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Dr.

Neal, WKU
MATH 117 Arithmetic Formulas
Given angles A and B , there several important arithmetic formulas for the sine and
cosine of the angles A ± B , as well as angles such as ! A , 90º ! B , 2 A , and B / 2 . In each
case, we can obtain an exact formula for the result in terms of the sine and cosine of the
original angles A and B without knowing the actual values of the angles A and B .

Negative Angles

Because angles A and ! A create the same x -


coordinates on the unit circle, but negative y -
(x , y) coordinates, we have

A cos A = cos(! A)
!A
and

(x ,! y) sin(! A) = ! sin A

Complimentary Angles

Because the x and y values are switched for


(y, x ) complimentary angles such as 30º and 60º, we have

90º ! A sin(90 º ! A) = cos(A)


(x , y)
and
A
cos(90º ! A) = sin(A)
A

Supplementary Angles

Because supplementary angles, such as 30º


and 150º, have the same y -coordinates but
180º ! A negative x -coordinates, we have
(! x, y) (x , y)

A A sin(A) = sin(180º ! A)

and

cos(180º ! A) = ! cos( A)
Dr. Neal, WKU

Addition/Subtraction Formulas

sin(A + B) = sin A cosB + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B

sin(A ! B) = sin A cosB ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

Double Angle Formulas

sin(2 A) = 2 sin A cos A cos(2 A) = cos 2 A ! sin 2 A

Half-Angle Formulas

! B$ 1' cosB ! B$ 1+ cosB


sin# & = + cos# & = ±
" 2% 2 " 2% 2

2 5
Example. Assume tan A = , with angle A in Quadrant III, and csc B = ! , with angle
7 4
B in Quadrant IV.

(a) Use right-triangle trig to determine the sines and cosines of angles A and B .
(b) Find sin(A + B) , cos(A + B) , sin(A ! B) , cos(A ! B) .
(c) Determine what quadrants the angles A + B and A ! B lie in.
(d) Find sin(2 A) and cos(2 A) . Determine what quadrant the angle 2 A lies in.
(e) Find sin(B / 2) and cos(B / 2) . Determine what quadrant the angle B / 2 lies in.

2
Solution. With A in III and tan A = , both x and y are negative. So y = !2 , x = !7 ,
7
2 2
and z = 2 + 7 = 53 . For B in IV, y is negative but x is positive. Also
1 4
sin B = =! .
csc B 5

–7 52 ! 4 2 = 3

–2 !4
53 5

Angle A in Quadrant III


Angle B in Quadrant IV
2 7 4 3
sin A = ! and cos A = ! sin B = ! and cos B =
53 53 5 5
Dr. Neal, WKU

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B
!2 3 !7 !4 !7 3 !2 !4
= " + " = " ! "
53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5
!6 + 28 22 !21 ! 8 !29
= = = =
5 53 5 53 5 53 5 53

sin(A ! B) = sin A cos B ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
!2 3 !7 !4 !7 3 !2 !4
= " ! " = " + "
53 5 53 5 53 5 53 5
!6 ! 28 !34 !21 + 8 !13
= = = =
5 53 5 53 15 53 5 53

A + B must be in Quadrant II (cos is neg, sin is pos.)


A ! B must be in Quadrant III (sin, cos are both neg.)

sin(2 A) = 2 sin A cos A cos(2 A) = cos 2 A ! sin 2 A


" !2 % " !7 %
= 2$ '$ ' " !7 % 2 " !2 % 2
# 53 & # 53 & =$ ' !$ '
# 53 & # 53 &
28
= 49 4 45
53 = ! =
53 53 53

2A must be in the 1st Quadrant, because both sin and cos are positive.

For angle B / 2 , first note that angle B is in Quadrant IV. Thus, 270º ! B ! 360º .
B
Dividing by 2, we obtain: 135º ! ! 180º . Thus, B / 2 is in Quadrant II. So the sine will
2
be positive, but the cosine will be negative.

3 3
! B$ 1 ' cos B 1' ! B$ 1 + cos B 1+
sin # & = + = 5 cos # & = ' =' 5
" 2% 2 2 " 2% 2 2
2 1 1 5 8 1 4 2 2 5
= ( = = =' ( =' =' ='
5 2 5 5 5 2 5 5 5
Dr. Neal, WKU

15º and 75º Angles

The 15º and 75º reference angles througout the quadrants create many examples for
using the Sum and Difference Angle Formulas. Each angle can be written as a sum or
difference involving the 30º, 45º, and 60º reference angles for which we know the sines
and cosines. For example, we can use 15º = 60º – 45º or 15º = 45º – 30º.

105º 75º

165º 15º

195º 345º

255º 285º

Example. Compute the exact value of sin(15º ) and cos(15º ) . Then compute sin(75º )
and cos(75º ) .

Solution. Using 15º = 45º – 30º, we have

sin(15º) = sin(45º!30º ) cos(15º ) = cos(45º!30º )


= sin 45º cos30º ! cos45º sin30º = cos 45º cos30º + sin 45º sin30º

2 3 2 1 and 2 3 2 1
= " ! " = " + "
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6! 2 6+ 2
= =
4 4

Because 75º is the complement of 15º, we should have that sin(75º) = cos(15º) and
cos(75º) = sin(15º) . But using 75º = 45º + 30º, we obtain

sin(75º ) = sin(45º +30º ) cos(75º ) = cos(45º +30º )


= sin 45º cos 30º + cos 45º sin 30º = cos 45º cos 30º ! sin 45º sin 30º
2 3 2 1 and 2 3 2 1
= ! + ! = " ! "
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6+ 2 6! 2
= = cos(15º ) = = sin(15º )
4 4
Dr. Neal, WKU

Exercises

5 7
1. Suppose sec(A) = ! with A in Quad II, and cot(B) = with B in Quad III.
4 10

Draw the information on right triangles. Then find the exact values of

(a) sin(A + B) and sin(A ! B) (b) cos(A + B) and cos(A ! B)

! A$ ! A$
(c) sin(2B) and cos(2B) (d) sin# & and cos# &
" 2% " 2%

(e) Explain what quadrants the angles A + B , A ! B , 2B , and A / 2 are in.

2. Use the sum/addition formulas to find the exact values of

(a) sin(105º) and cos(105º ) (b) sin(165º) and cos(165º )

(c) sin (255º ) and cos (255º ) (d) sin (345º ) and cos (345º )
Dr. Neal, WKU

Answer

–7
5
3
–10
-4
149
Angle A in II
Angle B in III

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B ! sin A sin B
3 "7 "4 "10 !4 !7 3 !10
= ! + ! = " ! "
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149
"21 + 40 19 28 + 30 58
= = = =
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149

sin(A ! B) = sin A cos B ! cos A sin B cos(A ! B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
3 !7 !4 !10 !4 !7 3 !10
= " ! " = " + "
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149
!21 ! 40 !61 28 ! 30 !2
= = = =
5 149 5 149 5 149 5 149

A + B must be in Quadrant I (cos is pos, sin is pos.)


A ! B must be in Quadrant III (sin, cos are both neg.)

sin(2B) = 2sin B cos B cos(2B) = cos2 B ! sin2 B


" !10 % " !7 %
= 2$ '$ ' " !7 % 2 " !10 % 2
# 149 & # 149 & =$ ' !$ '
# 149 & # 149 &
140
= 49 100 51
149 = ! =!
149 149 149

2B must be in Quadrant I!, because cos is neg and sin is pos.

For angle A / 2 , first note that angle A is in Quadrant II. Thus, 90º ! A ! 180º .
A
Dividing by 2, we obtain: 45º ! ! 90º . Thus, A / 2 is in Quadrant I. So the sine will be
2
positive and the cosine will be positive.

'4 '4
! A$ 1' ! A$ 1+
1 ' cos A 5 1 + cos A 5
sin# & = + = cos# & = ' =
" 2% 2 2 " 2% 2 2
9 1 9 3 1 1 1 1
= ( = = = ( = =
5 2 10 10 5 2 10 10