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 75
The removes dirt and small

The oil carry the oil to the parts that need

Extra oil runs off the parts; it returns to the through holes in
the cylinder.
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UNIT SEVEN

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
LESSON B 1. OIL COOLING
Oil reduces heat in an engine because it is a lubricant and it reduces friction that
causes heat. Oil has a second cooling function. It is a liquid and it circulates through out the
engine. As it circulates it absorbs heat from the metal part it contacts. This action
contributes to the engine cooling procces. However, as the oil becomes heated it loses
some of its lubricating characteristics. Some engines are built with an oil-cooling system so
that the temperature of the oil can be controlled. Simple systems used in automotive-type
engine may use an air-cooled cooler to cool the oil, larger engines may use a water cooled
cooler.

The system shown in figure 1 uses an air - cooler. The thermostat unit directs the oil
through cooler when the oil is too hot. When the oil is not over-heated it does not go to the
cooler, but is directed through the bypass and into the normal lubrication system. The
thermostat and bypass are shown outside the engine in the illustration. The cooler usually
is located in the front of the engine area, so that cool air will pass around the tubes in the
core.

oil pressure gage

oil temperaturs-
gage

cooler

auto atic temperature control


(thermostat)
Figure 1.- Air cooled oil cooler
2. INSTRUMENTS
Large engines usually have instrumentc to show the temperature and pressure of the
lubricating oil. The gage or instrument that shows pressure is called the oil pressure gage.
It indicates whether the oil pump is maintainig the correct pressure in the oil lines. The gage
that shows the oil temperature is called the oil temperature gage. It indicates whether the
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oil cooling system is functionig correctly or not. The oil pressure gage reads in PSI. The oil
temperature gage may marked either in degress Fahrenheit or degrees centigrade.

Figure 2.- Pressure gage Figure 3.- Temperature gage


UNIT SEVEN

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :

1. The oil in the lubrication system is a liquid. It is circulated through the

The oil is in contact with parts. The oil heat from the metal it lubricates. The oil helpsthe
engine.

Too much heat changes the When it is too hot, it does not
the parts as well as it should. Some engines have
an
oil to reduce he temperature of the oil.
a
Figure 1
2. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below :
This engine has anto cool
the oil a indicates the indicates the
g indicates the d indicates the oilgage. e
indicates the f indicates g indicates the b
indicates the
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Figure 2
3. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below :
Figure 2 shows theof an engine that
has an oil
a indicates the indicates the C indicates the d
indicates the oil

e indicates the or automatic

f indicates the

g indicates the h
indicates the
i indicates the oil

When the oil is too hot the directs the oil to the
If the oil temperature is not hot,
the thermostat directs the through the
so it enters thesystem and does not go through the
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 81
UNIT EIGHT
DIESEL FUEL SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVES

1 . Given the task to describe fuel oil, the student will orally and/or in writing state that fuel
oil is a liquid petroleum product that is thicker and heavier than gasoline.

2. Given a picture of a distribuion- type diesel fuel system the student will orally and/or
in writing correctly identify the following features .
- tank - fuel supply lines
- fuel supply pump - injection nozzles
- filter - fuel pipe
- injection pump - excess fuel return line
3. Given the task to identify the main functions of the injection pump, the student will
orally and/or in writing state that:
- It pressurizes the fuel for injection.
- It meters or measures the fuel.
- It distributes the fuel.
- It controls the timing of the injection/ignition.
- It provides pressure to atomize the fuel.

4. Given pictures of the fuel injector unit and unit injector fuel system, the student will orally
and/or in writing identify the following features:
- fuel injector - fuel supply tank or service tank
- inlet line - strainer

- outlet line - fuel filter - tip - fuel supply pump


- plunger - injectors
UNIT EIGHT

DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM


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LESSON A
1. FUEL
Diesel or compression engines do not use gasoline as a fuel. Diesel engines use fuel
oil for fuel. Fuel oil, or diesel oil as it is sometimes called, is a liquid petroleum product that
is thicker, heavier, and usually cheaper than gasoline.

Gasoline is made so it will mix easily with air in the cylinder and produce a fuel air
mixture that is easy to ignite with the small, quick electrical spark from the spark plug. This
feature, which makes gasoline a good fuel, also makes it an extremely dangerous liquid. It is
easy to ignite; it is a flammable liquid. Gasoline evaporates (changes to a vapor) quickly and
easily. The gasoline vapors, or gasoline fumes, mix with air and produce a fuel air mixture
that can be ignited by a spark, flame, cigarrette, or hot surface. When ignition occurs, the
gasoline fuel-air mixture explodes and burns just as it does in the engine cylinder. There is
always a posibility of fire or explosion any where that gasoline is used or has been used
recently.
gasoline
vapor or
fumes

Figure 1
Diesel oil or fuel oil, is not a dangerous fuel. It is not flammable in the same
sense as gasoline; fuel oil will burn but it is difficult to ignite. Fuel oil fumes or vapors
are not easy to ignite like gasoline. Diesel oil or fuel oil is a safe fuel; this and other
advantages of diesel engines makes them advantageous for use in trucks, buses,
trains, and ships.
Diesel engines are used in comercial vehicles and factories because they are less costly
to operate. The fuel itself is cheaper than gasoline and the diesel engines consume or use
less fuel than gasoline engines. The fuel cosumption of a diesel engine is usually much less
than a similar size gasoline engine.
2. INJECTION PUMP (DISTRIBUTOR TYPE) FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system of a diesel engine is easy to understand if it is compared to the fuel
system and the ignition system of a spark-ignition gasoline engine. The diesel fuel system
performs both functions.
h
excess fue;
return line

fuel

injection
pump

supply lines

Figure 2.- Diesel engine fuel system (distributor type)


Figure 2 shows one type of diesel engine fuel system. a, the tank; b, the fuel supply
pump; g, the fuel line; and d, the fuel filter are all similar to the fuel system of the gasoline
engine. The fuel supply pump moves fuel oil from the tank through the fuel line to the
fuel filter. e the injection pump; f the fuel supply line and g the injection nozzles, are
similar to the ignition system of the gasoline engine. The injection pump, Wich resembles
a distributor, functions like a distributor. It sends the correct amount of fuel oil to the
correct cylinder at the correct time form ignition. The fuel supply line function like ignition
wires; they carry the fuel oil from the injection pump to each cylinder. The injection
nozzles are placed in each cylinder. The injection nozzles spray the fuel oil into the
cylinder at the correct time for ignition by the compressed air. b the excess fuel return
line carries the extra unused fuel back to the fuel tank.
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fuel supply lines


fuel supply pump strainer filter

nozzles

Figure 3.- Schematic drawing of diesel fuel system


Figure 3 is a schematic drawing of a diesel fuel system like the one shown in
figure 2. A schematic drawing does not directly show the real system, it just indicates
how the components work in the system.

The system above is a dual (two) pressure system. The low pressure fuel supply pump
pulls fuel from the tank and forces it through the strainer and the filter to the high pressure
injection pump.

The high pressure injection pump is the most important unit of this type
system. It performs the following function.

A - B. The injection pump pressurizes (puts under pressure) the fuel oil. The fuel oil must
have higher pressure than the compressed air in the cylinder so it can be forced into
the cylinder. The pressure of the compressed air in the cylinder of a diesel engine is
very high (500-600) PSI or more); the fuel pressure must be higher. The high pressure
is also necessary to atomize, or break the fuel intto small particles as it is sprayed into
the combustion chamber. When the fuel is forced through the small holes in the tip or
end of the injection nozzle under high pressure it is atomized and mixes with the air.

C. The injection pump meters or measure the fuel so that the correct amount of fuel
is sprayed into the cylinder.

D. The injection pump distributes the fuel to each of the cylinders.

E. The injection pump cont?ols the timig of the injection so that ignition takes place
at the correct time. The injection nozzles are simple one way or check valves that
atomized and spray the fuel into the cylinder.
UNIT EIGHT
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CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A
The following exercises should completed in class with the instructor's assistance:

1. Look at the figure 1. Fill in the blanks below :

b.

c.

d.

Gasoline
a. Spark ignition engines use
dangerous than diesel oil. When gasoline is in a open container it will
or change to a vapor. The vapors are also called
Gasoline mix with air quickly and
easily. The fume-air mixture can be ignited, with a spark,
, cigarrete or hot When it

ignites it can and burn like it does in a combustion

of an engine. Gasoline vapors are dangerous because they


Gasoline and its fumes arematerials the are easy to ignite.

The situation in figure 1 is very some one must put the


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 87
He should open a door orso the will blow away.

Figure 2

e a

2. Look at figure. fill in the blanks below :


Figure 2 shows a type diesel engine fuel system.
a is the is the

is a

is the e is
the f indicates the
g indicates the
h indicates the

The injection pump is very important.


a. It the fuel for injection (puts under pressure).
b. It the fuel (messure).
c. It the fuel to the correct cylinder.
b It controls the of the ignition / injection.
e. It provides the pressure to the fuel when it is sprayed into the cylinder.
The fuel supply pump is a pressure pump.
The fuel injection pump is a pressure pump.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 88
UNIT EIGHT

DIESEL FUEL SYSTEMS

LESSON B

1. FUEL INJECTOR (UNIT INJECTOR TYPE) FUEL SYSTEM


The injection pump or distributor-type fuel system isn't used on all diesel engines. A
few engines use a unit injector-type fuel system. See figure 1.
The unit injector
system is a low-pressure rocker arm
system. The low pressure
fuel supply pump moves
the fuel from the tank
through the filters to the
fuel injectors in each
cylinder. The fuel injectors
are small mechanically
operated pumps that
pressurize, meter, and
atomize the fuel as it is unit
injected into the cylinder.
As each cylinder has its own
fuel injector unit that
performs these functions, it
is called a unit injector type
system.

The fuel injectors are


operated mechanically by
cams on the camshaft that
lift pushrods to move the
rocker arms. The camkshaft gear
distribution and timing, or gear
injection into the correct
cylinder at the correct time,
Figure 1.- Unit injector
is controlled by the camshaft much like the opennig and closing of the valves is controlled.
One advantage of the system is that the fuel oil is not under high pressure until it is actually
injected into the cylinder. The fuel supply line, the small inlet and outlet lines, and the excess
fuel return line can be made of lighter materials because they don't have to withstand high
pressure.
line

plunger

outlet
line

Figure 2.- Fuel injector Figure 3.- Unit injector fuel system
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Figure 2 shows an enlarged view of a fuel injector. The outlet line carries the excess
fuel from the injector. Fuel is sprayed from the tip into the cylinder when the plunger is
pushed by the rocker arm.

Figure 3 shows a schematic of a unit injector fuel system. The low pressure fuel supply
pump moves the fuel from the tank through the strainer and filter to the injectors. The small
inlet lines carry fuel from the fuel supply line to the injector. The small outlet lines the excess
fuel from the injector to the excess fuel return line. The mechanical system that operates
the plungers is shown in figure 1.
UNIT EIGHT

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :

1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below :


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 91
Figure 1 shows the mechanical parts of a
type diesel engine fuel system.
a indicates the gear.
indicates the gear.
C indicates the d
indicates the

e indicates
the f
indicates the
g indicates the h indicates the
line i indicates the
line.
j indicates the of the fuel injector.

Figure 2 shows an enlarged view of a


a
indicates the
line.
indicates
the g indicates
the line.
d indicates
the
When the rocker arm pushes the

fuel it is injected
into the

Figure 2
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH 92
Page
COURSE

Fi ure 3
Figure 3 shows the fuel system of
a type diesel fuel system.
a is the is the is the

d is the
e is the f and g are

h is an line.

j is anline.

i is the

UNIT NINE
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GEARS AND TRANSMISSIONS
OBJECTIVES

1. Given a composite picture showing the different sets of gears, the student will orally and/
or in writing state the four main functions of gears as follows:

- Gears are used to change direction.


- Gears are used to increase force.
- Gears are used to magnify speed.
- Gears are used to change direction of rotation.

2. Given pictures of various kind of gears, the student will orally and/or in writing identify the
following features .
- drive gear - driven gear
- idler gear
- gear train
- gear case
- gear box
- bevel gear

3. Given cutaway pictures of a typical three speed transmission and of a differential, the
student will orally and/or in writing identify the following parts :
- clutch shaft
- propeller shaft
- shifter shaft
- countershaft
- countershaft gears
- sliding gears
- shifting forks - gear shift lever
- pivot
- axles
- bevel drive gear
- bevel ring gear
- differential gear unit
UNIT NINE

GEARS AND TRANSMISSIONS


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LESSON A
1. GEARS
Gears are often used in series. A series in gears is called a gear train. See figure
1.

driver

Figure 1.- Gear train


In figure 1, gear a, the driver gear, turns gear h. Gear g is attached to the side of gear
and turns with it. As gearþ turns, gear causes gear d to rotate. Gear d then turns gear e.
Arrangements of this type allow large changes in speed or force to be made in relatively
small space.

If you look ciosely at the arrows in figure 1 , you can see that each driven gear turns
in the opposite direction of the gear that drives it. When it is desire that the drive gear and
the driven turn in the same direction, an idler gear is put between them. See figure 2.
idler
driver gear driven
gear

Figure 2.- Idler gear

Gear trains and series of gears are usually enclosed in a case that supports the gear
shaft, protects the gears from dirt, and holds the lubricant that lubricate the gears. This
container is called a gear box or gear case. See figure 3.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 96

Figure 3.- Gear box (top removed)


Gears are used to perform four main functions :
1. Gears are use to change direction of rotation. As we have already seen, when
two gears are meshed they turn in opposite directions. See figure 4a.

2. Gears are use to magnify, or increase, force. When a drive gear is smaller than the
driven gear, the force of the driven gear is increased. See figure 4b.

3. Gears are used to magnify, or increase speed. When a drive gear is larger than the
driven gear the speed of the driven gear is increased. See figure 4c.

4. Gears are used to change the angle of rotation. When gears are cut on a bevel the
rotation force of the one shaft can be converted to rotation force on another shaft that
extends at a different angle. See figure 4d.
a. Idler gear used to change direction of rotation.

. Magnifying force with gears.

c. 'creasing speed with gears

. Changing angle of rotation with gears.


Figure 4
UNIT NINE

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance

AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 97
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the

2.
below.

output input

Figure 2
Gear a provides the input, it is called thegear.

Gear provides the output; it is called the gear.


Gear g is called an

Gear g is use so that gear will rotate in the same direction as gear
The gear is used to change the
of rotation.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 98

a input

Figure 3 Figure 4
3. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below.
Gear a is called thegear.

Gear b is called the gear.


The gear is larger than the gear.
This arrangement is use to

4. Look at figure 4. Fill in the blanks below.


Gear a is called the gear.
Gear is called the gear.
The gear is larger than the gear.
This arrangement is use to

5. Look at figure 3 and 4. Fill in the blanks below.


The gears in figure 3 force.
The gears in figure 4 speed.
If the speed is increased, the per revolution is

decreased.
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If the force is increased, the per revolution is

In figure 3 and 4, the driven gears rotate in the


direction of the drive gear. The gears have changed the
of rotation.

6. Look at figure 5. Fill in the blanks


below.

Figure 5 shows a
pair of gears. When bevel gears are
used,
theof the
rotation
is changed. The driver, gear Figure 5
is smaller than the gear. This set
increases and changes the angle of

Gears are used to perform four main functions:

b. To

UNIT NINE

GEARS AND TRANSMISSIONS

LESSON B
1. TRANSMISSION

The gear box of an automobile is called a transmission. Figure 1 shows a simplified


three-speed automobile transmission or gear box. At the left side of the picture is the clutch
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 101
shaft. The clutch shaft is rotated by the engine. There is a gear attached to the clutch shaft
inside the transmission. The gear on the clutch shaft is meshed with the gear on the
countershaft. The countershaft is the shaft at the bottom of the transmission. When the
gear on the clutch shaft turns, it causes all of the countershaft gears to turn.

Now look at the right of the transmission. The shaft at the right is the propeller shaft.
The propeller shaft delivers the turning force to the wheels. There are two gears attached to
the propeller shaft inside the transmission. They are called the sliding gears. The sliding gears
can move or slide forward and backward on the splined propeller shaft.

Now look at the top of the picture. The pivoted lever that is used to move the slinding
gears is called the gear shift lever. If the top of the gear shift lever is pushed forward, the
bottom of the lever will move to the rear. The bottom of the gear shift lever to the shifter
forks. When the bottom of the gear shift lever moves, it slides the shifter forks on the shifter
shaft. The shifter shaft is the shaft in the top of the transmission. Then when the shifter fork
moves to the rear, it slides the sliding gear to the rear so it meshes with the countershaft
gear. When the two are meshed, the rotation of the countershaft gear will be transmitted
to the propeller shaft.
countershft gears

Figure 1.- Transmission


AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 102

clutch

rear wheels

Fi ure 2
2. DIFFERENTIAL
Figure 2 shows the typical location of the transmission in a car or a truck. The propeller
shaft connects the transmission to the differential located between the rear wheels. The
differential is a special gear unit that adjusts for the difference in the speeds of the two rear
wheels that occurs when the car or truck makes a turn. When the vehicle turns, the outside
rear wheel travels a longer curve than the inside wheel. As it travels the longer distance in the
same length of time, it in fact travels faster.

The main parts of a differential are shown in figure 3. The bevel drive gear is attached
to the end of the propeller shaft inside the differential case. The bevel drive gear turns the
bevel ring gear. The bevel ring gear rotates the differential gear unit. The differential gear
unit turns the axle shafts that the rear wheels are attached to.

differential
gear unit

drive gear

Figure 3 shaft

UNIT NINE
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH
Page 103
COURSE
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 104
CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON B
The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance
:

rear wheels b front wheels

Figure 1
1. Look at figure 1. Fill in the blanks below.
Figure 1 shows a typical truck frame. a indicates the

b indicates the shaft, g indicates the


and d indicates the two shafts. The
delivers the power
from the
The diferential is used to turn the wheels. It also

for the difference in wheel when vehicles makes

2. Look at figure 2. Fill in the blanks below. Figure 2 shows a typical a indicates
the indicates the C indicates
the d
indicates the
e indicates the f indicates the

g indicates the
h indicates the

i indicates the

i indicate the

Figure 2
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Figure 3

3. Look at figure 3. Fill in the blanks below.

Figure 3 shows a simplified

a indicates the that provides the power.


indicates the
g indicates the
d indicates the e andf indicate

UNIT TEN

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

OBJECTIVES

1. Given schematic drawings of piston-cylinder units, the student will orally and/or in writing
correctly identify the following terms.

- specifications
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 107
- bore - OHV - inch
- stroke
- TDC (top dead center)
- BDC (bottom dead center)
- engine displacement - compression ratio
- firing order
- net brake horsepower
- net torque
- regular gasoline
UNIT TEN
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

LESSON A
1. SPECIFICATIONS, GENERAL
Internal combustion engines are usually described by listing certain information
about the engine. This information is referred to as the specifications of the engine, or the
engine specifications. It is a list of the specific (exact) technical information that describes
the important features of the engine. Figure 1 illustrates part of the engine specifications
of a typical automotive type engine.
Specifications
Engine
Type 4 cycle, water cooled
(2) No. Cylinders 6 cyl. inline OHV
(3) Bore 3. 750"
(4) Stroke
(5) Displacemnet 232 cu. in.
(6) Compression ratio 8. 0 : 1
(7) Firing order 1 -5-3-6-2-4
(8) Net brake horse power 100 3600 RPM
(9) Net torque 185 lb-ft @ 1800 RPM
(10) Fuel Regular gasoline

Figure 1
(l) Type 4 cycle. water cooled
The engine is a four-stroke cycle, water-cooled engine.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 108
(2) No. cylinders 6 cyl. inline. OHV
No. is the abbreviation for number, the entry reads number (of) cylinders. This is a 6
cylinder engine. The cylinders are arranged inline. OHV is the abbreviation for
overthead valves. The full line tells you this is a six cylinder inline overthead valve type
of engine.
(3) Bore 3. 750"
Bore refers to the diameter of the cylinder. "is the mark that indicates the
measuremnet is in inches. The diameter of the cylinder is 3. 750 inches.

(4) Stroke 3. 50"


Stroke refers to the distance the piston moves in the cylinder. The piston of this engine
moves 3. 50 inches. The stroke is measured from the piston position when the piston is
at the lowest point in the cylinder, to the piston position when the piston is at the
highest point in the cylinder. The lowest point piston position is called bottom dead
center (abbreviation BDC). The highest piston position is called top dead center
(abreviation TDC). The stroke is the distance the piston moves from the bottom dead
center position to the top dead center position.

Top dead center BOC

Bottom dead center


Figure 2
(5) Displacement 232 cu. in.
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The word displacement, or engine displacement, refers to volume of the cylinders,
measuring from the bottom dead center position to the top dead center position. The
displacement of an engine can be calculated by using the specifications of the bore and the
stroke. The displacement of this engine is 232 cubic inches. The formula for determining the
volume of a cylinder is shown in figure 3.
3,750

cylinder

3.50"

displacement of cylinder

BDC Volume- xr 2 x height


3.750 = 1.875
(radius) x 1.875"
3.516 x
3.14 ( 7 )
11.040 (area of
bore) x 3.50 (stroke)
38.640 (vol. 1 cyl.)
(no cyl.)
231.84" (vol 6 cyl.)
(displacement)

Figure 3.- calculation of displacement.


Note: In the countries that use the metric system, bore and stroke measurements are stated
in centimeters (cm) millimeters (mm). Engine displacement is stated in cubic centimeters or
in liters. The displacement of this engine would be 3803 cubic centimeters or 3. 803 liters in
the metric system.
AUTOMOTIVE SPECIALIZED ENGLISH COURSE Page 110
(6) Compression ratio 8.0 : 1
A ratio is a mathematical comparison. If one object is 10 inches long and the other
object is 2 inches long, we can say the first object is five times as long as the second object,
or we can write the ratio 5 : 1. The compression ratio of an engine compares the amount of
space in the cylinder when the fuel air mixture is compressed in the combustion chamber
(TDC) with amount of space in the cylinder when the piston is at the lowest point (BDC). The
compression ratio tell us how much the fuel air mixture is compressed in the cylinder. The
amount of space at TDC ia always given the value of 1. In this engine 8.0 is the volume at
BDC and 1 is the volume TDC. Eigth volume units of fuel air mixture are compressed into the
space of one volume unit. Figure 4 shows the relationship for an engine having a 6 : 1
compression ratio.
combustion
chamber total
volume at
combustion T.D.C.
TOTAL VOLUME
chamber
AT D.D.C.

a Start of compression b End of compression atroke (BDC) stroke (TOC)

Figure 4.- Compression ratio 6.0 : 1

(7) Firing order 1 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 2 - 4


Firing order tell us the order or sequence of ignition in the six cylinders. Cylinders are
usually numbered starting from the front of the engine in this engine, cylinder No. 1 receives
ignition first, then cylinder No. 5, then cylinder No. 3 etc. The order of ignition is distributed
so that the engine will vibrate or shake as little as possible. The order of ignition also tells us
how the ignition wires are arranged in the distributor.
(8) Net brake horsepower 100 HP @ 3600 RPM
You learned that horsepower is a measurement of power equal to 33,000 foot-pound
of work in one minute. Although the figure for horsepower is fixed, the method for
measurement can vary. In our lessons on simple machines we talked abauttheorical
mechanical advantage, and we mentioned that friction reduces the actual amount of output
work. Net horsepower refers to one method of measuring the actual, not theorical, output
of work. The engine develops 100 hp when it is operating at a speed of 3600 revolutions
per minute. The symbol @ means at.
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(9) Net torque 185 lbs-ft @ 1800 RPM
When you studied the simple wheel and axle and crank and axle machines you
learned that turning force is called torque. We know that this type of l.c. engine delivers
power in the form of a rotating shaft, the crankshaft. Net torque is the actual not theorical
amount of power delivered through the crankshaft. This crankshaft provides 185 lbs-ft of
turning force or torque when the engine is operating at 1800 revolutions per minute.

(10) Fuel Regular gasoline


The fuel used in this engine is regular gasoline. Gasoline is made in several different
mixtures so it can be used in different types of engines. Regular gasoline is one of the
mixture that is made. It is important that the correct fuel be used in an engine. The type of
fuel used is one of the important engine specifications.
UNIT TEN

CLASSWORK ASSIGMENT : LESSON A


The following exercises should be completed in class with the instructor's assistance :

1. What do we call the list of specific thechical information that describes an engine ?

2. The first two line of an engine specifications reads as follows :


Type 4 cycle water cooled
No. cylinders 8, V-block, OHV
Write out the full description based on the information given.

3. What does the word "bore" mean in reference to an engine?


4. The engine specification reads:
Bore
Write out what this means.

5. Look at figure 1. Write your answer in the spaces provided.


Figure la shows the piston in the

center position; the abbreviation for this Figure 1b shows the piston in the

center position; The


abbreviation for this is in figure la:

(1) indicates the

(2) indicates the

(3) indicates the

The space indicated by (4) is the

The word "stroke" refers to thethe piston

moves from the center position (abbr.

to the center position (abbr.

The arrow at (5) indicates the

The arrow at (6) indicates the

Figure lc shows the cylinder that would be represented by the


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and of the engine cylinder. (7) indicates the diameter or


, (8) represents the height or

(9) is the formula for calculating theof a cylinder.

If we know the bore or of the cylinder, and the stroke or


of the cylinder, and we have the formula given, we can calculate
the volume or of one cylinder. If we multiply the displacement
of one cylinder by the number of cylinders the engine has, we will have the
of the engine.

6. If a V-8 engine has a displacement of 320 cubics inches, each cylinder has a displacement
of

7. Look at the figure 1. Fill in the blanks below.


The compression ratio an engine compares the volume of thewhen

the piston is in the bottom position.


If the compression ratio of this engine is 8.0 : 1, figure 1b shows the space
represented by the numberand figure la shows the
space represented by the . (The volume chamber at T always equals of the 1 in the ratio).
8. If the firing order of a V-6 engine is 1-5-3-6-2-4, Which cylinder receives ignition firts? No.

Which cylinder receives ignition last ? No.

Which cylinder receives ignition after cylinder number 4? No.

9. Does net horsepower refer to the theorical : horsepower or to the actual output?
10. Horsepower is a unit of power but engines are also measured in torque. Torque is a
measure of force. An automotive engine delivers power in the
form of a crankshaft. The or turning force of the crankshaft is measured in - feet.

(4)

(7)

cylinder
displacement
of 1 qiinder

(9) vol .-7'# - height

bore 3.750" stroke


Figure 1 = 3.50"