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# Dr.

Neal, WKU
MATH 117 Arithmetic Formulas
Given angles A and B , there several important arithmetic formulas for the sine and
cosine of the angles A ± B , as well as angles such as ! A , 90º ! B , 2 A , and B / 2 . In each
case, we can obtain an exact formula for the result in terms of the sine and cosine of the
original angles A and B without knowing the actual values of the angles A and B .

Negative Angles

## Because angles A and ! A create the same x -

coordinates on the unit circle, but negative y -
(x , y) coordinates, we have

A cos A = cos(! A)
!A
and

(x ,! y) sin(! A) = ! sin A

Complimentary Angles

## Because the x and y values are switched for

(y, x ) complimentary angles such as 30º and 60º, we have

## 90º ! A sin(90 º ! A) = cos(A)

(x , y)
and
A
cos(90º ! A) = sin(A)
A

Supplementary Angles

## Because supplementary angles, such as 30º

and 150º, have the same y -coordinates but
180º ! A negative x -coordinates, we have
(! x, y) (x , y)

A A sin(A) = sin(180º ! A)

and

cos(180º ! A) = ! cos( A)
Dr. Neal, WKU

sin(A + B) = sin A cosB + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B

sin(A ! B) = sin A cosB ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

## sin(2 A) = 2 sin A cos A cos(2 A) = cos 2 A ! sin 2 A

Half-Angle Formulas

## ! B\$ 1' cosB ! B\$ 1+ cosB

sin# & = + cos# & = ±
" 2% 2 " 2% 2

2 5
Example. Assume tan A = , with angle A in Quadrant III, and csc B = ! , with angle
7 4

(a) Use right-triangle trig to determine the sines and cosines of angles A and B .
(b) Find sin(A + B) , cos(A + B) , sin(A ! B) , cos(A ! B) .
(c) Determine what quadrants the angles A + B and A ! B lie in.
(d) Find sin(2 A) and cos(2 A) . Determine what quadrant the angle 2 A lies in.
(e) Find sin(B / 2) and cos(B / 2) . Determine what quadrant the angle B / 2 lies in.

2
Solution. With A in III and tan A = , both x and y are negative. So y = !2 , x = !7 ,
7
2 2
and z = 2 + 7 = 53 . For B in IV, y is negative but x is positive. Also
1 4
sin B = =! .
csc B 5

–7 52 ! 4 2 = 3

–2 !4
53 5

## Angle A in Quadrant III

2 7 4 3
sin A = ! and cos A = ! sin B = ! and cos B =
53 53 5 5
Dr. Neal, WKU

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B
!2 3 !7 !4 !7 3 !2 !4
= " + " = " ! "
53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5
!6 + 28 22 !21 ! 8 !29
= = = =
5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53

sin(A ! B) = sin A cos B ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
!2 3 !7 !4 !7 3 !2 !4
= " ! " = " + "
53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5
!6 ! 28 !34 !21 + 8 !13
= = = =
5 53 5 53 15 53 5 53

## A + B must be in Quadrant II (cos is neg, sin is pos.)

A ! B must be in Quadrant III (sin, cos are both neg.)

## sin(2 A) = 2 sin A cos A cos(2 A) = cos 2 A ! sin 2 A

" !2 % " !7 %
= 2\$ '\$ ' " !7 % 2 " !2 % 2
# 53 & # 53 & =\$ ' !\$ '
# 53 & # 53 &
28
= 49 4 45
53 = ! =
53 53 53

2A must be in the 1st Quadrant, because both sin and cos are positive.

For angle B / 2 , first note that angle B is in Quadrant IV. Thus, 270º ! B ! 360º .
B
Dividing by 2, we obtain: 135º ! ! 180º . Thus, B / 2 is in Quadrant II. So the sine will
2
be positive, but the cosine will be negative.

3 3
! B\$ 1 ' cos B 1' ! B\$ 1 + cos B 1+
sin # & = + = 5 cos # & = ' =' 5
" 2% 2 2 " 2% 2 2
2 1 1 5 8 1 4 2 2 5
= ( = = =' ( =' =' ='
5 2 5 5 5 2 5 5 5
Dr. Neal, WKU

## 15º and 75º Angles

The 15º and 75º reference angles througout the quadrants create many examples for
using the Sum and Difference Angle Formulas. Each angle can be written as a sum or
difference involving the 30º, 45º, and 60º reference angles for which we know the sines
and cosines. For example, we can use 15º = 60º – 45º or 15º = 45º – 30º.

105º 75º

165º 15º

195º 345º

255º 285º

Example. Compute the exact value of sin(15º ) and cos(15º ) . Then compute sin(75º )
and cos(75º ) .

## sin(15º) = sin(45º!30º ) cos(15º ) = cos(45º!30º )

= sin 45º cos30º ! cos45º sin30º = cos 45º cos30º + sin 45º sin30º

2 3 2 1 and 2 3 2 1
= " ! " = " + "
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6! 2 6+ 2
= =
4 4

Because 75º is the complement of 15º, we should have that sin(75º) = cos(15º) and
cos(75º) = sin(15º) . But using 75º = 45º + 30º, we obtain

## sin(75º ) = sin(45º +30º ) cos(75º ) = cos(45º +30º )

= sin 45º cos 30º + cos 45º sin 30º = cos 45º cos 30º ! sin 45º sin 30º
2 3 2 1 and 2 3 2 1
= ! + ! = " ! "
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6+ 2 6! 2
= = cos(15º ) = = sin(15º )
4 4
Dr. Neal, WKU

Exercises

5 7
1. Suppose sec(A) = ! with A in Quad II, and cot(B) = with B in Quad III.
4 10

Draw the information on right triangles. Then find the exact values of

## (a) sin(A + B) and sin(A ! B) (b) cos(A + B) and cos(A ! B)

! A\$ ! A\$
(c) sin(2B) and cos(2B) (d) sin# & and cos# &
" 2% " 2%

## (a) sin(105º) and cos(105º ) (b) sin(165º) and cos(165º )

(c) sin (255º ) and cos (255º ) (d) sin (345º ) and cos (345º )
Dr. Neal, WKU

–7
5
3
–10
-4
149
Angle A in II
Angle B in III

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B
3 "7 "4 "10 !4 !7 3 !10
= ! + ! = " ! "
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149
"21 + 40 19 28 + 30 58
= = = =
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149

sin(A ! B) = sin A cos B ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
3 !7 !4 !10 !4 !7 3 !10
= " ! " = " + "
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149
!21 ! 40 !61 28 ! 30 !2
= = = =
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149

## A + B must be in Quadrant I (cos is pos, sin is pos.)

A ! B must be in Quadrant III (sin, cos are both neg.)

## sin(2B) = 2sin B cos B cos(2B) = cos2 B ! sin2 B

" !10 % " !7 %
= 2\$ '\$ ' " !7 % 2 " !10 % 2
# 149 & # 149 & =\$ ' !\$ '
# 149 & # 149 &
140
= 49 100 51
149 = ! =!
149 149 149

## 2B must be in Quadrant I!, because cos is neg and sin is pos.

For angle A / 2 , first note that angle A is in Quadrant II. Thus, 90º ! A ! 180º .
A
Dividing by 2, we obtain: 45º ! ! 90º . Thus, A / 2 is in Quadrant I. So the sine will be
2
positive and the cosine will be positive.

'4 '4
! A\$ 1' ! A\$ 1+
1 ' cos A 5 1 + cos A 5
sin# & = + = cos# & = ' =
" 2% 2 2 " 2% 2 2
9 1 9 3 1 1 1 1
= ( = = = ( = =
5 2 10 10 5 2 10 10