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Postharvest diseases are a decisive fact in choosing an application of

handling techniques. The main factors for post-harvest disease development are
host (plant), disease-causing (microorganism), and environment (Amiarsi 1996).
In general, the result of damage to fruits or vegetables is decay. The process can
occur due to various previous processes such as fruit metabolism or vegetable or
vegetable continuously without any treatment afterwards (Broto 2003). Because
the process of metabolism or respiration is producing heat and loss of nutrients
that are needed so rotten or wilted. Not only because of the process of respiration
but also because the disease is a determining factor of damage to agricultural
commodities. Observations made using fruits and vegetables that have rotted.
Fruits and vegetables are chili, eggplant, passion fruit, banana, spring onions, and
tomatoes.
From the observation results seen the damage caused by decay caused by
the shelf life is too long and also post-harvest storage is not appropriate. In the
first group, the commodity used as an observation was chilli, visually visible the
condition of rotted chilies exhibiting an unhealthy visual state this is evidenced by
the color of the pale chill itself. Not only the color seen in the physical condition
of the chilli, but also the texture owned by the chili is not watery and the
appearance of chili from the outside has a skin like wrinkles, the aroma produced
from the chilli has a spicy stinging aroma not like chili as usual. Based on these
characteristics, according to (Winarno 2002), chili is affected by chilling injury
disease symptoms are vegetables or fruits have decreased the value of violence
and experience kelayuan. Chilling injury caused by storage at low temperature
and high shipment cost. Chilling symptoms often appear several days after being
at warmer temperatures in the form of legokan (pitting) or skin bruising products,
internal discoloration or failure to mature
The second commodity is eggplant vegetables, as well as chillies that have
visual appearance that is also unhealthy, it is seen from the soft and slimy texture
so that in these conditions are not able to be consumed again, this shows the decay
caused by bacteria and has a smell like a stench and sting. Aqueous eggplant is
caused by wrong handling during post harvest and also organism on komuditi that
is attacker strike komuditi. From visual observations, there is evidence to
corroborate the decay caused by the growing mold when observed by a
microscope. According to Machmud (1984), the disease that may attack eggplant
is bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum bacteria which can live
long in the soil caused by attack at high temperature causing sudden crop failure.
Microbes that attack eggplant is a microbe that causes softness in the eggplant.
Based on these characteristics, eggplant can also be said to be attacked by fungal
disease, which there are many misellium. Misellium found in fruits and vegetables
indicates that the product is exposed to post-harvest disease due to fungi
(Widiastutri et al 2015).
The third group commodity is passion fruit. On passion inspection, there
are black spots on the passionate surface that indicates decay when the texture is
still hard and not slimy. This is partly due to pests and plant diseases. One of the
important diseases of passion fruit is fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium
oxysporum f.sp passiflora. The purple berries do not tolerate F. oxysporum f.sp.
passiflora. In contrast, yellow passion fruit (P. flavicarpa), and other species of the
Passiflora clan are resistant to this disease (Morton 1987). Some pathogenic fungi
that can cause diseases in passion fruit are the fungus Alternaria passiflora causes
brown patch disease (Cook 1975). Symptoms of infected fruit in the form of
patches settle brown or black with a circle of circles centered and finally rotted
fruit. The infected fruit surface becomes slightly chipped and cracked (Holliday
1980). Colletotrichum gloeosporioides mushroom causes anthracnose disease also
found in passion fruit. The attack on the fruit causes the appearance of patches and
slightly prominent black spots that can cover most of the fruit surface and
eventually the rotting fruit. Based on the literature, if matched with the
observational features, the three group passion fruit undergo anthracnose disease
caused by the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides fungus with the appearance of black
spots.
The four group commodities observed were bananas, the observations
used were visual observation and microscopic observation. At the time of
observation made by visual look that is not in accordance with the initial state
such as the color resulting from the color of banana is brown color there are also
some characteristics that show things that prove that the commodity is not good
anymore that is the texture that is owned from the banana itself is soft and slimy.
While on microscopic observation seen one bacterium on banana commodity.
According to Bautista and Ofelia (1990), bananas are affected by bautista and
olelia (1990), a disease that is often caused by Colletotrichum musae and rotting
at the base of the fruit caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Botryodiplodia
theobromae and Fusarium roseum. The presence of a blackish brown color is a
hallmark of anthracnose disease
The fifth commodity is leek. On visual observation, there is also a sign
that indicates that this commodity has begun to rot among others is the color of
the leek that turns into brown, besides the texture of the commodity itself is
already soft and slimy. The scent of chives has become a stench and sting. Rotten
neck stem disease is caused by the fungus Botrytis allii Munn. The attacked onion
shows symptoms such as stem neck or base of the stem being soft and dusty,
wetting, and eventually decaying. Purple patch disease caused by fungus
Alternaria porri (Ell cif.) Or fungus Macrosporium porri Ell. The leaves of the
scallion plants attacked by this fungus originally revealed patches of whitish color
to gray, small, and slightly concave. These small patches will expand and the color
turns to a purplish gray and blackish-brown surrounded by yellow (Mas Ad 2016).
With the characteristics based on observations and matched with the literature, it
can be concluded that the leaf group of five is affected by stem blight and purple
patch disease.
The last commodity is tomatoes. Observations resulting from visual
observations are the color of tomatoes that are usually red but in this condition the
color or condition is visible is a red color that has been blackened and there is a
black bruise that is on the surface that is accompanied also with a texture that is
very soft slimy and also the existing skin is dented. The resulting aroma is the
smell of tomatoes is still normal. On the next observation is the observation by
using the miroskopis result of microscopic observation is not visible mold shaped
like a sphere. Based on these characteristics, post-harvest disease in tomatoes is
the antraknosa fruit rod and caterpillar pests because according to Lisa (2016),
tomato caterpillar (Heliothis armigera Hubner) is often made a hole in the tomato
is moved around, the fruit is perforated in general infected so the fruit becomes
soft rot. Antraknosa fruit rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum
coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes. This disease can attack the fruit, stems and roots of
tomato plants. The symptoms of tomatoes appear to have small, watery, round and
concave patches that are getting bigger, brown, appear to have circles centered,
and then become black. Conditions of pressure due to high or low temperatures
allow a change in the physiological aspects which would certainly facilitate the
development of the cause of the disease (Lisa 2016).

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