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# Process Modelling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers.

Solved
problems. Chapter 7: Conventional control systems and hardware: Part
I.
This document contains my own solutions to the problems proposed at the end of each chapter of
the book ”Process Modelling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers” Second Edition, by
William L. Luyben. As such, I can’t guarantee that the proposed solutions are free from errors.
Think about them as a starting point for developing or as a means of checking your own solutions.
Any comments or corrections will be appreciated. Contact me at francisco.angel.rod@gmail.com
The computer programs developed for this chapter (Python) are available at :
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/q0y3s1cirukjqgy/AABceRnO9LrAO-R9Cv84zBBXa?dl=0

Problem 1
(a) Calculate the gain of an orifice plate and differential-pressure transmitter for flow rates from
10 to 90 percent of full scale.
(b) Calculate the gain of linear and equal-percentage valves over the same range, assuming constant
pressure drop over the valve.
(c) Calculate the total loop gain of the valve and the sensor-transmitter system over this range.

Solution
(a) Assuming that the orifice plate + differential pressure transmiter takes a value of flow between
10 and 90 percent of the maximum flow (F), and outputs a signal between 4 and 20 mA, the
gain is:
16[mA] 20[mA]
Ko = =
F (0.9 − 0.10) F
(b) Assuming the valve takes a position value and outputs a flow value, the gain is (for an AO
valve):
s   s
∆P 0.9 − 0.1 ∆P
Kv,L = Cv = Cv
sp.gr. 0.9 − 0.1 sp.gr.
s  −0.1
− α−0.9

∆P α
Kv,EP = Cv
sp.gr. 0.9 − 0.1

(c) Consider the diagram shown in Figure 1, ilustrating a flow control system, with P: upstream
pressure, PD: discharge pressure and DPoT: orifice plate differential pressure transmitter.

## Figure 1: Closed loop flow control system.

For a load disturbance of the upstream pressure value ∆P , the open loop effect on the flow is
(with Kp the process gain):
∆FOL = Kp ∆P
A change in the flow value has an effect on the pressure drop measured at the orifice plate
∆Po (with Ko the orifice plate gain):
∆(∆Po ) = Ko ∆F

1
The change in ∆Po has an effect on the signal transmitted to the valve, x (with Kc the
controller gain). On the other hand, the valve position affects the flow value through the valve
gain, Kv .

∆x = Kc ∆(∆Po )
∆FC = Kv ∆x

The total effect on the flow is the sum of the open loop response (∆FOL ) and the effect of the
flow control system (∆FC ):

∆F = Kp ∆P + Kv ∆x
= Kp ∆P + Kv Kc ∆(∆Po )
= Kp ∆P + Kv Kc Ko ∆F
Kp
= ∆P
1 − Kv Kc Ko
So the closed loop gain relating a change in upstream pressure and the corresponding change
in flow through the system is:
∆F Kp
=
∆P 1 − Kv Kc Ko

Problem 2
The temperature of a CSTR is controlled by an electronic (4 to 20 mA) feedback control system
containing (1) a 100 to 200◦ F temperature transmitter, (2) a PI controller with integral time set
at 3 minutes and proportional band at 25, and (3) a control valve with linear trim, air-to-open
action, and a Cv = 4 through which cooling water flows. The pressure drop across the valve is a
constant 25 psi. If the steady state controller output is 12 mA, how much cooling water is going
through the valve? If a sudden disturbance increases reactor temperature by 5◦ F , what will be
the inmediate effect on the controller output signal and the water flow rate?

Solution
At steady state, the valve position is:

## x = (12 − 4)/16 = 0.5

The valve is of linear type, so fx = 0.5. The flow through the valve is:
√ √
F = Cv fx ∆P = 4 ∗ 0.5 ∗ 25 = 10[gpm]

The change in temperature (∆T = 5 ◦ F ), generates changes in PM, CO, and x (Kc = 100/P B = 4):

∆P M = 5 ∗ 16/100[ ◦ F ] = 0.8[mA]
∆CO = 4 ∗ 0.8 = 3.2[mA]
∆x = 3.2/16 = 0.2

## So, the flow through the valve is:

F = 4 ∗ 0.7 ∗ 25 = 14[gpm]

Problem 3
Simulate the three CSTR system with an on-off feedbak controller. Assume the manipulated
variable CM is limited to ± 1 mol of A/f t3 around the steadystate value. Find the period of
oscillation and the average value of C3 for values of the load variable CD of 0.6 and 1.

2
Solution
The system is shown in Figure 2. The concentration of A leaving the tanks is modelled with the
following equations:

C0 = CM + CD
dC1 C0 − C1
= − kC1
dt τ
dC2 C1 − C2
= − kC2
dt τ
dC3 C2 − C3
= − kC3
dt τ

## Figure 2: Three CSTR sytem.

The initial conditions are: CD = 0, CM = 0.8, C0 = 0.8, C1 = 0.4, C2 = 0.2, C3 = 0.1. The
system parameters are: τ = 2[min], k = 0.5[min-1].
The system response to a step change in CD equal to 0.6 is shown in Figure 3, a period of 4.14
[min] was calculated, together with an average value of C3 equal 0.113. The value of C0 alternates
between 2.4 and 0.4. After a transient period, the oscillation looks symmetric.

## Figure 3: System response for CD=0.6.

The system response to a step change in CD equal to 1 is shown in Figure 4, a period of 10.16
[min] was calculated, together with an average value of C3 equal 0.101. The value of C0 alternates
between 2.8 and 0.8. Compared with the previous case, the value of C3 increases fast when C0 is
2.8, and decreases slowly when C0 is 0.8, and the average value is closer to the set point.
Code(s) used: P3Code.py

Problem 4
Two ways to control the outlet temperature of a heat exchanger cooler are sketched in Figures 5
and 6. Comment on the relative merits of these two systems from the standpoints of both control
and heat exchanger design.

3
Figure 4: System response for CD=1.

## Figure 5: Throttle coolant system.

Solution
Assuming that at design conditions part of the process fluid is bypassed, this requires the heat
exchanger outlet temperature of the process fluid to be smaller for the bypass alternative, compared
with the throttle alternative (to result in the same final temperature after mixing with the bypassed
fluid).
If the same cooling water outlet temperature is considered, then the LMTD value of the bypass
alternative will be smaller. Because the heat transfer requirements are the same for both alterna-
tives, this results in a greater heat transfer area required in the bypass case. A way of decrease
the area requirement is to use a greater cooling water flow rate in the bypass alternative.
The heat transferred is controlled in an analogous way in both alternatives, in the bypass increasing
the cooling water flow rate through the heat exchanger, and in the throttle alternative increasing
the process fluid flow through the heat exchanger. The difference is that in the bypass alternative
the limit is to pass all process fluid through the exchanger, and in the throttle alternative, there
isnt an imposed limit to the cooling water flow.

Problem 5
Specify the following items for the bypass cooler system of Problem 4:

(a) The action of the valves (AO or AC) and kind of trim.
(b) The action and type of the controller.

4
Figure 6: Bypass process system.

Solution
(a) In case of emergency we want to cool down the process fluid, so the valve in series with the heat
exchanger is air to close, and the bypass valve is air to open. The valve in series uses an equal
percentage trim, because this kind of trim gives a flow versus trim position behaviour closer
to linear when the pressure drop is shared between the valve and another piece of equipment.
The bypass valve uses a linear trim, because it operates at constant pressure drop.
(b) When the temperature raises, we want the signal to the valves to decrease (to open valve in
series and to close the bypass valve), so the control is reverse acting (positive gain). Because
temperature control loops are generally slow, a PID type of controller is recommended.

Problem 6
Assume that the bypass cooling system of Problem 4 is designed so that the total process flow of
50000 lbm /h (heat capacity of 0.5 BT U/lbm ◦ F ) is split under normal conditions, 25 percent going
around the bypass and 75 percent going through the cooler. Process inlet and outlet temperatures
under these conditions are 250 and 150 ◦ F . Inlet and outlet water temperatures are 80 and 120

F . Process side pressure drop through the exchanger is 10 psi. The control valves have linear
trim and are designed to be half open at design rates with a 10 psi drop over the valve in series
with the cooler. Liquid density is constant at 62.3 lbm /f t3 .
What will the valve positions be if the total process flow is reduced to 25 percent of design and
the process outlet temperature is held at 150 ◦ F?

Solution
Given that the outlet temperature is maintained at 150 ◦ F, and the flow reduced to 25 percent
of design, the heat transfer rate will also be reduced to 25 percent of design. The outlet water
temperature is:
0.25 ∗ Cp Fw (120 − 80) = Cp Fw (Tw,out − 80)
Tw,out = 90
At design conditions, the process fluid outlet temperature from the heat exchanger is (FD : flow at
design conditions):
0.25 ∗ FD ∗ 250 + 0.75 ∗ FD T = FD ∗ 150
T = 116.7 ◦ F
Assuming that the heat transfer coefficient is constant, for the heat transfer rate to decrease to
25 percent of design, the LMTD must also be 25 percent of design. This allows to calculate the
process fluid outlet temperature from the heat exchanger:
(250 − 120) − (116.7 − 80) (250 − 90) − (T − 80)
0.25 ∗ =
ln((250 − 120)/(116.7 − 80)) ln((250 − 90)/(T − 80))
T = 80.03 ◦ F

5
Comparison of the energy balance around the heat exchanger and the global energy balance for
the process fluid, both at the new condition, allows to calculate the mass flow throught the heat
exchanger (S: Series, B: Bypass):
FS ∗ Cp ∗ (250 − 80.03) = 0.25 ∗ 50000 ∗ Cp ∗ (250 − 150)
FS = 7354[lbm /h]
FB = 0.25 ∗ 50000 − 7354 = 5146[lbm /h]
Volumetric flows at design are:
FS = (0.75 ∗ 50000 ∗ 7.48)/(60 ∗ 62.3) = 75[gpm]
FB = (0.25 ∗ 50000 ∗ 7.48)/(60 ∗ 62.3) = 25[gpm]
Valve coefficients are:

Cv,S = 75/(0.5 10) = 47.4

Cv,B = 25/(0.5 20) = 11.2
Volumetric flows at the new condition are:
FS = (7354 ∗ 7.48)/(60 ∗ 62.3) = 14.7[gpm]
FB = (5146 ∗ 7.48)/(60 ∗ 62.3) = 10.3[gpm]
Finally, valve positions are:
p
xS = 14.7/(47.4 20 − 10(14.7/75)2 ) = 0.07

xB = 10.3/(11.2 20) = 0.21
Code(s) used: P6NewtonMethod.py

Problem 7
A liquid (sp gr = 1) is pumped through a heat exchanger and a control valve at a design rate of
200 gpm. The exchanger pressure drop is 30 psi at design throughput. Make plots of flow rate
versus valve position x for linear and equal percentage (α = 50) control valves. Both valves are
set at fx = 0.5 at design rate. The total pressure drop over the entire system is constant. The
pressure drop over the control valve at design rate is:
(a) 10 psi
(b) 30 psi
(c) 120 psi

Solution
The graph for the linear valve is shown at Figure 7, and the graph for the equal percentage valve
is shown at Figure 8. We see that the linear valve flow versus trim position curve becomes more
linear as the fraction of the total pressure drop ocurring on the valve increases. Also, the equal
percentage valve flow versus trim position curve is more linear than the linear valve curve when
the fraction of the pressure drop ocurring on the valve is smaller.
Code(s) used: P7Code.py

Problem 8
Process designers sometimes like to use ”dehplegmators” or partial condensers mounted directly
in the top of the distillation column when the overhead product is take off as a vapor (Figure
9). They are particularly popular for corrosive, toxic, or hard-to-handle chemicals since they
eliminate a separate condenser shell, a reflux drum, and a reflux pump. Comment on the relative
controlability of the two process systems sketched below.

6
Figure 7: Linear valve.

## Figure 8: Equal percentage valve.

Solution
My impression on this is that the condenser liquid inventory helps to decouple the temperature
and pressure controls of the tower, allowing to use tighter controls on both of them. For example,
increasing the reflux rate in the conventional alternative, will affect pressure through an increase
in the condensation rate after the liquid level controller acts.

Problem 9
Compare quantitatively by digital simulation the dynamic performance of the three coolers sketched
below with countercurrent flow, cocurrent flow, and circulating water systems (Figures 10, 11 and
12). Assume the tube and shell sides can each be represented by four perfectly mixed lumps.
Process design conditions are: flow rate: 50000 lbm /h, inlet temperature: 250 ◦ F , outlet temper-
ature: 130 ◦ F , heat capacity: 0.5 BT U/lbm ◦ F . Cooling water design conditions are:
(A) Countercurrent, inlet temperature: 80 ◦ F , outlet temperature: 130 ◦ F .
(B) Cocurrent, inlet temperature: 80 ◦ F , outlet temperature: 125 ◦ F .
(C) Circulating system, inlet temperature to cooler: 120 ◦ F , outlet temperature from cooler: 125

F , makeup water temperature to system: 89 ◦ F .
Neglect the tube and shell metal. Tune PI controllers experimentally for each system. Find the
outlet temperature deviations for a 25 percent increase in process flow rate.

7
Figure 9: Conventional and dephlegmator alternatives.

## Figure 10: Countercurrent alternative.

Solution
(A) The model for the countercurrent heat exchanger is shown in Figure 13.
First, the initial conditions for the temperature of each lump are determined. The cooling
water flow is obtained from the global energy balance as 60000[lbm /h]. Starting from stage 1,
the energy balance for the process fluid and cooling water at steady state are:
0 = F Cp (250 − T1 ) + U A(130 − T1 )
0 = F Cp (250 − T1 ) + Fw Cp,w (Tw,2 − 130)

Assuming a value for U A, allows to solve for both T1 and Tw,2 . The same procedure can be
used to determine the temperatures of the process fluid and cooling water at each stage. The
Interval Halving method was used in order to find the value of UA that results in an outlet pro-
cess temperature equal to 130 ◦ F. The results are: UA=12698.5, T = [250, 210, 177, 151, 130]
and TW = [130, 113, 100, 89, 80].
The equations that represent the transient behaviour of stage i for both process fluid and
cooling water are:
dTi Ti−1 − Ti α
= + (Tw,i − Ti )
dθ τ τ
dTw,i Tw,i+1 − Tw,i αw
= + (Ti − Tw,i )
dθ τw τw
With τ = V ρ/F , τw = (V ρ/F )w , α = U A/(F Cp ) and αw = (U A/(F Cp ))w . Because no
volume value is given, a value of τ = τw = 1 is assumed, whereas the calculated values of α
and αw are 0.5079 and 0.2116, respectively. The open loop response of the system is shown
in Figure 14.
A control system that regulates the ratio between the cooling water flow rate and the cooling
water flow rate at design was implemented:
Z
Fw 1
CO = = 1 − K(T4,SP − T4 ) − (T4,SP − T4 )dt
Fw,D τI

8
Figure 11: Cocurrent alternative.

## Figure 12: Circulating water alternative.

The control system was tuned experimentally, the parameter values obtained are K = 16 and
τI = 0.0625. The response of the system under the proposed control is shown in Figure 15.
Steady state values are T4 = 130.001 and Fw = 183162[lbm /h].
(B) The model for the cocurrent heat exchanger is shown in Figure 16.
The initial conditions for the temperature of each lump are determined. The cooling water
flow is obtained from the global energy balance as 66667[lbm /h]. Starting from stage 1, the
energy balance for the process fluid and cooling water at steady state are:

0 = F Cp (250 − T1 ) + U A(Tw,1 − T1 )
0 = F Cp (250 − T1 ) + Fw Cp,w (80 − Tw,1 )

As in the previous case, assuming a value of U A allows to calculate both T1 and Tw,1 , and in
the same way all intermediate temperatures. An iterative calculation allows to determine the
value of U A that results in an outlet process fluid temperature equal to 130 ◦ F. The results
are: UA=25571.4, T = [250, 178, 148, 135, 130] and TW = [80, 107, 118, 123, 125].
The equations that represent the transient behaviour of stage i for both process fluid and
cooling water are:
dTi Ti−1 − Ti α
= + (Tw,i − Ti )
dθ τ τ
dTw,i Tw,i−1 − Tw,i αw
= + (Ti − Tw,i )
dθ τw τw

The calculated values of α and αw are 1.0229 and 0.3836, respectively. The open loop response
of the system is shown in Figure 17.
A control system equivalent to the one used in the previous case was tuned experimentally,
the parameter values obtained are K = 0.0625 and τI = 25. The response of the system

9
Figure 13: Model for countercurrent heat exchanger.

Figure 14: Counter current heat exchanger, uncontrolled response, process and cooling water outlet
temperatures.

under the proposed control is shown in Figure 18. Steady state values are T4 = 129.974 and
Fw = 90940[lbm /h].
(C) The initial conditions for the temperature of each lump are determined, using the same
procedure as the counter current case, the results are: Fw = 600000[lbm /h], Fw,M U p =
66667[lbm /h], UA=23861.1, T = [250.0, 189.0, 156.5, 139.2, 130.0] and
TW = [125.0, 122.5, 121.1, 120.4, 120.0]. The transient equations used are the same as the
counter current case, with α and αw are 0.9544 and 0.03977, respectively. The open loop
response of the system is shown in Figure 19.
A control system that regulates the ratio between the cooling water make up flow rate and
the water cooling water flow rate through the heat exchanger was implemented:
Z
Fw,M U p 1
CO = = 1 − K(T4,SP − T4 ) − (T4,SP − T4 )dt
Fw τI

The control system was tuned experimentally, the parameter values obtained are K = 0.2 and
τI = 10. The response of the system under the proposed control system is shown in Figure
20. Steady state values are T4 = 130.0 and Fw,M U p = 215940[lbm /h].

## Code(s) used: P9FindInitialTempA.py P9FindInitialTempB.py P9FindInitialTempC.py

P9ModelA.py P9ModelB.py P9ModelC.py

Problem 10
The overhead vapor from a depropanizer distillation column is totally condensed in a water-cooled
condenser at 120 ◦ F and 227 psig (Figure 21). The vapor is 95 mol % propane and 5 mol %
isobutane. Its design flow rate is 25500 lbm /h and average latent heat of vaporization is 125
BT U/lbm .
Cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures are 80 and 105 ◦ F , respectively. The condenser heat
transfer area is 1000 f t2 . The cooling water pressure drop through the condenser at design rate is

10
Figure 15: Counter current heat exchanger, under proposed control parameters, process and cooling
water outlet temperatures.

## Figure 16: Model for cocurrent heat exchanger.

5 psi. A linear-trim control valve is installed in the cooling water line. The pressure drop over the
valve is 30 psi at design with the valve half open.
The process pressure is measured by an electronic (4-20 mA) pressure transmitter whose range
is 100-300 psig. An analog electronic proportional controller with a gain of 3 is used to control
process pressure by manipulating cooling water flow. The electronic signal from the controller
(CO) is converted into a pneumatic signal in the I/P transducer.

(a) Calculate the cooling water flow rate (gpm) at design conditions.

## (b) Calculate the size coefficient (Cv ) of the control valve.

(c) Specify the action of the control valve and the controller.
(d) What are the values of the signals PM, CO, SP, and PV at design conditions?

(e) Suppose the process pressure jumps 10 psi. How much will the cooling water flow rate increase?
Give values for PM, CO and PV at this higher pressure. Assume that the total pressure drop
over the condenser and control valve is constant.

Solution
(a)

Fw = Fv λ/∆Tw Cp,H2 O
= 25500 ∗ 125/(105 − 80)[lbm /h]
= 127500[lbm /h]
= 127500 ∗ 7.48/(60 ∗ 62.3) = 255[gpm]

11
Figure 17: Cocurrent heat exchanger, uncontrolled response, process outlet temperature and cool-
ing water inlet/outlet temperatures.

Figure 18: Cocurrent heat exchanger, under proposed control parameters, process and cooling
water outlet temperatures.

(b)

Cv = Fw /(fx P )

= 255[gpm]/(0.5 ∗ 30)
= 93.1

(c) In case of failure, we want the valve to stay open, so the valve action is air to close (AO). If
the pressure on the condenser increases, the signal to the valve must decrease. The gain is
positive, so the controller is reverse acting.
(d)

## P M = 4 + 16(227 − 100)/200 = 14.2[mA]

CO = 12[mA] (The valve is half open.)
SP = 14.2[mA] (Equal to PM at design conditions.)
P V = 9[psi]

12
Figure 19: Circulating water alternative, uncontrolled response, process outlet temperature and
cooling water inlet/outlet temperatures.

Figure 20: Circulating water alternative, under proposed control parameters, process outlet tem-
perature and cooling water inlet/outlet temperatures.

(e)

## P M = 4 + 16(237 − 100)/200 = 15[mA]

CO = 12 + 3(14.2 − 15) = 9.6[mA]
P V = 3 + 12(9.6 − 4)/16 = 7.2[psi]
x = 1 − (7.2 − 3)/(15 − 3) = 0.65

The cooling water flow is obtained by solving the following equation (C: Condenser, D: Design,
T: Total):
s
F2
F = Cv x ∆PT − ∆PC,D 2
FD
r
F2
F = 93.1 ∗ 0.65 35 − 5 ∗
2552

## The solution is F = 316[gpm].

13
Figure 21: Depropanizer distillation column condenser.

Problem 11
A circulating chilled-water system (Figure 22) is used to cool an oil stream from 90 to 70 ◦ F in
a tube in shell heat exchanger. The temperature of the chilled water entering the process heat
exchanger is maintained constant at 50 ◦ F by pumping the chilled water through a refrigerated
cooler located upstream of the process heat exchanger.
The design chilled water rate for normal conditions is 1000 gpm, with chilled water leaving the
process heat exchanger at 60 ◦ F . Chilled water pressure drop through the process heat exchanger
is 15 psi at 1000 gpm. Chilled water pressure drop through the refrigerated cooler is 15 psi at 1000
gpm. The heat transfer area of the process heat exchanger is 1143 f t2 .
The temperature transmitter on the process oil stream leaving the heat exchanger has a range of
50-150 ◦ F . The range of the orifice differential pressure flow transmitter on the chilled water is
0-1500 gpm. All instrumentation is electronic (4 to 20 mA). Assume the chilled water pump is
centrifugal with a flat pump curve.

(a) Design the chilled water control valve so that it is 25 percent open at the 1000 gpm design
rate and can pass a maximum flow of 1500 gpm. Assume linear trim is used.
(b) Give values of the signals from the temperature transmitter, temperature controler, and chilled
water flow transmitter when the chilled water flow is 1000 gpm.
(c) What is the pressure drop over the chilled water valve when it is wide open?
(d) What are the pressure drop and fraction open of the chilled water control valve when the chilled
water flow rate is reduced to 500 gpm? What is the chilled water flow transmitter output at
this rate?
(e) If electric power costs 2.5 cents per kilowatthour, what are the annual pumping costs for the
chilled water pump at the design 1000 gpm rate? What horsepower motor is required to drive
the chilled water pump? (1 hp=550 ft lbf /s=746 watts).

Solution
(a) The valve coefficient Cv and total pressure difference ∆PT satisfy:
p
1000 = 0.25Cv ∆PT − 30
p
1500 = Cv ∆PT − 30(1500/1000)2

The solution is Cv = 606 and ∆PT = 73.6[psi], the valve action is air to close.
(b)

## T T = 4 + 16(70 − 50)/(150 − 50) = 7.2[mA]

CO = 20 − 16 ∗ 0.25 = 16[mA]
F T = 4 + 16 ∗ 1000/1500 = 14.7[mA]

14
Figure 22: Circulating chilled water system.

(c)
∆Pv = 73.6 − 30 ∗ (1500/1000)2 = 6.1[psi]

(d)
∆Pv = 73.6 − 30 ∗ (500/1000)2 = 66.1[psi]

x = 500/(606 66.1) = 0.10
F T = 4 + 16 ∗ 500/1500 = 9.3[mA]

## (e) The required horsepower is:

P = q (ρ∆zg + ∆P )
103 ∗ 0.003785
15 ∗ 0.3048 ∗ 10 ∗ 103 + 73.6 ∗ 6895 [watt]

P =
60  
1 hp
P = 34897[watt] ∗ = 46.8[hp]
746 watt
The annual pumping cost is:
   
h h c i U SS
C = 34.897[Kwatt] ∗ 8760 ∗ 25 = 76424
y Kwatt year

Problem 12
Tray 4 temperature on the Lehigh distillation column is controlled by a pneumatic PI controller
with a 2 minute reset time and a 50 percent proportional band (Figure 23). Temperature controller
output (COT ) adjusts the setpoint of a steam flow controller (reset time 0.1 min and proportional
band 100 percent). Column base level is controlled by a pneumatic proportional only controller
setting bottoms product withdrawal rate.
Transmitter ranges are, temperature tray 4: 60-120 ◦ C, steam flow: 0-4.2 lbm /min (orifice/∆P
transmitter), bottoms flow: 0-1 gpm (orifice/∆P transmitter), base level: 0-20 in H2 O. Steady
state operating conditions are, tray 4 temperature: 83 ◦ C, base level: 55% full, steam flow: 3.5
lbm /min, bottom flow: 0.6 gpm.
Pressure drop over the control valve on the bottoms product is a constant at 30 psi. This control
valve has linear trim and a Cv of 0.5. The formula for steam flow through a control valve (when
the upstream pressure Ps in psia is greater than twice the downstream pressure is:
3Cv
W = Ps X
2

15
where, W : steam flow rate (lbm /h), Cv : 4, X: valve fraction open (linear trim).

(a) Calculate the control signals from the base level transmitter, temperature transmitter, steam
flow transmitter, bottoms flow transmitter, temperature controller, steam flow controller, and
base level controller.

(b) What is the instantaneous effect of a +5◦ C step change in tray 4 temperature on the control
signals and flow rates?

## Figure 23: Temperature control on Lehigh distillation column.

Solution
(a) Assuming that bottoms control valve is air to close and steam control valve is air to open (S:
Steam, B: Bottom):

LT = 3 + 12 ∗ 0.55 = 9.6[psi]
T T = 3 + 12 ∗ (83 − 60)/(120 − 60) = 7.6[psi]
F TS = 3 + 12 ∗ 3.5/4.2 = 13[psi]
F TB = 3 + 12 ∗ 0.6 = 10.2[psi]

xB = 0.6/(0.5 30) = 0.219
COL = 15 − 12 ∗ 0.219 = 12.4[psi]
xS = 2 ∗ 3.5 ∗ 60/(3 ∗ 4 ∗ 75) = 0.467
COF = 3 + 12 ∗ 0.467 = 8.6[psi]
COT = SPF,S = P MF,Design = 13[psi]

(b) TC is reverse acting (because if column temperature increase, the steam set point must de-
crease) and F CS is reverse acting (if measured flow increases, then signal to steam control
valve must decrease). The effect of the increased temperature is:

## T T = 3 + 12 ∗ (88 − 60)/(120 − 60) = 8.6[psi]

COT = 13 + 2(7.6 − 8.6) = 11[psi]
COF = 8.6 + (11 − 13) = 6.6[psi]
xS = (6.6 − 3)/12 = 0.3
FS = 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 75 ∗ 0.275/2 = 135[lbm /h] = 2.25[lbm /min]

Problem 13
A reactor is cooled by a circulating jacket water system (Figure 24). A double cascade reactor
temperature control to jacket temperature control to makeup cooling water control is employed.
Instrumentation details are: electronic, 4-20 mA, reactor temperature transmitter range: 50-250

F , circulating jacket water temperature transmitter range: 50-150 ◦ F , makeup cooling water flow

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transmitter range: 0-250 gpm (orifice plate+differential pressure transmitter), control valve: linear
trim, constant 35 psi pressure drop. Normal operating conditions are: reactor temperature: 140

F , circulating water temperature: 106 ◦ F , makeup water flow rate: 63 gpm, control valve is 25
percent open.
(a) Specify the action and size of the makeup cooling water control valve.
(b) Calculate the miliampere control signals from all transmitters and controllers at normal oper-
ating conditions.
(c) Specify whether each controller is reverse or direct acting.
(d) Calculate the instantaneous values of all control signals if reactor temperature increases sud-
denly to 10 ◦ F .
Proportional band settings of the reactor temperature controller, circulating jacket water temper-
ature controller, and cooling water flow controller are 20, 67 and 200, respectively.

## Figure 24: Circulating jacket water system.

Solution

(a) The valve is air to close (AC). Cv = 63/(0.25 ∗ 35) = 42.6.
(b) R: Reactor, J: Jacket, D: Design :
T TR = 4 + 16(140 − 50)/200 = 11.2[mA]
T TJ = 4 + 16(106 − 50)/100 = 13.0[mA]
F T = 4 + 16 ∗ 63/250 = 8.0[mA]
COF = 20 − 16 ∗ 0.25 = 16[mA]
COT,J = SPF = P MF,D = 8.0[mA]
COT,R = SPT,J = P MT,J,D = 13[mA]

(c) When the reactor temperature increases, the temperature set point for the jacket water must
decrease, so the controller is reverse acting. When the jacket temperature increases, the set
point for the makeup water must increase, so the controller is direct acting. When the flow
increases, the signal to the valve must increase (AC), so the controller is direct acting.
(d)
T TR = 4 + 16(150 − 50)/200 = 12.0[mA]
COT,R = 13 + 5(11.2 − 12) = 9[mA]
COT,J = 8.0 − (3/2)(9 − 13) = 14[mA]
COF = 16 − 0.5(14 − 8) = 13[mA]
x = 1 − (13 − 4)/16 = 0.44

F = 42.6 ∗ 0.44 ∗ 35 = 111[gpm]

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Problem 14
Three vertical cylindrical tanks (10 feet high, 10 feet diameter) are used in a process (Figure 25).
Two tanks are process tanks and are level controlled by manipulating outflows using proportional
only level controllers (PB=100). Level transmitter spans are 10 feet. Control valves are linear, 50
percent open at the normal liquid rate of 1000 gpm, air to open, constant pressure drop. These
two process tanks are 50 percent full at the normal liquid rate of 1000 gpm.
The third tank is a surge tank whose level is uncontrolled. Liquid is pumped from the tank to
the first process vessel, on to second tank in series, and then back to the surge tank. If the surge
tank is half full when 1000 gpm of liquid is circulated, how full will the surge tank be, at the new
steadystate, when circulating rate around the system is cut to 500 gpm?

## Figure 25: Three tank system.

Solution
At the new steady state, the valve position will be:

## x = 0.5 ∗ 500/1000 = 0.25

The controller is direct acting, so we have (with L the level of the tank):

## LC = 0.25 = 0.50 − (0.5 − L/10)

L = 2.5[f t]

The process tank levels are 2.5 [ft] (compared to his initial level of 5 [ft]), so the level of the surge
tank is L = 5 + 2.5 ∗ 2 = 10[ft].

Conversion Factors

1[f t3 ] = 7.48[gal]
1[gal] = 0.003785[m3 ]
1[f t] = 0.3048[m]
1[psi] = 6895[P a]

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