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MS5044

Integrasi Energi Terbarukan dengan


Jaringan Listrik
Take Home Test
Kelompok-6

Nama : Feryadi Buli 23115309


Yusvari 23116001
Alexius Leonardo Johanis 23116019
Dosen : Dr. Tri Desmana Rachmildha, ST.MT
Tanggal Penyerahan : 21 Mei 2018

FAKULTAS TEKNIK MESIN DAN DIRGANTARA


PROGRAM STUDI MAGISTER
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2018
1. PROSES INTEGRASI GENERATOR SINKRON PADA PLTU PADA
JARINGAN LISTRIK PLN

Generator AC atau alternator biasanya bertipe mesin sinkron. Mesin sinkron dapat beroperasi
sebagai generator sinkron, motor sinkron dan kondensator sinkron. Generator sinkron yaitu
mengubah energi mekanis penggerak mula menjadi energi listrik. Sinkronisasi adalah salah satu cara
untuk menghubungkan dua sumber atau beban arus bolak-balik (AC). Sumber AC tersebut antara
lain generator dan beban adalah transformer yang akan diparalel dengan tujuan meningkatkan
kendala dan kapasitas sistem tenaga listrik. Dikatakan generator sinkron karena jumlah putaran
rotornya sama dengan jumlah putaran medan magnet pada stator. Kecepatan sinkron ini dihasilkan
dari kecepatan yang sama dengan medan putar pada stator. Mesin ini tidak dapat dijalankan sendiri
karena kutub-kutub rotor tidak dapat tiba-tiba mengikuti kecepatan medan putar pada waktu saklar
terhubung dengan jala-jala.

Generator arus bolak-balik dibagi menjadi dua jenis, yaitu:


 Generator arus bolak-balik 1 fasa
 Generator arus bolak-balik 3 fasa

Generator set (genset) adalah seperangkat alat yang terdiri dari prime over (penggerak) yang berupa
mesin disel atau semacamnya serta dilengkapi generator sebagai pengubah energi mekanik ke energi
potensial.

Pada dunia industri, genset menjadi bagian yang sangat penting karena sangat membantu proses
produksi apabila terjadi pemadaman bergilir yang dilakukan oleh PLN. Genset digunakan sebagai
pengganti suplai tegangan dan menambah daya apabila terjadi kekurangan daya listrik pada
perusahaan, yaitu dengan cara memparalelkan genset dengan tegangan PLN.

I. Konstruksi Generator AC
Konstruksi generator arus bolak-balik terdiri dari dua bagian, yaitu :
1. Stator adalah bagian yang diam yang mengeluarkan tegangan bolak-balik.
2. Rotor adalah bagian yang bergerak yang menghasilkan medan magnet dan menginduksikan
ke stator.
3. Rangka stator terbuat dari besi tuang, rangka stator merupakan rumah dari bagian-bagian
generator lain.
4. Cincin geser terbuat dari bahan kuningan atau tembaga yang dipasang pada poros dengan
memakai bahan isolasi. Slip ring ini berputar bersama-sama dengan poros dan rotor.
5. Generator penguat merupakan generator arus searah yang dipakai sebagai sumber arus
Tachometer ditempelkan langsung pada poros sebuah motor dan dibaca putarannya pada
skala yang ada.

Gambar 1 Konstruksi Generator arus bolak-balik

II. Prinsip Kerja generator


Prinsip dasar generator arus bolak-balik menggunakan hukum Faraday yang menyatakan jika
sebatang penghantar berada pada medan magnet yang berubah-ubah, maka pada penghantar
tersebut akan terbentuk gaya gerak listrik. Prinsip kerja generator arus bolak-balik tiga fasa
(alternator) pada dasarnya sama dengan generator arus bolak-balik satu fasa, akan tetapi pada
generator tiga fasa memiliki tiga lilitan yang sama dan tiga tegangan outputnya berbeda fasa 1200
pada masing-masing fasa.

Gambar 2 Generator 3 fase


Besar tegangan generator bergantung pada :

a. Kecepatan putaran (N)


b. Jumlah kawat pada kumparan yang memotong fluk (Z)
c. Banyaknya fluk magnet yang dibangkitkan oleh medan magnet (f)
d. Jumlah Kutub

Jumlah kutub generator arus bolak-balik tergantung dari kecepatan rotor dan frekuensi dari ggl
yang dibangkitkan. Hubungan tersebut dapat ditentukan dengan persamaan :

p. n
𝑓=
120

dimana : f = frekuensi tegangan (Hz)


p = jumlah kutub pada rotor
n = kecepatan rotor (Rpm)

Fase mempunyai sistem tegangan yang masing-masing fase berbeda sebesar 1200. Tinggi
tegangan dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan putar generator dan besar fluksi magnet generator. Fluksi
magnet dihasilkan oleh arus magnetisasi atau biasa disebut dengan arus penguatan (Iex).
Hubungan antara tegangan dan kedua variabel tersebut dituliskan dengan rumus:

Tegangan keluaran generator berupa kawat yang diberi inisial R, S, T, dan N. Hubungan belitan
kawat dan vektor tegangan 3 fase dapat dilihat pada gambar dibawah ini:
Gambar 3 Bentuk tegangan generator 3 fase

VNR = VNS = VN = Vf = tegangan fase

VRS = VST = VTR = VL = tegangan antar fase

VL = 31/2 x Vf

A. Kerja Paralel Generator Sinkron Dengan Jaringan PLN

PLN mengaplikasikan sistem 3-phase dalam keseluruhan sistem kelistrikannya, mulai dari
pembangkitan, transmisi daya hingga sistem distribusi. Sistem kelistrikan PLN secara umum
dibagi dalam 3 bagian besar yaitu :

1. Sistem Pembangkitan Tenaga Listrik


Terdiri dari pembangkit-pembangkit listrik yang tersebar di berbagai tempat, dengan
jenis-jenisnya antara lain yang cukup banyak adalah PLTA, PLTU, PLTG dan PLTGU.
Pembangkit-pembangkit tersebut mengubah sumber-sumber alam tadi menjadi energi
listrik.
2. Sistem Transmisi Daya
Energi listrik yang dihasilkan dari berbagai pembangkit tadi harus langsung disalurkan.
Karena energi listrik sebesar itu tidak bisa disimpan dalam baterai. Karena akan butuh
baterai kapasitas besar untuk menyimpan energi sebesar itu dan menjadi sangat tidak
ekonomis. Sebagai gambaran, accu 12Vdc dengan kapasitas 50Ah akan menyimpan
energi listrik maksimal kira-kira 600 Watt untuk pemakaian penuh selama 1 jam.
3. Sistem Distribusi Daya Listrik
Dari sistem transmisi daya tadi, listrik akan sampai ke pelanggan-pelanggannya
(terutama perumahan) dengan terlebih dahulu melalui Gardu Induk dan kemudian Gardu
Distribusi. Gardu Induk mengambil daya listrik dari sistem transmisi dan menyalurkan
ke Gardu-gardu distribusi yang tersebar ke berbagai daerah perumahan. Dan di dalam
gardu distribusi, terdapat trafo distribusi yang menyalurkan listrik langsung ke rumah-
rumah dengan melewati JTR (Jaringan Tegangan Rendah), yang biasanya ditopang oleh
tiang listrik.

Pembangkit listrik berskala besar kebanyakan digunakan untuk mendukung daya jaringan
listrik dengan cara menyambung/memparalelkan dengan sisten jaringan tersebut. Pada
jaringan PLN sudah terdapat banyak pembangkit yang telah tersambung, sehingga jaringan
PLN mempunyai kapasitas daya yang sangat besar (infinite bus) akibatnya tegangan dan
frekuensi jaringan sangat kuat dan konstan sepanjang waktu.

Generator dapat digunakan secara bersama yaitu menggunakan 2 generator atau lebih pada
sebuah industri ataupun generator juga dapat beroperasi secara bersamaan dengan tegangan
jala-jala PLN 3 Fasa. Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan melalui sebuah proses untuk eger
generator dapat bekerja secara bersama-sama ataupun generator bekerja secara bersama
dengan tegangan jala-jala PLN 3 Fasa, proses tersebut disebut proses memparalelkan
generator ( proses sinkronasi generator).

B. Generator 3 Fasa
Generator sinkron tiga fasa, harus ada tiga belitan yang masing-masing terpisah sebesar 120
derajat listrik dalam ruang sekitar keliling celah udara seperti diperlihatkan pada kumparan
a – a’, b – b’ dan c – c’ pada gambar 4. Masing-masing lilitan akan menghasilkan gelombang
Fluksi sinus satu dengan lainnya berbeda 120 derajat listrik.Sehingga tegangan yang
dibangkitkan mempunyai beda sudut 120 derajat listrik. Besarnya tegangan listrik antar fasa
adalah 380 volt, dan besarnya tegangan antar fasa dan netral adalah 220 volt.
Gambar 4 Diagram Generator AC Tiga Fasa Dua Kutub

III. Jenis Sinkronisasi

A. Foward Synchronization (sinkronisasi maju)


Sinkronisasi maju adalah proses sinkronisasi kedalam sistem atau busbar.

Gambar 5 Sinkronisasi Maju

B. Reverse Synchronization atau backward (sinkronisasi terbalik)


Terjadi pada sistem tenaga listrik disuatu pabrik, dimana suatu jaringan suplai akan
digabungkan kedalam suatu jaringan sistem atau busbar yang ada. Pada kondisi ini tidak
dimungkinkan untuk mengatur parameter sinkron pada sisi incoming (jaringan yang akan
disinkronkan), yang terpenting CB (PMT) dari beban-beban pada jaringan suplai (grid
supply) dalam keadaan terbuka.
Gambar 6 Sinkronisasi Terbalik

Gambar 7 One Line Sinkronisasi Generator dengan Tegangan PLN

Gambar 8 Rangkaian sinkronisasi generator dengan PLN pada DLORENZO


2. WIND POWER INTEGRATION BY INDUCTION GENERATOR

Typically, small renewable energy power plants rely mostly on induction machines, because they
are widely and commercially available and very inexpensive. It is also very easy to operate them in
parallel with large power systems, because the utility grid controls voltage and frequency while static
and reactive compensating capacitors can be used for correction of the power factor and harmonic
reduction.

Although the induction generator is mostly suitable for hydro and wind power plants, it can be
efficiently used with prime movers driven by diesel, biogas, natural gas, gasoline and alcohol motors.
Induction generators have outstanding operation as either motor or generator; they have very robust
construction features, providing natural protection against short-circuits, and have the lowest cost
with respect to other generators. Abrupt speed changes due to load or primary source changes, as
usually expected in small power plants, are easily absorbed by its solid rotor, and any current surge
is damped by the magnetization path of its iron core without fear of demagnetization, as opposed to
permanent magnet based generators.

The induction generator has the very same construction as the induction motors with some possible
improvements in efficiency. There is an important operating difference; the rotor speed is faster with
respect to the stator magnetic field rotation.

A. Self-Excited Induction Generator


For its operation, the induction generator needs a reasonable amount of reactive power which
must be fed externally to establish the magnetic field necessary to convert the mechanical power
from its shaft into electrical power.
Therefore, the external reactive source must remain permanently connected to the stator
windings responsible for the output voltage control. In interconnected applications, the
synchronous grid supplies such reactive power. In stand-alone applications, the reactive power
must be supplied by the load itself, or by a bank of capacitors connected across its teminals, or
by an electronic inverter. When capacitors are connected to induction generator, the system is
usually called a SEIG (a self-excited induction generator) as shown in Figure 1. When the shaft
is rotated externally, such movement interacts with a residual magnetic field and induces a
voltage across the external capacitor, resulting in a current in the parallel circuit which, in turn,
reinforces the magnetic field and the system builds up an increasing excitation. Due to high cost
of capacitors and maintenance needs, self-excitation of the induction generator is economically
recommended only for small power plants

Fig 1 Capacitor self-excited induction generator

B. Doubly Fed Induction Generator


A very important machine, typically used for high power applications, is the doubly fed
induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG is a wound rotor machine where the rotor circuit is
connected to an external variable voltage and frequency source via slip rings and the stator is
connected to the grid network, as illustrated in Figure 2. There is also a possibility of altering
the rotor reactance by effectively modulating some inductors in series with the original rotor
reactance. Adjusting the frequency of the external rotor source of current controls the speed of
the doubly fed induction generator, which is usually limited to a 2:1 range. Doubly fed machines
were not very popular in the past due to the maintenance required for the slip rings. More
recently, with the development of new materials, powerful digital controllers and power
electronics, the doubly fed induction generator became a solution in power generation for up to
several hun- dreds of kW ratings. Power converters usually make up the need for a variable
freque ncy source for the rotor
Fig 2 DFIG-overall stator and rotor parameter control

C. Wind Power Integration by Induction Generator


Integration of alternative sources of energy into the network for Distributed Generation (DG)
requires small-scale power generation technologies located close to the loads served. The move
toward onsite distributed power generation has been accelerated because of deregulation and
restructuring of the utility industry and the viability of alternative energy sources. DG
technologies can improve power quality, boost system reliability, reduce energy costs, and
defray utility capital investment. The integration of renewable sources of energy, such as wind
energy, poses a challenge because their output is intermittent and variable and must be stored
for use when there is demand. If only one renewable energy source is considered, the electric
power system is simple where the source can be connected to a storage system. In the grid-
connected application, the grid acts as energy storage. However, if multiple renewable energy
sources are used, the electric power system can be rather complex and needs detailed analysis.

D. Wind Energy – SEIG System for Remote Users


An induction generator (IG) requires reactive power whether it is running as a machine or a
generator. As mentioned previously, the reactive power needs of the IG in remote user cannot
be supplied from the grid and other sources must be used. One possible source might be a three-
phase capacitor connected in parallel with the machine, which enables the machine to operate
self-excited. Another source may come from a capacitor connected to the dc bus of an inverter.
This scheme is able to start the machine as long as there is an initial voltage on the capacitor.
However,a more reliable method of starting the machine is to use a battery on the dc bus that
can supply voltage until enough voltage is being generated by the machine to power the dc bus.
After the machine has started generating voltage, there are several methods for using the power
generated by the machine. An ac load can be attached directly to the machine terminals.
However, the voltage and frequency of the electrical power on the terminals of the machine
depend on the speed. In renewable energy applications such as wind or hydro power generation,
the speed of the machine is not constant and consequently poses a problem. A dc load can also
be connected on the dc bus of the inverter. However, a controller must be used to regulate the
voltage on the dc bus. If the volt- age on the dc bus drops too much, the voltage supplied by the
machine will collapse and will no longer be able to supply power to the loads.

Figure 3 Induction generator with a remote wind energy system


3. BERIKAN PENJELASAN DENGAN DETIL MENGENAI ASPEK-ASPEK
MEKANIKAL PADA PLTB DAN FUNGSI-FUNGSI MASING-MASING
BAGIANNYA.

Aspek-aspek utama pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Angin/Bayu (PLTB)

 Baling-baling kipas (blades),

Baling-Baling menggunakan prinsip mengangkat untuk membuatnya berputar,


mengkonversi energi dari angin ke dalam daya mekanis. Stall-regulated
blades membatasi momentum pada saat kecepatan angin terlalu tinggi untuk
mencegah kerusakan mesin. Variable-Pitch pada mata pisau berputar untuk
memperkecil area permukaan mereka bertujuan mengatur kecepatan putaran.

 penghubung baling-baling kipas dengan poros mesin (hub) dan saft,

Mentransmisikan gerakan rotasi dari poros/pusat kegiatan baling-baling kepada


gearbox dan dari gearbox kepada generator
 transmisi pemercepat putaran poros (gearbox),

Mengkonversi putaran kecepatan rendah dari poros masukan baling-baling kecepatan


tinggi ke poros generator yang merupakan poros kecepatan tinggi.Gear box pada
turbin angin menggunakan suatu roda gigi dengan sistem perplanetan

 Yaw Drive dan Yaw Motor

suatu pengarah penyimpangan untuk memutar Nacelle, untuk mengarahkan menara


sesuai arah datang angin

 mesin pembangkit listrik (generator),

Mengkonversi poros kecepatan tinggi menjadi energi listrik. Sesuai prinsip generator,
bahwa generator akan membangkitkan listrik yang besar jika putaran poros oleh
adanya angin semakin tinggi kecepatannya

 Nacelle (housing)

berada di atas menara dan berisi gear box, poros kecepatan rendah dan tinggi,
generator, controller dan rem. Nacelle berfungsi menjaga komponen-komponen dari
cuaca extrme

 menara (tower).

Komponen ini secara khas dibuat dari baja digulung, berbentuk pipa, dan dirakit
perbagian karena besarnya ukuran dan bebannya. Didalam tower terdapat tangga
yang berguna untuk maintenancemesin.

 Aspek-aspek pendukung pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Angin/Bayu (PLTB):

 Kopling

Menggabungan gearbox kepada generator. Kopling untuk mengurangi beban osilasi


yang bisa menyebabkan kerusakan komponen.

 Bearing

menjaga agar poros tidak langsung bergesekan dengan rumah (housing) . Komponen
ini juga didesain minim gesekan, sehingga ketika roda berputar bisa terjaga stabil.
 Rem mekanis

Adalah suatu gesekan mekanis mengerem dan sistem hidroliknya menghentikan atau
menahan baling baling turbin selama pemeliharaan dan over haul. Suatu rem-cakram
hidrolik pada yaw mekanis menjaga posisi nacelle ketika nacelle pada posisinya

 Sensor-sensor

Sebuah anemometer, ditempatkan pada atas menara, untuk mengukur kecepatan


angin dan pengiriman data kepada yaw mekanisme. Sebuah pengukur arah angin
yang mengirimkan data kepada yaw mekanisme. Sebuah sensor untuk memonitor di
dalam menara dan untuk menentukan jika turbin tengah menyimpang (arah) untuk
suatu periode waktu tertentu. Suatu thermocouple temperatur di dalam badan nacelle.

 Elektronik Controller

Suatu pengontrol dasar, ditempatkan di dasar dari menara, menggunakan PC dan


serat optik untuk memonitor dan merekam data capaian, seperti halnya untuk
memudahkan komunikasi kedua sub-controllers. Untuk pengontrol nacelle berfungsi
memonitor aktivitas nacelle. Pengontrol poros, yang berkomunikasi secara langsung
dengan pengontrol agar nacelle lebih presisi dalam memonitor aktivitas baling-
baling.
4. BERIKAN PENJELASAN DENGAN DETIL TENTANG ISLANDING
PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK PADA SISTEM TENAGA LISTRIK (NB.
TOLONG MENGACU JUGA KE STANDAR IEEE 1574 THN 2003).

Islanding adalah kondisi dimana distributed generator (DG) terus memasok daya ke area sekitar
meskipun daya jaringan listrik utama telah diputus atau terputus. Islanding sangat berbahaya pagi
pekerja, yang tidak menyadari jaringan masih teraliri listrik untuk alasan tersebut, distributed
generator (DG) harus mendeteksi adanya islanding dan segera memutuskan sambungan dari
sirkuit

Jenis-jenis islanding

 Unintentional islanding

ketika grid telah dihapus dengan sengaja, karena kecelakaan, atau karena kerusakan

 Intentional islanding

Islanding yang disengaja dikatakan hasil dari "peristiwa yang disengaja yang waktu dan durasi
island yang direncanakan disepakati oleh semua pihak yang terlibat.“(IEEE Standard 1547.4 )

 Metode menditeksi islanding:

 Passive methods

Dalam pendekatan ini perangkat digunakan untuk memantau tegangan di kedua sisi PCC
dan memungkinkan LAPES untuk terhubung ke jaringan utama hanya ketika sinyal
tegangan pada sisi LAPES berada dalam rentang tertentu yang diperlukan dari parameter
tegangan analog grid utama. Seperti pendekatan sinkronisasi aktif, sinkronisasi pasif
membutuhkan penginderaan dan komunikasi, yang mengarah ke kekhawatiran
keandalan yang sama. Selain itu, metode ini mungkin lebih lambat daripada sinkronisasi
aktif.

 Under/over voltage

 Under/over frequency

 Rate of change of frequency


 Active methods

Dalam pendekatan ini, pengendali LAPES mencocokkan sinyal tegangan pada sisi
mikro-grid PCC dengan yang ada di PCC pada sisi grid segera sebelum menutup
perangkat islanding, seperti pemutus sirkuit. Implementasi dari pendekatan ini
memerlukan pengukuran ketiga amplitudo parameter sinyal tegangan, frekuensi dan
sudut fasa pada kedua sisi PCC. Saluran komunikasi untuk bertukar informasi antara
jaringan mikro dan jaringan utama juga diperlukan. Kebutuhan untuk penginderaan
dan komunikasi ini dapat menyebabkan tingkat kegagalan yang lebih tinggi karena
subsistem penginderaan dan komunikasi dapat menjadi satu titik kegagalan.

 Negative-sequence current injection

 Impedance measurement

 Impedance measurement at a specific frequency

 Slip mode frequency shift

 Frequency bias
5. BERIKAN PENJELASAN DENGAN DETIL TENTANG HARMONIK,
PENYEBABNYA, DAN SYARAT-SYARAT KANDUNGAN HARMONIK
SAAT INTEGRASI INVERTER PEMBANGKIT PADA JARINGAN
LISTRIK PLN. (NB. TOLONG MENGACU JUGA KE STANDAR IEEE
1574 THN 2003).

Harmonik merupakan kelipatan dari frekuensi dasar dan dapat berupa tegangan, arus atau tegangan
dan arus dalam sistem tenaga listrik karena adanya beban listrik nonlinier. Harmonik dalam sistem
tenaga menghasilkan peningkatan pemanasan di peralatan dan konduktor, salah dalam kecepatan
variabel drive, dan pulsasi torsi di motor.

 Current harmonics

 Voltage harmonics

 Total harmonic distortion

Penyebab:

 Penyebab harmonik adalah beban tidak linear

 Saturated transformers and inductors


 Switching regulators

 Switching power supplies

 Variable Speed Drives

 Electronic ballast

syarat-syarat kandungan harmonic:

Ketika DR melayani beban linier seimbang, injeksi arus harmonik ke dalam Area EPS pada
PCC tidak boleh melebihi batas yang dinyatakan di tabel bawah ini. Suntikan arus harmonik
harus eksklusif dari setiap arus harmonik karena adanya distorsi tegangan harmonik yang
ada di Area EPS tanpa DR tersambung (IEEE Standard 1547.4 )
6. MULTI STRING TOPOLOGY

The PV module is the basic building block in photovoltaic power system. The power generated by
the PV module depends on the solar irradiation on the module, module temperature and the operating
voltage of the module. The power generation capacity of a standard module is usually a few hundred
watts peak (W), at operating dc voltages ranging from 15 to 35 V. There are many topologies for
connecting PV modules to grid. For PV systems with installed capacity greater than a few tens of
kilowatts, where large numbers of modules are to be connected to grid, a centralized topology or a
multistring topology is preferred.
In centralized topology, the PV modules are first divided into series connections (called a string)
each generating a sufficiently high voltage and then these strings are connected in parallel, through
string diodes, in order to reach high power levels. The main advantage of this topology is the
simplicity, single point of control, high power conversion efficiency and reduced initial cost.
But it has some severe limitations such as non-flexible design, lower power generation due to non-
optimal centralized maximum power point tracking (MPPT). These two major limitations are
overcome in multi-string topology by using two stages of power conversion with a distributed dc-dc
conversion and a centralized dc-ac conversion. In this topology, each of the PV strings is connected
through a dc-dc converter (usually a boost type converter) to a common dc bus and then this dc
power is processed through a centralized inverter and fed to utility grid. The distributed dc-dc
conversion allows performing MPPT tracking of each string individually increasing the power
extracted in the face of unequal shading, soiling or panel mismatch. Further benefit of this topology
is increased modularity i.e. PV strings of different type, size, orientation, inclination can be
connected to one common grid converter. Further extension can be easily achieved since a new string
with its dc-dc converter can be plugged into the existing platform. The viability of this two stage
conversion topology relies on the high efficiency of the dc-dc converters so that the gains of the
distributed MPPTs are not lost in the extra conversion stage. Therefore, the multi-string topology is
considered the state of the art solution, despite higher initial cost and increased control and
implementation complexity introduced by the additional dc-dc conversion stage.
I. DUAL MULTISTRING TOPOLOGY
In dual multi-string topology shown in Fig. 1, there are two dc buses ‘bus p’ and ‘bus n’. Each
of these dc buses will be fed from a multi-string PV configuration. The modules are divided into
strings and each of these strings has its own dedicated MPP Tracker. The MPP Tracker can be
any unidirectional dcdc converter which implements a standard MPPT algorithm. The strings
(string 1, string 3..,string N-1 via their MPP Trackers (MPPT 1, MPPT 3.., MPPT N-1) are
connected to bus p in parallel and strings (string 2, string 4..string N) via their MPP Trackers
(MPPT 2, MPPT 4.. MPPT N) are connected to bus n in parallel. The dc bus p will be connected
to split dc link capacitor C and bus n will be connected to capacitor Cn.

Fig. 1 Dual multi-spring topology

𝑝 𝑛
The variables 𝑖𝑝𝑣 and 𝑖𝑝𝑣 are bus currents due to power injected by PV strings into the bus p
𝑝 𝑛
and bus n respectively. 𝑣𝑑𝑐 and 𝑣𝑑𝑐 are the instantaneous voltages of bus p and bus n
respectively. If each of the buses is maintained at a reference value of Vdc then the dc link
voltage as seen by NPC converter is effectively doubled to 2Vdc. Hence to attain a certain dc
link voltage, half the number of modules are needed to be connected in series for same step up
effort from dc-dc converter in comparison to traditional multi-string topology. Thus dual
multi-string configuration doubles the number of localized MPP Trackers, making the system
more tolerant to partial shading, soiling and module mismatches. Additional advantages of
using 3L-NPC are reduced common mode voltage, lower switching losses and improved
quality of voltage waveform. But now since a single 3L-NPC converter has to control two dc
bus voltages, there is an increase in control complexity.

II. CONTROL SCHEME

A. DC-DC Stage Control


The task of dc-dc stage is to extract maximum power from PV string it is connected to and
supply this power to dc bus. Since these strings via their MPP tracker are connected in
parallel, the MPPT of the strings are independent of each other. The MPP algorithm
implemented decides the operating point of that dc-dc converter.

B. Inverter Stage Control


The functions of 3L-NPC inverter system is to regulate the voltage of the split dc-link and
supply power generated by the PV strings to the grid with low harmonic currents. The
voltages of the split dc-link can be described as

The block diagram of the control structure is shown in Fig. 2.


Fig. 2 Block diagram of control scheme

C. Total Dc Link Control


𝑡
The total dc link control regulates 𝑣𝑑𝑐 by controlling the active power supplied to grid. In
steady state, the power generated by PV module must be equal to power supplied to grid by
inverter. The control is implemented in synchronous reference frame or dq frame. The direct
component of grid injected current 𝑖𝑑 is controlled to control the active power injected to
grid. There are two loops, first is the outer voltage loop which takes care of power balance
and generates 𝑖𝑑∗ , the reference for inner active current controller. The reference for reactive
current controller 𝑖𝑞∗ is set to zero. Phase disposition (PD) PWM is used for 3L-NPC as it has
the lowest harmonic distortion for line to line voltages.

D. Voltage Balance Control


This controller maintains the two bus voltages equal. Since different sets of PV strings are
supplying power into bus p and bus n, it is obvious that different powers will be supplied to
capacitors Cp and Cn. These asymmetrical powers will try to unbalance the dc link of 3L-
NPC inverter. The controller now has to modulate power ratio between each dc-link to
compensate for the asymmetrical powers. The explanation for voltage balance control is
based on the schematic of 3L-NPC shown in Fig. 3. For the analysis of voltage control the
instantaneous ripple in the bus voltages and currents are neglected. The asymmetry of powers
𝑝
supplied to bus p and bus n will be reflected as asymmetry in bus currents, i.e. 𝑖𝑝𝑣 will be
𝑛 𝑝 𝑛
different from 𝑖𝑝𝑣 . This results in a non-zero current (𝑖𝑝𝑣 − 𝑖𝑝𝑣 ) flowing in the middle dc
𝑜
bus bar. In steady-state for the average bus voltages to be equal, the neutral point current 𝑖𝑑𝑐
must satisfy the following condition.

< > denotes the average of the waveform over one cycle of power system frequency. The
condition in can be easily obtained by applying KCL at point ‘o’ in Fig. 3

Fig. 3 3L-NPC schematic with sinusoidal phase currents


7. EFFECT OF SHADE ON PV (PHOTOVOLTAIC) ARRAY AND SHADE
MITIGATION

Since PV systems generate electricity based on the amount of sunlight they receive, it makes
sense that when a shadow is cast on a panel, for example by a nearby tree, its power output
decreases. However, the decrease in power could be a lot worse than it initially seems.

I. Waterflow Analogy
To conceptualize why shading results in such severe losses, it is helpful to use the analogy
of water flowing in pipes. The flow rate of water through the pipe is constant, much like the
current through a cell string is constant for a given irradiance level.

Figure 1. Analogy of a water pipe to a string of solar cells.

Shading a solar cell is similar to introducing a clog in a pipe of water. The clog in the pipe
restricts the flow of water through the entire pipe. Similarly, when a solar cell is shaded, the
current through the entire string is reduced.

Figure 2. A shaded solar cell is similar to a clog in a water pipe.


II. Shading Impacts on I-V Curves
The output of a PV module can be reduced dramatically when even a small portion of it is
shaded. Unless special efforts are made to compensate for shade problems, even a single
shaded cell in a long string of cells can easily cut output power by more than half. External
diodes, purposely added by the PV manufacturer or by the system designer, can help preserve
the performance of PV modules. The main purpose for such diodes is to mitigate the impacts
of shading on PV I –V curves. Such diodes are usually added in parallel with modules or
blocks of cells within a module.

a) Physics of Shading

Figure 3. A module with n cells in which the top cell is in the sun (a) or in the shade (b).

Figure 3. in which an n-cell module with current I and output voltage V shows one cell
separated from the others (shown as the top cell, though it can be any cell in the string).
In Fig. 3a, all of the cells are in the sun and since they are in series, the n−1 same current
I flows through each of them. In Fig. 3b, however, the top cell is shaded and its current
source ISC has been reduced to zero. The voltage drop across RP as current flows through
it causes the diode to be reverse biased, so the diode current is also (essentially) zero. That
means the entire current flowing through the module must travel through both RP and RS
in the shaded cell on its way to the load. That means the top cell, instead of adding to the
output voltage, actually reduces it. Consider the case when the bottom n−1 cells still have
full sun and stillsome how carry their original current I so they will still produce their
original voltage Vn−1. This means that the output voltage of the entire module VSH with
one cell shaded will drop to
𝑉𝑆𝐻 = 𝑉𝑛−1 − 𝐼 (𝑅𝑝 + 𝑅𝑠 ) (1)

With all n cells in the sun and carrying I , the output voltage was V so the voltage of the
bottom n - 1 cells will be
𝑛−1 (2)
𝑉𝑛−1 = ( )𝑉
𝑛

Combining (1) and (2) gives:


𝑛−1 (3)
𝑉𝑆𝐻 = ( ) 𝑉 − 𝐼 (𝑅𝑝 + 𝑅𝑠 )
𝑛

The drop in voltage ΔV at any given current I , caused by the shaded cell, is given by
1 (4)
∆𝑉 = 𝑉 − 𝑉𝑆𝐻 = 𝑉 − (1 − ) 𝑉 + 𝐼 (𝑅𝑝 + 𝑅𝑠 )
𝑛
𝑉 (5)
∆𝑉 = + 𝐼 (𝑅𝑝 + 𝑅𝑠 )
𝑛

Since the parallel resistance RP is so much greater than the series resistance RS, (5)
simplifies to
𝑉 (6)
∆𝑉 ≈ + 𝐼𝑅𝑝
𝑛

At any given current, the I-V curve for the module with one shaded cell drops by ΔV. The
huge impact this can have is illustrated in Fig. 4.
Figure 4. Effect of shading one cell in an n-cell module. At any given current, module voltages
drop from V to V – ΔV

b) Example Impacts of Shading on a PV Module

The 36-cell PV module had a parallel resistance per cell of RP = 6.6Ω. In full sun and at
current I = 2.14A, the output voltage was found there to be V = 19.41V. If one cell is
shaded and this current somehow stays the same, then:
a. What would be the new module output voltage and power?
b. What would be the voltage drop across the shaded cell?
c. How much power would be dissipated in the shaded cell?

Answer:
 Drop in module voltage:
𝑉 19.41
∆𝑉 = + 𝐼𝑅𝑝 = + 2.14 × 6.6 = 14.66 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡
𝑛 36

New output voltage will be:


19.41 𝑉 − 14.66 𝑉 = 4.75 𝑉

Power delivered by the module with one cell shaded would be:
𝑃𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 = 𝑉 𝐼 = 4.75 𝑉 × 2.14 𝐴 = 10.1 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
 All of that 2.14 A of current goes through the parallel plus series resistance (0.005 Ω)
of the shaded cell, so the drop across the shaded cell will be:

𝑉𝑐 = 𝐼 (𝑅𝑝 + 𝑅𝑠 ) = 2.14 (6.6 + 0.005) = 14.14 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡

(normally a cell in the sun will add about 0.5 V to the module; this shaded cell
subtracts over 14 V from the module).

 The power dissipated in the shaded cell is voltage drop times current, which is:
𝑃𝑐 = 𝑉𝑐 𝐼 = 14.14 𝑉 × 2.14 𝐴 = 30.2 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

All of that power dissipated in the shaded cell is converted to heat, which can cause
a local hot spot that may permanently damage the plastic laminates enclosing the cell.

c) Bypass Diodes for Shade Mitigation

Figure 5. In full sun a cell may contribute around 0.5 V to the module output; but when
a cell is shaded, it can have a large voltage drop across it.

Example Impacts of Shading on a PV Module shows not only how drastically shading
can shift the I –V curve, but also how local, potentially damaging hot spots can be created
in shaded cells. Figure 5 shows a typical situation. In Fig. 5a, a solar cell in full sun
operating in its normal range contributes about 0.5 V to the voltage output of the module,
but in the equivalent circuit shown in 5b, a shaded cell experiences a drop as current is
diverted through the parallel and series resistances. This drop can be considerable (in
Example Impacts of Shading on a PV Module it was over 14 V). The voltage drop
problem in shaded cells could be to corrected by adding a bypass diode across each cell,
as shown in Fig. 6, When a solar cell is in the sun, there is a voltage rise across the cell so
the bypass diode is cut off and no current flows through it —it is as if the diode is not even
there. When the solar cell is shaded, however, the drop that would occur if the cell
conducted any current would turn on the bypass diode, diverting the current flow through
that diode. The bypass diode, when it conducts, drops about 0.6 V. So, the bypass diode
controls the voltage drop across the shaded cell, limiting it to a relatively modest 0.6 V
instead of the rather large drop that may occur without it.

Figure 6. Mitigating the shade problem with a bypass diode. In the sun (a), the bypass diode is
cut off and all the normal current goes through the solar cell. In shade (b), the bypass
diode conducts current around the shaded cell, allowing just the diode drop of about
0.6 V to occur.

In real modules, it would be impractical to add bypass diodes across every solar cell, but
manufacturers often do provide at least one bypass diode around a module to help protect
arrays, and sometimes several such diodes around groups of cells within a module. These
diodes don’t have much impact on shading problems of a single module, but they can be
very important when a number of modules are connected in series. Just as cells are wired
in series to increase module voltage, modules can be wired in series to increase array
voltage. Also, just as a single cell can drag down the current within a module, a few shaded
cells in a single module can drag down the current delivered by the entire string in an
array. The benefit already demonstrated for a bypass diode on a single cell also applies to
a diode applied across a complete module.

Figure 7. Impact of bypass diodes. Drawn for five modules in series delivering 65 V to a battery
bank. With one module having two shaded cells, charging current drops by almost
one-third when there are no bypass diodes. With the module bypass diodes there is
very little drop.

To see how bypass diodes wired in parallel with modules can help mitigate shading
problems, consider Fig. 7, which shows I –V curves for a string of five modules. The
graph shows the modules in full sun as well as the I –V curve that results when one module
has two cells completely shaded. Imagine the PVs delivering charging current at about 65
V to a 60-V battery bank. As can be seen, in full sun about 3.3 A are delivered to the
batteries. However, when just two cells in one module are shaded, the current drops by
one-third to about 2.2 A. With a bypass diode across the shaded module, however, the I –
V curve is improved considerably as shown in the figure. Figure 8. helps explain how the
bypass diodes do their job. Imagine five modules, wired in series, connected to a battery
that forces the modules to operate at 65 V. In full sun the modules deliver 3.3 A at 65 V.
When any of the cells are shaded, they cease to produce voltage and instead begin to act
like resistors (6.6 Ω per cell in this example) that cause voltage to drop as the other
modules continue to try to push current through the string. Without a bypass diode to
divert the current, the shaded module loses voltage and the other modules try to
compensate by increasing voltage, but the net effect is that current in the whole string
drops. If, however, bypass diodes are provided, as shown in Fig. 8c, then current will go
around the shaded module and the charging current bounces back to nearly the same level
that it was before shading occurred.

Figure 8. Showing the ability of bypass diodes to mitigate shading when modules are charging
a 65 V battery. Without bypass diodes, a partially shaded module constricts the current
delivered to the load (b). With bypass diodes, current is diverted around the shaded
module.
d) Blocking Diodes for Shade Mitigation

Bypass diodes help current go around a shaded or malfunctioning module within a string.
This not only improves the string performance, but also prevents hot spots from
developing in individual shaded cells. When strings of modules are wired in parallel, a
similar problem may arise when one of the strings is not performing well. Instead of
supplying current to the array, a malfunctioning or shaded string can withdraw current
from the rest of the array. By placing blocking diodes (also called isolation diodes) at the
top of each string as shown in Fig. 9, the reverse current drawn by a shaded string can be
prevented.

Figure 9. Blocking diodes prevent reverse current from flowing down malfunctioning or shaded
strings.

e) Module Level Power Electronics (MLPEs) for Shade Mitigation

MLPEs are devices that are attached to individual modules in order to increase
performance under shaded conditions (though there are other benefits, such as mismatch
mitigation and module-level monitoring). This is done by performing maximum power
point tracking at the module level. MLPEs include DC optimizers and microinverters.
DC Optimizers:
A DC optimizer adjusts its output voltage and current to maintain maximum power
without compromising the performance of other modules. For instance, when a shaded
module produces electricity with a lower current, the DC optimizer will boost the current
at its output to match the current flowing through the unshaded modules; to compensate,
the optimizer reduces its output voltage by the same amount it boosts the current. This
allows the shaded module to produce the same amount of electrical power without
impeding the output of other modules. A system utilizing DC optimizers still needs an
inverter to convert electricity from DC to AC.

Microinverters:
As opposed to having a single inverter servicing all of the panels, each panel can have a
small inverter attached to it to convert its output from direct current (DC) to alternating
current (AC). Since each microinverter has an MPPT, and their outputs are connected in
parallel, each panel will operate at its maximum power point, without impacting other
panels.

Figure 10. Simplified schematic of a PV system utilizing microinverters (top) and a PV system
utilizing DC optimizers (bottom).
8. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER
PLANT

I. Battery for PV System


Basically the battery is the only method for storing the direct current (DC) of electricity
generated from sources such as solar panels, wind generators (Wind Power Plant),
microhydro (Microhidro Power Plant) or generators.

Battery can be classified into 2 types:


1. Primary or Non-rechargeable battery is a battery that can only be used once and can not
be re-charge.
2. Secondary or Rechargeable battery is a battery that can be used repeatedly by re-charge.

Figure 1. Rechargeable battery types

There are three basic stages in charging, Bulk Charge, Absorption Charge, and Float Charge.
These terms indicate the different voltages and current variables involved in each charging
stage.
1. Bulk Charge
In the first stage of the process, the current is sent to the battery until the voltage reaches
80-90 percent at full charge level. There is a limit on the amount of battery current and
or cable can pick up.
2. Absorption Charge
In the second stage, the voltage reaches the peak and then stabilizes and the current begins
to slow down as a result of an increase in internal resistance. Charge controller places the
maximum voltage at this stage.
3. Float Charge
At this stage, the voltage is reduced to a lower level to reduce toxic gases and prolong
battery life. The main purpose of this stage is basically to maintain battery charging in a
controlled manner.

Battery commonly used on PV stand alone system. There are 3 main functions of battery
in PV system:
1. As a buffer store to eliminate discrepancies between the power of the PV system and
the power from the load.
2. As an energy storage (autonomy system).
3. To prevent high voltage fluctuations and damage.

The PV system that does not require batteries is:


1. In the grid-connected system, where PV produces AC power for inside buildings or
to be transferred to the main power supply network.
2. On the water pumping system
3. On directly-driven motor load

a. Battery Duty Cycle in PV Systems


In PV systems are generally used rechargeable battery, which is usually used in the
following modes:
1. Regular deep cycling (as in electronic devices)
2. Standby use (in full charge state for emergency condition)
3. Starting, lighting, ignition (SLI) for vehicles, which require very high electric current
at the beginning and low depth of discharge.
In PV systems, charging energy is limited (and variable) so it is not certain that the battery
will be in full charge state after recharge until sunset.

b. The Battery as a “Black Box”


Rechrageable battery can be analogous such as "black box" or "black bucket" which can
be filled and taken as needed. Like a bucket, the battery has a certain storage capacity,
and when it is full, it can not be charged again or when it is empty, can not be retrieved.
So if you want to store water in larger quantities it is proposed bucket with greater storage
capacity or by increasing the number of buckets with the same capacity.

The electricity storage unit in ampere-hours (Ah) is the electricity required to power 1 A
load for 1 hour.
1. Storage capacity of the battery is not fixed, influenced by discharge and temperature
process, and battery type.
2. In extreme conditions even once, should only 80% stored electricity taken.
3. The higher the stored electricity is taken, the battery will wear out more quickly. The
smaller the storage capacity, the shorter the life of the battery.
4. If the battery is operated at 'high' temperatures (more than 20° C), the battery will
become worn faster.

c. Characteristics of the battery

Properties of the battery is:


1. The amount of electrical energy that can be stored is expressed in watt-hours (Wh) or
kilowatthours (kWh). The energy efficiency of rechargeable battery is:
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑑
energy efficiency of rechargeable =
𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒

2. Battery capacity is measured in ampere-hours (Ah). Charge (or Ah) efficiency is:
𝐴ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑑
Charge efficiency =
𝐴ℎ 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒
Charge efficiency is about 95% for lead-acid battery, and lower value for nickel-
acdmium battery. Energy efficiency battery is lower than Ah efficiency because the
battery is discharged at a lower voltage than the charging process. In the charging
process, required a greater value of Ah (known as overcharge) than for complete
charging due to the charge consumed due to chemical reactions in the battery.
3. Discharge and Charge Rate shows the ratio of electric current to battery discharge or
charge, which is not affected by battery capacity and expressed in hours.
4. Battery capacity, is not fixed. Nominal or rated capacity battery is the maximum Ah
that the battery can carry in fully charged state under certain circumstances. Battery
capacity increases at low current charge and decreases at high current discharge. For
example, a battery rated at 100 Ah per 10 hours will give a discharge time during:
 1 hour for discharge current 100 A
 10 hours for 10 A discharge current
 100 hours for 1 A discharge current
Battery capacity is reduced at low temperatures, so back-up is needed during winter.
5. Depth of Discharge (DOD) and State of Charge (SOC)
DOD is the fraction of capacity that has been taken from fully charged battery, and
SOC is the remaining capacity fraction in the battery.
6. Self discharge rate is the amount of loss from the battery charge if the battery is in the
state of open circuit in some particular time. Usually in PV systems, self discharge
rate is quite low (between 1 and 4% per month at a temperature of 20 - 25 ° C).
7. Cycle life is the number of cycle batteries (1 discharge and 1 recharge).

d. Types of Battery Used in PV Systems


1. Lead-acid battery
Lead Acid batteries are the most commonly used batteries, and have the longest track
record in solar power systems. A lead-acid battery or cell in the charged condition
has a positive plate with lead dioxide (PbO2) and a negative plate with a broad surface
as an active ingredient, and an electrolyte solution of sulfuric acid in water (about 400
-480 g / l, density 1.24 -1.28 kg / l). At discharges, the dioxide leads of the positive
plate and spongy lead of the negative plate are both converted to lead sulphate.
Electrolytes (sulfuric acid) play a role in the basic charge and discharge reaction,
which is consumed during use and updated during charging. This means that the acid
concentration (or density) will change between charging and discharging. This also
means that an adequate supply of acid is required on both plates (positive and
negative) when the battery is used to obtain full capacity.

Lead-acid battery system has a nominal voltage of 2.0 V / cell. Typical end voltage
for use in PV systems of 1.8 V / cell, and typical end volatge for charging in PV
systems varies between 2.3 and 2.5 V / cell, depending on battery, controller and
system type. The open circuit voltage relationship for SOC is a factor that can change
but is slightly proportional. However, if the charge or discharge is interrupted to
measure open circuit voltage, it can take a long time (hours) to stabilize the battery
voltage.

Figure 2. Lead-Acid Battery charge state

Lead-Acid Battery Types:


Basically we can classify Lead-Acid Battery in two types:
a. Open or 'sealed' construction
b. Mass-produced or 'industrial' types

2. Nickel-cadmium
Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery in charge has a positive plate with nickel
oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) as the active ingredient, finely-divided cadmium metal as
active ingredient, and electrolyte of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in water (20-35%
by weight). At the time of use, NiOOH from the positive plate is converted to Ni (OH)
2 and the cadmium metal of the negative plate is converted to Cd (OH) 2.
In PV systems, nickel-cadmium batteries are usually only selected in preference for
leadacid batteries at very low (sub-zero) or very high (over 40 ° C) operating
temperatures, where lead-acid acid batteries may be clogged or reduced life span.
Open type nickel-cadmium batteries are typically 3-4 times more expensive per kWh
of stored energy compared to industry open types of lead-acid batteries.

Figure 4. Nickel Cadmium Battery

e. How Long will the Battery Last in a PV System?


Things that need to be avoided to get the battery life possible on the PV system:
 Manufacturing error.
 Abuse of the user.
 Accidents.
Things that need to be considered :
 Selecting a reliable and reliable battery manufacturer.
 Provide proper documentation and supervision or training for commissioning,
operation and maintenance.
 Be careful (avoid dropping metal wrenches on battery terminals).
 Luck.
Ensure that the PV system is designed to avoid the following:
 Sulphation
 Stratification
 Holds
 Cycle life
 Grid corrosion (depending on temperature)
f. Selecting the Best Battery for a PV Application
There are different types of lead-acid batteries that can be selected when designing a PV
system and there is always a trade-off between expected cost and lifetime. In general
there are several factors to consider in choosing a battery for a particular system.

1. Battery Ragone Plot


Battery ragone plot is a graph that compares volumetric energy density and
gravimetric energy density of some types of batteries. Ideally the battery with both
the highest aspect is selected for use. In the ragone plot it appears that the Li / Li-ion
Battery Thin Film has the two highest aspects, so for large battery capacity, this type
of battery becomes the smallest and lightest. But this battery has a very expensive
price because it is a new type of battery that has not been widely produced. Therefore
Lead Acid Battery which has the lowest value remains the main choice because the
price is much cheaper than other types of batteries.

Figure 5. Battery Ragona Plot

2. Battery Capacity
Solar energy converted into electrical energy can only be obtained during the day, on
the contrary the highest electrical energy consumption actually occurs at night. So
that during the day there is a surplus of electrical energy that we must save to
overcome the electrical energy deficit that occurs at night. Therefore the battery
capacity used must be in accordance with the surplus obtained during the day with
the deficit occurring at night.

Figure 6. Solar Irradiance vs Demand Profile

3. Battery Characteristics
Battery characteristics are the values that determine the specifications of a battery.
The characteristics of this battery determine directly whether or not a good battery so
that the battery can be determined that match the solar power system used.

Besides few factors above, there are other several factors that must be consider for
selecting battery for PV system that shown at Figure 7.

Figure 7. Battery selection factors


II. Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS)

Wind energy using fast rotating flywheels can be used to store wind power. Around 1950
Oerlikon gyrobuses were used in Switzerland using the energy stored in a flywheel.

Composite metallic and polyester resin materials can be used in flywheels with an
efficiency:
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
𝜂= = 80%
𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

With a flywheel rotating at 15,000 rpm on magnetic bearings in a vacuum chamber, it is


theoretically possible to store 400 W.hr/kg for a period of 24 hours. A limitation shared
with nuclear fuel enrichment centrifuges exists: beyond a certain critical rotational speed
the centrifugal stresses would cause a catastrophic failure of the device.

Figure 6. Flywheel motor-generator. Source: CleanSource.


9. MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY ON HYBRID SYSTEM BETWEEN PV AND
PLTB WITH GENERATOR AND BATTERY/SYSTEM OF SAVER
ENERGY

In recent years, hybrid renewable energy sources coupled with a battery pack, have been widely
used for the electrification of isolated sites. The advantage of these systems is the combination of
renewable energy on the one hand and the guarantee of the autonomy of the systems on the other.
Several authors have based their work on the use of solar generator, wind generator, gas turbine,
diesel generator and storage systems to build stand-alone hybrid configurations. The means or
methodology for energy management of multi-source hybrid systems is still the main asset for
making better use of available resources. It is important to be able to manage and control the
various loops of the system.

a. Hibrid System of PV and Wind Energy

Fig.1. Architecture of the hybrid system


A DC/DC converter with multiple input source interfaces is used to integrate renewable
energy sources with the main DC bus. A direct drive permanent magnet synchronous
generator is used with a variable speed control method whose strategy is to capture the
maximum wind energy below the nominal wind speed. The analysis considers wind energy
and solar irradiance change in combination with power variations of the load. The Acid-lead
battery storage system connected to the DC bus is equipped with a DC/DC converter for
controlling the charge / discharge (SOC) level.
The inverter converts the DC output from the unconventional energy into a useful AC power
supply for the connected load. This converter is controlled by the MLI technique in order to
keep the voltage across the load within acceptable limits.
Continuous load satisfaction is ensured by the two renewable generators and storage
batteries. The state of charge/discharge of the batteries depends on the total power produced
by the renewable sources and the demand of the load. Thus, in order to control the operation
of the storage system two thresholds (SOCmax and SOCmin) are defined.

b. Modeling of The Hybrid System


The power delivered by the different energy sources depends on several parameters.
1. For the PV generator, the ambient temperature Ta and the irradiation E affect the supplied
power.
2. For the wind generator, the power supplied is influenced by the wind speed V.
3. For the storage system, the power supplied or stored depends on the satisfaction of the
load and the levels of charge/discharge of the batteries.

1. Modeling the photovoltaic generator


The electrical power generated by the photovoltaic panels is given by:
𝑃𝑝𝑣 = 𝜂𝑝𝑣 ∙ 𝑆𝑝𝑣 ∙ 𝐸

ηpv : the efficiency of the modules depends on the temperature of the cell and
therefore the ambient temperature
Spv : is the surface area of thephotovoltaic modules [m2]
E : the irradiation [W/m2].
The typical characteristics I-V and P-V of the solar generator are given in fig. 2.

(a) (b)

Figure 2. I-V and P-V characteristics of the solar generator

2. Modeling of the wind generator


In our study we consider a wind turbine associated with a turbine driving a permanent
magnet synchronous generator through a shaft and a speed multiplier. The electrical
power supplied by the wind generator is given by the following expression:

1
𝑃𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 = 𝐶 ∙ 𝜂 ∙ 𝜌 ∙ 𝑆 ∙ 𝑉3
2 𝑝 𝐺

𝐶𝑝 : is the power coefficient of the turbine


ηG : The efficiency of generator
S : The surface swept by the rotor of the turbine [m2]
ρ : The density of air [kg/m3]
V : The wind speed [m/s]

3. Modeling of the storage system


Among the models of batteries, that based on the observation of the physico-chemical
phenomenon of the charge and discharge of the storage system. This model uses the
following equivalent circuit:
Figure 3. Battery model
The mathematical model is therefore:

𝑉𝐵𝑎𝑡𝑡 = 𝐸𝐵𝑎𝑡𝑡 − 𝑅𝐵 ∙ 𝐼𝐵𝑎𝑡𝑡

Several techniques for controlling the state of charge / discharge have been developed,
based on the voltage measured at the terminals of the battery as the only indicator of its
state of charge 'State Of Charge SOC'. The chosen battery technology allows 35%
discharge (SOC min = 35%). It has an energy efficiency ηB of 100% at the landfill, and
80% at the load.
One of the SOC state control technologies is the measurement and calculation of
incoming and outgoing electricity quantities in both charge and discharge processes in
ampere-hour thermals. This technique is called the metric coulomb measurement. The
state of charge of SOC batteries is subject to the following constraints:
𝑆𝑂𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≤ 𝑆𝑂𝐶 ≤ 𝑆𝑂𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥

SOCmax and SOCmin being the charge / discharge limits of the batteries. The state of
charge of the battery at a given time depends directly on the previous state of charge,
which must be known beforehand.

c. Control and Management of the Hybrid System


1. Principle of control
The control system constantly receives all the collected measurements from the various
nodes of the hybrid system, which it must then generate. The power fluxes of the
different sources must be precisely controlled in order to carry out the power references
imposed by the central micro-network controller (Load profile).
To achieve the objectives of pilotage, one must ensure:
 A fast and accurate management of the power, delivered by each source
 Checking the charge/discharge of the batteries, respecting the limits of their state of
charge and the maximum charging/discharging currents.

Due to its clarity of design and organization, we used a hierarchical command which is
now recalled. According to the measured values and the power demand, the control
system gives the command instructions to the electronic converters of the three sources
(choppers) and the load interface converter (three-phase inverter).
This is done through four levels of control (figure4):
1. Control of the operating modes (Mode control),
2. The remote control (Power control),
3. The close control of each converter (Automatic Control),
4. The Switching Control.

Fig.4. Structure of the hierarchical control of the multi-source system


The control of the operating modes receives the references of power of the operator of
the network and the information on the states of charge of the batteries. Then it calculates
the power reference to be exchanged with the batteries and transmits them to the
following level: power control. In this level, the power references are transformed into
current or voltage references and are transmitted at the Automatic Control.
The Automatic Control gives instructions to each converter to control the current of the
storage elements, the voltage at the terminals of the PV panels (followed by the
maximum or limited power point according to the operating mode), the DC bus voltage
and the consumed current by the load. Finally, the switching control block gives the
semiconductor switching signals to perform the desired command.

2. Management Strategy
Depending on the availability of each source and the state of charge of the batteries, the
mode controller selects one of three modes:
- Normal mode
- Limitation mode
- Disconnect mode

For normal operation, the charge state of the batteries must be between the minimum
and maximum values (SOCmin and SOCmax). In this mode, the PV and wind generators
operate at maximum power and the automatic control algorithm tracks the Maximum
Power Point Tracking (MPPT).
If the state of charge SOC is less than the minimum, they can no longer perform their
function
of buffer to smooth the power PV and wind; one then switches into the "disconnection"
mode and charges the batteries up to in that they exceed their minimum state of charge.
On the contrary, when the state of charge of the batteries is equal to the maximum, the
controller goes into limitation mode. In this case, the automatic control imposes an
operating point on the PV panels which corresponds to the limited power. The selection
of the operating modes is presented in the form of an algorithm in fig. 5.
Fig.5. Algorithm for selecting operating modes

The management algorithm is developed to cover the energy needs of the facility in case
of lack or absence of energy from renewable sources. In addition, the tool guarantees the
optimal use of energies from renewable sources and ensures the safety of the battery
against overloads and deep discharges. The control algorithm is validated for a day with
a variable load profile. The algorithm can be improved by adopting other unconventional
techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic or genetic algorithms to further optimize
the energy management of the system.
10.TECHNIQUES TO COMPENSATE FOR POWER FLUCTUATIONS DUE
TO THE PRESENCE OF AN INTERMITTENT ENERGY SOURCE:
A. By PLN Side (utility)
B. By Power Plant Side

Integrating Renewable Energy with the Smart Grid


The technical potential challenges from integrating renewable energy with grid that effects
quality of power observed includes: voltage fluctuation, power system transient and harmonics,
reactive power, electromagnetic interference, switching actions, synchronization, long
transmission lines, low power factor, storage system, load management, and forecasting and
scheduling. These problems mostly occurred for wind and solar energy. Biomass, hydro and
geothermal energy sources are more predictable and they have no significant problem on
integration with the smart grid. Any device to be connected to the electric grid has to fulfill
standardized power quality requirements. To ensure adequate PQ in the grid it is a prime concern
today to mitigate these problems and Government, industries and researchers are working
together for a sustainable efficient smart power grid.

Power Fluctuations
Power fluctuations in grid Industries are widely affected when there is a grid disturbance. One
of the main causes of disturbance is intermittent power output from PV and wind power. These
sources do not deliver constant power continuously like nuclear, thermal or gas-fired plants. It
is the challenge for the grid operator for the ability to predict the power produced from these
intermittent sources. The fluctuation in the grid changes the voltage and frequency parameter
which affects sensitive equipments in manufacturing units. Due to this problem battery backup
and local generators are commonly used to protect sensitive equipment and control systems.
A. Techniques to compensate for power fluctuations due to the presence of an intermittent energy
source by PLN Side

To prevent power fluctuations, grid operators generally impose limits on suitable ramp rates.
Smoothing PV output power fluctuation increases the overall system cost, operating cost and the
cost of power produced by PV. For example, installation and control of dump load, fuel cell or
battery sources to mitigate PV variability increases all the aforementioned costs.
1. Smoothing power fluctuation by geographical dispersion
Geographical dispersion is normally used to mitigate the short term output power fluctuations
for PV clusters installed in wide area. It is also observed that the protection problem caused by
large PV penetration can also be solved by dispersing PV generation. Fig. 1(a) and (b) shows six
PV plants geographically dispersed over 1000 sq km in Spain and their outputs. From the
analysis it was found that the effective smoothing depends on grouping PV installations and the
corresponding distance between them.

Fig. 1. (a) Six PV plants geographically spread over 1000 sq km, (b) output power from
cintruenigo PV plant (P1) and combined output of six PV plant (P6)

Many methods are developed to forecast the PV power with and without the help of solar
radiation. One such method is combining regional forecast technique and principal component
analysis (PCA) to forecast PV power generation spread over large area was proposed in. The
disadvantage of combining regional forecast and PCA technique is that it is impossible to
monitor the PV units spread across the region individually. The proposed method did not use
solar radiation measured in the past.
Incidentally, when number of PV system decreases it contribute to increase in power
fluctuations. In short term output power fluctuation of a geographically dispersed PV is reduced
against individual PV. In addition, it is possible to calculate largest fluctuation of individual PV
from a PV group by applying convolution technique to the frequency fluctuation model. The
reduction in output power variability by integrating many PV stations is achieved in [32]. It is
also confirmed that the magnitude of smoothing effect depends on capacity of tie-line available
for electricity transfer between PV stations and grid. Strong decrease in fluctuation was observed
by applying wavelet transform to clear sky index of separate PV installation or average of
geographically dispersed six locations. A model was developed to calculate the output variability
of PV group by computing the standard deviation of change in fleet output power, relative output
variability and dispersion factor. The results closely matched with the measured 20 s irradiance
data. The fleet computation is valid but difficult to implement practically since the multiple
system calculation involves heavy mathematical calculations and insuffi- cient data on solar
irradiance.

2. Smoothing by using energy storage technologies


Storage devices assist in performing one or more important tasks such as (i) smoothing power
fluctuation, (ii) shift peak generation period, (iii) protection during outages when installed along
with large PV generation.

a. Battery energy storage


Control strategy for a grid-connected PV, battery energy system (BES) is proposed to smooth
output power fluctuations from PV. The optimal size of the BES is estimated by optimizing
a multi-objective function using genetic algorithm for a 1.2 MW PV plant. Operating
efficiency of the proposed controller is reported as 84% and the state of charge (SOC) control
reduces the size of battery by 2% from 300 kWh to 294 kWh. It is also observed that the non-
linear parameters like battery impedance, self-discharge resistance affect the charging and
discharging of batteries. It is also suggested that the proper representation of BES contribute
to accurate SOC estimation and improves controller design. A day ahead dispatching smooth
model is optimized using linear programming for a PV, wind, battery hybrid system when
connected with the grid connection. The combined output of PV and wind is smoothed
effectively by charging and discharging the battery system. A rule based controller for battery
is designed for optimal use of lead acid BES.

Fig. 2. Battery station for smoothing PV output connected with grid

The design and size of the lead acid battery is accurately found by following the developed
guideline algorithm. Reduction in computational burden and the effective smoothing was
carried out by applying moving average filtering method. Applying droop mechanism for
excitation control of diesel plant also enables reactive power sharing between diesel plant
and BES. From experimental we know that:
(i) High power fluctuations were reduced by optimal control and operation of BES,
(ii) BES size has been minimized and
(iii) The use of optimization technique increases efficiency of the controller.

Fuzzy wavelet filtering method is proposed to smooth the output power variation of a wind
turbine and PV system. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is tested to smooth
the output fluctuation from wind and PV by maintaining the SOC of battery within its limit.
The fuzzy wavelet filtering method efficiently levels the output power fluctuation without
adding energy storage capacity. Use of lithium ion phosphate battery energy storage is
demonstrated to smooth the output power fluctuation from PV and wind hybrid system. The
SOC smoothing control method is designed by considering (i) power distribution among
BES, (ii) coordination among BES for smoothing, (iii) individual BES SOC level.
Optimal design of storage considering intermittent wind and PV has been presented in.

The aim is to reduce the size of the storage device and it was concluded that the PV power is
more predictable than wind power. Improved cycle VRLA battery is used to charge/discharge
power to smooth the power fluctuation from PV inverter output. The smoothing is based on
average solar irradiance and the results show the smoothing algorithm reduces the ramp-rate.

Battery is used to smooth PV output by using a smoothing and SOC tracking algorithm.
Combining natural gas engine generator with battery for smoothing PV output. Smoothing
algorithm developed by authors of was used. The smoothing algorithm can respond to (i) PV
output fluctuation, (ii) Area control error and (iii) load variability. It was found from the
experiment that the (i) natural gas engine generator responds to slow ramprates, (ii) battery
responds to quick ramp-rates, (iii) reduction in battery size and low ramp-rates.

A method where the ramp-rate of PV inverter is controlled to desired level by employing


battery energy source is proposed in. The proposed method is effective to mitigate the
fluctuation problem and to control the ramp-rate independent of PV output historical data.
They designed an algorithm for controlling the energy storage by observing the inverse
relationship with PV output ramp-rate.

The problem of voltage rise with the increase in PV penetration is reduced by coordinate
control of distributed lithium ion iron phosphate batteries and OLTC (on-load tap changing)
transformers. The problem of voltage fluctuation and reverse power flow in distribution
network is addressed when a roof top PV is connected with BES. The battery storage is used
to store excess power flow during peak PV penetration and discharge during peak evening
load. In addition, the storage also discharges for short term during PV output fluctuation
caused by change in weather conditions. The proposed charging/discharging method is tested
practically in distribution network and is effective in maintaining voltage profile, reverse
power flow and to match excess PV power with evening load profile.

b. Use of capacitors and superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES)

The ramp-rate of PV generators connected to grid can be controlled by electric double layer
capacitor (EDLC) where the reference is generated using moving average method. The
capacitors absorb the difference of power between PV and inverter output. The expression
for calculating the capacitor size was developed and it was found that the capacitor size
decreases when ramp-rate decreases. Moreover the size of the capacitor is reduced by 10%
to its projected size when the PV output is smoothed using moving average method. The
moving average method depends on older data points. When there is no significant
fluctuations in PV output the reference waveform produced using moving average method
deviates wider. This is because the moving average method heavily depends on previous or
older data points which is termed as “memory effect”. Therefore due to this reason the energy
storage will operate unnecessarily even thought there is no significant fluctuation in PV
output power. The frequency deviation is minimized by modulating the PV generator's output
limited to 3% of the rated power is achieved. Increase in tap changing frequency and voltage
violation as PV penetration level increases (0–90%). They also reported that tap changing
frequency and voltage violation is reduced by installing DSTATCOM (Distribution static
compensator) in the feeder. Consequently, this will minimize the maintenance cost and
increases the life span of OLTC transformers. They also estimated the size of DSTATCOM
needed for voltage regulation. The increase in the size of DSTATCOM significantly reduces
the voltage violation. Moving average prediction method predicts the exact value with time
delay. The exact value can be found after (N1)Ts/2 s where N is sampling number and Ts is
sampling interval. This demerit is overridden by applying Euler moving average prediction
(EMAP) method. EMAP method is applied to a system consisting of PV, fuel cell and EDLC,
where the following objectives were achieved: (i) meeting customer power requirement, (ii)
effective use of fuel cell, (iii) EDLC to compensate PV output, load demand and to (iv)
maintain voltage stability. System topology is shown in Fig. 8. EMAP is an effective method
for optimal power sharing between fuel cell and EDLC. Furthermore, the size of EDLC is
also reduced by 77% when compared to moving average prediction method. The problem of
voltage flicker caused by variability in PV output is mitigated by installing super capacitors.
The use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with intermittent sources
shows its effectiveness in maintaining load side frequency. It was found that the increase in
SMES capacity maintains the frequency within the limit. The SMES is combined with 4 kW
PV facility to show that the PV output is fully utilized and is effective in leveling the PV
output power fluctuations. The experimental results conducted at different weather
conditions demonstrate that the PV output is effectively enhanced by using SMES. The
effectiveness control method is tested when connected to wind turbines. Terminal voltage
fluctuation and fluctuation in tie-line power is effectively reduced. The use of current
controlled ultra capacitors and battery energy storage connected to PV in grid connected
mode to minimize the PV output fluctuation and to meet load variations. Ultra capacitors and
battery through dual active bridge (DAB) converters connected in series and parallel
combination are used to meet the DC bus voltage. The characteristic feature of the proposed
control strategy and DAB controller are: (i) power distribution among batteries is flexible
without affecting normal operation, (ii) upgrade of energy storage is done by connecting the
battery or ultra capacitor directly to the group through DAB converter without disturbing the
existing order, (iii) dynamic allocation of steady state power and transient power demands to
batteries and capacitors and (iv) the battery with high SOC is discharged till the SOC level
of all batteries are same. The PV output is smoothed by installing electric double layer
capacitors. The power exchange between capacitor and PV is enhanced by controlling buck-
boost controller as illustrated in Fig. 9. The power injected or absorbed by the capacitor is
done by turning on and off the pulses G1 and G2. A novel idea of voltage management in
distribution system by cooperation between distribution network operator and commercial
customers is demonstrated. Voltage regulation in distribution network due to PV output
fluctuation is done by installing Static Var Compensator (SVC). PV output based on minute
by minute irradiation data is used for analysis.
Fig. 4. Buck-boost converter control

Fig. 3. Structure of PV, EDLC, FC dispersed system

3. Diesel generator
Integrating diesel generators with PV for mitigating fluctuation has gained user's trust in early
years. However, the difficulty of using a diesel generator for the PV power fluctuation problem
are due to (i) slow response during continuously changing PV and (ii) decrease in operational
efficiency when it is made to run at low output levels during high level of oscillation in PV.
These problem have prompted the users to focus on fast response technologies with more
operational flexibility like battery energy storage, capacitors and fuel cell.
A fuzzy controller for PV generator to control the frequency of a PV-diesel hybrid system. The
PV generator controlled the output produced and effectively maintained the frequency deviation
within 70.2 Hz. The results were satisfactory when compared with PV with MPPT control. The
diesel generator acted as a backup source which will follow the changes caused by variation in
PV output and load.

a coordinate operation between the PV, battery and diesel generator considering changes in solar
radiation was achieved by minimizing the fuel consumption of diesel generator and maintaining
constant output from the generator with high efficiency. Frequency deviation is maintained
within its limit by prioritizing the PV using fuzzy rules. A coordinate control based on fuzzy
reasoning of multiple PV connected with diesel generator in isolated power system is developed
in this work. Central and local controllers have been proposed. The central controller produce
the output power leveling command based on fuzzy reasoning. The local controller is
responsible for maintaining coordination. The proposed two level coordinate controls are
effective in minimizing frequency deviation when compared with MPPT control. When PV
power production increases or decreases the power production of diesel generator decreases or
increases respectively, where the coordination is maintained by exchange of information.
Coordination method for multiple PV systems has not been suggested. The problem of voltage
and frequency stability at the grid side has also not being addressed. A two level coordinated
control considering frequency deviation was proposed to smooth the output power fluctuation
of multiple PV system operated along with diesel generator. Frequency deviation not more than
70.2 Hz was observed. The objective of (i) smooth output fluctuation and (ii) minimize
frequency deviation were achieved in order to maintain the reliability of the system. The benefit
of coordinated control is shortage of power can be compensated by nearby generator.
Fig. 5. PV, diesel generator hybrid system.

4. Fuel cell

Operating fuel cell plant along with intermittent source is gaining its emergence due to following
reasons; (i) high integrating efficiency with RES, (ii) high reliability and low maintenance cost,
(iii) fast response, (iv) fuel cell can be installed near to the load with reduced noise and emission.
Feasibility of using fuel cell to smoothing the PV output power. Hybrid operation of fuel cell
with PV is studied. Smoothing algorithm was developed based on exponential smoothing to
dispatch power from proton electron membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a solution to suppress short
term PV fluctuation was conducted in.
Fig. 6. PV connected to fuel cell

Fuzzy logic based self tuning PI controllers to compensate the power change in microgrid
consisting of PV, wind and tie line power when microgrids are interconnected. The system is
operated in islanded and grid connected mode where the controllers are effective in reducing
frequency deviation caused by random variation in PV, wind power generation and tie line
power.

5. Curtailment of active power by MPPT control and dump load

Curtailing power from PV is a conventional method to suppress the output power fluctuations.
The output power from PV is limit by controlling its MPPT (Maximum power point tracking).
The smoothing effect is created by limiting the PV rampups by 1% of PV rated capacity per
minute. This proposed method does not address limiting PV's output when radiation decreases.
It is reported that the output fluctuation is reduced by 28%. The condition of changes in
frequency and voltage deviation is not considered. The system frequency was controlled by a
novel method of utilizing “PV reserve” by operating the PV after MPPT point. The frequency
control capability of the system with PV and rotating machine is only demonstrated and no
energy storage technology is used. The cost of the system is reduced when compared with using
storage technologies. When batteries usage is combined the size of battery is reduced very much.

The linear programming was performed to investigate the economical benefits of three
smoothing methods (i) use of battery storage, (ii) use of dump loads and (iii) operating below
MPPT method. NAS batteries are economical for long term applications are used for the
simulation. PV connected to utility grid through dump load is shown in Fig. 12. The main
objective of installing dump loads is to smoothen the fluctuation by absorbing excess power
generated by PV system. The dump load consists of resistance with a controller to control the
power flow through the load. It is logic to say that dumping a part of power generated is a loss.
The impact of voltage fluctuation and flicker was examined when cloud pass above PV panels.
Results showed passing clouds induce large voltage flickers in the distribution network. The
flickers are greater than the prescribed level. The load controllers can be used to reduce short-
term and long-term flickers effectively. Unity flicker severity curve method is used to calculate
the level of voltage flickers in the proposed control algorithm. The control algorithm acts as a
central controller which controls the load controller. The effectiveness of load controller can be
viewed from the published results, where all the short-term flickers are reduced and maximum
long-term flickers are maintained within the prescribed limit. In addition, they noticed that
flicker in phase A also contributes to flicker in phase B and C due to capacitive linkages between
the phases. Increase in PV capacity also increases the short-term and long-term flickers.
Curtailment of PV output power using dump load was recommended to ensure voltage of the
system is within its acceptable limits. In addition to MPPT control and dump load, curtailing
active power using PV inverter control. Power curtailment using PV inverter control is achieved
by frequency-power droop control when PV is connected to diesel generator dominated system.
Frequency deviation is reduced and fuel consumption of diesel generator is minimized during
peak PV penetration and low load. Droop active power curtailment control is used to limit the
PV output from inverter to maintain the voltage within specified limit. The droop active power
curtailment works on relating the system frequency and active power of the generators.
Fig. 7. PV connected with dump load.

Power Plant Side


1. Hydro Power Plant
The mass flow rate of water to generate electricity is not always constant. For that reasoned a
control valve that serves to regulate the amount of water that flows into the turbine. When the
mass flow rate of water is small, the valve is opened wide to obtain the appropriate water
discharge to generate the power desired by the plant. But if the mass flow rate of water is high,
then the valve is only opened small so that the mass flow of water into the turbine is not too
large the will not damage the turbine.

2. Wind Power Plant


The speed of the wind that blows every hour is different. For that reason, mechanical sensors
used in the blade can adjust the direction of the wind to obtain stable power.

3. PV Power Plant
The intensity of sunlight absorbed by solar panels changes every hour. This is influenced by the
angle of the sun's rays. Variations in the intensity of sunlight obtained by solar panels cause the
power fluctuations produced by solar cell panels. To overcome this is installed mechanical
sensors in solar panels that can change the angle of solar panels so that it can always adjust to
the direction of arrival of sunlight and can produce stable power.