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C.

Fluidized Bed Reactor

SPECIFICATION SHEET
Name of Equipment Fluidized Bed Reactor
Code R-4
Type Fluidized Bed
Function Oxidation of glucose to oxalic acid
Number of Units 1 unit
Operation Continuous
Space time 6 hrs
Design Capacity 2910.75 kg/day
Material Handled Nitric acid and glucose solution
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
VESSEL
Material of Construction ASME SA-302
Orientation Vertical
Type Cylindrical
Design Capacity 0.40 m3/hr
Type of Joint Double v-butt joint
Joint Efficiency 1.0
Diameter 0.30 m
Height 6.0 m
Shell Thickness 2.0 mm
Head Thickness 2.0 mm
Fluidizing Bed Vanadium Pentoxide
Shape of Catalyst Pellet
Density of Catalyst 3357 kg/m3
Diameter of Particle 0.025 m
Mass of Bed 8.05 kg
Height of Bed 0.5 m
Volume of Bed 0.0354 m3
Pressure Drop of Bed 5387.65 Pa
OPERATING CONDITION
Max Temperature 75 °C
Max Pressure 80 Bar (Gauge)
Fluidizing Velocity 5.66 m/hr
COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN
Heat Transfer Area 1.77 m2
Jacket Height 2m
Jacket Diameter 0.34 m
Jacket Thickness 2m
Jacket Clearance from Shell 0.04 m
Material of Construction ASME SA-302
Cooling Medium Water
Cooling Temperature 25 °C
SUMMARY OF ASSUMPTIONS

1. Reaction volume is held constant

2. 75% conversion of glucose to oxalic acid

3. Density of feed remains constant

4. Reaction rate constant is 0.2241/h

5. The reaction follows first order kinetics

6. The temperature is held constant at 65°C

7. Maximum operating pressure is 80 bar gauge

SUMMARY OF DESIGN EQUATIONS

1. Density of Aqueous Feed and Aqueous Products

The density of a mixture of “n-liquids” can be estimated as:

(Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes by Felder p. 189)


𝑛
1 𝑥𝑖
=∑
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝜌𝑖
𝑖=1

Where:

ρmixture= density of aqueous solution

xi = mass fraction of each component in the solution

ρi = density of each component

2. Density of Gaseous By-Product


𝑃𝑀𝑊
𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = 𝑅𝑇
Where:

𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = density of product in kg/m3

P = pressure in atm

MW = molecular weight

R = 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K

T = temperature in Kelvin

3. Space Time

Vs CAO
τ=
FAO

Where:

τ = Space time in hours

Vs = volume of reactor

CA0 = initial concentration of glucose

FA0 = feed molar rate

4. Viscosity of Aqueous Feed

The viscosity of the blend of two or more liquids can be estimated using the Refutas equation:

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑖 = 14.534 × ln(ln{𝑣𝑖 + 0.8}) + 10.975


𝑁

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑉𝐵𝑁𝐼
𝑖=0

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 −10.975
{ }
(𝑒 14.534 )
𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒 − 0.8

𝜇𝑓 = 𝜌𝑓 (𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑥 × 10−6 )
Where:

vi = kinematic viscosity in centistokes

VBN = viscosity blending number

ρf = density of aqueous feed

μf = dynamic viscosity of aqueous feed in Pa-s

5. Sphericity of Catalyst

𝐴𝑆
𝜙𝑆 =
𝐴𝑃

Where:

ϕs = sphericity of catalyst

AS = surface area of sphere (VP = VS)

AP = surface area of hollow ribbed catalyst

6. Equivalent Diameter of Catalyst Particles

𝑉𝑝 𝐷𝑝 𝜙𝑠
=
𝐴𝑝 6

Where:

Dp = equivalent diameter of catalyst

Vp = volume of catalyst

Ap = surface area of catalyst

ϕs = sphericity of catalyst
7. Minimum Fluidizing Velocity

𝜇
𝑈𝑚𝑓 = 𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓
𝜌𝑓 𝐷𝑝

Where:

Umf = minimum fluidizing velocity in m/s

μf = viscosity of fluid in Pa-s

ρf = density of fluid in kg/m3

Dp = equivalent diameter of catalyst

Re’mf = Reynold’s Number at minimum fluidizing velocity

8. Volumetric flow rate

(𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑)
Vo = 𝑡𝑟

Where:

mf = mass of feed

mgas = mass of gaseous by-product

ρf= density of feed

ρg = density of gaseous by-product

tr = space time
9. Area of the reactor
𝑣
A = 𝑢𝑜
𝑣𝑓

Where:

A = area of reactor

vo = volumetric flow rate

uvf = minimum fluidization velocity

10. Diameter of reactor

4𝐴
D=√𝜋

Where:

D = diameter or reactor

A = area of reactor

11. Height of the reactor


𝑉
h=𝐴

Where:

h = height of reactor

V = volume from entering feed

A = area of reactor
12. Volume of bed
𝑚
VBed = 𝜌 𝑜𝑓𝑏𝑒𝑑
𝑏𝑒𝑑

Where:

Vbed = volume of bed

𝜌𝑏𝑒𝑑 =density of bed

mbed = mass of bed

13. Height of bed


𝑉𝑏𝑒𝑑
Hbed (lm) = 𝜋 2
𝑑
4

Where:

Vbed = volume of bed

d = diameter of tank

Hbed(lm) = height of bed

15. Pressure drop of bed

Using Ergun equation for fluidized bed system, equation 7.50 Unit Operations of

Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 6th Ed.


2
∆𝑃 150𝜇𝑢𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝜀𝑚 )2 1.75𝜌𝑢𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝜀𝑚 )
= +
𝑙 2
ɸ𝑠 𝐷𝑝2 ∗ 𝜀𝑚
3 ɸ𝑠 𝐷𝑝 ∗ 𝜀𝑚
3

Where:

ΔP = pressure drop of bed

l = height expansion of bed

μ = viscosity
umf = minimum fluidization velocity

ɛm = porosity

ρ = density of catalyst

Dp = diameter of catalyst

ɸs = sphericity, 1

16. Shell Thickness

For cylinder shells from Plant Design and Economics by Peters and Timmerhaus, p.554
𝑃𝑟
ts = 𝑆𝐸 + 𝐶 for P ≤ 0.385Se
𝑗 −0.6𝑃

Where:

P = pressure

S = Working stress

Ej = efficiency of joint, 1

C = 1/16 for corrosion allowance

17. Head Design

For torispherical head from Plant Design and Economics by Peters and Timmerhaus,

p.554

0.885𝑃𝐿
th = 𝑆𝐸 +𝐶
𝑗 −0.1𝑃

for r = knuckle radius = 6% inside crown radius and not less than 3t

Where:

P = pressure
L = crown radius, Cr = L = Do – 6

S = Working stress

Ej = efficient of joint, 1

C = 1/16, corrosion allowance

18. Cooling System Design

Q
Ajacket =
U∆Tlm

Where:

A = area of jacket

Q = energy needed in W

U = overall heat transfer coefficient

ΔTlm= log mean temperature difference

19. Height of Jacket

Aj
Hj =
πDo

Where:

H = height of jacket

A= area of jacket

Do = diameter of reactor
20. Diameter of Jacket
π
Vwater = (D 2 − Dr 2 )(Hj )
4 j

Where:

V = volume of water needed

Dj = diameter of jacket

Dr = diameter of reactor

Hj = height of reactor

21. Thickness of Jacket

pD
tj = +C
2Se − p

Where:

Tj = thickness of jacket

P = pressure

D = diameter of jacket

S = working stress

C = corrosion allowance
DETAILED COMPUTATION

Material Balance

Mass Feed Density (ρ) No. of


Component MW Xi
Rate (kg/day) (kg/m3) moles

Nitric Acid 63 1,170.49 0.40213 1420 18.58


Glucose 180.16 743.17 0.25532 1540 4.13
Water 18 997.09 0.34255 977.73 55.39
Total 2910.75 1 78.10

Density of Aqueous Feed

The density of a mixture of “n-liquids” can be estimated as:

(Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes by Felder p. 189)


𝑛
1 𝑥𝑖
=∑
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝜌𝑖
𝑖=1

1 0.4021 0.2553 0.3426


= + +
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1420 1540 977.73

𝝆𝒎𝒊𝒙𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆 = 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝟏. 𝟎𝟒 kg/m3

Volume of Feed
𝑚𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑
VF = 𝜌
𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

2910.75 𝑘𝑔
𝑉𝐹 =
1251.04 kg/m3

𝑽𝑭 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟑𝒎𝟑

Initial Concentration of Glucose (C AO):

Initial moles of Glucose


CAO =
Volume of Solution

4.13 kgmol
CAO =
2.33 m3
𝒌𝒈𝒎𝒐𝒍
CAO = 1.773
𝒎𝟑

Fluidized Product

Mass Product Density (ρ)


Component MW Xi
Rate (kg/day) (kg/m3)
Glucose 180.16 185.79 0.06383 1540
Oxalic Acid 90 836.07 0.28724 1900
Nitric Oxide 30 557.37 0.19149 1.34
Water 18 1331.52 0.45745 977.73
Total 2910.75 1

Density of Aqueous Product


𝑛
1 𝑥𝑖
=∑
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝜌𝑖
𝑖=1

1 0.0638 0.2872 0.4574


= + +
𝜌𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1540 1900 977.73

𝝆𝒎𝒊𝒙𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒆 = 𝟏𝟓𝟏𝟒. 𝟎𝟐 kg/m3

Density of Gaseous By-Product

𝑁𝑂 at 1 atm and 65C, where ZNO ≈ 1

𝑃𝑀𝑊
Using 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡 = :
𝑅𝑇

𝟏 𝒂𝒕𝒎 (𝟑𝟎) 𝒌𝒈
𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕 = 𝑳−𝒂𝒕𝒎 = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟖𝟏
𝟎.𝟎𝟖𝟐𝟎𝟔 (𝟑𝟑𝟖.𝟏𝟓) 𝒎𝟑
𝒎𝒐𝒍−𝑲
Space Time

From “Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of sugar and sugar alcohols by vanadium

pentoxide” by Okoro, H.K. and Odebunmi, E.O.,

n=1

𝐽
𝐸𝐴 = 15714.3
𝑚𝑜𝑙

At 313 K,

𝑘 = 14.3 × 10−2 ℎ−1

Using the Arrhenius equation,

𝑘2 𝐸𝑎 1 1
𝑙𝑛 ( )= ( − )
𝑘1 𝑅 𝑇1 𝑇2

𝑘2 157143 𝐽⁄𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 1
𝑙𝑛 ( )= ( − )
0.143 8.314 𝐽⁄𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐾 313 𝐾 338.15 𝐾

𝑘2 = 0.2241 ℎ−1

−𝑟𝐴 = 𝑘𝐶𝐴𝑂 (1 − 𝑋𝐴 )

−𝑟𝐴 = (0.2241)(1.773)(1 − 𝑋𝐴 )

−𝑟𝐴 = 0.3973(1 − 𝑋𝐴 )

From Chemical Reaction Engineering by Octave and Levenspiel:


𝑋𝐴
𝑉𝑠 𝑑𝑋𝐴
=∫
𝐹𝐴0 0 −𝑟𝐴

0.75
𝑉𝑠 𝑑𝑋𝐴
=∫
𝐹𝐴0 0 0.3973(1 − 𝑋𝐴 )

𝑉𝑠
= 3.4893
𝐹𝐴0
Vs CAO
τ=
FAO

𝑚3 ∙ ℎ 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝜏 = (3.4893 ) (1.773 )
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚3

𝝉 = 𝟔. 𝟏𝟖𝟔𝟓 𝒉𝒓𝒔 ≈ 𝟔. 𝟏𝟗 𝒉𝒓𝒔

Volumetric Flow Rate

(𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑒𝑒𝑑 )
υ0 =
𝜏

2.33 𝑚3
𝜐0 =
6.19 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠

𝒎𝟑
𝝊𝟎 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟖
𝒉𝒓

Volume of Reactor

VR
τ=
𝜐0

𝑚3
𝑉𝑅 = 𝜏𝜐0 = (6 .2 ℎ𝑟𝑠 ) (0.38 )
ℎ𝑟

𝑉𝑅 = 2.356 𝑚3 ≈ 𝟐. 𝟒 𝑚3

Adding 30% allowance,

𝑽𝑹 ≈ 𝟑. 𝟏𝟐 𝒎𝟑

Viscosity of Aqueous Feed

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑖 = 14.534 × ln(ln{𝑣𝑖 + 0.8}) + 10.975


𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑑 = 14.534 × ln(ln{0.453 + 0.8}) + 10.975 = −9.573 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 = 14.534 × ln(ln{2420 + 0.8}) + 10.975 = 40.814 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 14.534 × ln(ln{0.6974 + 0.8}) + 10.975 = −2.207 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 = ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑖
𝑖=0

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 = (0.4021)(−9.573) + (0.2553)(40.814) + (0.3426)(−2.207)

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 5.815 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝑉𝐵𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑥 −10.975
{ }
(𝑒 14.534 )
𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒 − 0.8
5.185−10.975
{ }
(𝑒 14.534 )
𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝑒 − 0.8 = 1.216 𝑐𝑆𝑡

1𝑥10−6 𝑚2 ⁄𝑠
𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 𝜌𝑓 (𝑣𝑚𝑖𝑥 × )
1 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝑘𝑔 1𝑥10−6 𝑚2 ⁄𝑠
𝜇𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 1251.04 (1.216 𝑐𝑆𝑡 × )
𝑚3 1 𝑐𝑆𝑡

𝝁𝒎𝒊𝒙 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟐𝟏 𝑷𝒂 ∙ 𝒔

Sphericity of Catalyst

𝐴𝑆
𝜙𝑆 =
𝐴𝑃
From "Comparison of Sulfuric Acid Plant Catalysts" by Leonard J. Friedman:

For vanadium pentoxide pellets,

Outer radius = 6 mm

Inner radius = 4 mm

Length = 8 mm

𝑉𝑃 = 𝜋(𝑅2 − 𝑟 2 )𝐿

𝑉𝑃 = 𝜋(0.0032 − 0.0022 )(0.008) = 1.26 𝑥10−7 𝑚3

4 3
𝑉𝑠 = 𝜋𝑟 ; 𝑉𝑃 = 𝑉𝑆
3

3 1.41𝑥10−6 (3)
𝑟= √ = 0.00310 𝑚
(4)𝜋

𝐴𝑠 = 𝜋𝑟 2 = 𝜋(0.003102 ) = 3𝑥10−5 𝑚2

𝐴𝑃 = 1.10{2𝜋(𝑅 + 𝑟)𝐿}

𝐴𝑃 = 1.10(2𝜋(0.003 + 0.002)(0.008) = 2.76𝑥10−4 𝑚2

𝐴𝑆 3𝑥10−5
𝜙𝑆 = =
𝐴𝑃 2.76𝑥10−4

𝝓𝑺 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟎𝟗𝟕

Equivalent Diameter of Catalyst

𝑉𝑝 𝐷𝑝 𝜙𝑠
=
𝐴𝑝 6

6𝑉𝑝
𝐷𝑝 =
𝜙𝑠 𝐴𝑝

(6)(1.26 𝑥10−7 )
𝐷𝑝 =
(0.1097)(2.76𝑥10−4 )
𝑫𝒑 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟓 𝒎

Mass of bed

Vanadium Pentoxide catalyst is 0.5 – 0.8% of entering feed

Mass of bed needed = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐺𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (0.0065)

Mass of bed needed = 8.05 kg V2O5

Volume of Bed

From “Production of oxalic acid from sugar beet molasses by formed nitrogen oxides” by Guru,
Metin, et.al.

For Vanadium Pentoxide,

𝜀 = 0.59
𝑚𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 =
𝑘𝜌𝑝 𝑑𝑝 3

(8.05 𝑘𝑔)
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 =
1 𝑘𝑔
(0.1097) (3357 3 ) (0.025𝑚)3
𝑚

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 = 16.84 ≈ 𝟏𝟕

𝑚𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 =
𝜌𝑝

8.05 𝑘𝑔
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 =
𝑘𝑔
3357 3
𝑚

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑠 = 2.40 × 10−3 𝑚3

𝜀
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 = (𝑚𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 )
𝜌𝑝
0.59
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 = (8.05 𝑘𝑔)
𝑘𝑔
3357 3
𝑚

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑜𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 = 1.14 × 10−3 𝑚3

Minimum Fluidizing Velocity

From Fluid Bed Technology in Materials Processing by C.K. Gupta and D. Sathiyamoorthy,

𝜇
𝑈𝑚𝑓 = 𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓
𝜌𝐷𝑝

From Wen, C.Y. and Yu, Y.H., Mechanics of Fluidization, the Reynold’s number at minimum

fluidization can be determined using the Archimedes number:

1 − 𝜙𝑠 1.75 2
𝐴𝑟 = 150 ( 3 ) 𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓 + ( 3 ) 𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓
𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑠

Rearranging the equation,

2
1 − 𝜙𝑠 √ 1 − 𝜙𝑠 1.75
−150 ( 3 ) ± [150 ( 3 )] − 4 ( ) (−𝐴𝑟)
𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑠 3
𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓 =
1.75
2( )
𝜙𝑠 3

The general expression for the Archimedes number is,

𝐷𝑝 3 𝜌𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 (𝜌𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑡 − 𝜌𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 )𝑔


𝐴𝑟 =
𝜇2

𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑚
(0.025 𝑚)3 1251.04 (3357 3 − 1251.04 3 ) (9.81 2 )
𝑚3 𝑚 𝑚 𝑠
𝐴𝑟 =
(0.00152 𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠)2
𝐴𝑟 = 17.13 𝑥 107

2
1 − 𝜙𝑠 √ 1 − 𝜙𝑠 1.75
−150 ( 3 ) ± [150 ( 3 )] − 4 ( ) (−𝐴𝑟)
𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑠 3
𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓 =
1.75
2( )
𝜙𝑠 3

1 − 0.1097 1 − 0.1097 2 1.75


−150 ( 3 ) ± √[150 ( )] − 4 ( ) (−17.13𝑥107 )
0.1097 0.10973 0.10973
𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓 =
1.75
2( )
0.10973

𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓 = 323.46

𝜇
𝑈𝑚𝑓 = 𝑅𝑒′𝑚𝑓
𝜌𝐷𝑝

0.000152 𝑃𝑎 ∙ 𝑠
𝑈𝑚𝑓 = (323.46)
𝑘𝑔
(0.025 𝑚) (1251 3 )
𝑚

𝒎 𝒎
𝑼𝒎𝒇 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟓𝟕𝟐 𝒐𝒓 𝟓. 𝟔𝟔
𝒔 𝒉𝒓

Area of the Reactor

𝑉𝑜
Area of the reactor =
𝑈𝑚𝑓

0.40 𝑚3 ⁄ℎ𝑟
Area of the reactor = 𝑚
5.66
ℎ𝑟

𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 = 𝟕. 𝟎𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟐 𝒎𝟐

Diameter of the Reactor

A = 0.0707 m2
𝐷2
0.0707 m2= 4

4𝐴 4(0.0707𝑚 2 )
Diameter of the Reactor = √  = √ 

Diameter of the Reactor ≈ 𝟎. 𝟑𝟎 𝒎

Height of Bed
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑒𝑑
Height of bed = 𝐷2
4

𝟎.𝟎𝟑𝟓𝟒 𝒎𝟑
Height of bed(lm) = 𝝅(𝟎.𝟑𝟎) 𝟐
= 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎 𝒎
𝟒

Height of the reactor


𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟
Height, h = 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

𝟎.𝟒
Height, h = 𝟎.𝟎𝟕𝟎𝟐 = 6 m

Pressure Drop

Using Ergun equation for fluidized bed system, equation 7.50 Unit Operations of

Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 6th ed.


2
𝛥𝑝 150𝑓 ( 𝑈𝑚𝑓 (1 − 𝑚𝑓 ) ) 1.75𝜌𝑓 (𝑈𝑚𝑓
2
(1 − 𝑚𝑓 )
= 3 +
𝑙 ϕ2𝑠 𝐷𝑝2 (𝑚𝑓 ) ϕ2𝑠 𝐷𝑝2 (3𝑚𝑓 )

where mf = 0.713, ϕs = 0.196

𝛥𝑝 150(0.00152)( 0.0621)(1 − 0.59)2 ) 1.75(1251.04)(0.06212 ) (1 − 0.713)


= +
1.13x10−2 (0.196)2 (0.0556)2 (0.593 ) (0.196)2 (0.0556)2 (0.7133 )

𝜟𝑷 = 𝟓𝟑𝟖𝟕. 𝟔𝟓 𝑷𝒂
Material of Construction

ASME SA-302, Grade B by Peters and Timmerhaus

Sw = 115800 psi, E2 = 1.0 for fully radiographed

Thickness of the Shell

For cylindrical shells from Plant design and Economics by Peters and Timmerhaus, p. 554

P𝑟𝑖
ts = 𝑆𝐸 + 𝐶 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃 ≤ 0.3585𝑆𝑒
𝑗− 0.6𝑃

1
take C = 16 for corrosion allowance

Pmax= 80 + 1.013 = 81.013 bar (abs) ≈ 1175 psi

1175(0.15m) 1
ts =115800−0.6(1177) + 16

ts = 0.06 in ≈ 2.0 mm

Head Design

For torispherical head from Plant design and Economics by Peters and Timmerhaus, p.554

0.885 𝑃𝐿
ts = 𝑆𝐸 + 𝐶 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑟 = 𝑘𝑛𝑢𝑐𝑘𝑙𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠
𝑗− 0.1𝑃

= 6% inside crown radius and not less than 3t.

Do = Di + 2ts

𝟑. 𝟐𝟖𝒇𝒕 𝟏𝟐𝒊𝒏
𝑫𝒐 = 𝟎. 𝟑 𝒎 ( )( ) + 𝟐(𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟑𝒊𝒏) = 𝟏𝟐 𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟎𝟓 𝒎
𝟏𝒎 𝟏𝒇𝒕

Crown radius, Cr

𝑪𝒓 = 𝑳 = 𝟏𝟐 − 𝟔 𝐢𝐧. = 𝟔 𝐢𝐧 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟎 𝐦

Knuckle radius, Kr

𝐾𝑟 = 0.06𝐷𝑜 = 0.06(12) = 0.80 in


e = 1.0 for seamless head

0.885(1175 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(0.6𝑖𝑛) 1
th = +
115800(1.0)−1175(0.1) 16

th = 0.068 in = 1.7 mm ≈ 𝟐. 𝟎 𝒎𝒎

Cooling System Design

𝐤𝐉 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑱 𝟏 𝒅𝒂𝒚 𝟏 𝒉𝒓
Based on energy balance, Q = −𝟑, 𝟑𝟓𝟕, 𝟕𝟎𝟏. 𝟑𝟐 𝐝𝐚𝐲 [ ][ ][ ]
𝟏 𝒌𝑱 𝟐𝟒 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝟑𝟔𝟎𝟎 𝒔

𝑸 = −𝟑𝟖, 𝟖𝟔𝟐. 𝟐𝟖 𝑾

kg
mwater = 80,136.07
day

Volume of Water Needed

kg
80,136.07 day m3 1 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑚3 1 ℎ𝑟 𝑚3
Vwater = = 80.38 ∙ = 3.35 . = 0.05
kg day 24 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 ℎ𝑟 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑖𝑛
997 3
m

Area of Jacket

(Tha − Tcb ) − (Thb − Tca )


∆Tlm =
T −T
ln (Tha − Tcb )
hb ca

(65 − 35) − (65 − 25)


∆Tlm =
(65 − 35)
ln
(65 − 25)

∆Tlm = 34.76°C

Q
Ajacket =
U∆Tlm
W
U = 525
m2 −℃

Use 20% allowance

W W
U = 525 (1.20) = 630 2
m2 −℃ m −℃

𝟑𝟖, 𝟖𝟔𝟐. 𝟐𝟖 𝑾
Ajacket =
W
(630 )(34.76℃)
m2 − ℃

Ajacket = 1.77 m2

Height of Jacket:

Ajacket
Hjacket =
πDoutside shell

1.77m2
Hjacket =
π(0.30m)

Hjacket = 1.87 m ≈ 2 m

Diameter of Jacket

π 2
Vwater = (D − Dreactor 2 )(Hjacket )
4 jacket

π 2
0.05 m3 = (D − (0.30 m)2 )(2 m)
4 jacket

Djacket = 0.34 𝑚

Clearance from Jacket to Tank= Djacket − Dreactor = 0.34 m − 0.30 m = 0.04 m


Jacket Design

g
Pjacket = ρ H + Patm
g c jacket

m
kg 9.81 s2
Pjacket = 997 3 x x 2 m + 101,325 𝑃𝑎
m kg − m
1
N − s2

Pjacket = 120886.14 𝑃𝑎 = 17.53 psi

Thickness of Jacket

Using API-ASME Code:

pD
t jacket = +C
2Se − p

(17.53 psi)(48 in) 1


t jacket = + 𝑖𝑛
2(115800 psi)(1.0) − (17.53 psi) 16

t jacket = 0.07 in = 1.70 mm ≈ 𝟐 𝐦𝐦