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Week 2

Project Management

Wiediartini, SE, MT

@ PPNS, 2011
What Is a Project?
 A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product, service, or result” (PMBOK® Guide,
Fourth Edition, 2008, p. 5)

 Operations is work done to sustain the business

 Projects end when their objectives have been reached or

the project has been terminated

 Projects can be large or small and take a short or long

time to complete (specific time period for completion)

 Multiple activities
• Unique
• Have a defined timescale
• Have an approved budget
• Have limited resources
• Involve an element of risk
• Proyek merupakan suatu tugas yang perlu dirumuskan
untuk mencapai sasaran yang dinyatakan secara
kongkrit serta harus diselesaikan dalam suatu periode
tertentu dengan menggunakan tenaga manusia dan
alat-alat yang terbatas dan begitu kompleks sehingga
dibutuhkan pengelolaan dan kerjasama yang berbeda
dari yang biasanya digunakan
• Menurut DI Cleland dan Wr. King (1987)
Proyek merupakan gabungan dari berbagai sumber
daya yang dihimpun dalam organisasi sementara untuk
mencapai suatu tujuan tertentu.
• Examples of projects
– Introduce Windows Vista
– Disneyland’s Expedition Everest
– Pembuatan rumah
– Pembuatan jalan raya
– Pembuatan jembatan
– Pembuatan iklan perusahaan
– Pembentukan tim evaluasi lokasi baru perusahaan
– Pembuatan prototipe produk baru

“Projects, rather than repetitive tasks, are now the basis

for most value-added in business”
-Tom Peters
Menurut R.D Achibalt (1976), macam-macam proyek adalah sebagai berikut :
• Proyek Kapital (Modal)
Meliputi : pembebasan tanah, pembelian material dan peralatan, desain
mesin, dan kostruksi guna pembangunan instalasi pabrik baru.
• Proyek pengembangan produk baru adalah kegiatan untuk menciptakan
produk baru yang biasanya merupakan gabungan antara proyek kapital
dan proyek riset dan pengembangan.
Contoh : penemuan alat elektronik karaoke.
• Proyek penelitian dan pengembangan berupa kegiatan untuk melakukan
penelitian dengan sasaran yang ditentukan.
• Proyek sistem informasi adalah kegiatan yang sifatnya spesifik dengan
mempergunakan alat-alat pemrosesan data (data processing personal dan
alat-alat lainnya.
• Proyek yang berkaitan dengan manajemen : perusahaan merancang
reorganisasi, perusahaan merancang program efisiensi, dan penghematan
merancang diversifikasi.
Project vs. Process Work
Project Process
• Take place outside the • Ongoing, day-to-day
process world activities
• Unique and separate from • Use existing systems,
normal organization work properties, and capabilities
• Continually evolving • Typically repetitive

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to

create a unique product or service.
PMBoK 2000
The Triple Constraint of Project
Successful project
management means
meeting all three
goals (scope, time,
and cost) – and
satisfying the
project’s sponsor!

What is Project Management?
• Project management is “the application of
knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to
project activities to meet project
requirements” (PMBOK® Guide, Fourth
Edition, 2008, p. 6)

• Project managers strive to meet the triple

constraint by balancing project scope, time,
and cost goals
Project Management Framework

Project Success
• There are several ways to define project
The project met scope, time, and cost goals
The project satisfied the customer/sponsor
The results of the project met its main
objective, such as making or saving a certain
amount of money, providing a good return
on investment, or simply making the
sponsors happy
Project Life Cycles
Man Hours

Conceptualization Planning Execution Termination

Fig 1.3 Project Life Cycle Stages

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Project Life Cycles
• Conceptualization - the development of the initial
goal and technical specifications.
• Planning – all detailed specifications, schedules,
schematics, and plans are developed
• Execution – the actual “work” of the project is
• Termination – project is transferred to the
customer, resources reassigned, project is
closed out.
Project Life Cycles and Their Effects
Client Interest

Project Stake




Planning Execution Termination
Stakeholder Management
Stakeholders are all individuals or groups who have
an active stake in the project and can potentially impact,
either positively or negatively, its development.

Sets of project stakeholders include:

Internal Stakeholders External Stakeholders

• Top management • Clients
• Accountant • Competitors
• Other functional managers • Suppliers
• Project team members • Environmental, political, consumer,
and other intervenor groups
Project Stakeholder
Other External
Functional Environment

Project Top
Clients Management

Accountant Team
Managing Stakeholders
1. Assess the environment
2. Identify the goals of the principal actors
3. Assess your own capabilities
4. Define the problem
5. Develop solutions
6. Test and refine the solutions
Daftar Pustaka
• Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall,

• Introduction to Project Management, Pitchbook

• Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III, Operations
Management - 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006
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