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THE EFFECT OF LIQUIDITY, PROFITABILITY, EFFICIENCY, AND

ASSET QUALITY CAPITAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF


COMMERCIAL BANK OWNED SOE
(Listed on the Stock Exchange 2009-2013)

Ryani DhyanParashakti,SE.MM
(ryaniparasakti@gmail.com)

Drs. Subandi,MM
(bandi_subandi@yahoo.com)

Septiani Juniarti, SE.MM


(septiani.juniarti@gmail.com)

Economics and Business Faculty, Mercu Buana University


Jl. Meruya Selatan, West Jakarta11650

Abstract: Banks is an institution roommate its main activity is fund raising from society then revolves it with
purpose to generate revenue from which. Therefore, it is important for banks to maintain public trust because the
business activity is relying to the public trust. This research has purpose to PROVE the effect of the Loan to Deposit
Ratio (LDR), Net Interest Margin (NIM), Operating Expenses / Operating Income (ROA), Non-Performing Loan
(NPL) and Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) of financial ratios to banks roommates performance measured by return
on assets (ROA).

Key words: Return on Assets (ROA), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), Net Interest Margin (NIM), Operating
Expenses / Operating Income (ROA), Non-Performing Loan (NPL) and Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR)

1. Introduction

In the era of globalization, the economy grows and develops a wide range of financial institutions. One among
the financial institutions that seem to play a major role in the economy is the financial institution, which is
commonly called the bank. According to RI Law Article 1 paragraph 2 No. 10 of 1998, the Bank is a business entity
which collects funds from the public in the form of savings and channel them to the public in the form of loans or
other forms in order to improve the standard of living of the people. In addition, the bank also as an industry in its
business activities that rely on public trust bank soundness should be maintained. The stability of the banking
institutions are needed in the economy of a country. This stability is not only reflected for money in circulation, but
also be seen from the number of existing banks as the financial administration. The banking sector is regarded as the
driving wheels of a country's economy. Through the activities of credit and other services provided, the bank serving
the needs of financing and payment system launched a mechanism for all economic systems. The Bank also has a
role as a monetary policy implementation and achievement of the stability of the financial system, so it requires a
sound, transparent and accountable. With the healthy banking, system will encourage the country's economy.
Healthy or not a bank is inseparable from the performance of the bank itself. The closure of the banks by the
government led to declining public confidence in the banking system. This was shown by the long queues
communities attract funds (rush) of commercial banks nationwide.

Since then people are more careful in choosing a bank that is really healthy and safe to save funds. Similarly,
investors should be cautious in making decisions in investing activities primarily related to capital market banking
company. Therefore, the parties related to the bank require information that can be used to find out about the
performance of the banking company, especially during the current global crisis. To choose the banking soundness

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generally used five aspects of assessment, namely CAMEL (Capital, Assets, Management, Earnings, and Liquidity).
Four of The five aspects of each - each Capital, Assets, Earnings, Liquidity assessed with financial ratios. This
shows that the ratio is useful in assessing the financial banking of performance level conditions. Banking
performance can be measured by using the average rate of interest on loans, the average interest rate on deposits,
and bank profitability. Profitability measure used is the rate of return of equity (ROE) for the company in general
and the return on assets (ROA) in the banking industry. The reason for choosing Return on Assets (ROA) as a
measure of performance is due to ROA is used to measure the efficiency of the company in making a profit by
exploiting its assets. ROA is the ratio of profit before tax to total assets. The greater the ROA shows that the better
financial performance, because the level of return (return) the greater. If ROA increased, meaning the company's
profitability increased, so the impact is ultimately increase profitability enjoyed by shareholders. Based on the
matters researchers conducted this study using financial data of state-owned commercial banks for five years in
order to know the financial condition of banks in the period as well as the accuracy of financial ratios used in
influencing the performance of state-owned commercial banks.

2. Literature, Framework Thinking, and Hypotheses

According to Law No. 10 of 1998 on the amendment of Law No. 7 of 1992 on banking, banks are business
entities that raise funds from the public in the form of savings and channel them back in the form or forms of credit
and other forms in order to improve the standard of living of the people. Definitions of financial ratios according
Harahap (2008) is a number derived from the comparison of a financial report post with more posts that have a
relevant and significant relationship (mean).

The notion of the bank's health is a very broad limit, because the health of banks includes soundness of a bank to
conduct all banking business activities. Assessment of the bank aims to gain confidence that the bank has been
operating well, not in a state that causes the liquidation and can obtain the expected profit to give confidence to the
users of financial statements. Indonesia Bank shall provide provisions size of bank rating, and issued regulations
requiring a bank to provide complete financial information that the Indonesia Bank Circular Letter No. 6/23 / DPNP
dated May 31, 2004. It is concerning the Rating System for Commercial Banks, where banks are required to submit
the information and explanations relating to the business of banks to the public and Bank Indonesia on an annual
basis as well as banks are required to conduct bank rating on quarterly basis. The soundness of banks assessed with
quantitative approach various aspects affecting the condition and development of a bank. This quantitative approach
is done by assessing factors CAMEL and that becomes a factor and component CAMEL ratios are as follows:

A. Based on Kashmir (2008) assessment of capital is capital that is based on the capital adequacy of banks. The
assessment based on the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) as determined by Bank Indonesia. CAR ratio is the
ratio of capital to weighted assets According to Risk (RWA).
B. Definition of productive assets by Siamat (2005) are all planting fund in rupiah and foreign exchange
intended to earn according to function and also to finance the operational costs other. The quality of assets in
CAMEL is analyzed by using the ratio of APB, NPL ratio, and the ratio PPAPAP. The types of asset quality:
C. According to Mulyadi (2007) Efficiency is the ratio of output to input a process, with a focus on consumer
input. Operating efficiency is a matter that must be done by the company, where the company has a goal to
find as much profit as possible. Maximum profit can be achieved through the efficient use of resources. The
level of bank efficiency can be calculated by using ROA.
D. According Simorangkir (2004) is profitability or profitability is the ability of a bank to make a profit.
According to the Policy Package February 28, 2004 (Paktri 28/2004), bank profitability assessment based on
the position of profit / loss in the book, the development of profit / loss in the last three years, and profit / loss
is expected.
E. The Bank's liquidity is the ability of a bank to meet its obligations, especially short-term funding obligations.
Liquidity indicates the availability of funds and the source of funds in the present and future. Definition of
liquidity according to According Simorangkir (2004) is the bank's liquidity is the ability of a bank to pay off
financial obligations that can be redeemed immediately or overdue. Obligations that must be met is the short-
term debt, therefore this ratio can be used to measure the security level of short-term creditors, as well as
measuring whether the company's operations will not be disrupted if the short-term liabilities is immediately
charged.
F. According to Kashmir (2007), the bank's performance is a measure of success for the directors of the bank, so
if performance is bad then it is unlikely the board of directors will be replaced. Banks need to be assessed

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health; the goal is to determine the actual condition of the bank. Meanwhile, according to Husnan and
Pudjiastuti (2004), the financial performance of the company is one of the basic assessments of the financial
condition of the company, which can be based on an analysis of the financial ratios of the company.
According Sugiyono (2011) hypothesis is a temporary answer to the formulation of research problems, in
which the formulation of research problems has been expressed in the form of a question sentence. Said to be
temporary, because new answers given are based on relevant theory, not based on empirical facts obtained
through data collection. So the hypothesis can also be expressed as a theoretical answer to the formulation of
research problems, yet empirical answer to the data. Based on these explanations, it can be concluded for the
first hypothesis in this study are as follows:
a. H1: Allegedly, there is a positive effect simultaneously between Liquidity, Profitability, Efficiency,
Asset Quality, and Capital on the Performance of Commercial Bank Owned SOE.
b. H2: Allegedly, there is a positive influence between Liquidity (LDR) to Performance (ROA)
Commercial Bank Owned Enterprises.
c. H3: Allegedly, there is a positive influence between Profitability (NIM) to Performance (ROA)
Commercial Bank Owned Enterprises.
d. H4: Allegedly, there is a negative influence between Efficiency (BO / PO) on Performance (ROA)
Commercial Bank Owned Enterprises.
e. H5: Allegedly, there is a negative influence between Asset Quality (NPL) to Performance (ROA)
Commercial Bank Owned Enterprises.
f. H6: Allegedly, there is a positive influence between Capital (CAR) on Performance (ROA) Owned
Commercial Bank SOE

3. Research Methods

The dependent variable form of a bank's performance is measured by Return on Assets (ROA). ROA in its
simplest form is calculated as earnings divided by assets. ROA can be separated into components that have meaning
relative to sales. Liquidity Independent variables were measured with LDR Loan to Deposit Ratio is the ratio that
measures a bank's ability to meet financial obligations that must be met. Independent Variables Net Interest Margin
(NIM) This ratio is used to measure the ability of bank management in managing its productive assets to generate
net interest income. Independent variable operating cost ratio (ROA) is the ratio between operating expenses and
operating income. In this study, financial ratios are used as the value of a credit risk is the ratio of non-performing
loans (NPL). This ratio shows that the ability of bank management in managing non-performing loans granted by
banks. Independent Variable Capital Adequacyio is capital adequacy ratio that shows the bank's ability to maintain
sufficient capital and the ability of bank management to identify, measure, and supervising the risks that arise that
can affect the amount of capital.

Normality test aims to test whether the regression model or residual confounding variable has a normal
distribution. Multicoloniarity test aims to test whether the regression model found a correlation between the
independent variables (independent).
Heteroscedasticity test conducted to examine whether in a regression model, there was inequality of variance of
residuals from one observation to another observation. Autocorrelation test aims to test whether in a linear
regression model there is a correlation between the errors in period t with bullies bully error in period t-1
(previously). Determine coefficient (R2) was essentially measures how much ability to model in explaining the
dependent variable. This model was chosen for this study was designed to determine the independent variables,
which have an influence on the dependent variable. The analysis is used to determine whether the independent
variables have an influence on the dependent variable. The test used is the significance test and a significance test F-
Test T-Test.

4. Results and Discussion

SPSS data processed in the form of descriptive statistics will show the characteristics of the samples used in the
study include the following: the number of samples (N), sample average (mean), minimum and maximum, and
standard deviation for each variable, which are presented in Table 4.1 the following:
Based on the test results of the descriptive statistics of the variables were obtained standard deviation is much
smaller than the average value of the variable, so we can conclude there is no outlier data. If seen by the graph

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above, the data from all the normal distribution of data. This is because all the data is spread following the lines of
normality.
The third independent variable LDR, NIM, ROA, NPL, and CAR indicates the number of VIF less than 10 and a
tolerance value above 0.10. It can be concluded that there is no regression models multicollinearity problem. Then
there is a decent model used.Based evenly above and below the zero line, not gathered in one place, and does not
form a specific pattern so that there is a problem of heteroscedasticity. Autocorrelation test results in Table 4.4 that
the Durbin Watson value of 1.642. If using DW table for "k" = 5 and N = 20 magnitude DW tables for value dL
(lower limit) of 0792 and the value of dU (upper limit) Test Run Test results in Table 4.5 show that the mean value.
The data that is used quite random so there is no problem of autocorrelation in the data being tested can be seen that
the data (points) spread so it can be concluded that the regression is not the case heteroscedasticity problem.
Autocorrelation test results in Table 4.4 that the Durbin Watson value of 1.642. If using DW table for "k" = 5 and N
= 20 magnitude DW tables for value dL (limit below) of 0792 and the value of dU (upper limit).
Run test results in Table 4.5 show that the mean value, the data that is used quite random so there is no problem of
autocorrelation in the data tested. From these results, it can be seen that the LDR variable with coefficient - 0.009
imply that any increase will be negative on ROA, resulting in a decrease in ROA of 0.009. NIM variable with
coefficient 0.374 means that any increase will be positive, resulting in an increase in ROA for 0374. ROA variable
with coefficient -0.062 implies that any increase will be negative on ROA, resulting in a decrease in ROA for 0062.
NPL variable with coefficient - 0268 mean that any increase will be negative on ROA, resulting in deterioration in
ROA amounted to 0.268. While CAR variable with coefficient 0.041 means that, any increase will be positive on
ROA, resulting in an increase in ROA of 0.041. Multiple linear regression equation has a constant value of 6.053
and a standard error of 0564. The magnitude of the constant indicates that if the independent variables are assumed
to steady state, the ROA would decrease by 6,053. Regression coefficienT-testaims to test the significance of the
relationship between the independent variable (X) and the dependent variable (Y) either simultaneously (with the F
test) or partially (with a t-test). The table shows the correlation coefficient (R) and the coefficient of determination
(R-square). Rated R describes the extent of the relationship between the independent variables (x) with the
dependent variable (y). From the results obtained by processing data correlation coefficient of 99.5% means that the
relationship between variables X (LDR, NIM, ROA, NPL, and CAR) to variable Y (ROA) in the strong category.
From the calculation results obtained calculated F value of 252 651 with a P value of 0.000. This means that the
value of the P value less than 0.05, which shows the results of this test reject Ho and accept Ha. From the test results
it is concluded that the variable F CAR, NPL, LDR, ROA and NIM jointly have a significant positive effect on
ROA.

The influence of each variable CAR, NPL, and LDR on ROA can be seen from the direction of the sign and the
significant level (probability). Variable CAR and NIM has positive direction, while the NPL variables, ROA and
LDR showed a negative direction. Variable LDR, NIM, ROA, NPL are significant effect on ROA as a significant
value <0.05. Results of regression test showed a negative influence on the LDR ROA. The higher LDR rise will lead
to a decrease in ROA. It is different from the hypothesis that the higher LDR will increase ROA. Results of
regression test showed a positive effect on ROA NIM variable. It is agreed hypothesis that NIM positive effect on
ROA. Results of regression test showed negative influence variables Operating Costs and Operating Income (ROA)
on Return on Assets (ROA). This concurs with the hypothesis that the negative effect on ROA. From the results of
the regression, equation shows that the value of the coefficient is negative NPL on ROA, agrees with the hypothesis
that the NPL has a negative effect on ROA. The test results show the value of the regression coefficient is positive
CAR variables on ROA, agrees with the hypothesis CAR positive effect on ROA.

5. Conclusion

Based on the results of the data analysis and discussion that has been described can be drawn the following
conclusions:

1. From the results of the regression analysis can be seen that jointly variable have a significant independent
effect on the dependent variable. This is evident from the calculated F value greater than the value of the F
table and the value 0.00 probability smaller than 0.05. Therefore, the hypothesis that LDR, NIM, ROA, NPL,
and CAR together (simultaneously) is influence the state-owned bank ROA 2009-2013 acceptable.
2. From the results of the regression, analysis can be known partial test results (t-test) said that variable LDR,
NIM, ROA, NPL and CAR partial effect on ROA. It can be seen from his sig is LDR (Sig 0:15), NIM (Sig

23
0:00), ROA (Sig 0:00), NPL (Sig 0003), and CAR (Sig 0.46) is still smaller than <0.05. But the value of the
variable T-test deduced NIM and CAR positive effect on ROA as the value of the variable T-test NIM worth
17 342 and CAR worth 2,190, while variable LDR, ROA, and NPL negative effect on ROA as the value of the
variable T-test LDR worth -2782, -6405 valued variable and variable ROA NPL worth - 3,506.

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[62] http://www.bankmandiri.co.id/corporate01/news.asp?row=14. Diakses:31 Oktober 2014

[63] http://bisnis.liputan6.com/read/807130/bri-cetak-untung-rp-2116-triliun-sepanjang-2013. Diakses :


31 Oktober 2014

[64] http://bri.co.id/articles/9. Diakses : 31 Oktober 2014

[65] http://www.bi.go.id/id/peraturan/perbankan/Pages/ketentuan%20perbankan.aspx. Diakses: 31


Oktober 2014

[66] http://www.bi.go.id/id/peraturan/arsip-peraturan/Perbankan2004/se-6-23- dpnp.pdf.

[67] Diakses : 31 Oktober 2014

[68] http://www.bi.go.id/id/peraturan/arsip-peraturan/Perbankan2001.pdf. Diakses : 31 Oktober 2014

[69] http://www.bi.go.id/id/peraturan/arsip-peraturan/Perbankan2004/pbi_61004.pdf. Diakses : 31


Oktober 2014

[70] http://www.bi.go.id/id/peraturan/arsip-peraturan/Perbankan2004/pbi_61004.pdf. Diakses : 31


Oktober 2014

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