0 Suka0 Tidak suka

3 tayangan25 halamanRotorary Wing Structural Dynamics, Torsional Deflection, Bending Deflection, Rotor Blade Aeroelasticity, Theodorsen Lift Deficiency, Flutter Analysis, Helicopter Dynamics

May 28, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Rotorary Wing Structural Dynamics, Torsional Deflection, Bending Deflection, Rotor Blade Aeroelasticity, Theodorsen Lift Deficiency, Flutter Analysis, Helicopter Dynamics

© All Rights Reserved

3 tayangan

Rotorary Wing Structural Dynamics, Torsional Deflection, Bending Deflection, Rotor Blade Aeroelasticity, Theodorsen Lift Deficiency, Flutter Analysis, Helicopter Dynamics

© All Rights Reserved

- Image-Space Modal Bases for Plausible Manipulation of Objects in Video_a239-davis.pdf
- 3 Story Seismic Analysis
- 2015 Vibration
- ASEN2003.Appendix
- Dynamic Introlab
- Presentation1
- (Report) Trainer Design
- 11 - More Than 2 DOF and Simulation
- PhD-Dissertation-1999-Kessler.pdf
- Fixed Free Fixed Free Plate Natural Frequency Analysis
- Dynamic Susceptibility Method for Piping Vibration
- ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF T-BEAM BRIDGE DECKS DUE TO HEAVYWEIGHT VEHICLES
- J Exp Biol 2001 Sane
- Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Identification Methods
- Dynamics and EQ Lab - BG
- ICDoS
- ‘The analysis of aerodynamic flutter.pdf
- Mode Shape
- 2015 - Dessi - Damage Identification.pdf
- 1983-SDEE_Foundation-Vibrations-STATE-of-the-ART.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 25

Monterey, California

THESIS

A 3D THEODORSEN-BASED ROTOR BLADE

FLUTTER MODEL USING NORMAL MODES

by

September 2002

Mark. A. Couch

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including

the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any

other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington

headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

(0704-0188) Washington DC 20503.

1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

September 2002 Master’s Thesis

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

A 3D Theodorsen-based Rotor Blade Flutter Model Using Normal Modes

6. AUTHOR(S)

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

Naval Postgraduate School ORGANIZATION REPORT

Monterey, CA 93943-5000 NUMBER

9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING

N/A AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official

policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words)

This thesis presents a fully coupled, quasi-3D analysis of rotor blade flutter that can

accommodate forward flight conditions. The rotor blade is modeled as a uniform beam, taking

the average characteristics of a real blade between 20% and 90% of its length. Applying

Rayleigh’s method, the first few bending and torsion normal mode shapes and natural

frequencies are determined, and then adjusted for the rotating case. With this data, force and

moment equations of motion are developed using Lagrange’s equation along with a normal

mode analysis. Theodorsen coefficients are calculated over a range of forward velocities (input

as reduced frequencies) for a specified number of elements along the blade model.

Incorporating these coefficients into the equations of motion, a square matrix is generated from

which complex eigenvalues can be derived. These eigenvalues provide the aeroelastic natural

frequencies and damping coefficients for each coupled mode. The forward velocity at which

one of the modes produces a positive damping coefficient gives the value of reduced frequency

for the flutter point. The resulting forward speed and blade tip speed can then be determined.

14. SUBJECT TERMS Rotorary Wing Structural Dynamics, Torsional Deflection, Bending 15. NUMBER OF

Deflection, Rotor Blade Aeroelasticity, Theodorsen Lift Deficiency, Flutter Analysis, Helicopter PAGES 75

Dynamics

16. PRICE CODE

17. SECURITY 18. SECURITY 19. SECURITY 20. LIMITATION

CLASSIFICATION OF CLASSIFICATION OF THIS CLASSIFICATION OF OF ABSTRACT

REPORT PAGE ABSTRACT

Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL

NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)

Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18

i

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

ii

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

FLUTTER MODEL USING NORMAL MODES

Lieutenant, United States Navy

B.S., United States Naval Academy, 1993

requirements for the degree of

from the

September 2002

Thesis Co-Advisor

Mark A. Couch

Thesis Co-Advisor

Max Platzer

Chairman, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

iii

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

iv

ABSTRACT

This thesis presents a fully coupled, quasi-3D analysis of rotor blade flutter that

can accommodate forward flight conditions. The rotor blade is modeled as a uniform

beam, taking the average characteristics of a real blade between 20% and 90% of its

length. Applying Rayleigh’s method, the first few bending and torsion normal mode

shapes and natural frequencies are determined, and then adjusted for the rotating case.

With this data, force and moment equations of motion are developed using Lagrange’s

equation along with a normal mode analysis. Theodorsen coefficients are calculated over

a range of forward velocities (input as reduced frequencies) for a specified number of

elements along the blade model. Incorporating these coefficients into the equations of

motion, a square matrix is generated from which complex eigenvalues can be derived.

These eigenvalues provide the aeroelastic natural frequencies and damping coefficients

for each coupled mode. The forward velocity at which one of the modes produces a

positive damping coefficient gives the value of reduced frequency for the flutter point.

The resulting forward speed and blade tip speed can then be determined.

v

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 1

A. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................... 1

B. BACKGROUND.............................................................................................. 2

1. Theodorsen and Loewy.............................................................................. 2

2. Shipman and Wood.................................................................................... 4

II. THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT......................................................................... 9

A. A FLUTTER THEORY FOR FORWARD FLIGHT........................................ 9

1. Mode Shapes and Natural Frequencies.................................................... 9

2. Normal Mode Analysis............................................................................. 13

3. Lagrange and The Equations of Motion ................................................ 15

4. Eigenvalues ............................................................................................... 20

III. RESULTS................................................................................................................... 25

A. UH-60 BLADE EXAMPLE................................................................................ 25

B. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS FOR UH-60 BLADE EXAMPLE ................... 42

IV. SUMMARY................................................................................................................ 43

A. CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................. 43

B. RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................... 44

APPENDIX A. 3D BLADE FLUTTER PROGRAM......................................................... 45

A. PROGRAM WALK-THROUGH................................................................ 45

1. Step 1 – User Input.................................................................................. 45

2. Step 2 – Establish Blade Model Properties ........................................... 45

3. Step 3 – Calculate Mode Shapes and Natural Frequencies.................. 45

4. Step 4 – Construct Matrices for Velocity Range ................................... 47

5. Step 5 – Calculate Eigenvalues................................................................ 48

6. Step 6 – Display Results and Save Data ................................................. 48

B. PROGRAM LISTING ........................................................................................ 49

LIST OF REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 55

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST ........................................................................................ 57

vii

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2. Distribution of Shed Vorticity in Unstable Region........................................... 6

Figure 3. Development of Skewed Helical Wake ............................................................ 7

Figure 4. 2-D Wake Model for Forward Flight ................................................................ 7

Figure 5. Rotating and Non-Rotating Mode shapes for the First Bending Mode........... 10

Figure 6. Rotating and Non-Rotating Mode shapes for the Second Bending Mode ...... 11

Figure 7. Rotating and Non-Rotating Mode Shapes for the Third Bending Mode ........ 11

Figure 8. CG Offset Zero, Forward Flight...................................................................... 27

Figure 9. CG Offset Zero, Over-Speed........................................................................... 28

Figure 10. CG Offset 0.5b, Forward Flight ...................................................................... 30

Figure 11. CG Offset 0.5b, Over-Speed ........................................................................... 31

Figure 12. CG Offset 0.75b, Forward Flight .................................................................... 32

Figure 13. CG Offset 0.75b, Over-Speed ......................................................................... 33

Figure 14. CG Offset 0.85b, Forward Flight .................................................................... 34

Figure 15. CG Offset O.85b, Over-Speed ........................................................................ 35

Figure 16. CG Offset 0.9b, Forward Flight ...................................................................... 36

Figure 17. CG Offset O.9b, Over-Speed .......................................................................... 37

Figure 18. CG Offset 0.95b, Forward Flight .................................................................... 38

Figure 19. CG Offset O.95b, Over-Speed ........................................................................ 39

Figure 20. CG Offset 1.0b, Forward Flight ...................................................................... 40

Figure 21. CG Offset 1.0b, Over-Speed ........................................................................... 41

Figure 22. Normal Bending and Torsion Mode Shapes ................................................... 46

ix

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

x

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2. Comparison of Rotating Natural Frequencies................................................. 26

Table 3. Flutter Points ................................................................................................... 42

xi

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

xii

LIST OF VARIABLES

ξ – non-dimensional distance from G – imaginary part of C(k)

mid-chord GJ – torsional stiffness

µ – advance ratio, µ=V/Ωr H – Hankel function

ϕ1 – phase angle between initiation h – non-dimensional distance

of rotation input and between layers of shed

arbitrary reference point vorticity (wake spacing),

ϕ2 – phase angle between initiation h = 2πv/bQΩ

of amplitude input and hn – displacement due to flapping

arbitrary reference point Ixx – flap-wise moment of inertia

γa – vorticity generated by reference Iα – polar mass moment of inertia

airfoil J – real Bessel function

γnq – vorticity generated by qth blade k – reduced frequency k=ωb/Ω

in nth revolution Kn – Southwell coefficient

A – aerodynamic terms in flutter l – length of blade

equations L’ – lift per unit span

a – non-dimensional elastic axis Lh – lift due to plunge

location measured from Lα – lift due to pitch

mid-chord m – mass

AC – aerodynamic center m – ratio of oscillation frequency to

An – mode shape coefficients rotational frequency,

An – natural frequency coefficients m=ω/Ω

b – semi-span M’ – moment per unit span

Mh – moment due to plunge

C′(k,h,m) – Loewy’s lift deficiency

Mn – nth mode generalized mass

function

Mα – moment due to pitch

C(k) – Theodorsen’s lift deficiency

n – 1, 2, 3,…

function

Qn – generalized force for nth mode

C′N(k,h,m) – finite-wake lift deficiency

qn – normal coordinate for nth mode

function

R – blade radius

C1(k,µ,λ) – Shipman-Wood lift r – radial position along blade

deficiency function Sα – static moment

CG – center of gravity T – kinetic energy

D – dissipation function U – potential energy

d – length of one element UFL – flutter velocity

DOF – degree(s) of freedom Ut – blade tip velocity

e – flapping hinge offset from V – free-stream velocity

center of rotation W – Loewy’s wake weighting

E – Young’s Modulus WN – finite-wake weighting function

EA – elastic axis X – vector of normal coordinates

F – real part of C(k) Y – imaginary Bessel function

Fn – edge-wise mode shape yn – nth mode shape

fn – flap-wise mode shape Z – complex igenvalues

xiii

αn – displacement due to torsion ψ – blade azimuth position

µ – mass per unit length ω – frequency of oscillation

ρ – density of air Ω – rotor velocity

xiv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the following people who were critical to my successfully

completing this thesis. Dr. E. R. Wood suggested the topic, served as co-advisor, assisted

me throughout the research process, and provided extensive insight into every aspect of

this work, as well as many insights not included in this work. CDR M. A. Couch served

as co-advisor and provided a significant amount of time, energy and grass-roots

explanations of vastly complex phenomena. Mr. Robert Goodman at Sikorsky Aircraft

Company coordinated for the authorized release of data pertaining to their natural

frequency calculations. Dr. Max Platzer and Dr. Hobson shared with me their enthusiasm

for unsteady aerodynamics and their desire for a physical and intuitive understanding of

this type of phenomena. Finally, and most importantly, my wife gave me the support,

confidence and understanding so necessary during the last year.

xv

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

xvi

I. INTRODUCTION

A. INTRODUCTION

throughout the helicopter’s flight regime is to design the blade so that aerodynamic center

(AC), elastic axis (EA) and center of gravity (CG) are coincident and located at the

quarter-chord. This practice pays off by decoupling the equations used in two-

dimensional unsteady aerodynamic theory. While this assures freedom from flutter, it

adds constraints on rotor blade design not usually followed in fixed wing design. A blade

designed with the CG, EA and AC coincident at the quarter chord is heavier than one free

of that restriction. It also, if strictly followed, rules out use of a flap that causes the AC to

move with flap angle. In addition, it restricts use of camber that moves the AC aft [Ref.

1].

Rao [Ref. 3] and Hammond [Ref. 4], provides a useful tool for examining blade flutter in

a hover. Extension of their work to a helicopter in forward flight presents a formidable

mathematical challenge, and thus, at present, there is no accepted theory to completely

analyze blade flutter in forward flight. Currently, to meet forward flight blade flutter

requirements the rotorcraft manufacturer must rely on: (1) a quasi-fixed wing blade

flutter analysis, which does not account for the unsteady contribution of the wake below

the rotor; and (2) costly rotor whirl tests at normal and over-speed conditions that, while

providing information in regard to blade flutter, do not accurately simulate either blade

dynamics or unsteady aerodynamics in forward flight.

several simplifying assumptions that make the forward flight flutter problem tractable. In

particular, it is assumed that at the onset of flutter oscillations begin to build up prior to

the blade reaching a critical azimuth position, then decay as the blade moves beyond this

point. Shipman and Wood [Ref. 5] provide the two-dimensional basis for this three-

dimensional analysis. This thesis will follow the analysis of Shipman and Wood, using

Theodorsen’s lift deficiency function (2-D approach), and further expand the theory to

1

encompass full blade-length dynamics (3-D effects). A numerical example using UH-60

blade data is included as a means of illustration and validation.

B. BACKGROUND

“Main and tail rotor blades of the A.T.H. have been

designed so that center of gravity, elastic axis, and aerodynamic

center are coincident. Also, the control system for the main rotor

is stiff with high internal damping. No main or tail rotor blade

flutter has been experienced with earlier model helicopters

possessing these design features.

Main and tail rotor blades for the HSS-2, which are the

same as those of the A.T.H., have been installed on Sikorsky whirl

stands, and tested at maximum design-limit speeds. Main rotor

blades were tested for power-on and power-off conditions. Tail

rotor test conditions were power-on and power-off. Observation of

blades during these tests indicated no flutter or divergence at

maximum operating conditions.” [Ref. 6]

This statement, from the 1960 Sikorsky Report No. 50131 for the Advanced

Tactical Helicopter, is representative of the current methods for ascertaining freedom

from flutter for new helicopter acquisitions. Theoretical calculations consist of a 2-D

flutter analysis of the blade tip as if it was a fixed wing, and whirl stand tests involve

significant expense. Much effort has been expended in the last century to improve flutter

prediction and minimize the cost in time and money spent on whirl stand tests. The

following paragraphs are a review of some of the significant work that has advanced the

study of flutter and provided methods of solving the flutter problem.

1. Theodorsen and Loewy

In 1936, Theodorsen [Ref. 7] made the flutter problem somewhat tractable with

certain simplifying assumptions. He considered a wing of infinite aspect ratio,

encountering small oscillations at a constant velocity through an incompressible, non-

viscous fluid. By using these assumptions, the forces and moments could be determined

from 2-D potential flow theory. In addition, instead of using the actual mass and

geometry distributions, he assumed that the results could be conservatively obtained for a

unit span of the wing. Using the nomenclature found in Scanlan and Rosenbaum [Ref.

8], and excluding terms associated with an aileron, the unsteady force and moment per

unit span are given by

2

h 1

L′ = πρb3ω2 L h + Lα − + a L h α

b 2

and

1 h 1 1

2

M′ = πρb ω M h − + a L h + M α − + a ( Lα + M h ) + + a L h α

4 2

2 b 2 2

where

2i

Lh = 1 − C(k)

k

1 2i 1 i

Lα = − + 1 − C ( k )

2 k 2 k

1

Mh =

2

3 i

Mα = −

8 k

H1(2)

C(k) =

H1(2) + iH 0(2)

where H (2)

reduced frequency k = ωb/V. The force and moment equations take into account both

pitch (torsion) and plunge (flapping) motion, and include circulatory and non-circulatory

terms. It is in the circulatory terms that the lift deficiency function is defined.

Inherent in Theodorsen’s 2-D thin airfoil theory is the assumption that the wake is

carried downstream to infinity by the free-stream airflow [Ref. 9]. For work in rotor

blade flutter, this assumption presents problems, since the rotor blade sections may

encounter the shed wake from previous blades as well as the reference airfoil. Loewy

[Ref. 2] recognized this problem and developed a 2-D model for the hover case that

accounted for the effects of previously shed wakes. The wakes were modeled as a series

3

of planar 2-D vortex sheets separated by a distance ‘h’ that was dependent on the induced

velocity through the rotor disk and the number of rotor blades. Loewy then developed a

modified lift deficiency function that could be used in conjunction with the force and

moment equations. This modified lift deficiency function is defined as

H1(2) ( k ) + 2 J 1 (k )W ( k , m, h )

C ′( k , m, h ) =

H1(2) ( k ) + iH 0(2) ( k ) + 2[ J 1 ( k ) + iJ 0 ( k )]W ( k , m, h )

where

1

W ( k , m, h ) = kh

b i 2π ( m )

e e −1

and is evaluated at reduced frequency (k), wake spacing (h = 2πV/bQΩ) and frequency

ratio (m = ω/Ω). Note that as h → ∞ , W → 0 and C ′( k ) → C ( k ) .

2. Shipman and Wood

In 1971, Shipman and Wood [Ref. 5] examined the unsteady aerodynamics acting

on an advancing blade in steady-state level flight. The basic assumptions of their work

are as follows:

1. Two-dimensional, inviscid, incompressible potential flow.

2. Respective layers of the wake are two-dimensionalized and treated as parallel

horizontal sheets.

3. In forward flight, each blade of the rotor will respond in the same manner as

every other blade.

4. The most critical azimuth position of the blade in forward flight for the onset

of flutter is at ψ = 90°.

5. At the onset of blade flutter, oscillations will begin to build up prior to the

blade reaching the critical azimuth position, and these oscillations will decay

as the blade moves beyond the critical azimuth position.

At a specified radial location r on the blade, the local tangential velocity is given

by

U t ( r ) = Ωr + V sin ψ

If it is assumed that the flutter speed for this blade segment is such that

U FL ( r ) < Ωr + V

4

then during each blade revolution the blade segment at radius ‘r’ will experience

velocities which will increase to the flutter speed and beyond, then return through the

flutter point to lower airspeeds. Extending this concept to both blade azimuth position

and radial position, one can observe that the blade tangential velocity at a given radial

position will exceed the flutter speed in some region of rotor azimuth position if:

V sin ψ > U FL ( r ) − Ωr

It should be noted that all points within the shaded region of Fig. 1 experience

negative damping. This negative damping when combined with transient oscillations in

the blade and will cause blade motion to grow. Also, in the region ψ ≤ π/2 - ∆ψFL, the

damping will decrease as ψ approaches (π/2 - ∆ψFL), whereas in the region ψ ≥ π/2 +

∆ψFL, damping will be positive and will increase such that blade transients tend to die

out.

advancing blade. It is expected that damping would decrease as the blade approaches ψ

= 90° and the amplitude of oscillations would build up. Conversely, as the blade

advanced beyond ψ = 90°, damping would increase, and there would be a corresponding

decrease in blade vibratory amplitude. This build-up and decay of blade amplitude would

result in a distribution of shed vorticity as shown by Fig. 2. Here, we observe that time-

wise variations in amplitude of blade vibrations have resulted in space-wise variations in

5

shed vorticity. Since we have assumed steady-state flight, each blade would shed similar

segments of vorticity for each revolution. These vortex segments constitute the wake that

will be treated in this analysis.

Based on the foregoing, the bound vorticity on the airfoil can be expressed as the

product of a function of chord-wise position, a decay function, and a harmonic function

of time1. We write the incremental bound vorticity as

γ a = γ a (x )f (ξ 0 )e i (ωt + φ )

where f(ξ0) is an assumed decay function centered about ξ0 = 0. The limiting case of

constant-strength shed vorticity such as considered by Theodorsen [Ref. 7] and Loewy

[Ref. 1] for their analyses, is simply achieved by taking f(ξ0 ) = 1.

When the inflow velocity through the rotor is small, the shed vorticity remains

close to the rotor and the wakes shed from each blade during several previous passes as

well as the present pass must be considered. The build-up and decay of vorticity occurs

within a double azimuth angle on either side of ψ = 90°. The solid lines of Fig. 3

indicate this region of the wake. In this region the azimuth angle between a shed vortex

filament and the reference blade may be ignored. The tip does not move very far from

the vertical plane shown in Fig. 3 and so its path may be taken to lie in this plane.

1 W. P. Jones [Ref. 10] first treated the case of an oscillating airfoil where the strength of the airfoil’s

position was allowed to grow or decay exponentially with time. As the buildup or decay rate approached

zero, Jones’ lift deficiency function approached that of Theodorsen [Ref. 6].

6

Figure 3. Development of Skewed Helical Wake

Combining the vorticity segments given in Fig. 2, the resulting wake pattern is

shown in Fig. 4. With the mathematical model defined, the problem now is to determine

the pressure difference across the airfoil due to the vorticity shed in the wake, and

consequently to determine the unsteady lift and moment acting on the airfoil.

7

- 3 Story Seismic AnalysisDiunggah olehRoberto Zanetto
- 2015 VibrationDiunggah olehSuprapto To
- ASEN2003.AppendixDiunggah olehKonj01
- Presentation1Diunggah olehjsnb
- Image-Space Modal Bases for Plausible Manipulation of Objects in Video_a239-davis.pdfDiunggah olehCaio Viega
- Dynamic IntrolabDiunggah olehJan Willem Feitsma
- (Report) Trainer DesignDiunggah olehhk_one_for_all
- 11 - More Than 2 DOF and SimulationDiunggah olehpanjisn
- PhD-Dissertation-1999-Kessler.pdfDiunggah olehDeepak Ashokan
- Fixed Free Fixed Free Plate Natural Frequency AnalysisDiunggah olehJan Scar
- Dynamic Susceptibility Method for Piping VibrationDiunggah olehA. Venugopal
- ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF T-BEAM BRIDGE DECKS DUE TO HEAVYWEIGHT VEHICLESDiunggah olehLăzărică Teșu
- J Exp Biol 2001 SaneDiunggah olehAntonio Martín Alcántara
- Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Identification MethodsDiunggah olehLuis Carlos Esquivel
- Dynamics and EQ Lab - BGDiunggah olehPrashant Sunagar
- ICDoSDiunggah olehMASIZKA
- ‘The analysis of aerodynamic flutter.pdfDiunggah olehHanmant Phadatare
- Mode ShapeDiunggah olehthabiso87
- 2015 - Dessi - Damage Identification.pdfDiunggah olehpaulkohan
- 1983-SDEE_Foundation-Vibrations-STATE-of-the-ART.pdfDiunggah olehSafwat El Rouby
- Imperfection sensitivity and postbuckling analysis of elastic shells of revolutionDiunggah olehSample Son
- Suspension BridgesDiunggah olehSilver Olguín Camacho
- 1-s2.0-S0022460X08006329-mainDiunggah olehYONAS GOSA
- Holger Babinsky 2003 Phys. Educ. 38 001Diunggah olehbataneja
- RL 03 Systematic FEA Study for Passenger Car Exhaust System SharadaMotorsDiunggah olehronnel
- 1.-Modeling-of-Cable-Stayed-Bridges.pdfDiunggah olehSanjay Singh
- NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF A HEAVING AIRFOIL SUBJECTED TO OSCILLATORY FLOW AND PARAMETRIC EXCITATIONDiunggah olehRodolfo Curci Puraca
- EXP 6 Study of Impact of Free Water JetDiunggah olehsiva ram
- Tips for Avoiding Office Building Floor VibrationsDiunggah olehKritsada Thanatmaytinee
- Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dams using FEMDiunggah olehSanjay Sibal

- MPQ12Diunggah olehDanh
- Kine MatixDiunggah olehDanh
- Formula Cal 2Diunggah olehDanh
- FormulaDiunggah olehDanh
- p12Diunggah olehDanh
- p11Diunggah olehDanh
- p10Diunggah olehDanh
- Structural Dynamics Modeling of Helicopter BladesDiunggah olehDanh
- Chap1_intro Smart Higheless BladeDiunggah olehDanh
- a308180 SummaryDiunggah olehDanh
- a4180 ResultDiunggah olehDanh
- Theoretical DevDiunggah olehDanh

- Memristor ReportDiunggah olehKarthik Surabathula
- John Dee - The Hierogyphic MonadDiunggah olehRyan Corcoran
- PERFORMANCE OF MSMES IN INDIA AND ASSAM: A STATISTICAL ANALYSISDiunggah olehIJAR Journal
- erin castillo resumeDiunggah olehapi-267013952
- History of IslamDiunggah olehMoinulahsan
- TEST 1(4)Diunggah olehleads school
- Descr StratDiunggah olehbrixmay
- tas-attract-simran-singh-gift-12-month.pdfDiunggah olehCristina Cobzaru
- Software ArchitectureDiunggah olehClay Bogusky
- rough draft for research paperDiunggah olehapi-439615908
- Situation AnalysisDiunggah olehfaisal_fiazz
- Settlement of Industrial DisputesDiunggah olehRupinder Bir Kaur
- Design Spec - 0PUR_C01Diunggah olehArunkumar Thangaraj
- AminoacidsDiunggah olehRama Shakti
- EtnobiografiaDiunggah olehSara Cooklin Urbano
- User_guide- Ddec ToolDiunggah olehDuy Kha
- Peace Corps Monitoring Reporting and Evaluation (MRE) SpecialistDiunggah olehAccessible Journal Media: Peace Corps Documents
- Cardiology NoteDiunggah olehprakash13l
- RetailDiunggah olehbubun007
- Stadistic of Accident ShipDiunggah olehgerson
- Full TestDiunggah olehAditya Bansal
- Neng Guo et al- Nanoparticle, Size, Shape, and Interfacial Effects on Leakage Current Density, Permittivity, and Breakdown Strength of Metal Oxide-Polyolefin Nanocomposites: Experiment and TheoryDiunggah olehDfmso0
- Alliances and Asymmetry_ an Alternative to the Capability Aggregattion Model of Alliances_ JAMES MORROw_1991Diunggah olehJoaquín Castillo
- Group 7 Vinamilk Financial AnalysisDiunggah olehLại Ngọc Cẩm Nhung
- chapter_6_notes.docxDiunggah olehDeXnt Bacha
- Two Alternative Approaches for Selecting Performance Measures in DEADiunggah olehDavid Adeabah Osafo
- Be like the bee || Book hosted by Australian Islamic LibraryDiunggah olehMuhammad Nabeel
- 2006_DuriezSoenens_IJBDDiunggah olehIonescu Mirela
- Theatres in JapanDiunggah olehblv1227
- A Santa Compaña (English Version)Diunggah olehmadman_jack67

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.