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IS 456 : 2000


35 SAFETY AND SERVICEABILITY limits of cracking would vary with the type of structure
REQUIREMENTS and environment. Where specific attention is required
to limit the designed crack width to a particular value,
35.1 General
crack width calculation may be done using formula
In the method of design based on limit state concept, given in Annex F.
the structure shall be designed~to withstand safely all The practical objective of calculating crack width is
loads liable to act on it throughout its life; it shall also merely to give guidance to the designer in making
satisfy the serviceability requirements, such as appropriate structural arrangements and in avoiding
limitations on deflection and cracking. The acceptable gross errors in design, which might result in
limit for the safety and serviceability requirements concentration and excessive width of flexural crack.
before failure occurs is called a ‘limit state’. The aim
The surface width of the cracks should not, in general,
of design is td achieve acceptable probabilities that
~exceed 0.3 mm in members where cracking is not
the structure will not become unfit for the use for which
harmful and does not have any serious adverse effects
it isintended, that is, that it will not reach a limit state.
upon the preservation of reinforcing steel nor upon the
351.1 All relevant limit states shall be considered in durability of the structures. In members where cracking
design to ensure an adequate degree of safety and in the tensile zone is harmful either because they are
serviceability. In general, the structure shall be exposed to the effects of the weather or continuously
designed on the basis of the most critical limit state exposed to moisture or in contact soil or ground water,
and shall be checked for other limit states. an upper limit of 0.2 mm is suggested for the maximum
35.1.2 For ensuring the above objective, the design width of cracks. For particularly aggressive
should be based on characteristic values for material environment, such as the ‘severe’ category in Table 3,
strengths and applied loads, which take into account the assessed surface width of cracks should not in
the variations in the material strengths and in the loads general, exceed 0.1 mm.
to be supported. The characteristic values should be
based on statistical data if available; where such data 35.4 Other Limit States
are not available they should be based on experience. Structures designed for unusual or special functions
The ‘design values’ are derived from the characteristic shall comply with any relevant additional limit state
values through the use of partial safety factors, one considered appropriate to that structure.
for material strengths and the other for loads. In the
absence of special considerations these factors should 36 CHARACTERISTIC AND DESIGN
have the values given in 36 according to the material, VALUES AND PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS
the type of loading and the limit state being 36.1 Characteristic Strength of Materials
The term ‘characteristic strength’ means that value of
35.2 Limit State of Collapse
the strength of the material below which not more than
The limit state of collapse of the structure or part of 5 percent of the test results are expected to fall. The
the structure could be assessed from rupture of one or characteristic strength for concrete shall be in
more critical sections and from buckling due to elastic accordance with Table 2. Until the relevant Indian
or plastic instability (including the effects of sway Standard Specifications for reinforcing steel are
where appropriate) or overturning. The resistance to modified to include the concept of characteristic
bending, shear, torsion and axial loads at every section strength, the characteristic value shall be assumed as
shall not be less than the appropriate value at that the minimum yield stress/O.2 ~percent proof stress
section produced by the probable most unfavourable specified in the relevant Indian Standard Specifications.
combination of loads an the structure using the
36.2 Characteristic Loads
appropriate partial safety factors.
The term ‘characteristic load’ means that value of load
35.3 Limit States of Serviceability which has a 95 percent probability of not being exceeded
during the life of the structure. Since data are not
35.3.1 Deflection
available to express loads in statistical terms, for the
Limiting values of deflections are given in 23.2. purpose of this standard, dead loads given in IS 875
(Part l), imposea loads given in IS 875 (Part 2), wind
35.3.2 Cracking
loads given in IS 875 (Part 3), snow load as given in
Cracking of concrete should not adversely affect the IS 875 (Part 4) and seismic forces given in IS 1893
appearance or durability of the structure; the acceptable shall be assumed as the characteristic loads.