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Name Structure L/D S/R Classification pKa

Bold = Essential
Alanine L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,
A glucogenic
Ala

Glycine Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


G glucogenic
Gly

Isoleucine L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


I glucogenic/ketogenic
Ile

Leucine L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


L ketogenic
Leu

Proline L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


P glucogenic
Pro

Valine L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


V glucogenic
Val

Phenyalanine L S Aromatic,
F glucogenic/ketogenic
Phe
Tryptophan L S Aromatic,
W glucogenic/ketogenic
Trp

Tyrosine L S Aromatic, hydroxylic, 10.1


Y glucogenic/ketogenic
Tyr

Aspartic Acid L S Acidic, glucogenic 3.7


D
Asp

Glutamic Acid L S Acidic, glucogenic 4.3


E
Glu

Arginine L S Basic, glucogenic 12


R
Arg

Histidine L S Basic, glucogenic 6.0


H
His

Lysine L S Basic, 10.5


K ketogenic
Lys

Serine L S Polar, hydroxylic,


S glucogenic
Ser

Threonine L S Polar, hydroxylic,


T glucogenic/ketogenic
Thr
Cysteine L R Polar, glucogenic 8.2
C
Cys

Methionine L S Nonpolar, nonaromatic,


M glucogenic
Met

Asparagine L S Polar, glucogenic


N
Asn

Glutamine L S Polar, glucogenic


Q
Gln

 Average weight: 110 Da


 Amino acids are chiral (L); EXCEPT for Glycine (D). The remaining amino acids have the (S) configuration EXCEPT
for Cysteine (R)
 The largest amino acid: Tryptophan
 Sulfur containing: Methionine and Cysteine
 Amino acid that creates a disulfide bridge: Cysteine
 Amino acids that can be phosphorylated (groups that have an –OH group): Serine, Tyrosine, Threonine, Histidine
 Ability to form peptide bonds: Lysine
 Trypsin cleaves on the C-terminus of Arginine and Lysine
 Histidine exists in the protonated and deprotonated form because its pKa is similar to physiological pH
 Proline has a secondary alpha-amino group
 Proline and Glycine introduce kinks into alpha helices

Mnemonics:
 pKa:
o “Don’t – Express – Hate, Create – Your – Kindness – Right”
3.7 4.3 6 8.2 10.1 10.5 12
 Nonpolar
o AGIL MVP WF = “Agile MVP Wins Fight”
 Polar
o CYNQ ST = “CYNQ Street”
 Acidic
o DE = “Acidi DE”
 Basic
o HRK = “Hrk! Hrk! (like a bird)”
 Ketogenic
o Leucine and Lysine = “Two L’s”
 Glucogenic AND Ketogenic
o PITTT = Phenylalane, Isoleuicine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Threonine