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Electromagnetic Theory

Summary of Electromagnetic Theory Unit

1. A field is a function that specifies a quantity in space. For example, A(x, y, z) is a vector
field whereas V(x, y, z) is a scalar field.
2. A vector A is uniquely specified by its magnitude and a unit vector along it, that is,
A = A aA .
3. Multiplying two vectors A and B results in either a scalar A • B = AB cos θAB or a
vector A × B = AB sin θAB an. Multiplying three vectors A, B, and C yields a scalar
A • (B × C) or a vector A × (B × C).
4. The scalar projection (or component) of vector A onto B is AB = A • aB whereas vector
projection of A onto B is AB = AB aB.
5. The three common coordinate systems we shall use throughout the text are the Cartesian (or
rectangular), the circular cylindrical, and the spherical.
6. A point P is represented as P(x, y, z), P(ρ, φ, z), and P(r, θ, φ) in the Cartesian, cylindrical,
and spherical systems respectively. A vector field A is represented as (Ax, Ay, Az)
or Axax + Ayay + Azaz in the Cartesian system, as (Aρ, Aφ, Az) or Aρaρ + Aφaφ + Azaz
in the cylindrical system, and as (Ar Aθ, Aφ) or Arar + Aθaθ + Aφaφ in the spherical
system. It is preferable that mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, product,
etc.) be performed in the same coordinate system. Thus, point and vector transformations
should be performed whenever necessary.
7. Fixing one space variable defines a surface; fixing two defines a line; fixing three
defines a point.
8. A unit normal vector to surface n = constant is ± an.
9. The differential displacements in the Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical systems are
respectively
dl = dx ax + dy ay + dz az
dl = dρ aρ + ρ dφ aφ + dz az
dl = dr ar + r dθ aθ + r sin θ dφ aφ
Note that dl is always taken to be in the positive direction; the direction of the displacement
is taken care of by the limits of integration.
10. The differential normal areas in the three systems are respectively
dS = dy dz ax
dx dz ay
dx dy az
dS = ρ dφ dz aρ
dρ dz aφ
ρ dρ dφ az
dS = r2 sin θ dθ dφ ar
r sin θ dr dφ aθ
r dr dθ aφ

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Electromagnetic Theory

Note that dS can be in the positive or negative direction depending on the surface under
consideration.
11. The differential volumes in the three systems are
dv = dx dy dz
ρ dρ dφ dz
r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ
12. The line integral of vector A along a path L is given by ∫ . If the path is closed, the line
integral becomes the circulation of A around L; that is, ∮ .
13. The flux or surface integral of a vector A across a surface S is defined as ∫ . When the
surface S is closed, the surface integral becomes the net outward flux of A across S; that is
∮ .
14. The volume integral of a scalar ρv over a volume v is defined as ∫ .
15. Vector differentiation is performed using the vector differential operator . The gradient of a
scalar field V is denoted by , the divergence of a vector field A by •A, the curl of A by
, and the Laplacian of V by V.
16. The divergence theorem, ∮ =∫ , relates a surface integral over a closed
surface to a volume integral.
17. Stoke's theorem, ∮ =∮ , relates a line integral over a closed path to a
surface integral.
18. If Laplace's equation, V = 0, is satisfied by a scalar field V in a given region, V is said to be
harmonic in that region.
19. A vector field is solenoidal if , it is irrotational or conservative if .
20. The two fundamental laws for electrostatic fields (Coulomb's and Gauss's) are presented in
this chapter. Coulomb's law of force states that

21. Based on Coulomb's law, we define the electric field intensity E as the force per unit
charge; that is,
(point charge only)
22. For a continuous charge distribution, the total charge is given by
∫ for line charge
∫ for surface charge
∫ for volume charge
23. The E field due to a continuous charge distribution is obtained from the formula for
point charge by replacing Q with dQ = ρl dl, dQ = ρs dS or dQ = ρv dv and integrating over
the line, surface, or volume respectively.
24. For an infinite line charge,

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Electromagnetic Theory

and for an infinite sheet of charge,

25. The electric flux density D is related to the electric field intensity (in free space) as

The electric flux through a surface S is

26. Gauss's law states that the net electric flux penetrating a closed surface is equal to the
total charge enclosed, that is, ψ = Qenc. Hence,

∮ ∫

(first Maxwell's equation to be


derived)

When charge distribution is symmetric so that a Gaussian surface (where D = Dn an is


constant) can be found, Gauss's law is useful in determining D; that is,
∮ or
27. The total work done, or the electric potential energy, to move a point charge Q from
point A to B in an electric field E is

28. The potential at r due to a point charge Q at r' is

| |
+C
where C is evaluated at a given reference potential point; for example, C = 0 if V(r→∞) = 0.
To determine the potential due to a continuous charge distribution, we replace Q in the
formula for point charge by dQ = ρl dl, dQ = ρs dS or dQ = ρv dv and integrate over the line,
surface, or volume, respectively.
29. If the charge distribution is not known, but the field intensity E is given, we find the potential
using

30. The potential difference VAB, the potential at B with reference to A, is

31. Since an electrostatic field is conservative (the net work done along a closed path in a
static E field is zero),

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Electromagnetic Theory


or (second Maxwell's equation to be
derived)
32. Given the potential field, the corresponding electric field is found using

33. For an electric dipole centered at r' with dipole moment p, the potential at r is given by

| |
34. D is tangential to the electric flux lines at every point. An equipotential surface (or line) is
one on which V = constant. At every point, the equipotential line is orthogonal to the electric
flux line.
35. Materials can be classified roughly as conductors (σ >> 1, ɛr = 1) and dielectrics (σ <<1, ɛr ≥
1) in terms of their electrical properties σ and ɛr where σ is the conductivity and ɛr is the
dielectric constant or relative permittivity.
36. Electric current is the flux of electric current density through a surface; that is,

37. The resistance of a conductor of uniform cross section is


38. The macroscopic effect of polarization on a given volume of a dielectric material is to
"paint" its surface with a bound charge ∮ and leave within it an accumulation
of bound charge ∫ where ρps= P • an and ρv= .
39. In a dielectric medium, the D and E fields are related as D = ɛE, where ɛ = ɛoɛr is the
permittivity of the medium.
40. The electric susceptibility χe( = ɛr - 1) of a dielectric measures the sensitivity of the material
to an electric field.
41. A dielectric material is linear if D = ɛE holds, that is, if ɛ is independent of E. It is
homogeneous if ɛ is independent of position. It is isotropic if ɛ is a scalar.
42. The principle of charge conservation, the basis of Kirchhoff's current law, is stated in the
continuity equation

43. The relaxation time, ,of a material is the time taken by a charge placed in its interior
-1
to decrease by a factor of ɛ ≈ 37 percent.
44. Boundary conditions must be satisfied by an electric field existing in two different media
separated by an interface. For a dielectric-dielectric interface
E1t=E2t ,
D1n-D2n=ρs or D1n = D2n if ρs= 0
For a dielectric-conductor interface

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Electromagnetic Theory

Et=0, Dn = ɛEn= ρs
because E = 0 inside the conductor.
45. The basic laws (Biot-Savart's and Ampere's) that govern magnetostatic fields are discussed.
Biot-Savart's law, which is similar to Coulomb's law, states that the magnetic field intensity
dH at r due to current element I dl at r' is

(in A/m)

where R = r — r' and R = |R|. For surface or volume current distribution, we replace I dl
with K dS or J dv respectively; that is, I dl ≡ K dS ≡ Jdv
46. Ampere's circuit law, which is similar to Gauss's law, states that the circulation of H around a
closed path is equal to the current enclosed by the path; that is,
∮ ∫
or (third Maxwell's equation to be derived).
When current distribution is symmetric so that an Amperian path (on which H=Hφaφ is
constant) can be found, Ampere's law is useful in determining H; that is,
∮ or
47. The magnetic flux through a surface S is given by
∮ (in Wb)
where B is the magnetic flux density in Wb/m2. In free space, where μo = 4π × 10-7 H/m=
permeability of free space.
48. Since an isolated or free magnetic monopole does not exist, the net magnetic flux
through a closed surface is zero;

or (fourth Maxwell's equation to be derived).


49. At this point, all four Maxwell's equations for static EM fields have been derived,
namely:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
50. The Lorentz force equation F=q(E + u×B) =mdu/dt relates the force acting on a particle with
charge Q in the presence of EM fields. It expresses the fundamental law relating EM to
mechanics.
51. Based on the Lorentz force law, the force experienced by a current element Idl in a
magnetic field B is dF = Idl × B. From this, the magnetic field B is defined as the force per
unit current element.

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Electromagnetic Theory

52. The torque on a current loop with magnetic moment m in a uniform magnetic field B is
T = m×B = I San × B
53. A magnetic dipole is a bar magnet or a small filamental current loop; it is so called due
to the fact that its B field lines are similar to the E field lines of an electric dipole.
54. When a material is subjected to a magnetic field, it becomes magnetized. The magnetization
M is the magnetic dipole moment per unit volume of the material. For linear
material, where is the magnetic susceptibility of the material.
55. Faraday's law states that the induced emf is given by (for N = 1)

For transformer emf, ∫


and for motional emf, ∫
56. The displacement current

where Id = (displacement current density), is a modification to Ampere's circuit law. This
modification attributed to Maxwell predicted electromagnetic waves several years before it
was verified experimentally by Hertz.
57. In differential form, Maxwell's equations for dynamic fields are:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Each differential equation has its integral counterpart also. Any EM field must satisfy the
four Maxwell's equations simultaneously.

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Electromagnetic Theory

Tutorial Electromagnetic Theory, NON CIT Physics (PHYS102)


Session 2016-17

Q1.Express the field D = (x2 + y2)−1(xax + yay) in cylindrical components and cylindrical variables.
Q2.The surfaces ρ = 3, φ = 100°, z = 3, and ρ = 5, φ = 130°, z = 4.5 define a closed surface. (a) Find the
enclosed volume. (b) Find the total area of enclosing surface. Ans: (a) 6.28 (b) 20.7
Q3.The surfaces r = 2 and 4, θ = 30° and 50°, and φ = 20° and 60° identify a closed surface. (a) Find the
enclosed volume. (b) Find the total area of enclosing surface. Ans: (a) 2.91 (b) 12.61
Q4.Convert the following vectors to Cartesian coordinates:
(a) –
(b)
Q5. Find the gradient of the following scalar fields:
(a) V = e-z sin 2x cosh y
(b) U = ρ2 z cos 2φ
(c) W= 10 r sin2θ cos φ
Q6. Determine the divergence and curl of the following vector fields:
(a) P = x2y z ax + x z az
(b) Q = ρ sin φ aρ + ρ2z aφ + z cos φ az
(c)
Q7. Four like charegs of 30 μC each are located at the corners of a square, the diagonal of which measures
8 m. Find the electrostatic force on a 150 μC charge located 3 m above the centre of the square.(see
figure) Ans:3.888az
N

Q8. In figure shown below, the segment –a ≤ y ≤ a carries charge of uniform density ρl. Calulate
the force on the charge q.
Ans:
(√ ⁄ )

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Electromagnetic Theory

Q9.Two straight nonconducting wires, parallel to the z-axis, pass through points O and A, as
shown in figure below. The wires carry equal and uniform charge density 0.4 μC/m.
Determine the electric field at point P.
Ans:

Q10. A charged square of side 4m is oriented as shown in figure. Given ρs= 2(x2+y2+z2)3/2
nC/m2. Find E at point O.
Ans:

Q11. A circular flat ring of inner radius 1 m and outer radius 2 m has surface charge density, ρs=
100/r μC/m2. Determine the resulting electric field E on the axis of the ring, 10 m away from
the center. Ans:54.63 kV/m

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Electromagnetic Theory

Q12.

Ans: (a)251.3mC, 502.6 mC [Note flux is calculated in terms of D](b) 10 ar nC/m2, 1.6 ar
nC/m2
Q13. Determine the total current in a wire of radius 1.6 mm if . Ans:5.026 A
Q14. In a slab of dielectric material for which εrc= 2.4εo and V= 300 z2 Volts; find (a) D and ρv
(b) P and ρpv.
Ans: (a) D= 12.73zaz nC/m2, ρv= 12.73nC/m3 (b) P= 7.427 az nC/m2, ρpv= -7.427 nC/m3
Q15. Determine the relaxation time for each of the following medium:
(a) Hard rubber (σ = 10-15 S/m, ε = 3.1εo)
(b) Mica (σ = 10-15 S/m, ε = 6εo)
(c) Distilled water (σ = 10-4 S/m, ε = 80εo) Ans: (a)2.741×104 s (b) 5.305×104 s (c) 7.07 μs
Q16. Two homogeneous dielectric regions 1 (ρ ≤ 4 cm) and 2 (ρ > 4 cm) have dielectric
constants 3.5 and 1.5, respectively. If D2 = 12aρ - 6 aφ + 9 az nC/m2, calculate: (a) E1 and D1
(b) P2 and ρv2. Ans: E1= 387.8aρ – 452.4 aφ + 678.6 az V/m, D1= 12aρ - 14 aφ + 21 az
nC/m (b) P2=4aρ - 2 aφ + 3 az nC/m2, ρv2= 0
2

Q17. An infinitely long conductor is bent into an L shape as shown in Figure below. If a direct
current of 5 A flows in the current, find the magnetic field intensity at (a) (2, 2, 0), (b) (0, - 2,
0), and (c) (0, 0, 2). Ans: (a) -0.6792 az A/m (b) 0.1989 az A/m (c) 0.1989 ax+0.1989 ay A/m

Q18. In a certain conducting region, H = yz(x2 + y2) ax - y2xz ay + 4x2y2 az A/m .(a) Determine J
at (5, 2 , - 3 ) (b) Find the current passing through x = -1,0 < y, z < 2 (c) Show that • B = 0.
Ans: (a) 420 ax - 22 ay + 99 az A/m2 (b) 53.33
A

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Electromagnetic Theory

Q19. A conducting circular loop of radius 20 cm lies in the z = 0 plane in a magnetic field B = 10
cos 377t az mWb/m2. Calculate the induced voltage in the loop. Ans: 0.4738 sin 377t
V
Q20. A rod of length l rotates about the z-axis with an angular velocity w. If B = Boaz, calculate
the voltage induced on the conductor. Ans:
(½)Bowl2
Q21. A 30-cm by 40-cm rectangular loop rotates at 130 rad/s in a magnetic field 0.06 Wb/m2
normal to the axis of rotation. If the loop has 50 turns, determine the induced voltage in
the loop. Ans: -54
V
Q22. Figure given below shows a conducting loop of area 20 cm2 and resistance 4Ω. If B=40 cos
t az mWb/m2, find the induced current in the loop and indicate its direction.
Ans: 0.2 sin 104t A, clockwise for increasing
B

Q23. Find the induced emf in the V-shaped loop of Figure given below (a) Take B = 0.1azWb/m2
and u = 2ax m/s and assume that the sliding rod starts at the origin when t = 0. (b) Repeat
part (a) if B = 0.5x azWb/m2. Ans: (a) -0.4t V (b)
2
-2t V

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Electromagnetic Theory

Conceptual Questions
Q1.What is the significance of A . B×C=0?
Q2.What is the significance of A× (B×C)=0?
Q3.Which of the unit vectors in the cylindrical coordinate system are not uniform? Explain.
Q4.Is Gauss’s law mathematically equivalent to Coulomb’s law?
Q5.Fields (E and V) of a charge diverge as one move infinitesimally close to the charge. Explain
why fields of the surface charge do not diverge as one moves infinitesimal close to the
surface?
Q6.Why a two-dimensional field line representation of electric field is deceptive or not true
representation?
Q7.Electric field lines begin on positive charge and end on negative charge. Why cannot they
simply terminate in midair?
Q8.Comment on the statement, “Gauss’s law in electrostatics is always true but it is not always
useful”.
Q9.Why the curl of electric field vector should always be zero to represent an electrostatic field?
Q10. Why electric field is zero inside a conductor?
Q11. Discuss the concept of Faraday cage.
Q12. What is atomic polarizability, α? Show that it has dimensions of volume in CGS system.
Q13. Discuss an application based on the magnetic force on a current carrying wire or on a
moving charge.

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Electromagnetic Theory

Multiple Choice Questions


Q1. The direction of electric field E is______ to equipotential lines
(a) Normal (b) Tangential
(b) Opposite (c) Unrelated
Q2.The Gauss’ law in electrostatics can be mathematically represented as
(a) ∮
(b) ∮
(c) ∮
(d) ∮
Q3.The electric potential at any point due to an electric dipole varies as
(a) 1/r
(b) 1/r2
(c) 1/r3
(d) r2
Q4.If a Gaussian surface encloses a collection of negative charges, then for such a surface
(a) The normal component of D will become zero
(b) The normal component of D will point inwards
(c) The normal component of D will point outwards
(d) The normal component of D will become infinite
Q5.A body carrying net negative charge of 1 C has an excess _________number of electrons
(a) 1.6 × 10−19
(b) 1.6 × 10+19
(c) 6.24 × 10+18
(d) None of the above
Q6. If a point charge, Q is located at the center of a cube, then flux through one of the face is
given by
(a) Q
(b) Q/εo
(c) Q/3εo
(d) Q/6εo
Q7.The gradient of √ (the magnitude of position vector, ⃗) is given by
(a) 1
(b) ̂
(c) r
(d) None of the above
Q8.The volume of a volume element in spherical coordinate system is given by
(a) r sinθ dθ dφ
(b) r cosθ dr dθ dφ
(c) r2 sinθ dr dθ dφ
(d) r cosθ dr dθ dφ
Q9.A Gaussian surface is a surface of
(a) Zero electric field
(b) Constant electric potential
(c) Uniform charge density
(d) a & b both

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Electromagnetic Theory

Q10. The condition for an electrostatic field E to be valid is


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Q11. The magnitude of an area element having area vector along âρ in cylindrical co-ordinate
system is given by
(a) ρ dφ dz
(b) dρ dz
(c) ρ sinφ dφ dz
(d) ρ dρ dz
Q12. Which one is the CORRECT set of boundary conditions on the components of D and
E(assume free charge density, ρs≠0) for two dielectric mediums 1 and 2 having permittivity
ε1 and ε2 respectively
(a) Et1= Et2, Dt1≠ Dt2, En1= En2, Dn1= Dn2
(b) Et1≠ Et2, Dt1≠ Dt2, En1= En2, Dn1= Dn2
(c) Et1= Et2, Dt1≠ Dt2, En1= En2, Dn1≠ Dn2
(d) Et1= Et2, Dt1≠ Dt2, En1≠ En2, Dn1≠ Dn2
Q13. The total current(in Ampere) passing through a cylindrical conductor (wire) of radius 4
mm if the current density is given by A/m2
(a) 100π
(b) 90 π
(c) 80 π
(d) 70 π
Q14. A circular disk of radius R has a surface charge density that increase linearly away from
the center, the constant of proportionality being k. The total charge on the disk is
(a) 2πkR3/3
(b) 2πkR2/3
(c) 2πkR/3
(d) 2πkR4/3
Q15. For a scalar field φ and a vector field A, the div (φ A) will be
(a) φ div A
(b) φ div A + A. div φ
(c) φ div A + A. grad φ
(d) zero
Q16. The value of constant ‘a’ so that the vector V= (x+3y) âx +(y-2z) ây + (x+ az) âz is
solenoidal
(a) 2
(b) -2
(c) 0
(d) 1
Q17. In a dielectric material, with εr = 3.6, D = 285 nC/m2. The magnitudes of P and χe
respectively are
(a) 206 nC/m2, 2.6
(b) 206 nC/m2, 4.6
(c) 103 nC/m2, 3.6

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Electromagnetic Theory

(d) 106 nC/m2, 2.6


Q18. The divergence of a vector A in spherical polar coordinates is given as
( ) ( )
. The operator is
( )
(a)
( )
(b) ̂ ̂ ̂
(c)
(d) ̂ ̂ ̂
Q19. Relaxation time is defined as the time taken by the charge placed in the interior of a
material to drop to______ times of its initial value
(a) e-1
(b) e-2
(c) e
(d) e2
Q20. When a potential difference is applied across human heart, its behavior can be modeled
as that of electric dipole. Abnormal hearts can be detected by mapping
(a) Equipotential surfaces
(b) Electric flux lines
(c) Electric fields
(d) All of the above
Q21. The correct representation of continuity equation is (where J is current density)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Q22. The net flux of the vector field F(ρ,φ,z) = ρâρ + âφ + zâz leaving a closed half cylinder ρ =
1, , will be
(a) π
(b) π/2
(c) 3π/2
(d) 2π
Q23. A uniform line charge with ρl = 5 μC/m lies along the x axis. The electric flux density D
at point (3,2,1) will be
(a) ( )

(b) ( )

(c) ( )

(d) ( )

Q24. An inverted hemispherical bowl of radius R carries a uniform charge density ρs. the
potential difference between the “north pole” and “center” is given by

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Electromagnetic Theory

(a) (R2 ρs/2εo)(√ )


(b) (R ρs/εo)(√ )
(c) (R ρs/2εo)(√ )
(d) (R2 ρs/εo)(√ )

Q25. The gradient of the scalar function f(r, θ, φ)= 2r cosθ - 5φ + 2 will be
(a) z âr + (2/r) cosφ âθ - r âφ
(b) -z âr - (2/r) cosφ âθ - r âφ
(c) -z âr + (2/r) cosφ âθ - r âφ
(d) -z âr + (2/r) cosφ âθ + r âφ

Q26. A circular disk of radius 3 m with center at origin and kept in XY plane carries a uniformly
distributed charge of 450π μC. The force on a 75 μC charge located 4 m away from the
center on the axis of the disk will be
(a) 13.5 π N
(b) 12.5 π N
(c) 12 π N
(d) 11 π N

Q27. The charge density at point (1/2, π/2, 0) corresponding to D = r sinφ âρ+ r2cosφ âφ + 2r e-5z
âz is
(a) -1.5
(b) -2.5
(c) 3.5
(d) -3.5

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