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CHEMICAL REACTIONS Asst Prof Dr Phanida Saikhwan

psaikhwan@engr.tu.ac.th
PREVIOUSLY….
Last lecture we learned about ‘Atom’
What is an atom? What is it composed of?
What is an element?
What information do we get from a periodic table?
 What is electronic structure of an atom?
 What are valence electrons?

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WHAT IS NEXT?
This lecture
Relationship between electron structures
of atom and chemical reaction
 Why H joins O  water (H2O)
 Why N joins O  nitric oxide (NO)

What is a chemical reaction?


A + B  C
 Where C has different chemical properties from A and B
 Examples
 H2 (gas, flammable) + O2 (gas, help burning)  H2O (water, doesn’t burn)

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PURE SUBSTANCE
Materials that are the same throughout and have a fixed, definite
composition
Element Compound
 Cannot be broken down into  Can be decomposed by a chemical
anything simpler by chemical or change into simpler substances with
physical means a fixed mass ratio
 Only 8 elements make up 99% of  E.g. sugar, salt, water (compound of
earth’s surface hydrogen and oxygen elements)
 E.g. oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron

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MIXTURE
A mixture has unlike parts and a composition that can vary from
sample to sample
Can be separated into components by physical means (e.g.
crushing, bending, melting, freezing, distillation, drying)
Homogeneous Mixture
 Mixed uniformly throughout a given sample; does not vary in composition
from one region to another
 E.g. Salt water solution, solid solution like brass (alloy of copper and zinc)
Heterogeneous
 Within a sample, different regions have different compositions
 E.g. Soil, salt and pepper mixture, oil in water, colloid

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PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
Physical changes Chemical changes
Does not result in change of identity Alters the identity of matter, producing new
of the matter substances with different chemical properties
 Involve physical properties changes  e.g. spoiling of food, burning sugar
ONLY  Sugar C12H12O11  C(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)
 e.g. Change of state (boiling,
freezeing, melting, condensing,
vaporizing)

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COMPOUND AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
Atom - smallest elemental unit ( e.g. He atom)
Molecule
 smallest unit or group of atoms that still retains the
characteristic chemical properties of a substance
 Examples:
 oxygen, hydrogen gas - diatomic molecules
 Ozone - triatomic oxygen molecule
 Noble gases: helium, neon - “monatomic” molecules or
molecule that has only one atom (can also be considered
as element, e.g. He element or He atom or He molecule)

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ATOM, MOLECULE, ELEMENT, COMPOUND…DON’T GET
CONFUSED
Molecule Molecule
Pure substance
Element consists of single atomic species.
 Hydrogen gas (H2)
 Oxygen gas (O2)
Molecule
Compound is a group of atoms from different elements bonded
 Water (H2O)

Chemical bonding is a sharing, or losing and


gaining of electrons between atoms or group of
atoms. bonding

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SO WHAT IS A CHEMICAL REACTION?
Change in matter in which different chemical substances are created by
forming or breaking chemical bonds
 Reactants  Products
 Breaking chemical bonds of reactants
 Energy is used
 Forming chemical bonds of products
 Energy is released.
Chemical energy may be released or
absorbed depending whether the new
bonds formed are weaker or stronger
 Endothermic  Energy is used  A
 Exothermic  Energy is released B

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INTERESTING CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Let’s watch a video to see some chemical reactions.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FofPjj7v414
WHY ONLY SOME ELEMENTS REACT WITH EACH OTHER?
This can be explained by understanding of how chemical bonds
are formed.
 As chemical bonding = is a sharing, or losing and gaining of electrons
between atoms or group of atoms

Understand chemical bonding by


understanding electron structures of atoms
 The stuff we did in last lecture!
 Remember what is valence electron?
 electrons in the outermost shell
 e.g. No. of valence electrons of Fluorine is 1

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VALENCE ELECTRONS
Determine chemical properties of
an atom
Octet rule
 Atoms attempt to acquire an outer shell of
8 electrons (or the filled s and p orbitals)
 Electrons can be gained/lost/shared
For atoms with 1-2-3 outer electrons
(e.g. group IA-IIIA) loosely bound, and
easily become positive ions
For atoms with 5-7 outer electrons
(group V-VIIA), tend to gain electrons and
form negative ions
Example: sodium (Na) (group IA has 1
electron in the outer shell)
Transition elements tend to use inner electrons
in reactions as well, not considered here. 13
LOSING/GAINING ELECTRONS
Loss
What is an electronic structure
of Magnesium (Mg)?
12 electrons
 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
So losing 2 electrons in 1s will
make no. of valence electrons
= 8  Stable according to the
Octet rule.
Mg + energy  Mg2+ + 2e-
Ionization Ion
energy cation

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Being attractive holding atoms together in compounds
Can be described in terms of molecular
(delocalized) or atomic (localized) orbitals
3 types:
Ionic
Electrons transferred between atoms
Binding force = electrostatic force between the +ively charged
ions and -ively charged ions
Remember, Mg prefer losing 2 electrons
What about Cl? What is its electronic structure?
 17 electrons  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
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CHEMICAL BONDS
Ionic bond
 Cl: 17 electrons  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
 What if Cl gains 1 electron?
 Cl- : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
 Filled p orbital, 8 valence electrons  Stable according to the Octet rule
 So Mg is happy to lose 2 electrons, Cl is happy to accept 1
 Mg2+ + 2Cl-  MgCl2
 Magnesium cations are held with chloride anions by attractive force
between positive charges and negative charges.

 Another example Na+ and Cl-

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Ionic bond
Chemical bond of electrostatic attraction
Form crystalline solids with orderly
geometric structure
This is why salt is in a crystal form!

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COMMON IONS OF SOME ELEMENTS
Element Symbol Ion
Lithium Li 1+ Group I
Sodium Na 1+ Metal
Potassium K 1+
Magnesium Mg 2+
Group II
Calcium Ca 2+
Metal
Barium Ba 2+
Aluminum Al 3+ Group III
Oxygen O 2-
Group VI
Sulfur S 2-
Hydrogen H 1+, 1-
Fluorine F 1-
Chlorine Cl 1- Group VII
Bromine Br 1-
Iodine I 1-
COMMON IONS OF SOME TRANSITION ELEMENTS
Element Symbol Ion
Zinc Zn 2+
Tungsten W 6+
Silver Ag 1+
Cadmium Cd 2+
Chromium Cr 2+, 3+, 6+
Manganese Mn 2+, 4+, 7+
Iron Fe 2+, 3+
Cobalt Co 2+, 3+
Nickel Ni 2+, 3+
Variable-charge
Copper Cu 1+, 2+
ions
Tin Sn 2+, 4+ Cr3+ (CrO4)2- (Cr2O7)2-
Gold Au 1+, 3+ What are charges of
Mercury Hg 1+, 2+ these chromium ions?
Lead Pb 2+, 4+
CHEMICAL BONDS
Covalent
Octets achieved through sharing of electrons
Typically between nonmetallic elements, r.h.s of periodic table
Bonding = electrostatic attraction between cations and shared
pairs of electrons
 Eg. O2 : 2 oxygen atoms are held together by covalent bond, why?
 What is an electronic structure of O atom?
 O: 8 electrons: 1s2 2s2 2p4 2 shared pairs of
 6 valence electrons  want 2 more electrons electrons = double
bond
 Another O atom also wants 2 more electrons
 So they share!
 One share paired of electron = single bond
 There are also double bond and triple bond.
O=O 20
CHEMICAL BONDS
Covalent
Let’s try to figure out covalent bonds in following covalent molecules!
Molecule Lewis dot structure Line representation
H2

HF

AlF3

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Covalent
Let’s try to figure out covalent bonds in following covalent molecules!
Molecule Lewis dot structure Line representation
H2 O

C2 H4

C2 H2

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Covalent

Can share electrons with many


atoms to achieve a closed
shell or octet structure

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Covalent

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Metallic bonds
 Outer electrons move freely throughout metal
 “Electron gas” within rigid lattice of metal atoms
 Conduct heat and electricity well
 Metal atoms are held together by electrostatic attraction between cations
and sea of electrons.

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CHEMICAL BONDS
Watch this video!
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXT4OVM4vXI
IONIC COMPOUND NAMES
Cation (with positive charge) is called by the element name
 e.g. Mg2+ = Magnesium ion
Anion is called by the element name + change ending to –ide
 e.g. H- = Hydride This is when you only have
two elements involved in
the ionic compound
Single-charge ion
 Name of cation + Name of anion
 NaCl = Sodium chloride
 HCl = Hydrogen chloride  dissolves in water to make hydrochloric acid
Variable-charge ion
 Name of cation (No of charge) + Name of anion
 FeO = Iron (II) oxide
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IONIC COMPOUND NAMES
Polyatomic ions = groups of 2 or more atoms binding together an
act like monoatomic ions
Ion name Formula
Acetate (C2H3O2)2-
Ammonium (NH4)+
Borate (BO3)3-
Carbonate (CO3)2-
Chlorate (ClO3)-
Chromate (CrO4)2-
Cyanide (CN)-
Dichromate (Cr2O7)2-
Hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) (HCO3)-
Hydrogen sulfate (or bisulfate) (HSO4)-
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IONIC COMPOUND NAMES
Polyatomic ions = groups of 2 or more atoms binding together an
act like monoatomic ions
Ion name Formula
Hydroxide (OH)-
Hypochlorite (ClO)-
Nitrate (NO3)-
Nitrite (NO2)-
Perchlorate (ClO4)-
Permanganate (MnO4)-
Phosphate (PO4)3-
Phosphite (PO3)3-
Sulfate (SO4)2-
Sulfite (SO3)2-
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COVALENT COMPOUND NAMES
Molecular - composed of two or more nonmetals
Same elements can combine to form a number of different
compounds e.g. CH4, C2H4 (ethylene or dicarbon tetrahydride)
Two rules
First element in formula named first with number indicated by
Greek prefix
Stem name of second element next; Greek prefix for number;
ending in “-ide” for two elements) e.g. -monoxide,
-dioxide, -fluoride, -chloride

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COVALENT COMPOUND NAMES

CO2 = Carbon dioxide


BF3= Boron trifluoride
N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide

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CHEMICAL EQUATION
An equation telling you what’s going on
 Reactant 1 (s) + Reactant 2 (l)  Product 1 (g) + Product 2 (g)
Examples Stoichiometric equation
Photosynthesis
 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)  1C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g)
 6 moles of carbon dioxide + 6 moles of water
 sugar + 6 moles of oxygen
Stoichiometric coefficients
Stoichiometric ratio

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WHAT IS MOLE?
Mole is away to count particles just like a dozen is a way to
count items
1 dozen = 12 items whereas 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 particles
 A dozen of eggs = 12 eggs
 A dozen of Krispy Kreme donuts = 12 donuts
 1 mole of carbon black (C)  6.02 x 1023 atoms of C
 1 mole of hydrogen gas (H2)  6.02 x 1023 molecules of H2  2x6.02x1023atoms
of H
 1 mole of oxygen gas (O2)  6.02 x 1023 molecules of O2  2x6.02x1023atoms
of O
 1 mole of water (H2O)  6.02 x 1023 molecules of H2O  2x6.02x1023atoms of
H and 6.02x1023 atoms of O

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ccxv

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MOLE AND MASS
We can link mole and mass
Molecular mass = mass of 1 mole of element or compound
 1 mole of C (atom) = 12.01 g
 1 mole of H (atom) = 1.008 g
 1 mole of H2 (hydrogen gas) = 2 moles of H atoms = 2 x 1.008 g
 1 mole of H2O (water)
= 2 moles of H atom + 1 mole of O atom
= 2 x 1.008 + 16.00
about 18 g

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BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Correct equation should be balanced
obey Law of Conservation of Mass
all elements on reactants side also on product side
equal numbers of atoms of each element on reactant side as on
product side

CH4 + O2  CO2 + H2O (unbalanced)

CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O (balanced)

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TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Oxidation–Reduction (redox)
 Reaction in which electrons are transferred from one atom to
another
 Oxidation: loss of e-, reduction: gain of e-
 Substance gaining e-  oxidizing agent
 Substance giving e-  reducing agent
 2Fe2O3 (s) + 3C(s)  4 Fe(s) + 3CO2
 Fe changes from 3+  0  It gains e-
 C changes from 0  4+  It loses e-
 Fe2O3 is an oxidizing agent
 C is a reducing agent
 Fe2O3 is reduced by C
 C is oxidized by Fe2O3
REDOX REACTION = REDUCTION + OXIDATION
Watch this video!
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQ6FBA1HM3s
TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Combination Reaction
 Synthesis in which two or more substances combine to form a single compound. E.g.
4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) -> 2Fe2O3(s) rust forming
Decomposition Reaction
 Compound broken down into elements, simpler compounds or both
 Opposite of combination. E.g. XY -> X + Y
Replacement Reaction
 Atom or polyatomic ion is replaced by a different atom or polyatomic ion
 E.g. XY + Z -> XZ +Y (replacing one of the components)
Ion Exchange Reaction
 Ions of one compound interact with ions of another to form either a (1) precipitate,
(2) gas or (3) water
 E.g. AX + BY -> AY +BX (swapping reaction)
To what chemical reaction class does this reaction belong?
2 Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2 MgO(s)
A. combination
B. ion exchange
C. decomposition
D. replacement

To what chemical reaction class does this reaction belong?


2 Ca(OH)2 + Al2(SO)4 → 3 Ca(SO)4 + 2Al(OH)3
A. combination
B. ion exchange
C. decomposition
D. replacement
GOING NOWHERE: EQUILIBRIUM
RP
 Irreversible reaction

RP
 Reversible reaction
 Never get 100% conversion

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PREDICTION SHIFT FROM EQUILIBRIUM
Le Chatelier’s Principle
 Change in the direction opposing the disturbance

Concentration
 Add more reactants/remove products  Produce more products to reduce
the reactants
 Add more products/remove reactants  Change
Pressure
 Increase pressure 
change in a way that reduce total pressure

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PREDICTION SHIFT FROM EQUILIBRIUM(2)
Le Chatelier’s Principle
 Change in the direction opposing the disturbance

Temperature
 Increase temperature  change in a way that reduce temperature
 e.g. Exothermic reaction  Reaction giving out heat
 If you increase temperature, C will absorb heat and reverse
back to A and B to reduce the temperature.

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