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Nokia Academy

LTE Counters and KPI


[FL15a] RA4133-15aA
Paging and RRC Connection
Module 4

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Course Objectives

Paging and RRC Connection

After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
- Explain idle and connected states within LTE
- Describe the counters and related KPI’s defined for the DRX features
- Describe the counters and related KPI’s defined for the TTI Bundling feature
(FDD)
- Describe the phases, counters and related KPI’s defined for the RRC
connection setup procedure.
- Describe the counters for RLF
- Describe the counters for Multimedia priority services

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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RRC States in LTE
E-UTRA RRC Connected Mode
In LTE one distinguishes just between
• UE has E-UTRAN RRC connection
• UE has context in E-UTRAN
RRC connected
• E-UTRAN knows UE’s cell RRC idle
• UE identified by C-RNTI
• UE ↔ Network data exchange possible There are no sub-states for RRC
• Handover mobility
• Neighbor cell measurements connected mode
• UE reports CQI to eNB
• eNB controlled DRX/DTX period

RRC connection
establishment / release

Idle Mode

• No RRC context stored in the eNB


• UE specific DRX configured by NAS
• Cell re-selection mobility
• Broadcast of system information
• Paging
• UE identified by ID which is unique in a tracking area

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NAS States in LTE - EMM
Definition of main EPS Mobility Management states

• EMM-DEREGISTERED
– The UE is not reachable by a MME
– UE context can still be stored in the UE and MME
• EMM-REGISTERED
– UE enters to EMM-Registered with Attach or Tracking Area Update (TAU) procedure
– The UE location is known with accuracy of the tracking area list
– UE has at least one active PDN connection
– After Detach procedure the state is changed to EMM-DEREGISTERED

EMM states in UE EMM states in MME


Detach Detach
Attach reject Attach reject
TAU Reject TAU Reject
All Bearer Deactivated All Bearer Deactivated

EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED

Attach accept Attach accept


TAU Accept

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NAS States in LTE - ECM
Definition of EPS Connection Management states
• ECM-IDLE
– UE is in ECM-IDLE state when no NAS signaling connection between UE and network exists
– In the EMM-REGISTERED and ECM-IDLE state, the UE shall perform
 Tracking Area Update
 Periodic Tracking Area Update
 Service Request
 Answer to paging from MME with Service Request
– UE and MME enter the ECM-CONNECTED state when signaling connection is established.
• ECM-CONNECTED
– UE location is known in the MME with an accuracy of a serving eNodeB.
– For a UE in the ECM-CONNECTED state, there exists a signaling connection between the UE and the MME
– The S1 release procedure changes the state at both UE and MME from ECM-CONNECTED to ECM-IDLE

ECM states in UE ECM states in MME


RRC Released S1 Released

ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED

RRC Established S1 Established


ECM Connected = RRC Connected + S1 Connection

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Summary of LTE States

EMM state ECM state RRC state UE Location Mobility

EMM_
ECM_IDLE RRC_IDLE Unknown PLMN Selection
Deregistered

EMM_
ECM_IDLE RRC_IDLE Tracking Area Cell Reselection
Registered

EMM_ ECM_ RRC_


Cell Handover
Registered Connected Connected

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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DTX and DRX for LTE
• DTX/DRX means that the UE transceiver is switched off for some predefined
time periods

E-UTRA RRC
Air interface is Connected Mode DRX
switched off
for time periods

eNodeB
Idle Mode DRX

UE specific DRX
This saves power on one side but might have the configured by NAS
following consequences
• Longer call setup time
• Lower user throughput achievable

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DTX and DRX for LTE
• DRX options according 3GPP
- In Idle mode for Paging
This means that the UE is listening to page messages in predefined time opportunities only
and sleeping all other time

E-UTRA RRC
Connected Mode DRX
configured by RRC
- In connected mode DRX
UE is switched off for predefined time interval
Discontinuous monitoring of DL control channel (PDCCH)
Allocations of resources done at specific times

Idle Mode

UE specific DRX
configured by NAS

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DRX for Paging

• The UE may use DRX in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption
• One Paging Occasion (PO) is a sub-frame where P-RNTI may be transmitted on the
PDCCH addressing the page message
• One Paging Frame (PF) is a radio frame, which may contain one or several Paging
Occasions
• When DRX is used the UE needs to monitor just one PO per DRX cycle

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Page Counters
• M8008C1
- Number of RRC paging requests
• M8008C2
- Number of discarded paging requests
- Updated when the maximum number of paging records is reached for
the next paging occasion that corresponds to the paging request
- RRC allows up to 16 paging records per paging occasion S1
• M8008C3 M 8008 C1…C3 paging messages

- Number of transmitted RRC paging messages


S1

M8008C2

cell
M8008C1 M8008C3
cell
cell

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Page KPIs
LTE_5031b E-UTRAN RRC Paging Discard Ratio
Describes the paging request discard ratio on RRC level

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Paging DCR = 100% * 100% * sum([DISC_RRC_PAGING]) / sum
(discarded RRC sum([M8008C2]) / ([RRC_PAGING_MES])
paging records / sum([M8008C1])
transmitted RRC
paging records) *
100%

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Page KPIs
700,000
100.00

600,000

80.00

500,000

60.00
400,000

300,000
40.00

200,000

20.00
100,000

0.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

27.05.2011

29.05.2011

31.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

15.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011

LTE_5122a Paging Messages (#)


LTE_5031aPaging Discard Ratio (%)

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PRACH Counters
• M8001C6
– Number of RACH setup attempts for small size messages
– Update when eNodeB receives group A preamble
• M8001C7
– Number of RACH setup attempts for large size messages
– Updated when eNodeB receives group B preamble
• M8001C8
– Number of RACH setup completions
– Updated when eNodeB sends preamble response

M8001C6 Only successful RACH setup


completions counted, failures will
be equal to number attempted -
M8001C8 completions
M8001C7

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RACH KPIs
LTE_5569a RACH Setup Completion Success Ratio FDD only
Describes the ratio of RA preamble responses to total number of RA preambles.

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
RACH Stp Comp 100* sum 100* sum([RACH_STP_COMPLETIONS])/
Succ rate =(RA ([M8001C8])/sum([M8 sum([RACH_STP_ATT_SMALL_MSG] +
Preamble 001C6] + [M8001C7] [RACH_STP_ATT_LARGE_MSG] +
Responses / RA + [M8001C286]) [RACH_STP_ATT_DEDICATED])
Preambles)*100%

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Contention free Access
• M8001C286
- Number of RACH setup attempts for dedicated preambles
- Updated on the reception of a dedicated RA preamble sent by
the UE to the eNB.
• M8001C421 DCI format 1a (PDCCH order)
- Number of PDCCH order attempts Preamble index
- Updated: Transmission of a PDCCH order to initiate a UE eNB UE
Random Access
• M8001C422 PDCCH
- Number of initial PDCCH order attempts
- Updated: Transmission of an initial PDCCH order to initiate a
UE Random Access Preamble
• M8001C423
- Number of successful PDCCH orders PRACH
- Updated when the RAR was sent to a UE after transmission
of the related PDCCH order which initiated the Random RAR
Access of a UE
• M8001C424 PDCCH
- Unavailability of dedicated preamble Unavailability of
dedicated preamble
- Updated when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned
because of insufficient dedicated preamble resources in the
cell
• M8001C425
- Unavailability of dedicated preamble for PDCCH order
purposes
- Updated when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned
for PDCCH order purposes because of insufficient dedicated
preamble resources in the cell.
• M8001C426
- Unavailability of dedicated preamble for handover purposes
- Updated when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned
for handover purposes because of insufficient dedicated
preamble resources in the cell.xc

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Contention free Access
LTE_5167a E-UTRAN PDCCH Order Attempts
Describes the number of PDCCH Order Attempts.
LTE_5168a E-UTRAN Initial PDCCH Order Attempts
Describes the number of Initial PDCCH Order Attempts.

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Total PDCCH Orders = sum([M8001C421]) sum([PDCCH_ORDER_ATT])
Number of Total
PDCCH order attempts
Initial PDCCH Orders = sum([M8001C422]) sum([PDCCH_INIT_ ORDER_ATT])
Number of initial
PDCCH order attempts

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Contention free Access
LTE_5169a E-UTRAN PDCCH Order Attempts Success Ratio
The ratio of the successful PDCCH orders in relation to PDCCH order
attempts excluding when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned
because lack of dedicated preamble resources,
LTE_5170a E-UTRAN PDCCH Initial Order Attempts Success Ratio
The ratio of the successful PDCCH orders in relation to PDCCH order
attempts including when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned
because lack of dedicated preamble resources,

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
PDCCH Order SR = 100* 100*sum([M8001C423])/su 100*sum([PDCCH_ORDER_SUCCESS])/sum([PDCCH_INIT_
(Number of Succ Orders/ m([M8001C422]) ORDER_ATT])
Initial PDCCH Order Atts)

Total PDCCH Order SR = 100*sum([M8001C423])/su 100*sum([PDCCH_ORDER_SUCCESS])/sum([PDCCH_INIT_


100* (Number of Succ m([M8001C422] + ORDER_ATT] + [D_PREAMB_PDCCH_UNAVAIL])
Orders/ ( Initial PDCCH [M8001C425])
Order Atts + Unavailability
of dedicated preamble for
PDCCH order purposes))

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Contention free Access
LTE_5171a E-UTRAN Unavailability of dedicated preamble PDCCH
The number of events when a dedicated preamble could not be assigned because of
insufficient dedicated preamble resources in the cell.

LTE_5172a, LTE_5173a E-UTRAN Unavailability of dedicated preamble for Ho and


Other

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
Unav Ded Pream PDCCH = "PDCCH order" sum([D_PREAMB_PDCCH_UNAVAIL])
Number of unavailability of purposesum([M8001C425])
dedicated preamble for
PDCCH
Unav Ded Pream HO= "Handover" purpose sum([D_PREAMB_HO_UNAVAIL])
Number of unavailability of sum([M8001C426])
dedicated preamble for HO

Unav Ded Pream Other= "other" purposesum sum([D_PREAMB_UNAVAIL] - [D_PREAMB_HO_UNAVAIL] -


Number of unavailability of ([M8001C424] - [D_PREAMB_PDCCH_UNAVAIL])
dedicated preamble for [M8001C425 ] -
Other [M8001C426])

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RACH message 3 counting

eNB UE

Preamble
1
PRACH
M8029C31 Number of RACH msg3 for UL data arrival in
"UL non-synchronized" state RAR
M8029C32 Number of msg3 for contention-based RA
2
PDCCH
procedures
RRC message
3
PUSCH

• If UE is in RRC connected mode and in “UL non sync state message” it will be RRC re-establishment
• If UE is in RRC idle it will be RRC connection request.

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DRX in RRC Connected Mode

M8021C18 Number of Handover attempts for UEs running in DRX


mode
M8021C19 Number of Handover completions for UEs running in DRX
mode
M8013C24 Subframes of DRX Active UE
M8013C25 Subframes of DRX Sleep UE

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DRX in RRC Connected Mode RL30

With extended DRX settings a UE may go Out of alignment due to the TAT expiring.
After the STIT expires the eNB no longer schedules the UE with TA info hence the TAT expires,
to move a UE back to in sync the UE is forced to TX via a PDCCH order

DRX active
UE out Data PDCCH
DRX Sleep arrives
of sync order

STIT
TAT

M8001C421 Number of PDCCH order attempts


M8001C422 Number of initial PDCCH order attempts
M8001C423 Number of successful PDCCH orders
M8001C427 Number of UE state transitions from UL-In-Sync to UL-Out-Of-Sync

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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LTE907 TTI bundling FDD/TDD RL50/RL55
• LTE907 -UEs with poor radio condition can be switched to TTI Bundling mode in which the
same transport block is transmitted in 4 consecutive UL subframes
- dB gain for delay constrained services, e.g. voice

HARQ RTT is longer in comparison to non-


TTI Bundling mode. The next
retransmission occurs 16ms after the
Bundle size is fixed to 4 TTIs.
previous one
In each TTI different
Redundancy Versions (RV) of
the same transport block are
transmitted

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LTE907 TTI bundling FDD/TDD RL50/RL55
• Increased energy per transmitted bit, improved UL coverage
• One UL grant per bundle  reduced PDCCH load
• RLC SDU is not segmented in TTI Bundling  reduced overhead (compared
to RLC Segmentation)
• 2 … 3 dB gain for delay constrained services, e.g. voice

M8011C63 Number of UL grants for TTI Bundling


M8011C62 Average number of UEs configured for TTI Bundling mode
M8011C66 Long UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode
M8011C65 Medium UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode
M8011C64 Short UE retention time in TTI Bundling mode

t t
0,25s

5s

1 2 t1(=0,25s) and t2(=5s)


MEDIU LONG Internal parameter
SHORT
M

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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Call Setup Overview
Core/IMS
UE

Physical Random Access Channel S1


PRACH preamble E-Node B MME
Idle to active

TA, scheduling, ID
RRC phase

RRC connection request


First KPI (like for WCDMA)
RRC connection setup
RRC setup success
RRC connection setup complete

NAS service request encapsulated in


RRC connection setup complete connection service
request
Call & service setup

Connection setup
Security check/command encapsulated in
RRC connection reconfiguration
NAS phase

RRC connection
Reconfiguration complete

SIP invite
SIP session process
•••

Terminating
SIP OK / ringing UE

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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)

UE

S1
E-Node B MME
Idle to active RRC phase

•M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
•M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
RRCConnectionRequest •M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 •M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

RRCConnectionSetup M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete
M8007C8: SRB1 setup completions

(with encapsulated M8013C5: Signaling connection establishment


NAS message) completions
NAS phase

M8007 Radio Bearer Measurements


M8013 UE State Measurements

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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)

UE

S1
E-Node B MME
Idle to active RRC phase

M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
•M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
RRCConnectionRequest •M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 •M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

RRCConnectionSetup M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete

(with encapsulated
NAS message)
NAS phase

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RRC Connection Request (Negative)

UE
S1
E-Node B MME

RRCConnectionRequest
1

RAC accepts or rejects M8013C65 Number of Signaling Connection


RRC Connection Establishment Requests rejected due to Control
Request Plane overload

RRCConnectionReject M8013C66 Number of Signaling Connection


2 Establishment Requests rejected due to User Plane
overload
M8013C67 Number of Signaling Connection
Establishment Requests rejected due to lack of
PUCCH resources
M8013C68 Number of Signaling Connection
Establishment Requests rejected due to threshold for
the maximum number of RRC connections
M8013C69 Number of Signaling Connection
Establishment Requests rejected due to MME
overload

UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eNB MME

1 RRCConnectionRequest

RRCConnectionSetup
2

M8013C6
3 Missing RRCConnectionSetupComplete Signaling connection establishment
failures due RRC setup completions
missing
Does NOT trigger M8007C9/C12 !!
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eNB MME

1 RRCConnectionRequest

M8013C7
RRCConnectionSetup
2 Signaling connection establishment
failures due RRC setup completions
error
3 Erreneous or Incomplete
RRCConnectionSetupComplete Triggers also M8007C9/C12
SRB1/2 setup failures
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup Counter Summary

M8013C65
M8013C66
M8013C67 M8013C6 RRC Setup completions missing
M8013C68
M8013C69
SRB1 /2 setup failures
M8007C9/C12
M8013C7 RRC Setup completions error

SRB1 /2 setup completions


M8007C8/C11
M8007C7/C10 M8013C5 RRC Setup completions

At least:
from all attempts
minus rejects =

Rejections by RRM Missing/wrong


RAC completions
Setup attempts Successful setups

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5218f E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio

Shows the setup success ratio for the elementary procedure "RRC connection
establishment" used to set up a radio connection from UE to eNB

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
RCC Con SSR = (RRC 100*sum([M8013C5]) / 100*sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_COMP]) / sum
connection setup sum ([M8013C17]+ ([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
completions / RRC [M8013C18]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
connection requests) * [M8013C19]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
100% [M8013C34]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_DEL_TOL+
[M8013C31]+ SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_HIPRIO+
[M8013C21]) [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG])

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RRC Connection Establishment Success Ratio per
cause
LTE_5382a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for mobile originating signaling.

LTE_5383a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for mobile originating calls.

LTE_5384a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for mobile terminating access.

LTE_5385a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for delay tolerant access.

LTE_5386a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for high priority calls.

LTE_5227a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio for emergency calls

LTE_5382a Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
RCC Con SSR MOS= 100*sum([M8013C35]) 100*sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_SUCC_MO_S])/
(RRC connection / sum([M8013C17) sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S])
setup completions
(mobile originating
signaling) / RRC
connection requests
(mobile originating
signaling))*100%

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
100.00 25,000

80.00 20,000

60.00 15,000

40.00 10,000

20.00 5,000

0.00 0
23.05.2011

25.05.2011

27.05.2011

29.05.2011

31.05.2011

02.06.2011

04.06.2011

06.06.2011

09.06.2011

11.06.2011

13.06.2011

15.06.2011

17.06.2011

19.06.2011

21.06.2011
LTE_5232a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MO-Signalling
(#)
LTE_5233a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MT-Access (#)

LTE_5234a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to MO-Data( #)

LTE_5235a RRC Connection Establishment attempts due to Others (#)

LTE_5218a RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio (%)

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5229e, LTE_5230e FDD
E-UTRAN RRC Connection Establishment Failure Ratio per Cause
Describes the ratio of a specific RRC connection setup failure cause related to all RRC
connection requests

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
S1 SFR = (RRC "RRC timer expiry" failure RRC timer expiry failure failure (RRCCOMPL_MISSING)
Connection Setup (RRCCOMPL_MISSING) cause
failure_x / cause 100*sum([SIGN_EST_F_RRCCOMPL_MISSING]) /
RRC Connection 100*sum([M8013C6]) / sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
requests) * 100% sum([M8013C17 ]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
[M8013C18] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_DEL_TOL]+
[M8013C19]+ [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_HIPRIO]+
[M8013C34] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG]
[M8013C31] +
[M8013C21] +

Formula related to missing RRC setup completion


Other causes are;
• LTE_5230e RRC protocol error (wrong RRC setup completion)

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5590c
E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Failure Ratio per Cause "RRC Connection Setup Rejection from
eNB“

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
S1 SFR = (RRC 100*sum([M8013C30] + 100*sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_REJ_EMG]+[
Connection Setup [M8013C39] + [M8013C40] SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_REJ_MO_S]+[
failure_x / + [M8013C41] + SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_REJ_MO_D]+[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_
RRC Connection [M8013C42] + [M8013C33]) REJ_MT]+[ SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_REJ_DEL_TOL]+[
SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_REJ_HIPRIO])/
requests) * 100% /sum([M8013C17] + sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
[M8013C18] + [M8013C19] [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
+ [M8013C34] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
[M8013C31]] + SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_DEL_TOL+
[M8013C21]) SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_HIPRIO+
[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG] )

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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1

LTE1617 RLF Triggered handovers


Main motivation for introducing LTE1617 RLF based handover

• LTE1617 allows successful RRC connection re-establishment (RCR) to unprepared cells (which do not know the UE
context) which was not previously possible;
• To unprepared cells of serving eNB or source eNB (during HO with source UE-Identity)
• To unprepared cells of other eNb which is not the serving eNB and not the source eNB.(during HO with source UE-
Identity)
• The main aim of LTE1617 is a reduction of UE drop rate especially reduction of VoLTE drop rate.
• Without LTE1617 re-establishment to unprepared cell always fails and finally the UE has to establish a new connection.

RLF
RRC Connection Re-establishment

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:00:57 AM
LTE1617 allows successful RRC connection re-establishment (RCR) to unprepared cells (which do not know the UE context) what
was not possible before
To unprepared cells of serving eNB or source eNB (during HO with source UE-Identity) in a fully standard compliant way like
LTE735 - here intra-eNB RLF triggered handover provides the UE Context to unprepared cell, which than becomes a prepared cell
To unprepared cells of not the serving eNB and not the source eNB (during HO with source UE-Identity) in a proprietary way based
on a RLF triggered handover, by suspending the reestablishment procedure at requested eNB, triggering a X2 handover
preparation to it from serving eNB, and resuming the reestablishment procedure based on the prepared X2 handover.
The main aim of LTE1617 is a reduction of UE drop rate especially reduction of VoLTE drop rate.
Without the LTE1617 feature re-establishment to unprepared cell always fails and finally the UE has to establish a new connection;
this new RRC connection and service requests causes more packet loss and may even break application protocols; field test shows
VoLTE connection will be lost in this case.
Functionality of LTE1617-A is active on eNB by default
1

LTE1617 RLF Triggered handovers


RRC connection re-establishment procedure - basic information

• Possible reasons for triggering RRC connection re-establishment procedure:


• detecting radio link failure (RLF)
• T310 expiry as result of out-of-sync problems controlled by n310(LNCEL), n311(LNCEL), t310(LNCEL)
• upon random access problem indication from MAC
• upon indication from RLC that the maximum number of retransmissions has been reached
• handover failure due to t304 expiry for intra LTE HO controlled by t304IntraLte (LNCEL))
• mobility from E-UTRA failure due to t304 expiry applicable for inter-RAT handover types;
• integrity check failure
• RRC connection reconfiguration failure

RLF
RRC Connection Re-establishment

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:00:58 AM
Before RL20/RL15TD any RRC:RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest was rejected by the eNB
From RL30/RL25TD onwards LTE735 RRC Connection re-establishment is implemented in Flexi Multiradio BTS; re-establishment
may be successfully completed only in prepared cell (with valid UE context)

mobility from E-UTRA failure due to t304 expiry applicable for inter-RAT handover types; controlled by t304InterRAT(LNCEL) for
PSHO and SRVCC to WCDMA, t304InterRatTd(LNCEL) for PSHO to TD-SCDMA; t304InterRATGsm(LNCEL) for SRVCC to GSM,
t304eNaccGsm(LNCEL) for eNACC to GSM)
LTE1617 RLF Triggered handovers
Performance Management

New (RL70) counter group to support RLF

Counter Counter name Counter description


M8027C0 HO_RLF_PREP_ATT Handover Preparation attempts due to RLF
M8027C1 HO_RLF_PREP_SUCC Successful Handover Preparation completions due to RLF
M8027C2 HO_RLF_SUCC Successful Handover completions due to RLF
M8027C3 RCR_UE_CONTEXT_RETR_ATT Attempted UE Context Retrievals due to RLF
M8027C4 RCR_UE_CONTEXT_RETR_SUCC Successful UE Context Retrievals due to RLF
M8027C5 RCR_UE_CONTEXT_RETR_FAIL_TIM Failed UE Context Retrievals due to Timer expiration

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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Paging and RRC Connection

Overview of RAC within RRM


- RAC admits or rejects requests for establishment of Radio Bearers per cell based on:
• Number of RRC connections per cell
RAC acts on:
• Number of active users per cell
• Paging
• RL40 Smart Admin Control QoS Supported • Call establishment
request
• Handover request

RAC algorithms controls


• Signaling radio bearer
• Data radio bearer

RAC activities RAC interacts


with Packet Packet
Scheduler
Radio Admission control
Scheduler

active
users configuration of
RLC layer
PDCP layer

eNodeB

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Paging and RRC Connection

RAC load/data measurements


RAC
cell load measurements
activities
by UE

active active users &


# UE keeping and & users RRC connections
buffered DL/UL
measurements

eNodeB

M8001C223 average
M8001C224 maximum
measurements of
UE's with data buffered (DL/UL) active users
M8001C147/150 average cell
M8001C148/151 maximum cell
cell

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Paging and RRC Connection
Objective

- Operator configures both maximum number of established


RRC connections and maximum number of active users per
cell by O&M threshold
• RRC connection is established when the SRBs have been
admitted and successfully configured
• UE is considered as active when Radio Bearer is
established
• Upper bound for maximum number of supported
connections depends on the BB configuration of eNB

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Paging and RRC Connection
Controlled Services
- RAC acts on the basis of events like:
• Paging
• Call establishment request
• Handover request
- RAC algorithms controls establishment of
• Signaling radio bearer
• Data radio bearer
• RAC applies different criteria for call establishment and mobility (HO)
• Offset in terms of the number of RRC connections or active users used
• Aim is to keep the already established sessions active and support user
mobility
• QoS requirements of DRBs (data radio bearers)
• Resource consumption in a cell
- ARP Based Admission control for E-RABs

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RAC Parameters
- Maximum number of RRC connections Maximum amount of users per TTI on UL/DL
- maxNumRrc (LNCEL, 0..1500) maxNumUeUL/DL (LNCEL, 1..20)
Bandwidth FDD TDD Bandwidt FDD TDD
h
1.3MHz 20 -
1.3MHz 7 -
3MHz 80 -
3MHz 7 -
5MHz 300 -
5MHz 7 -
10MHz 300 200
10MHz 14 10
15MHz 600 300 conf 1, 200 conf2
15MHz 17 12
20MHz 600 300 conf 1, 200 conf2
20MHz 20 12

- Maximum number of active UEs


- maxNumActUe (LNCEL, 0..1500)

Bandwidth FDD TDD


1.3MHz 20 -
3MHz 80 -
5MHz 300 -
10MHz 300 200
15MHz 600 -
20MHz 600 300 conf 1, 200 conf2

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RAC Counters
- Number of UEs monitored by cell load measurements
- Number of active UE per cell
• M8001C223 average
• M8001C224 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered on DL
• M8001C147 average
• M8001C148 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered on UL
• M8001C150 average
• M8001C151 maximum
- Number of UE with data buffered QCI1..4
- M8001C227..230
- Number of UE with data buffered non-GBR
- M8001C235

LTE 800 24 hour report


On cell level

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RRC Connection re -establishment
• Motivation:
– In a number of failure cases
 Radio link failure
 Handover failure
 RLC unrecoverable error
 Integrity check failure
 RRC connection reconfiguration failure
the UE may initiate the RRC connection re-establishment procedure to continue
the RRC connection without going to RRC Idle mode.

• Benefit:
– Improve user experience despite of exceptional radio conditions

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RRC Connection re-establishment

UE Source Target MME SGW


eNB eNB
Measurement report Packet data

HO decision
HO request
Admin control and
HO request ACK resource allocation
RRC: ConnectionReconfiguration

Deliver buffered and in transit


Detach from old cell packets to Target eNB

Fails to access target Cell SM status Transfer


Cell selection to Source Cell
Data Forwarding
Buffer packets from
source eNB
RRC: ConnectionRe-Establishment
request
Accept RRC Restablish
Stop data forwarding

HO cancel
RRC: ConnectionRe-establishment

RRC: ConnectionRe-establishment
complete
Re-establish SRB and DRB

RRC: ConnectionrReconfiguration

RRC: Connectionreconfiguration
complete Packet data

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RRC Connection Re-Establishment Counter Summary

M8008C0
Rejected RRC
Connection re- LTE_5143a RRC Connection Re-establishment Success Ratio
establishments
100*sum([M8008C5]) / sum([M8008C4])

Success due to HO
M8008C5 M8008C7/C9
Success due to other

Successful Re-
LTE5145a RRC Connection Re-establishment Failure Ratio
Establishment Re-Establishment
procedures success per cause 100*sum([M8008C4]- [M8008C5] - [M8008C0]) /
sum([M8008C4])

Attempts due to HO failure


M8008C4 M8008C6/C8

Attempts due to other

Re-Establishment Re-Establishment
attempts Attempts per cause

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RRC Connection Setup KPIs
LTE_5707a
E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Failure Ratio per Cause "RRC Connection Setup Rejection from
eNB due to Overload and Lack of Resources”

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)
S1 SFR = (RRC 100*sum([M8013C65] + 100*sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_FAIL_OVLCP] +
Connection Setup [M8013C66] + [M8013C67] [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_FAIL_OVLUP] +
failure_x / + [M8013C68] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_FAIL_PUCCH] +
RRC Connection [M8013C69]) / [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_FAIL_MAXRRC] +
[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_FAIL_OVLMME]) /
requests) * 100% sum([M8013C17] + sum([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S] +
[M8013C18] + [M8013C19] [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT] +
+ [M8013C34] + [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D] +
[M8013C31]] + SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_DEL_TOL +
[M8013C21]) SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_HIPRIO +
[SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG])

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Paging and RRC Connection

• Idle and Connected States within LTE


• Paging and Idle Mode DRX
• TTI Bundling FDD
• RRC Setup Procedure
• RLF
• Radio Admission Control
• Multimedia priority services

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LTE1074 – Multimedia Priority Services
Paging prioritization:
Handling of high priority paging with LTE1074:

– upon activation of MPS feature


(actHighPrioServices = true), eNB takes into
account IE: Paging Priority provided within S1AP:
Paging
– if more than 16 Paging Records (max capacity of
one RRC Paging Message) are addressed to one
Paging Occasion, excess Paging is discarded High priority paging
according to the Paging Priority
 note that if no Paging Priority is provided to
a Paging Record then it is treated with the
lowest priority
High priority paging is sent at the cost of lower priority Paging Records.
– as a result of prioritization, paging related to
High Priority UEs is sent when there is Paging
congestion

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1

LTE1074 – Multimedia Priority Services


High Priority Access : Initial Context setup
eNB MME

Random Access Procedure

RRC Connection Request M8013C31


establishmentCause = highPriorityAccess

Radio Admission Control – #RRC Connected UEs

RRC Connection Setup


M8013C32
RRC Connection Setup Complete Initial UE Message
NAS: Service Request NAS: Service Request

NAS Security Establishment

M8006C186 Initial Context Setup Request


NAS: Activate default EPS bearer context
request

Radio Admission Control – #Active UEs + #DRBs M8006C187


RRC Connection Reconfiguration
NAS: Activate default EPS
bearer context request

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete


Initial Context Setup Response
NAS: Activate default EPS NAS: Activate default EPS
bearer success bearer success

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:01:00 AM
Support of Multimedia Priority Services is also introduced
in the Admission Control (AC) mechanism
special treatment of high priority users, starting from RRC Connection establishment up to DRB setup, is introduced
Request for Multimedia Priority Service is indicated by establishmentCause set to highPriorityAccess within RRC Connection Request
message
upon reception of a request with this establishment cause, eNB maps the cause highPriorityAccess temporarily to emergency

then RRC Connection Request is admitted based on Emergency thresholds → maxNumRrcEmergency


dedicated thresholds for Emergency sessions were introduced with LTE572 IMS Emergency Session feature which is prerequisite for
LTE1074

as maxNumRrcEmergency must be configured to value higher than maxNumRrc + max(addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo), high priority
sessions have more chances to be established than normal traffic
1

LTE1074 – Multimedia Priority Services


High Priority Access : rejected setup
eNB MME

Random Access Procedure

RRC Connection Request M8013C31


establishmentCause = highPriorityAccess

Radio Admission Control – #RRC Connected Ues


REJECT REQUEST
RRC Connection Reject
M8013C33

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 12/4/2015 10:01:00 AM
Once the RRC Connection is established, eNB initiates S1 connection for the UE with cause highPriorityAccess
the information is provided by IE: RRC Establishment Cause within S1-AP Initial UE Message

Upon reception of Initial Context Setup Request, eNB performs AC for the number of Active UEs* and their DRBs
both Admission Control criteria need to be fulfilled in parallel, therefore similar to RRC Connection, eNB can handle (depending on
ARP) highPriorityAccess connection as emergency

in case of congestion when threshold for connected UEs is reached, UE with High Priority Services is admitted thanks to the
emergency threshold i.e. addEmergencySessions
this threshold is added to the maxNumActUE which is defined for ‘normal’ UEs
in parallel also Default Bearer of the UE must be admitted → see next slide for more details
LTE1074 – Multimedia Priority Services
Performance Management

KPI name formula


LTE_5393a E-UTRAN E-RAB Setup 100*sum[M8006C187]
Success Ratio for High /sum[M8006C186]
Priority Calls
LTE_5381a SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT M8013C31
due to high priority calls sum
LTE_5386a Total E-UTRAN RRC 100*sum([M8013C32]) /
Connection Setup Success sum([M8013C31])
Ratio for high priority calls.
LTE_5391a Total E-UTRAN RRC 100*sum([M8013C33]) /
Connection Setup Rejection sum([M8013C31])
Ratio for high priority calls.

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