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5/11/2018 Jawapan

SPM Fizik Tingkatan 4,5 - PPT T4 2018 Kertas 2

1. (a)
i. 0.01 cm
ii. To measure depth of an object
Untuk mengukur kedalaman objek

(b)
i. Positive zero error
Ralat sifar positif
ii. + 0.03 cm
2. (a) The diameter of a wire differs slightly at different places along the wire.
So readings are taken from different places and the average of all the readings is
calculated.

= = 6.48
Actual reading = 6.48 – (–0.02)
= 6.50 mm

(d) – The edge of the jaw is cleaned to remove dirt so that it will not be measured as
well.
– The ratchet is turned until the first ‘tick’ is heard.
3. (a) Acceleration is a/Pecutan adalah:

(b) v = u + at
50 = 0 + a(5)
a = 10 m s–2
(c) (i)

(ii) Distance travelled = Area under the graph

Jarak yang dilalui = Luas di bawah graf

4. (a) F = R – mg
(b) (i) I, III and V
(ii) R = mg
50 = m × 10
m = 5 kg
(c) For mass m, the resultant force, F, acting on it is:
F = ma
5=5×a

5/11/2018 Jawapan

a = 1 m s–2
5. (a) (i) A runway which allows the trolley to move with uniform velocity.
Satu landasan yang membolehkan troli bergerak dengan kelajuan yang malar.

(ii) By making sure the ticker tape shows uniform dot space.
Dengan memastikan pita detik dengan jarak di antara titik yang seragam

(b) (i) Velocity increasing uniformly//constant acceleration.

Halaju bertambah dengan seragam//pecutan malar .
(ii)

(iii)

6. (a) Momentum is the product of mass and velocity.

Momentum adalah hasil darab jisim dengan halaju.
(b) (i) The total momentum of the bowling ball and the bowling pin before collision
Jumlah momentum bagi bola boling dan pin boling sebelum perlanggaran
= 2.5 + 0.0
= 2.5 kg m s–1
(ii) The total momentum of the bowling ball and the bowling pin after collision
Jumlah momentum bagi bola boling dan pin boling selepas perlanggaran
= 0.4 + 2.1
= 2.5 kg m s–1
(c) The answers in (b)(i) and (b)(ii) are the same.
Jawapan di (b)(i) dan (b)(ii) adalah sama.
(d) (i) Total momentum before collision is equal to the total momentum after collision.
Jumlah momentum sebelum perlanggaran adalah sama dengan jumlah
momentum selepas perlanggaran.
(ii) The principle of conservation of momentum
(iii) No external force is acting on the system
Tiada daya luar yang bertindak ke atas sistem
(e) Inelastic collision
Perlanggaran tak kenyal
7. (a) The work done by the screw jack on the car is
Kerja yang dilakukan oleh bicu skru ke atas kereta ialah
Fs = 4 500 × 0.1
= 450 J

(b) The work done by the 25 N force on the screwjack is

Kerja yang dilakukan oleh daya 25 N ke atas bicu skru ialah
Fs = 25 × 2π × 0.15 × 40
= 942 J

5/11/2018 Jawapan

(c) The efficiency of the screwjack is

Kecekapan bisu skru itu ialah
useful output energy
tenaga output yang berguna
= ———————————— × 100 %
input energy
tenaga input
= 450 × 100 %
942
= 47.7 %

(d) 1. Some energy is used to raise the moveable parts of the screwjack.
Sebahagian tenaga digunakan untuk menaikkan bahagian bicu skru yang boleh
digerakkan.
2. Some energy is used to overcome friction between the moveable parts in a
screwjack
Sebahagian tenaga digunakan untuk mengatasi geseran bahagian bicu skru yang
boleh digerakkan.

(e) I agree with what the student says. The work done on a screwjack is equal to the sum
of the useful output
energy, the work done against friction and the work done in raising the moveable
parts of the screwjack.
Using a lighter platform will reduce the work done in raising the moveable parts of a
screwjack, and
hence reduce the work done on it.
Saya bersetuju dengan pendapat pelajar itu. Kerja yang dilakukan ke atas bicu skru
sama dengan hasil
tambah kesemua tenaga output, kerja yang dilakukan terhadapa geseran dan kerja
yang dilakukan untuk
menaikkan bahagian bicu skru yang boleh digerakkan. Dengan menggunakan
pelantar yang lebih ringan,
kerja yang dilakukan untuk menaikkan bahagian bicu skru yang boleh digerakkan
dapat dikurangkan.
Seterusnya dapat mengurangkan kerja yang dilakukan ke atasnya.

As efficiency =
Oleh kerana kecekapan =

useful output energy

tenaga output yang berguna
———————————— × 100 %
work done on a screwjack
kerja yang dilakukan ke atas
bicu skru

Reducing the work done on a screwjack can increase the efficiency of the screw jack.
In other words,
using a lighter platform can increase the efficiency of a screwjack.
Dengan mengurangkan kerja yang dilakukan ke atas bicu skru, kecekapan bicu skru
dapat ditingkatkan.

5/11/2018 Jawapan

(f) 1. Using a lighter platform.

Menggunakan pelantar yang lebih ringan.
2. Reducing friction between the moveable parts of a screwjack.
Mengurangkan geseran di antara bahagian bicu skru yang boleh digerakkan.

8. (a) i. Spring P
ii. Spring P has the largest stretching force which is the highest spring constant.
With that, spring P is the strongest.

(b) The diameter of the coil of spring X is smaller, the diameter of the wire of spring X
is bigger than spring Q.

(c) Yes. By arranging the springs in parallel can strengthening the spring.
This allows the cradle to be able to withstand the weight of bigger babies.

(d) The weight (force) of the child has already exceeded the elasticity limit of the
spring,
causing the spring to lose its elasticity.

(e) Spring constant = = 5 N cm–1

9. (a) i. Force is the change of momentum. [1 m]
Daya ialah perubahan momentum.

ii. – They move forward. [1 m]

– They release something for motion, the balloon releases air while the cuttlefish
releases a big volume of black ink. [1 m]
– The balloon moving forward has an equal momentum as the air releasing from its
mouth. The cuttlefish moving forward has an equal momentum as the black ink
releasing by it. [1 m]
Belon yang bergerak ke hadapan mempunyai momentum yang sama dengan udara yang
yang sama dengan dakwat hitam yang dilepaskan olehnya.
– The total momentum in a closed system is constant. [1 m]
Jumlah momentum di dalam sistem tertutup adalah tetap.
– Principle of conservation of momentum [1 m]

(b) – Hockey sticks are made of hard wood while golf clubs are made of hard alloy. [1
m]
Kayu hoki diperbuat daripada kayu yang keras sementara kayu golf diperbuat daripada
aloi yang keras.
5/11/2018 Jawapan

– The hard surface will shorten the time of contact of the stick with the ball. Hence, the
impulsive force is big and the ball is able to travel a far distance. [1 m]
Permukaan keras akan memendekkan masa sentuhan kayu itu dengan bola. Maka, daya
impuls menjadi tinggi dan bola dapat melantun dengan jauh.
– A piledriver is made of hard steel alloy. [1 m]
Penghentam cerucuk diperbuat daripada aloi besi yang kuat.
– While hitting the pile, the pile driver is released very fast to hit the hard pile. Hence
the time taken to hit the pile is short and a big impulsive force is produced. [1 m]
Semasa menghentam cerucuk, penghentam cerucuk itu dilepaskan dengan sangat laju
untuk mengetuk cerucuk yang keras itu. Maka, masa hentaman cerucuk menjadi pendek
dan menghasilkan daya impuls yang besar.

(c) – A glove is worn [1 m]

Memakai sarung tangan
– This reduces the painful of the player’s hands when touching the ball with big
impulsive force because glove which is made of soft material lengthens the time of
impact. [1 m]
Ini mengurangkan kesakitan pada tangan pemain apabila menangkap bola yang
mempunyai daya impuls yang tinggi kerana sarung tangan yang diperbuat daripada
bahan yang lembut memanjangkan masa hentaman.
– When catching the ball, the goal keeper should move his hands back-wards. [1 m]
Apabila menangkap bola, penjaga gol hendaklah menggerakkan tangannya ke
belakang.
– This action will lengthen the time of impact between the ball and his hands and
reduces the impulsive force. [1 m]
Tindakan ini akan memanjangkan masa hentaman antara bola dan tangannya dan
mengurangkan daya impuls.
– The base of the shoe of the player has studs on the soles and heels. [1 m]
Tapak kasut pemain mempunyai paku pada lapik kasut dan tumit.
– The surface area in contact with the ground is reduced and this gives a big pressure to
make the studs sink into the ground and give a stronger support without slipping. [1 m]
Kawasan permukaan yang bersentuh dengan tanah dikurangkan dan ini memberikan
tekanan yang tinggi untuk membenamkan paku ke dalam tanah dan memberikan
– The cloth worn is made of material which has moderate specific heat capacity. [1 m]
Pakaian yang dipakai diperbuat daripada bahan yang mempunyai haba tentu yang
sederhana.
– It can then absorb more heat where the player is and maintain the body temperature of
the player. [1 m]
Ia boleh menyerap lebih banyak haba di mana pemain sedang berpeluh, dan
– Football should have enough air pressure inside it. [1 m]
Bola sepak hendaklah mempunyai tekanan udara yang secukupnya di dalamnya.
– If the air pressure is small, this lengthens the time of impact between the foot and the
ball and reduces the impulsive force when the ball is kicked. Hence the ball does not
travel far away or has less speed. [1 m]
Jika tekanan udara kecil, ini akan memanjangkan masa hentaman antara kaki dan bola
dan mengurangkan daya impuls apabila bola itu ditendang. Maka bola itu tidak dapat
disepak dengan jauh ataupun mempunyai kelajuan yang rendah. [1 m]

10. (a) Product of mass and velocity

Hasil darab jisim dan halaju [1m]
5/11/2018 Jawapan

(b) –Total momentum before launching is zero

Jumlah momentum sebelum pelancaran adalah sifar [1m]
–Total momentum after launching is zero too//Equal to the total momentum before
Jumlah momentum selepas pelancaran adalah sifar//Sama jumlah momentum
sebelum [1m]
–Magnitude of momentum of the bullet = magnitude of momentum of the mortar
Magnitud momentum peluru = magnitud momentum mortar [1m]
–The direction of momentum of the bullet is opposite to the direction of momentum
of the mortar
Arah momentum peluru adalah bertentangan dengan arah momentum mortar [1m]
–Principle of conservation of momentum
(c) –The larger the mass is, the larger is the inertia
Semakin besar jisim, semakin besar inersia [1m]
–Tanker with 1 large tank has a larger inertia
Lori tangki dengan 1 tangki besar mempunyai inersia yang lebih besar [1m]
–Tanker with 3 small tanks has a smaller effect of inertia
Lori tangki dengan 3 tangki kecil mempunyai kesan inersia yang lebih kecil [1m]
–Tanker with 3 small tanks is safer//easier to move over
Lori tangki dengan 3 tangki kecil adalah lebih selamat//mudah untuk bergerak.
[1m]
(d) (i) –Built up from light weight and high strength material which crumple easily.
Binaan yang ringan dan bahan kekuatan tinggi tetapi mudah remuk. [1m]
–It will prolong the time of collision//Reduce the impulsive force
Ia akan memanjangkan masa perlanggaran//Mengurangkan daya impuls [1m]
–Built up from high strength material such as steel bars
Binaan daripada bahan kekuatan tinggi seperti bar keluli [1m]
–Prevents the collapse of the front and back of the car into the passenger
compartment. Also gives good protection from a side-on collision.
Menghalang kejatuhan depan dan belakang kereta ke dalam kawasan
penumpang. Juga memberikan perlindungan yang baik daripada perlanggaran
sisi. [1m]
(ii) –Air bag
Beg udara [1m]
–Acts as a cushion for the head and body in an accident and thus prevents
injuries to the driver and passenger.
Bertindak sebagai kusyen untuk kepala dan badan dalam kemalangan dan
dengan itu menghalang kecederaan kepada pemandu dan penumpang. [1m]
–Safety seat belt
Tali pinggang keselamatan [1m]
–Prevents the passengers from being thrown out of the car. Slows down the
forward movement of the passenger when the car stops abruptly.
Menghalang penumpang dari tercampak keluar dari kereta. Melambatkan
pergerakan ke hadapan penumpang apabila kereta yang berhenti tiba-tiba.
[1m]
(iii)–Shatter-proof windscreen
Cermin hadapan yang kalis hancur berderai [1m]
–Prevents the windscreen from shattering
11. (a) (i) – The stretching force divided by the spring extension. [1 m]
(ii) – A spring that is strong and suitable has a large spring constant. [1 m]
– This spring is stiffer, so it will need a bigger elasticity force. With this, the
spring will not
break easily. [1 m]
5/11/2018 Jawapan

– The diameter of the spring wire should be big. [1 m]

– This type of spring is stiffer than a spring made of wire with a smaller diameter.
[1 m]
– The diameter of the coil of the spring should be big. [1 m]
– This spring is stiffer. [1 m]
– The spring should be made of alloy or steel. [1 m]
– Steel and alloy springs are stronger than metal springs. [1 m]
– Spring S is chosen. [1 m]
– Spring S has the biggest spring constant, the diameter of the spring wire is big,
the diameter
of the coil is big and it is made of steel. [1 m]

(b) (i)

– The extension of the spring changes with the stretching force until the elasticity
limit is
exceeded. [1 m]
– If the elasticity limit is exceeded, the spring will not return to its original shape,
or the spring will
break. [1 m]
(ii) – Work done,

= 1.5625 J [1 m]
(iii) – The springs that are arranged in series. [1 m]
– When springs are connected in series, the result is the same as using a longer
spring. With this,
the stiffness of the spring will decrease. [1 m]
– When springs are connected in parallel, the extension of the springs is the
same. With this,
the stiffness of the spring increases. [1 m]
12. (a) (i) Speed is the distance travelled per unit time.
Laju ialah jarak yang dilalui per unit masa.

(b) 1. Momentum depends on mass and velocity.

Momentum bergantung kepada jisim dan halaju.
2. The larger the velocity is, the larger the momentum will be.
Semakin besar halaju, semakin besar momentum.
A high momentum causes a high impulsive force in a collision.
Momentum tinggi menyebabkan daya impuls yang tinggi dalam perlanggaran.
3. Inertia depends on mass/higher mass, higher inertia.
Inersia bergantung kepada jisim/jisim lebih tinggi, inersia lebih tinggi.
4. It is difficult to stop a moving lorry which is carrying a big load.
Adalah susah untuk memberhentikan lori bergerak yang membawa muatan berat.

5/11/2018 Jawapan

(c) 1. – ABS is more effective than air brake

– with ABS, the lorry can be stopped immediately and does not skid
dengan ABS, lori boleh berhenti dengan serta-merta dan tidak menggelincir
2. Two tyres is a better choice
Dua tayar adalah pilihan yang lebih baik
– provides better support/lower pressure acts on the tyres
memberi sokongan yang lebih baik/tekanan lebih rendah bertindak ke atas tayar
3. 5 small tanks
5 tangki kecil
– 5 small tanks with distributed mass will have smaller inertia.
This greatly reduces the inertial impact on each tank if the tanker stops suddenly.
5 tangki kecil di mana jisim muatan dibahagi antara tangki-tangki tersebut akan
mempunyai
inersia yang lebih kecil. Ini dapat mengurangkan impak pada setiap tangki yang
disebabkan
oleh inersia jika lori tangki berhenti dengan tiba-tiba.
4. Further distance
Jarak jauh
– Prevents collision between the trailer and the tractor
Mengelakkan perlanggaran di antara treler dengan kepala lori
Tanker R is chosen.
Because it has an ABS brake system, two tyres, 5 small tanks and a longer
distance
between the trailer and the tractor.
Lori tangki R dipilih. Kerana ia mempunyai sistem brek ABS, dua tayar, 5
tangki kecil dan jarak di
antara treler dan kepala lori lebih besar.

45 x 103
(d) (i) Velocity/Halaju = 45 km h-1 =
3 600
= 12.5 ms–1
v = u + at
12.5 = 0 + a (10)
a = 1.25 m s–2
(ii) Force = ma = 1 800 × 1.25 = 2 250 N