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- CIPP Design
- DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MESHING OF INTERNAL INVOLUTE SPUR GEARS WITH PINION CUTTERS
- Course Diary
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- H June 2015 Rev15 IMP
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- FULLTEXT01.pdf
- Mme 3108 s11617 Exercise on Probability
- HILTI_2009 Canadian Limit States Design Supplement_Jun09.pdf
- Vi Sem Question Bank (1)
- 03. Machine Elements 3-Spur Gear 2
- Vibration Problems
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MECHANICAL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Spring Material: The minimum tensile strength of common

spring steels may be determined from

Stress Analysis

See MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section. Sut = A/d m

where Sut is the tensile strength in MPa, d is the wire

Failure Theories

diameter in millimeters, and A and m are listed in the

See MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section and the following table.

MATERIALS SCIENCE section.

Material ASTM m A

Deformation and Stiffness

Music wire A228 0.163 2060

See MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section.

Oil-tempered wire A229 0.193 1610

Components Hard-drawn wire A227 0.201 1510

Square Thread Power Screws: The torque required to Chrome vanadium A232 0.155 1790

raise, TR, or to lower, TL, a load is given by Chrome silicon A401 0.091 1960

Fd m ⎛ l + πµd m ⎞ Fµ c d c Maximum allowable torsional stress for static applications

TR = ⎜ ⎟

2 ⎜ πd − µl ⎟ + 2 , may be approximated as

⎝ m ⎠

Fd m ⎛ πµd m − l ⎞ Fµ c d c Ssy = τ = 0.45Sut cold-drawn carbon steel (A227,

TL = ⎜ ⎟

2 ⎜ πd + µl ⎟ + 2 , where A228, A229)

⎝ m ⎠

Ssy = τ = 0.50Sut hardened and tempered carbon and

dc = mean collar diameter, low-alloy steels (A232, A401)

dm = mean thread diameter, Compression Spring Dimensions

l = lead,

Type of Spring Ends

F = load,

Plain and

µ = coefficient of friction for thread, and Term Plain

Ground

µc = coefficient of friction for collar.

End coils, Ne 0 1

The efficiency of a power screw may be expressed as Total coils, Nt N N+1

η = Fl/(2πT) Free length, L0 pN + d p (N + 1)

Mechanical Springs Solid length, Ls d (Nt + 1) dNt

Pitch, p (L0 – d)/N L0/(N + 1)

Helical Linear Springs: The shear stress in a helical linear

spring is

Squared or Squared and

8FD Term

τ = Ks , where Closed Ground

πd 3 End coils, Ne 2 2

d = wire diameter, Total coils, Nt N+2 N+2

F = applied force, Free length, L0 pN + 3d pN + 2d

D = mean spring diameter Solid length, Ls d (Nt + 1) dNt

Ks = (2C + 1)/(2C), and Pitch, p (L0 – 3d)/N (L0 – 2d)/N

C = D/d.

The deflection and force are related by F = kx where the Helical Torsion Springs: The bending stress is given as

spring rate (spring constant) k is given by σ = Ki [32Fr/(πd 3)]

d 4G where F is the applied load and r is the radius from the

k= center of the coil to the load.

8D 3 N

Ki = correction factor

where G is the shear modulus of elasticity and N is the

number of active coils. See Table of Material Properties at = (4C 2 – C – 1) / [4C (C – 1)]

the end of the MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section C = D/d

for values of G.

203

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

The deflection θ and moment Fr are related by Intermediate- and Long-Length Columns

Fr = kθ The slenderness ratio of a column is Sr = l/k, where l is the

where the spring rate k is given by length of the column and k is the radius of gyration. The

radius of gyration of a column cross-section is, k = I A

d 4E

k= where I is the area moment of inertia and A is the cross-

64 DN

sectional area of the column. A column is considered to be

where k has units of N·m/rad and θ is in radians. intermediate if its slenderness ratio is less than or equal to

Spring Material: The strength of the spring wire may be (Sr)D, where

found as shown in the section on linear springs. The

2E

allowable stress σ is then given by (S r )D = π , and

Sy

Sy = σ = 0.78Sut cold-drawn carbon steel (A227,

A228, A229) E = Young's modulus of respective member, and

Sy = σ = 0.87Sut hardened and tempered carbon Sy = yield strength of the column material.

and low-alloy steel (A232, A401)

For intermediate columns, the critical load is

Ball/Roller Bearing Selection

⎡ 1 ⎛ S y Sr ⎞

2⎤

The minimum required basic load rating (load for which Pcr = A⎢ S y − ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎥ , where

90% of the bearings from a given population will survive 1 ⎢ E ⎝ 2π ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎠ ⎦

million revolutions) is given by

1 Pcr = critical buckling load,

C= PLa , where A = cross-sectional area of the column,

C = minimum required basic load rating, Sy = yield strength of the column material,

P = design radial load, E = Young's modulus of respective member, and

L = design life (in millions of revolutions), and Sr = slenderness ratio.

a = 3 for ball bearings, 10/3 for roller bearings. For long columns, the critical load is

When a ball bearing is subjected to both radial and axial

loads, an equivalent radial load must be used in the π 2 EA

Pcr =

equation above. The equivalent radial load is S r2

Peq = XVFr + YFa, where where the variables are as defined above.

Peq = equivalent radial load, For both intermediate and long columns, the effective

Fr = applied constant radial load, and column length depends on the end conditions. The AISC

recommended values for the effective lengths of columns

Fa = applied constant axial (thrust) load.

are, for: rounded-rounded or pinned-pinned ends, leff = l;

For radial contact, deep-groove ball bearings: fixed-free, leff = 2.1l; fixed-pinned, leff = 0.80l; fixed-fixed,

V = 1 if inner ring rotating, 1.2 if outer ring rotating, leff = 0.65l. The effective column length should be used

when calculating the slenderness ratio.

If Fa /(VFr) > e,

−0.247

Power Transmission

⎛F ⎞ Shafts and Axles

X = 0.56, and Y = 0.840⎜⎜ a ⎟⎟

⎝ Co ⎠ Static Loading: The maximum shear stress and the von

0.236 Mises stress may be calculated in terms of the loads from

⎛F ⎞

where e = 0.513⎜⎜ a ⎟⎟

⎝ Co ⎠

, and

τ max =

πd

2

3

[(8M + Fd ) 2

+ (8T ) ]

2 12

,

Co = basic static load rating, from bearing catalog.

If Fa /(VFr) ≤ e, X = 1 and Y = 0. σ′ =

4

πd 3

[(8M + Fd ) 2

+ 48T 2 ]

12

, where

F = the axial load,

T = the torque, and

d = the diameter.

204

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Fatigue Loading: Using the maximum-shear-stress theory Coefficients A and b are given in the table below for

combined with the Soderberg line for fatigue, the diameter various joint member materials.

and safety factor are related by

Material A b

12

⎡⎛ 2

K f M a ⎞ ⎛ Tm K fsTa ⎞

2⎤ Steel 0.78715 0.62873

πd 3 M

= n ⎢⎜ m + ⎟ +⎜ + ⎟ ⎥ Aluminum 0.79670 0.63816

32 ⎢⎜⎝ S y S e ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ S y Se ⎟ ⎥

⎠ ⎦

⎣ Copper 0.79568 0.63553

where Gray cast iron 0.77871 0.61616

d = diameter, The approximate tightening torque required for a given

n = safety factor, preload Fi and for a steel bolt in a steel member is given by

Ma = alternating moment, T = 0.2 Fid.

Mm = mean moment, Threaded Fasteners – Design Factors: The bolt load factor

Ta = alternating torque, is

Tm = mean torque, nb = (SpAt – Fi)/CP

Se = fatigue limit, The factor of safety guarding against joint separation is

Sy = yield strength,

ns = Fi / [P (1 – C)]

Kf = fatigue strength reduction factor, and

Threaded Fasteners – Fatigue Loading: If the externally

Kfs = fatigue strength reduction factor for shear.

applied load varies between zero and P, the alternating

Joining stress is

Threaded Fasteners: The load carried by a bolt in a σa = CP/(2At)

threaded connection is given by

and the mean stress is

Fb = CP + Fi Fm < 0

σm = σa + Fi /At

while the load carried by the members is

Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in Shear:

Fm = (1 – C) P – Fi Fm < 0, where

C = joint coefficient,

= kb/(kb + km)

Fb = total bolt load,

Fi = bolt preload,

Fm = total material load, Failure by pure shear, (a)

P = externally applied load, τ = F/A, where

kb = the effective stiffness of the bolt or fastener in the F = shear load, and

grip, and

A = cross-sectional area of bolt or rivet.

km = the effective stiffness of the members in the grip.

Bolt stiffness may be calculated from

Ad At E

kb = , where

Ad lt + At ld

Ad = major-diameter area,

At = tensile-stress area,

E = modulus of elasticity, Failure by rupture, (b)

ld = length of unthreaded shank, and σ = F/A, where

lt = length of threaded shank contained within the grip. F = load and

If all members within the grip are of the same material, A = net cross-sectional area of thinnest member.

member stiffness may be obtained from

km = dEAeb(d/l), where

d = bolt diameter,

E = modulus of elasticity of members, and

l = grip length.

205

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Failure by crushing of rivet or member, (c) where the subscripts i and o stand for the inner and outer

member, respectively, and

σ = F/A, where

p = inside pressure on the outer member and outside

F = load and

pressure on the inner member,

A = projected area of a single rivet.

δ = the diametral interference,

r = nominal interference radius,

ri = inside radius of inner member,

ro = outside radius of outer member,

E = Young's modulus of respective member, and

v = Poisson's ratio of respective member.

See the MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section on

thick-wall cylinders for the stresses at the interface.

The maximum torque that can be transmitted by a press fit

joint is approximately

T = 2πr2µpl,

Fastener groups in shear, (d)

where r and p are defined above,

The location of the centroid of a fastener group with respect

to any convenient coordinate frame is: T = torque capacity of the joint,

n n µ = coefficient of friction at the interface, and

∑ Ai xi ∑ Ai yi

i =1 i =1 l = length of hub engagement.

x= n

, y= n

, where

∑ Ai ∑ Ai KINEMATICS, DYNAMICS, AND VIBRATIONS

i =1 i =1

i = the index number of a particular fastener, Four-bar Linkage

Ai = cross-sectional area of the ith fastener,

xi = x-coordinate of the center of the ith fastener, and

yi = y-coordinate of the center of the ith fastener.

The total shear force on a fastener is the vector sum of the

force due to direct shear P and the force due to the moment b

M acting on the group at its centroid. 2 c

The magnitude of the direct shear force due to P is

a

P

F1i = .

n

This force acts in the same direction as P.

d

The magnitude of the shear force due to M is 2 4

Mri

F2 i = n

.

2

∑ ri

i =1

This force acts perpendicular to a line drawn from the The four-bar linkage shown above consists of a reference

group centroid to the center of a particular fastener. Its (usually grounded) link (1), a crank (input) link (2), a

sense is such that its moment is in the same direction (CW coupler link (3), and an output link (4). Links 2 and 4

or CCW) as M. rotate about the fixed pivots O2 and O4, respectively. Link

3 is joined to link 2 at the moving pivot A and to link 4 at

Press/Shrink Fits

the moving pivot B. The lengths of links 2, 3, 4, and 1 are

The interface pressure induced by a press/shrink fit is a, b, c, and d, respectively. Taking link 1 (ground) as the

0.5δ reference (X-axis), the angles that links 2, 3, and 4 make

p= with the axis are θ2, θ3, and θ4, respectively. It is possible

r ⎛r +r 2

⎞ r2

⎛ r 2 + ri 2 ⎞ to assemble a four-bar in two different configurations for a

⎜ + vo ⎟ +

o

⎜ 2 + vi ⎟

Eo ⎝ r − r given position of the input link (2). These are known as the

⎝ r − ri

2 2 2

o ⎠ Ei ⎠ “open” and “crossed” positions or circuits.

206

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

⎛ − B ± B 2 − 4 AC ⎞ Involute Gear Tooth Nomenclature

θ 41,2 = 2 arctan ⎜ ⎟ Circular pitch pc = πd/N

⎜⎝ 2A ⎟⎠

Base pitch pb = pc cos φ

where A = cos θ2 – K1 – K2 cos θ2 + K3 Module m = d/N

B = 2sin θ2 Center distance C = (d1 + d2)/2

C = K1 – (K2 + 1) cos θ2 + K3 , and where

d d a2 − b2 + c2 + d 2 N = number of teeth on pinion or gear

K1 = , K 2 = , K 3 = d = pitch circle diameter

a c 2ac

φ = pressure angle

In the equation for θ4, using the minus sign in front of the

Gear Trains: Velocity ratio, mv, is the ratio of the output

radical yields the open solution. Using the plus sign yields

velocity to the input velocity. Thus, mv = ωout / ωin. For a

the crossed solution.

two-gear train, mv = –Nin /Nout where Nin is the number of

⎛ − E ± E 2 − 4 DF ⎞ teeth on the input gear and Nout is the number of teeth on

θ31,2 = 2 arctan ⎜ ⎟ the output gear. The negative sign indicates that the

⎜⎝ 2D ⎟⎠

output gear rotates in the opposite sense with respect to

where D = cos θ2 – K1 + K4 cos θ2 + K5 the input gear. In a compound gear train, at least one

E = –2sin θ2 shaft carries more than one gear (rotating at the same

F = K1 + (K4 – 1) cos θ2 + K5 , and speed). The velocity ratio for a compound train is:

d c2 − d 2 − a2 − b2 mv = ±

product of number of teeth on driver gears

K4 = , K5 =

b 2 ab product of number of teeth on driven gears

In the equation for θ3, using the minus sign in front of the A simple planetary gearset has a sun gear, an arm that

radical yields the open solution. Using the plus sign yields rotates about the sun gear axis, one or more gears

the crossed solution. (planets) that rotate about a point on the arm, and a ring

(internal) gear that is concentric with the sun gear. The

Velocity Analysis. Given a, b, c, and d, θ2, θ3, θ4, and ω2

planet gear(s) mesh with the sun gear on one side and

aω 2 sin ( θ4 − θ 2 ) with the ring gear on the other. A planetary gearset has

ω3 =

b sin ( θ3 − θ4 ) two independent inputs and one output (or two outputs

and one input, as in a differential gearset).

aω 2 sin ( θ2 − θ3 ) Often, one of the inputs is zero, which is achieved by

ω4 =

c sin ( θ4 − θ3 ) grounding either the sun or the ring gear. The velocities

in a planetary set are related by

VAx = − aω 2 sin θ 2 , VAy = aω 2 cos θ 2

ω f − ωarm

= ± mv , where

VBAx = −bω3 sin θ3 , VBAy = bω3 cos θ3 ω L − ωarm

VBx = −cω 4 sin θ4 , VBy = cω 4 cos θ 4 ωf = speed of the first gear in the train,

ωL = speed of the last gear in the train, and

See also Instantaneous Centers of Rotation in the DYNAMICS ωarm = speed of the arm.

section.

Neither the first nor the last gear can be one that has

Acceleration analysis. Given a, b, c, and d, θ2, θ3, θ4, and planetary motion. In determining mv, it is helpful to

ω2, ω3, ω4, and α2 invert the mechanism by grounding the arm and releasing

CD − AF CE − BF any gears that are grounded.

α3 = , α4 = , where

AE − BD AE − BD Dynamics of Mechanisms

A = c sin θ4 , B = b sin θ3 Gearing

Loading on Straight Spur Gears: The load, W, on

C = aα 2 sin θ 2 + aω 22 cos θ 2 + bω 32 cos θ3 − cω 24 cos θ 4 straight spur gears is transmitted along a plane that, in

D = c cos θ 4 , E = b cos θ3 edge view, is called the line of action. This line makes an

angle with a tangent line to the pitch circle that is called

F = aα 2 cos θ2 − aω 22 sin θ 2 − bω 32 sin θ3 + cω 24 sin θ 4 the pressure angle φ. Thus, the contact force has two

components: one in the tangential direction, Wt, and one

in the radial direction, Wr. These components are related

to the pressure angle by

Wr = Wt tan(φ).

207

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Only the tangential component Wt transmits torque from Natural Frequency and Resonance

one gear to another. Neglecting friction, the transmitted

See DYNAMICS section.

force may be found if either the transmitted torque or

power is known: Balancing of Rotating and Reciprocating

2T 2T Equipment

Wt = = , Static (Single-plane) Balance

d mN

n n

Wt =

2H

=

2H

dω mNω

, where mb Rbx = − ∑i =1

mi Rix , mb Rby = − ∑m R

i =1

i iy

θ b = arctan⎜⎜ ⎟

⎟

T = torque on the gear (newton-mm), ⎝ mb Rbx ⎠

d = pitch diameter of the gear (mm),

m b Rb = (mb Rbx )2 + (mb Rby )2

N = number of teeth on the gear,

where mb = balance mass

m = gear module (mm) (same for both gears in mesh), Rb = radial distance to CG of balance mass

H = power (kW), and mi = ith point mass

ω = speed of gear (rad/sec). Ri = radial distance to CG of the ith point mass

θb = angle of rotation of balance mass CG with

Stresses in Spur Gears: Spur gears can fail in either respect to a reference axis

bending (as a cantilever beam, near the root) or by surface x,y = subscripts that designate orthogonal

fatigue due to contact stresses near the pitch circle. AGMA components

Standard 2001 gives equations for bending stress and Dynamic (Two-plane) Balance

surface stress. They are:

Wt K a K m

σb = K s K B K I , bending and

FmJ K v A

Wt Ca Cm

σc = C p Cs C f , surface stress , where

FId Cv

σb = bending stress,

σc = surface stress,

Wt = transmitted load,

F = face width,

B

m = module,

J = bending strength geometry factor,

Two balance masses are added (or subtracted), one each

Ka = application factor,

on planes A and B.

KB = rim thickness factor, n n

1 1

K1 = idler factor, mB RBx = −

lB ∑m R l ,

i =1

i ix i mB RBy = −

lB ∑m R l

i =1

i iy i

Km = load distribution factor,

n

Ks = size factor,

Kv = dynamic factor,

m A R Ax = − ∑m R

i =1

i ix − mB RBx

Cp = elastic coefficient, n

i =1

i iy − mB RBy

d = pitch diameter of gear being analyzed, and

where

Cf = surface finish factor. mA = balance mass in the A plane

Ca, Cm, Cs, and Cv are the same as Ka, Km, Ks, and Kv, mB = balance mass in the B plane

respectively. RA = radial distance to CG of balance mass

Rigid Body Dynamics RB = radial distance to CG of balance mass

See DYNAMICS section. and θA, θB, RA, and RB are found using the relationships

given in Static Balance above.

208

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Balancing Equipment

MEASUREMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION, AND

The figure below shows a schematic representation of a CONTROL

tire/wheel balancing machine.

Mathematical Fundamentals

See DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS and LAPLACE

TRANSFORMS in the MATHEMATICS section, and

the Response segment of the CONTROL SYSTEMS

section.

System Descriptions

See LAPLACE TRANSFORMS in the MATHEMATICS

section and the Response segment of the CONTROL

SYSTEMS section.

Sensors and Signal Conditioning

See the Measurements segment of the MEASUREMENT

and CONTROLS section and the Analog Filter Circuits

segment of the ELECTRICAL and COMPUTER

ENGINEERING section.

Ignoring the weight of the tire and its reactions at 1 and 2,

Data Collection and Processing

F1x + F2 x + mA RAx ω 2 + mB RBx ω 2 = 0

See the Sampling segment of the MEASUREMENT

F1 y + F2 y + m A RAy ω 2 + mB RBy ω 2 = 0 and CONTROLS section.

F1x l1 + F2 x l2 + mB RBx ω 2lB = 0 Dynamic Response

See the Response segment of the CONTROL

F1 y l1 + F2 y l2 + mB RBy ω 2 lB = 0

SYSTEMS section.

F1x l1 + F2 x l2 THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY

mB RBx =

lB ω 2 CONVERSION PROCESSES

F1 y l1 + F2 y l2 Ideal and Real Gases

mB RBy = See THERMODYNAMICS section.

lB ω 2

Reversibility/Irreversibility

F1x + F2 x See THERMODYNAMICS section.

mA RAx = − − mb RBx

ω2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium

See THERMODYNAMICS section.

F1 y + F2 y

mA RAy = − − mb RBy Psychrometrics

ω2 See additional material in THERMODYNAMICS

section.

HVAC—Pure Heating and Cooling

MATERIALS AND PROCESSING

Mechanical and Thermal Properties

See MATERIALS SCIENCE section.

Thermal Processing

See MATERIALS SCIENCE section.

Testing

See MECHANICS OF MATERIALS section.

Q = ma (h2 − h1 ) = ma C pm (T2 − T1 )

(

C pm = 1.02 kJ kg ⋅ C )

209

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

ω

ω

1

2 2

T

T h2 = h1 + h3 (ω2 − ω1 )

mw = ma (ω2 − ω1 )

h3 = h f at Twb

[

Qout = ma (h1 − h2 ) − h f 3 (ω1 − ω2 ) ] Adiabatic Mixing

mw = ma (ω1 − ω2 )

3

WATER OR STEAM

4, 4

2

ω 3

1

4 4'

T

ma 3 = ma1 + ma 2

1 2 m h + ma 2 h2

h3 = a1 1

ma 3

T ma1ω1 + ma 2 ω2

ω3 =

ma 3

Qin = ma ( h2 − h1 )

__ __

ma 2

mw = ma ( ω 4′ − ω 2 ) or mw = ( ω 4 − ω 2 ) distance 13 = × distance 12 measured on

ma 3

psychrometric chart

210

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Fans, Pumps, and Compressors

∆PQ

Scaling Laws W= , where

ηf

⎛ Q ⎞ ⎛ Q ⎞

⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ W = fan power,

⎝ ND ⎠ 2 ⎝ ND 3 ⎠1

3

∆P = pressure rise, and

⎛ m ⎞ ⎛ m ⎞ ηf = fan efficiency.

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ ρND 3 ⎟ = ⎜ ρND 3 ⎟

⎝ ⎠2 ⎝ ⎠1 Pump Characteristics

⎛ H ⎞ ⎛ H ⎞

⎜ 2 2 ⎟ =⎜ 2 2 ⎟

⎝ N D ⎠ 2 ⎝ N D ⎠1

⎛ P ⎞ ⎛ P ⎞

⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟

⎜ ρN 2 D 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎝ ρN D ⎠1

⎛ W ⎞ ⎛ W ⎞

⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟

⎜ ρN 3 D 5 ⎟ ⎜ 3 5 ⎟

⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎝ ρN D ⎠1

where

Q = volumetric flow rate,

m = mass flow rate,

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)

H = head,

Pi Vi 2 Pv

P = pressure rise, NPSH = + − , where

ρg 2 g ρg

W = power,

Pi = inlet pressure to pump,

ρ = fluid density,

Vi = velocity at inlet to pump, and

N = rotational speed, and

Pv = vapor pressure of fluid being pumped.

D = impeller diameter.

ρgHQ

Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to different but similar machines or W= , where

to different operating conditions of the same machine. η

η = pump efficiency, and

H = head increase.

211

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Internal Combustion Engines

Otto Cycle (see THERMODYNAMICS section)

Diesel Cycle

Indicated Power

Wi = Wb + W f , where

Wf = friction power (W).

Wb

ηb = , where

m f (HV )

mf = fuel consumption rate (kg/s), and

HV = heating value of fuel (J/kg).

Indicated Thermal Efficiency

Wi

ηi =

m f (HV )

Mechanical Efficiency

r = V1/V2 Wb ηb

ηm = =

rc = V3/V2 Wi ηi

1 ⎡ rck − 1 ⎤

η =1− ⎢ ⎥

r k −1 ⎢⎣ k (rc − 1) ⎥⎦

k = cP/cv

Brake Power

Wb = 2πTN = 2πFRN , where

Wb = brake power (W),

T = torque (N·m),

N = rotation speed (rev/s),

F = force at end of brake arm (N), and

Displacement Volume

R = length of brake arm (m).

πB 2 S

Vd = , m3 for each cylinder

4

Total volume = Vt = Vd + Vc, m3

Vc = clearance volume (m3).

Compression Ratio

rc = Vt /Vc

212

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Wns

mep = , where

Vd nc N

ns = number of crank revolutions per power stroke,

nc = number of cylinders, and

Vd = displacement volume per cylinder.

mep can be based on brake power (bmep), indicated power

(imep), or friction power (fmep).

Volumetric Efficiency

2 ma

ηv = (four-stroke cycles only) w12 = h1 – h2 = cP (T1 – T2)

ρ aVd nc N

w34 = h3 – h4 = cP (T3 – T4)

where wnet = w12 + w34

ma = mass flow rate of air into engine (kg/s), and q23 = h3 – h2 = cP (T3 – T2)

ρa = density of air (kg/m3). q41 = h1 – h4 = cP (T1 – T4)

qnet = q23 + q41

Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)

η = wnet /q23

mf 1

sfc = = , kg J Steam Power Plants

W ηHV

Feedwater Heaters

Use ηb and Wb for bsfc and ηi and Wi for isfc.

Gas Turbines

Brayton Cycle (Steady-Flow Cycle)

213

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Steam Trap The thermal storage tank is sized to defer most or all of the

chilled water requirements during the electric utility’s peak

demand period, thus reducing electrical demand charges.

The figure above shows a utility demand window of 8

hours (noon to 8 pm), but the actual on-peak period will

vary from utility to utility. The Monthly Demand

Reduction (MDR), in dollars per month, is

MDR = ∆Pon- peak R , where

Junction ∆Pon- peak = Reduced on-peak power, kW

R = On-peak demand rate, $/kW/month

The MDR is also the difference between the demand charge

without energy storage and that when energy storage is in

operation.

A typical utility rate structure might be four months of peak

Pump demand rates (June – September) and eight months of off-

peak demand rates (October – May). The customer’s utility

obligation will be the sum of the demand charge and the

kWh energy charge.

FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID MACHINERY

Fluid Statics

See FLUID MECHANICS section.

Incompressible Flow

See FLUID MECHANICS section.

Fluid Machines (Incompressible)

See FLUID MECHANICS section and Performance of

Components above.

Compressible Flow

See also THERMODYNAMICS section. Mach Number

Combustion and Combustion Products The local speed of sound in an ideal gas is given by:

See THERMODYNAMICS section c = kRT , where

Energy Storage

c ≡ local speed of sound

Energy storage comes in several forms, including chemical,

electrical, mechanical, and thermal. Thermal storage can Cp

k ≡ ratio of specific heats =

be either hot or cool storage. There are numerous Cv

applications in the HVAC industry where cool storage is

utilized. The cool storage applications include both ice and R ≡ gas constant

chilled water storage. A typical chilled water storage T ≡ absolute temperature

system can be utilized to defer high electric demand rates,

while taking advantage of cheaper off-peak power. A This shows that the acoustic velocity in an ideal gas

typical facility load profile is shown below. depends only on its temperature. The Mach number (Ma)

is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the speed of sound.

WITH THERMAL STORAGE V

Ma ≡

c

DEMAND POWER, kW

TIME OF DAY

214

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

In an ideal gas for an isentropic process, the following

relationships exist between static properties at any two 2

1

points in the flow.

k

k

P2 ⎛ T2 ⎞ (k −1) ⎛ ρ 2 ⎞ Ma > 1 Ma < 1

=⎜ ⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

P1 ⎜⎝ T1 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠

The stagnation temperature, T0, at a point in the flow is NORMAL SHOCK

related to the static temperature as follows:

V2 The following equations relate downstream flow conditions

T0 = T + to upstream flow conditions for a normal shock wave.

2⋅Cp

The relationship between the static and stagnation Ma 2 =

(k − 1)Ma12 + 2

properties (T0, P0, and ρ0) at any point in the flow can be 2k Ma12 − (k − 1)

expressed as a function of the Mach number as follows:

2k Ma12 − (k − 1)

T0 k −1

T2

[

= 2 + (k − 1)Ma12 ]

(k + 1)2 Ma12

= 1+ ⋅ Ma 2 T1

T 2

k

P0 ⎛ T0 ⎞ (k −1) ⎛ k − 1 ⎞ (k −1)

k

P2

=

1

P1 k + 1

[

2k Ma12 − (k − 1) ]

=⎜ ⎟ = ⎜1 + ⋅ Ma 2 ⎟

P ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ρ 2 V1

= =

(k + 1)Ma12

1 1

ρ1 V2 (k − 1)Ma12 + 2

ρ 0 ⎛ T0 ⎞ (k −1) ⎛ k − 1 ⎞ (k −1)

=⎜ ⎟ = ⎜1 + ⋅ Ma 2 ⎟

ρ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

Compressible flows are often accelerated or decelerated T01 = T02

through a nozzle or diffuser. For subsonic flows, the

velocity decreases as the flow cross-sectional area increases Fluid Machines (Compressible)

and vice versa. For supersonic flows, the velocity increases Compressors

as the flow cross-sectional area increases and decreases as Compressors consume power in order to add energy to the

the flow cross-sectional area decreases. The point at which fluid being worked on. This energy addition shows up as an

the Mach number is sonic is called the throat and its area is increase in fluid pressure (head).

represented by the variable, A*. The following area ratio

holds for any Mach number. INLET

(k +1)

⎡ 1 ⎤ (k −1)

1 + (k − 1)Ma 2 2

A 1 ⎢ 2 ⎥

= ⎢ ⎥

A* Ma ⎢ 1

(k + 1) ⎥ COMPRESSOR Win

⎣ 2 ⎦

where

A ≡ area [length2] EXIT

For an adiabatic compressor with ∆PE = 0 and negligible

∆KE:

Normal Shock Relationships

Wcomp = − m (he − hi )

A normal shock wave is a physical mechanism that slows a

flow from supersonic to subsonic. It occurs over an For an ideal gas with constant specific heats:

infinitesimal distance. The flow upstream of a normal

shock wave is always supersonic and the flow downstream Wcomp = − m C p (Te − Ti )

is always subsonic as depicted in the figure.

Per unit mass:

wcomp = − C p (Te − Ti )

215

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

ws Tes − Ti See Performance of Components above.

ηC = = where,

wa Te − Ti Lift/Drag

See FLUID MECHANICS section.

wa ≡ actual compressor work per unit mass

Impulse/Momentum

ws ≡ isentropic compressor work per unit mass

See FLUID MECHANICS section.

Tes ≡ isentropic exit temperature

(see THERMODYNAMICS section) HEAT TRANSFER

For a compressor where ∆KE is included: Conduction

⎛ Ve2 − Vi 2 ⎞ See HEAT TRANSFER and TRANSPORT

Wcomp = − m ⎜ he − hi + ⎟ PHENOMENA sections.

⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Convection

⎛ Ve2 − Vi 2 ⎞ See HEAT TRANSFER section.

= − m ⎜ C p (Te − Ti ) + ⎟

⎜ 2 ⎟ Radiation

⎝ ⎠

See HEAT TRANSFER section.

Turbines

Turbines produce power by extracting energy from a Composite Walls and Insulation

working fluid. The energy loss shows up as a decrease in See HEAT TRANSFER section.

fluid pressure (head). Transient and Periodic Processes

INLET See HEAT TRANSFER section.

Heat Exchangers

See HEAT TRANSFER section.

TURBINE W out Boiling and Condensation Heat Transfer

See HEAT TRANSFER section.

EXIT

Wturb = m (hi − he )

For an ideal gas with constant specific heats:

Wturb = m C p (Ti − Te )

Per unit mass:

wturb = C p (Ti − Te )

Compressor Isentropic Efficiency:

wa Ti − Te

ηT = =

ws Ti − Tes

For a compressor where ∆KE is included:

⎛ V 2 − Vi 2 ⎞

Wturb = m ⎜ he − hi + e ⎟

⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

⎛ V 2 − Vi 2 ⎞

= m ⎜ C p (Te − Ti ) + e ⎟

⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

216

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Cycles

Refrigeration and HVAC

Two-Stage Cycle

WIN, 1

h1 − h4

COPref =

(h2 − h1 ) − (h3 − h4 )

h2 − h3

COPHP =

WIN, 2

(h2 − h1 ) − (h3 − h4 )

See also THERMODYNAMICS section.

Heating and Cooling Loads

Heating Load

Q = A(Ti − To ) R ′′

1 L1 L2 L3 1 , where

R ′′ = + + + +

The following equations are valid if the mass flows are the h1 k1 k 2 k 3 h2

same in each stage.

Q = heat transfer rate,

Qin h5 − h8

COPref = = A = wall surface area, and

Win,1 + Win,2 h2 − h1 + h6 − h5

R″ = thermal resistance.

Qout h2 − h3 Overall heat transfer coefficient = U

COPHP = =

Win,1 + Win,2 h2 − h1 + h6 − h5 U = 1/R″

Air Refrigeration Cycle Q = UA (Ti – To)

Cooling Load

Q = UA (CLTD), where

CLTD = effective temperature difference.

CLTD depends on solar heating rate, wall or roof ori-

entation, color, and time of day.

WIN

TURBINE COMPRESSOR

CONDITIONED

SPACE

217

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (continued)

Infiltration

Air change method

ρ a c pVn AC

Q= (Ti − To ) , where

3,600

ρa = air density,

cP = air specific heat,

V = room volume,

nAC = number of air changes per hour,

Ti = indoor temperature, and

To = outdoor temperature.

Crack method

Q = 1.2CL(Ti − To )

where

C = coefficient, and

L = crack length.

See also HEAT TRANSFER section.

Psychrometric Charts

See THERMODYNAMICS section.

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

See section above and THERMODYNAMICS section.

Components

See THERMODYNAMICS section and above sections.

218

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