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1)Ê 5-carbon suger in RNA is   not  (Ribose has hydroxyl group at 2¶ carbon
instead of hydrogen. DNA lacks oxygen there = › )
2)Ê RNA has  not 
as base pair of adenine.
3)Ê RNA is 
 and DNA is  

4)Ê DNA molecules > (length) RNA molecules
5)Ê DNA molecules > (stability) RNA molecules
6)Ê Several classes of RNA, each with its own function


u process by which chemical information encoded in DNA is copied into RNA

 u segment of DNA that specifies the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) in a protein


u transcribed into RNA

u regulate transcription of codring region

c  u One of largest known enzymes. 3 types. Each helps form specific RNA.

1)Ê RNA polymerase identifies and binds to  (specific DNA sequence in regulatory region
that directs binding of RNA polymerase and subsequent transcription of coding region).
2)Ê RNA polymerase breaks hydrogen bonds of complementary bases, unwinding DNA helix by one
full turn.
3)Ê Nucleosides base pair with DNA strand and RNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of RNA
polymer in 5¶ to 3¶ direction
4)Ê As a segment is transcribed, the opened helix rewinds while new segment unwinds.
5)Ê As new RNA bases are brought in and base paired, they form temporary DNA:RNA double
6)Ê The RNA ( 
) is displaced by nontranscribed DNA strand
7)Ê Transcription continues until 

(sequence of DNA bases that acts
to dislodge RNA strand and to release RNA polymerase from DNA and from RNA)



c  c c  u contributes to structure of ribosomes and translates mRNA into protein.
Transcribed exclusively within the nucleolus. Three major pieces are one long primary transcript of rRNA
gene. Processed by enzyme to yield three shorter strands u 18S, 5.8S, and 28S. Fourth member u 5S u is
transcribed from separate gene outside of nucleolus.

c ! made of subunits. 40S subunit with 18S fits into larger 60S subunit which contains the 28S,
5S, and 5.8S. Proteins make up half the ribosomal mass. Ribosome is only place of protein synthesis.
Surface has specific attachment sites that allow tRNAs and mRNA to be in close contact. There is a site
where enzyme peptidyl transferase works to form peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids.


c c  !direct line of information flow between DNA and protein. Carries the coded
message that determines the polypeptide to be produced. Moves to cytoplasm to direct protein synthesis.
Written in genetic code.

u three adjacent nucleotides. Sequence specifies one of 20 amino acids.

 u linear relationship between order of nucleotides in DNA and the order of
amino acids in the protein. Beginning of mRNA is always 5¶ end. 5¶ end is always beginning of
resulting polypeptide.

!specify the end of a protein u UAA, UAG, UGA

!code for one amino acid.

"Œ!codes for methionine in the middle of a protein or serve as 

proteins start with methionine as first amino acid. For some proteins this is later removed after


$%  -- portion before initiation codon not translated into protein. Offer physical space to
which ribosomes will bind so that they can move down the mRNA.


!part of mRNA that actually codes for protein.

&%  u after termination codons of coding region, a series of bases.



u regions that do not code for protein. Must be identified and
then removed

!expressed regions



 u special methylated version of triphosphate guanine nucleoside is added to 5¶
end. Aids mRNA in later binding and positioning on the ribosome
2)Ê *  u 50-150 adenines added to 3¶ end of molecule. Help to transport mRNA out
of nucleus and to determine number of times an mRNA can be translated before it is
!removal of introns to leave exons. Accomplished in nucleus with help of
RNA-protein complex called  

* c !no methylated cap, no poly-A tail, no introns, no post-transcriptional processing,
 (coding regions for producing more than one polypeptide)

c c  !intermediary that brings proper amino acid into the protein. About 90
nucleotides. End in uCCA. Three loops and a stem. Held in a twisted, upside down L-shaped
configuration by hydrogen bonds



+ u attach amino acids to uCCA 3¶
ends of specific tRNAs. Recognize each particular type of tRNA and link it to its appropriate
amino acid with a high-energy covalent bond.

!series of three bases physically located on opposite side of maturetRNA from amino
acid attachment site. Can base pair with codons on mRNA. Each tRNA has its own special
anticodon which recognizes a specific codon found in the genetic code.


!convert the information in mRNA into a protein. Made of three parts u initiation,
elongation, and termination.

!start of protein formation begins when leading end of mRNA associates with small
ribosomal subunit. Initiator codon aligns itself in *  (left hand pocket). Initiator tRNA
anticodon pairs with initiation codon. Binds with ribosomal subunit. This is the 

The methionine from initiator codon forms the 

 end of
the growing polypeptide. Amino group exposed, last carboxyl group  

 react with next amino acid to form peptide bond.

!process by which all the rest of the amino acids in protein are joined