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WITHIN MULTIMODAL TRAFFIC NETWORK UNDER THE CONDITION

OF EQUILIBRIUM

1

MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong

University, Beijing, China

bfsi@bjtu.edu.cn (), xbyang@bjtu.edu.cn, zygao@bjtu.edu.cn

2

Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. Canada

ming@unb.ca

Abstract

Traditional system optimization models for traffic network focus on the treatment of congestion,

which usually have an objective of minimizing the total travel time. However, the negative externality

of congestion, such as environment pollution, is neglected in most cases. Such models fall short in

taking Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and its impact on climate change into consideration. In this

paper, a social-cost based system optimization (SO) model is proposed for the multimodal traffic

network considering both traffic congestion and corresponding vehicle emission. Firstly, a variation

inequality model is developed to formulate the equilibrium problem for such network based on the

analysis of travelers’ combined choices. Secondly, the computational models of traffic congestion and

vehicle emission of whole multimodal network are proposed based on the equilibrium link-flows and

the corresponding travel times. A bi-level programming model, in which the social-cost based SO

model is treated as the upper-level problem and the combined equilibrium model is processed as the

lower-level problem, is then presented with its solution algorithm. Finally, the proposed models are

illustrated through a simple numerical example. The study results confirm and support the idea of

giving the priority to the development of urban public transport, which is an effective way to achieve a

sustainable urban transportation.

Keywords: Multimodal network, vehicle emission, system optimization, bi-level programming

With the rapid development of her economy, in developed cities like Beijing and Shanghai. At

transport infrastructures have been improved the same time, resident’s travel patterns have

* This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71071016, 71131001

and National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2012CB725400. It is also partially supported by

Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos. 2012JBM056, 2012JBZ005.

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

386 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

been greatly changed. Table 1 gives the to limited land and financial investment.

distribution of the trip intensity and mode Moreover, such policies have shown their

choices of Beijing residents in 1986, 2000 and drawbacks in developing a sustainable society.

2005 respectively (Mao et al. 2008). As can be Transport-related externalities like congestion

seen in Table 1, travel demand and average trip and air pollution have been increasingly

distance in Beijing have been increasing concerned. As an example, Table 2 shows the

continuously. For example, total trips per day increasing contribution of vehicle emission to

per person have increased from 1.61 in 1986 to total air emissions in 1995, 1998 and 2000 in

2.84 in 2005 and the average trip distance has Beijing (Liu et al. 2007). It can be seen that CO

increased to 9.3 km in 2005 from 8.0 km in 2000. emission increased about 7%, whereas NOx

Traveling through automobile has experienced a emission increased almost 52%. These statistics

steady increase over the last 20 years, which is clearly show the significant threats from the

strongly negatively correlated with a steady motorization to a sustainable society. In this

decrease of the bicycle share, from more than regard, innovative policies and corresponding

65% in 1986 to only 30% in 2005. Bus share modeling tools are necessary to develop a

experienced a slight drop of 2.7% during the sustainable transportation system.

same period, and subway takes 5.7% since 2005. The main objective of transport management

These statistics clearly show that a “green” agencies is to develop policies or measures to

multimodal transportation system that can be achieve optimal system performance. Generally,

found everywhere in China in 1980s has been traffic equilibrium analysis and system

shaped to be automobile-dependent. optimization are important aspects for such work.

In order to support economic development, The former relies on assignment models for

transportation policies in China have been predicting travelers’ choice-behaviors through a

oriented to infrastructure development during network. In the past decades, various

the past decades, and consequently road equilibrium models and algorithms (Beckmann

development favoring private vehicles has been et al. 1956, Smith 1979, Dafermos 1980, Dial

a priority over public transport. However, the 1996) have been proposed, which purely base

increasing demand for motorized travel has themselves on motorized-traffic, which implies

significantly outpaced the road development due that they only paid attention to the automobile

Total trips Average trip Total daily

Year

/per/day Distance/km trip/millions

bus subway taxi car bicycle

2000 2.77 8.0 23.01 27.33 9.03 23.96 39.68

2005 2.84 9.3 29.20 26.60 5.70 7.60 29.80 30.30

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 387

Table 2 Contribution of vehicle emissions to travel time function and a fixed CO emission

Beijing air pollution (%) coefficient per link mileage. Rilett & Benedek

Year CO NOx (1994, 1998) developed a simple macroscopic

1995 76.8 21.7 CO emission model and used it in the

1998 82.7 40.2 TRANSYT-7F software, in which the average

2000 84 73 speed and the link length were used as input

driver’s route choice, while traveler’s mode variables. They investigated an equitable traffic

choice was largely neglected. Several assignment with environmental costs. Nagurney

assignment models for multimodal traffic (2000) utilized a fixed amount of CO emission

networks (Florian & Nguyen 1978, Fisk & rate per traveler per link to estimate the CO

Boyce 1983, Abrahamsson & Lundqvist 1999, emissions and developed a traffic network

Nagurney & Dong 2002, Yang & Huang 2004) equilibrium model incorporating an

were proposed. However, in these existing environmental criterion. These previous studies

models, the vehicles of different modes, rather simply extended well-known travel time

than the travelers, were treated as demand units function by adding link-based emission costs.

and they were assigned to the network. Traffic assignment procedure was improved by

Nevertheless, in practice, the flow pattern over considering environmental impact. However, a

an urban multimodal transport system is the rational traveler is typically interested in

results of the travelers’ combined mode-route selecting a combined mode/route choice that

choice, which should have congestion effect minimizes the generalized cost for his/her trip,

been considered. Therefore, using traveler, while the negative societal externality cost like

rather than vehicle as the demand entity for environmental pollution is generally neglected.

network assignment should be more logic. These result from different perspectives, namely

Further, the following two problems have not user optimization and system optimization. This

been fully considered in the previous studies: (a) raises questions concerning how to change the

the interactions between different transport traveler’s choice behaviors through traffic

modes in mixed urban traffic environment; and management measures, such as fuel tax and

(b) the green transportation – bicycle, which is congestion pricing, to reduce the congestion and

most common mode in nearly every Chinese improve air quality of the entire transportation

city. system.

In addition, traditional general equilibrium Traditional system optimization models

assignment models typically use travel time as focus on treatment of traffic congestion, which

the generalized cost to assign traffic flows over a usually has an objective of minimizing the total

network. Several researchers have investigated travel time through traffic network (Sheffi 1985,

traffic assignment methods based on Bell & Iida 1997, Yang & Huang 2005). For

environment cost functions. For example, Tzeng example, a number of regions have considered

& Chen (1993) developed a multi-objective alleviating traffic congestion by introducing

traffic assignment model using a simplified congestion pricing. The optimal road tolls for

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

388 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

minimization of total travel time can be easily provides a complete system optimization

determined using optimization methods. approach considering both congestion and

However, the negative externality of congestion, environment pollution simultaneously.

such as environmental pollution, is neglected in This study proposes a decision support

most cases. In the multimodal traffic network, framework for transportation policy makers,

travelers from original to destination should which simultaneously considers the objectives

make two successive decisions. The first one is of individual travelers and those of a multimodal

the mode choice and the second is the route transportation system as a whole. Firstly, based

choice. It is usually assumed that travelers on the analysis of travelers’ combined choices

always try to select the mode-route with the (in terms of their modes and routes), a

minimum travel cost consisting of congestion, variational inequality (VI) model is proposed to

travel time and potential fees. However, the flow describe equilibrium assignment for multimodal

pattern over such network resulted by all the traffic network, in which the interferences

travelers’ combined mode-route choice based on between different modes on the same road

user equilibrium is not necessarily optimal to the segments are taken into account. Secondly, the

system as a whole. Therefore, the transport computational models of congestion and the

management agencies can develop a reasonable negative external cost of vehicle emission of the

technologies or economic measures to guide the whole network are proposed based on the

travelers’ traffic-choice-behaviors and then lead equilibrium flow pattern over such network. On

to change the equilibrium flow pattern over the basis of these, a bi-level programming model

network in order to achieve certain goal of is then proposed to describe this comprehensive

system optimization. If such target of system social-cost based system optimization problem

optimization only consider the cost of traffic for the multimodal traffic network. The

congestion (i.e. the total travel time), regardless associated solution algorithms are also presented.

of the external cost of vehicle emissions, the Finally, the model and its algorithm are

optimal scheme may guide more travelers to illustrated through a simple numerical example.

choose cars as their travel modes and result to

produce more air pollution from the transport 2. Combined Equilibrium Model for

system, which will takes negative affects on the Multimodal Traffic Network

lives of urban residents and urban economic First of all, without losing any generality, it

development. At present, there is a widespread is assumed that the O-D demands in a

acceptance that incorporation of sustainable multimodal traffic network are given and fixed.

issues within transport policies is crucial. Many For a given O-D pair, the sum of travel demands

researchers (Yedla et al. 2005, Curtis 2008) used of different modes equals to the total travel

different models to assess alternative measures demand, that is

and also to develop policies for mitigating

qwk qw , w (1)

pollution resulted from GHG emissions. k

However, few of research works conducted where qw is the total demand between O-D

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 389

pair w; qwk is the demand that selects the In this paper, the internal congestion, travel

transport mode k between O-D pair w. time and potential fare are all assumed included

Secondly, for a given O-D pair and mode, the in the generalized travel cost. The generalized

sum of travel demands on different routes equals travel cost function for transport mode can then

to the travel demand of the corresponding mode, be written as the following:

that is g wk (q w ) f wk (q w ) wk wk , w, k (5)

hwk ,r qwk , w, k (2) where g wk is the generalized travel cost for the

r

mode k between O-D pair w; q w is the vector

where hwk ,r is the travel demand on the route r of travel demands between O-D pair w, that is,

selected mode k between O-D pair w. q w = [q1w , , qwk ]; f wk (q w ) represents the

In addition, for the mode k between O-D pair internal congestion for mode k between O-D

w, the travel demand on road link a can be pair w, which is a function of the travel demand

represented by the travel demand on the routes, between O-D pair w; wk denotes the potential

that is fare of mode k between O-D pair w; wk

xak denotes the equilibrium travel time of mode k

hwk ,r ak,,rw , a, k (3)

w r between O-D pair w; and are

where xak is the travel demand of mode k on the parameters.

road link a; ak,,rw is route and road incidence Let gˆ wk (q w ) represent the travel cost

variable for mode k between O-D pair w, if the excluding travel time of mode k between O-D

mode k can access the road link a and it is on the pair w. That is

route r that connects the O-D pair w, then gˆ wk (q w ) f wk (q w ) wk , w, k (6)

ak,,rw =1, otherwise, ak,,rw =0. Then, the function (5) can be rewritten as

In general, traffic flow is defined as the

g wk (q w ) gˆ wk (q w ) wk , w, k (7)

number of all vehicles passing by a road section

Further, we assume that the travel time in the

during a time unit (minute or hour) for the

multimodal traffic network is additive. Thus, the

purely motorized system. However, in the

equilibrium travel time on route r for mode k

context of multimodal traffic network, the flow

between the O-D pair w can be expressed as

of each mode can be converted from the

corresponding travel demand, that is (Si et al., wk tak ak,,rw , w, k , r (8)

a

2008)

where tak denotes the equilibrium travel time of

U

vak = xak ( k ) , k , a (4) transport mode k on road link a, which can be

Ak

computed by the link impedance function.

where vak is the flow of mode k on road link a; In the multimodal traffic network, the

U k is passenger car unit (pcu) conversion interferences among different modes will present

coefficient of mode k; Ak is occupancy rate of if there is no physical barrier between different

mode k, which indicates the average number of modes. Therefore, the link impedance function

travelers within each vehicle of mode k. for such system should be different from that for

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

390 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

g wk w , if w , w, k (11)

determined by not only the flow/capacity ratio w qwk 0

of the mode being selected but also the flow of

k hwk ,r 0

interference modes. The link impedance twk ,r w , if k , w, k , r (12)

k

function in multimodal traffic network can be w hw,r 0

formulated as: where w is the generalized travel cost between

tak f (tak (0) , v a , Ca ) , k , a (9) O-D pair w at equilibrium; twk ,r is the travel

where tak (0) is the free-flow travel time of mode time on route r for mode k between the O-D pair

w.

k on road link a; Ca is the practical capacity of

Note that the generalized travel cost

road link a; v a is the vehicle flow of different

functions and the link impedance functions

modes on road link a, that is v a [v1a , , vak ] .

proposed in this paper are all asymmetric, which

In general, tak (0) and Ca can be assumed as the means that the generalized travel costs or the

constants and tak can be treated as a function of link travel times of each mode are influenced by

v a . According to the Equation (4), the flows of not only its own flow but also those from the

different modes on road link a can be expressed other competing modes. Dafermos (1980)

by the travel demand of corresponding modes. demonstrated that no equivalent optimization

Consequently, the Function (9) can be rewritten program can produce equilibrium flow pattern

as follows: for an asymmetric assignment problem and

tak fˆak (x a ) , k , a (10) applied the variational inequality to the

asymmetric traffic assignment problem.

where x a is the vector of the travel demand on Therefore, in this paper, the following VI model

road link a, that is x a [ x1a , , xak ] . is proposed to describe the equilibrium

In order to be consistent with choice assignment for multimodal traffic network: to

behavior theories, the user equilibrium defined find (x a , q w ) such that

in multimodal traffic network is divided into the

following two categories. One category gˆ wk (q w ) (qwk qwk )

w k

equilibrium exits among different transport (13a)

fˆak (x a ) ( xak xak ) 0,

modes, namely the generalized travel costs of a k

the selected transport modes is the same and the where

minimum while the generalized travel costs of

{(x a , q w ) | qwk qw ,

unselected transport modes must be not less than k

the minimum travel cost between a given O-D hwk , r qwk , xak hwk ,r ak,,rw , (13b)

pair. The other category is the traditional r w r

equilibrium among different routes for each qwk 0, hwk ,r 0, w, r , a, k}.

mode between the O-D pair. Therefore, the user The equivalence between the solution to

equilibrium in multimodal traffic network can be above VI model and the equilibrium conditions

described as: (11) and (12) is given by reference (Si et al.

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 391

motor-mode k on link a (unit: gram/vehicle/km);

3. Social-Cost of Multimodal Traffic sak denotes the average speed of motor-mode k

Network on link a; k , k , k are regression parameters

First, we consider the calculation of the cost corresponding to motor-mode k.

of traffic congestion. A general economic In addition, the variable sak in Equation (15)

definition of congestion is that it occurs when

can be represented by the corresponding travel

the quality of service of a facility depends on the

time and distance, that is sak La / tak , where

intensity of use and the use approaches to the

La denotes the distance of link a. Accordingly,

facility’s capacity (Small & Verhoef 2007). For

the total vehicle emissions under the condition

urban traffic network, the most commonly used

of user equilibrium can be rewritten as

indicator of quality is travel time or speed.

exp[ k ( La / tak ]

In general, traffic congestion is quantified R ak k , k , a (16)

based on the total travel time of all travelers k ( La / tak )

using the transportation network (Sheffi 1985). This equation is similar to the one proposed

For a multimodal system, the total travel time at by Yin & Lawphongpanich (2006).

equilibrium, represented by Z , can be The volume of vehicular CO emission is

formulated as equal to the product of the emission factor times

Z xak tak . (14) the link load (Anderson et al. 1996). Obviously,

a k

the total vehicle emissions through the whole

Subsequently, let’s consider the computation multimodal traffic network at equilibrium can be

of the environment cost of motorized-transport. formulated as

The pollutants from vehicle emissions include

x k

CO, NOx, HC, PM, SO2 and so on. Because it is E Aa La Rak . (17)

a k k

almost solely emitted by vehicles, some (e.g.,

Alexopoulos & Assimacopoulos 1993) consider Based on above computations of congestion

CO as an important indicator for the level of and vehicle emissions through multimodal

atmospheric pollution generated by vehicular traffic network, the social-cost based model

traffics. There are a number of emission models defined in this study can be formulated as:

of various complexities, such as the VT-Micro C Vt Z Ve E . (18)

model, the CMEM model, and the MOBILE6

where C denotes the social-cost of multimodal

model (Ahn & Rakha 2008). The following

traffic network with certain travel demand; Vt

macroscopic model (Rilett & Benedek 1994)

and Ve are the value of time (VOT) and the

that gives the relationship between the CO

social cost of vehicle emissions. It should be

production and the average vehicle speed is

noted, however, that the above model does not

adopted in this paper.

consider the social cost resulted from collisions.

k exp( k sak ) This will be addressed in an enhanced model in

Rak , k , a (15)

k sak a future study.

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

392 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

Optimization Model programming is proposed to describe such a

The social-cost based optimal strategies for system optimization problem:

multimodal traffic network can be represented as upper-level programming: min C x(λ ) (19)

a leader-follower game problem, where the where λ represents the policy variables such as

transport management agency is the decision congestion tolls or transit fairs, x(λ ) is given

maker or the leader, and the travelers who can by the following lower-level VI model: to find

freely choose mode and route are the followers. (x a , q w ) such that

Generally the transport management agency can

influence by policies such as the pricing of gˆ wk [q w (λ )] {qwk qwk (λ )}

w k

(20)

transportation services, but cannot control the fˆak [x a (λ )] {xak xak (λ )} 0.

travelers’ choice behaviors. The travelers make a k

their choosing in a user optimal manner. It is It can be shown that the optimization

reasonable to assume that the transport objective in the upper optimization model,

management agency selects feasible strategy in including air pollution and traffic congestion

an attempt to optimize its objective. The over the whole network, is related to link traffic

travelers, after and with enough information of flows and the corresponding link travel times of

the multimodal network and the policies, make different transport modes, while the link traffic

mode-and-route decisions in an attempt to flows and the corresponding travel times are

minimize their generalized travel cost, resulting partially influenced by the policy variables λ .

in an equilibrium flow pattern over such The relationship between them is described by

network. Bi-level programming is an available the lower-level VI model with various

method to find the optimal strategies while the parameters. Accordingly, all optimization goals

benefits of transport management agency and in the upper optimization problem implicitly

travelers are considered simultaneously. depended on λ , that are described as C x(λ ) .

In the recent years, the bi-level programming The policy variables λ can be interpreted as the

approach has emerged as an important area for decision variables involved in such system

progress in handling complicated transportation optimization problem.

problems. Typical examples include network

performance optimization under the condition of 5. Solution Algorithm

ATIS (Si et al. 2008) and revenue strategy of Due to the intrinsic complexity of model

railway passenger transport (Si et al. 2009). formulation, the bi-level programming problem

Traditional optimization focuses on traffic has been recognized as one of the most difficult,

congestion only, which usually has an objective yet challenging problems for global optimality

of minimizing the total travel time through a in transportation system. In the past, researchers

network. In this paper, we extend such an (Abdulaal & LeBlanc 1979, Leblanc & Boyce

objective to a comprehensive social-cost case, 1986, Suwansirikul et al. 1987, Clegg et al. 2001,

which considers both the congestion and Patriksson 2008) have developed alternative

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 393

solution algorithms for this problem. Sensitivity algorithm. Step 1 solves a VI model, and a

analysis methods proposed by Tobin & Friesz simplified diagonalization method (Sheffi 1985)

(1988), which makes use of the derivatives of can be used as solution algorithm. This

the equilibrium link flows with respect to algorithm is based on a series of iterations to

perturbation parameters, are widely used for solve the optimization problem. Correspondingly,

network equilibrium problems (Friesz et al. at ith iteration, the optimization problem can be

1993, Yang & Yagar 1994, Chan & Lam 2002, described as

Si et al. 2009). By sensitivity analysis method, xak k

min F (x, q) 0 ta (x(i 1) )d

( x ,q )

we can find the derivative of equilibrium flow of k a

(21)

each mode with respect to perturbation of the qwk

0 g wk (q (i 1) )d

cost function. In this paper, the perturbation is w k

assumed to be the potential fares of different In order to transfer the above combined

modes. With the derivative information, the assignment problem into the logit model, the

objective function of upper-level problem, functions g kw should be defined as follows (Si

which is implicitly non-linear function of the et al. 2008).

prices of transport services, can be linearly 1

g wk ( x) ln x wk , k , w (22)

approximated using Taylor’s formula. The

well-known simplex method can then be The convex combinations algorithm (Sheffi

adopted for solving the upper-level 1985) can be used to solve the “diagonalized”

programming problem. Therefore, the algorithm minimization problem (21), which is described

used in this paper is summarized as follows: as the following:

Step 0: set the initial value λ (0) , and set the Step 0: initialization. Set qwk =0 and xak =0

number of iterations to i = 1. for any w, k and a. Compute gˆ wk (0) and tak (0) .

Step 1: find the solution of the lower-level of

Find the shortest route for mode k between O-D

the model, x(i ) , which is the link flow matrix

pair w and get the corresponding minimum

for different modes.

travel time wk (0) . Then calculate the generalized

Step 2: find the linear equation of the matrix,

travel cost of mode k between O-D pair w.

x(λ (i 1) ) , through sensitivity analysis and

Execute the travel demand assignment between

Taylor expansion.

O-D pair w according to the following rules:

Step 3: put the linear equation of the matrix

into the upper-level of the model to update the qw , if g wk (0) min{g wl (0) }

qwk (1) = lK (23)

parameter value of λ (i ) by solving upper-level 0, otherwise

problem.

Subsequently, perform all-or-nothing

Step 4: examine the convergence. If k (1)

assignment to load qw for mode k and obtain

λ λ (i1) or i = N, then iteration stops, where

i

N is the maximum number of iterations. the travel demand of mode k on road link a,

Otherwise, set i = i+1 and start a new iteration. xak (1) . Set iteration n=1.

Note that Step 1 is the key step of the above Step 1: compute gˆ wk ( n ) and tak ( n ) based on

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

394 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

qwk ( n ) and xak ( n ) respectively. of one O-D pair (1-9), 9 nodes, 12 links, two

Step 2: find the shortest route for mode k motorized modes (car and bus) and one

between O-D pair w and get the corresponding non-motorized mode (bike).

minimum travel time wk ( n ) . Then calculate the Here, the following performance functions

generalized travel cost of mode k between O-D proposed by Si et al. (2008) are used to describe

pair w and execute the travel demand the link travel time within multimodal traffic

assignment between O-D pair w according to the network.

following rules: vamotor

tak tak (0) [1 ( ) ]

qw , if g wk ( n ) min{g wl ( n ) } Camotor

k ( n)

uw lK (24) (26)

0, otherwise xanon motor

[1 ( ) ], k , a

Canon motor

Perform all-or-nothing assignment to load

uwk ( n ) for mode k and obtain yak ( n ) . xanon motor

tanon motor tanon motor(0) [1 ( ) ]

Step 3: compute Canon motor

(27)

1 vamotor

qwk ( n 1) qwk ( n ) (uwk ( n ) qwk ( n ) ) , w, k (25a) [1 (

) ], a

n Camotor

1

xak ( n 1) xak ( n ) ( yak ( n ) xak ( n ) ) , k , a (25b) where tak and tanon motor denote the travel

n

times of motor mode k and non-motor mode on

Step 4: convergence test. If a convergence

link a respectively; tak (0) and tanon motor(0) are

criterion is met, stop. The current solutions,

the free-flow travel times of motor mode k and

{ qwk ( n 1) } and { xak ( n 1) }, are the sets of

non-motor mode on link a; Camotor and

equilibrium travel demands and link demands

Canon motor are the practical capacities of motor

for the transport mode k respectively; otherwise,

and non-motor modes on link a; xanon motor

set n=n+1 and go to step 1.

represents the non-motor flow on link a, which

is the same as the number of travelers who

6. Numerical Example

choose non-motor mode on link a; vamotor

A simple numerical example is used to

denotes the pcu (passenger car unit) flow of all

illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed

motor modes on link a; the parameters take the

models. The multimodal traffic network used in

values of =0.15, = 4, =0.01 and =2.

this study is shown in Figure 1, which consists

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 395

The parameters in CO emission model (16) algorithm for the lower-level problem is

are given by k =11.14, k =0.05 and k =3.28 analyzed using the gap measure proposed by

(Anderson et al. 1996). The parameters in the Boyce et al. (2004). The gap at iteration n for

generalized travel cost function (5) take values such combined assignment model can be defined

of =1, =0.2. The input data of different as

links are presented in Table 3 and the data gap(n) { tak ( n ) ( yak ( n ) xak ( n ) )

pertinent to different traffic modes such as the a k (28)

non-motor(n )

pcu conversion coefficient, the average ta ( yanon-motor(n ) xanon-motor(n ) )}

occupancy rate, potential user fee and so on are

where yak ( n ) and yano motor ( n ) are respectively

listed in Table 4 (Si et al. 2008). For brevity, the

the auxiliary flows of mode k and no-motor on

cases of q w =10000 and q w =20000 is used to

link a at iteration n given by an all-or-nothing

represent the low demand and high demand case

assignment based on link travel time.

of the multimodal traffic network under study

Figure 2 shows the gaps against the iteration

respectively.

number for different O-D demands respectively.

The convergence of the convex combinations

links distance/km

car bus bike motor non-motor

(1,2) 0.111 0.178 0.261 1000 600 6

(2,3) 0.128 0.194 0.278 700 400 4

(1,4) 0.100 0.167 0.250 1500 800 8

(2,5) 0.106 0.172 0.256 700 400 4

(3,6) 0.089 0.156 0.239 700 400 4

(4,5) 0.078 0.144 0.228 1000 600 6

(5,6) 0.094 0.161 0.244 1000 600 6

(4,7) 0.133 0.200 0.283 900 500 5

(5,8) 0.111 0.178 0.261 700 400 4

(6,9) 0.144 0.211 0.294 700 400 4

(7,8) 0.094 0.161 0.244 900 500 5

(8,9) 0.100 0.167 0.250 900 500 5

Car 1 4 20

Bus 1.5 20 5

Bike

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

396 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

It can be seen that the solution algorithm has a and the potential fees of the motorized modes

good convergence especially for the cases with (car and bus) when q w =10000 and q w =20000

lower O-D demand. respectively. It can be seen that the car share will

In this example, the policies variables is reduce with the increase of related potential fee

assumed to be potential fees, such as congestion (congestion pricing) and it will increase with the

pricing or bus fare, that is λ [ car , bus ]T . The increasing potential fee of bus (transit fare).

traffic authority can influence travelers’ choice Meanwhile, it can be found that, in the case

behaviors by adjusting potential fees of car or of the high demand and serious traffic

bus to reduce the social-cost of multimodal congestion, with increasing potential fee of bus

traffic network. Next we analyze the change of or car, the decline rates of the car shares are

mode shares with the policy variables λ . Figure lower than that in the case of the low demand.

3 shows the relationship between the car shares For example, under the conditions of q w =

8.00E+05

low demand

6.00E+05

5.00E+05

gap value

4.00E+05

3.00E+05

2.00E+05

1.00E+05

0.00E+00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

iteration times

0.8 0.9

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

the car share

the car share

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2

0.2 0

0.1

0 0.1 the 15

potential 0

20 30 0

0 fee of car/¥ 10

the potential fee of car/¥ 0 20

10 45 30

40 20 40

40 30 the potential fee of bus/¥

the potential fee of bus/¥

Figure 3 The changes of car share with λ under low demand (right) and high demand (left)

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 397

10,000 and car = bus =0, the car share is 50%. emission of the whole network will be

When the potential fees of car and bus are minimized when the potential fee of car is

increased to ¥45, the corresponding car share maximized and the potential fee of bus is set

will change to 42%. While the car share will zero. Similarly, the network emission will

change from 57% to 58% in the case of increase with the increase of the bus fee or the

q w =20000. This can be explained as the decrease of the charge applied to car use. The

following: in the case of the low demand, results imply that the total emission of the whole

transport system still has a lot extra capacity and network will be reduced by boosting the bus

accordingly the congestion within network is not shares or reducing the car share when the traffic

significant. The impact of travelers’ choice demand is low. Further, when the bus fee is set

behaviors on their travel time is not significant, zero, the congestion of whole network will be

while relatively the travelers are more sensitive slightly increased, while the emission of whole

to the fee increases. Therefore, travelers tend to network will be sharply reduced through the

choose the bicycle, which is fee free, when the increase of the potential fee applied to the cars.

potential fees of car and bus increase. On the For example, under the condition of M bus =0,

contrary, when traffic demand is high and road the total travel time of whole network will

capacity is tight, there is serious congestion in increase from 8162h to 13263h with an average

the network. Under such a condition, the increase of 62% when the potential fee of car is

impacts of travelers’ choice behaviors on their increased from zero to ¥45, while the total

travel time are relatively significant and emission of whole network will decrease from

travelers are more sensitive to travel time. 35324g to 5944g with an average decrease of

Therefore, travelers prefer to choose the mode 83%.

with shorter travel time like car rather than Similarly, Figure 5 shows the relationship

low-speed mode such as bike. between the congestion/emission and the

Subsequently, we analyze the changes of potential fees for bus/car when the travel

congestion and emission of the whole network demand is high q w =20000. It can be seen that,

by varying the policy variables λ. Figure 4 in the case of the high demand, the congestion

shows the relationship between the congestion will be minimized when the potential fee of car

/emissions over the network when q w =10,000. is set as ¥15 and the potential fee of bus is set

It can be seen that, in the case of the low zero. The congestion will increase

demand, the congestion is minimum when the monotonically as the potential fee of bus

potential fees of car and bus are zeroes. As the increases. The results imply that the total travel

travel cost of car and bus increases, the time of the network will be reduced by boosting

congestion will increase monotonically. The the medium-speed and high-occupancy mode

results imply that the total travel time of the share when the traffic demand is close or even

entire network will be reduced by boosting the higher than the capacity. On the other hand, the

high-speed mode shares (e.g., car and bus) when emission of the whole network will be

the traffic demand is low. On the other hand, the minimized when the potential fee of car is

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

398 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

maximized and the potential fee of bus is set the potential fee of bus increase from zero to

zero. The emission of network will increase as ¥45, while the total emission of the network will

the bus fee increases or the potential fee applied increase from 12,278g to 51,597g with an

to the cars decrease and will be maximized when average increase of 320%.

the potential fee of car is set zero and the Based on the above example, it can be seen

potential fee of bus is highest. Further, it is also that the potential fee of car is the main factor

found that, when the car fee is set as ¥45, both affecting the social-cost of multimodal traffic

the congestion and the emission of whole network. It can be concluded from the above

network will be significantly increased with the results that, when the traffic authority increases

increase of the bus fee. For example, under the the potential fee of car and consequently reduces

condition of M car =¥45, the total travel time of the mode share of the private car, it will reduce

the entire network will increase from 28,886h to the traffic congestion and vehicle emissions at

82,973h with an average increase of 187% when the network level. These observations clearly

Figure 4 The changes of congestion (left) and emissions (right) over network with λ under low demand

Figure 5 The changes of congestion (left) and emissions (right) over network with λ under high demand

Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network

J Syst Sci Syst Eng 399

confirm and support the idea of giving the optimization objectives and traffic management

priority to the development of urban public policies, such as congestion pricing and

transport, which is an effective way to achieve a emission control, are studied and presented. And

sustainable urban transportation. conclusions based on the study results are made.

It should be noted that this paper only

7. Conclusions considers the social costs related to traffic

At present, sustainability has become a congestion and automobile emission. In practice,

global development trend. In China, there are extra goals and costs, such as

transportation policies oriented to the socioeconomic benefits, investment budget,

infrastructure development are no longer traffic accidents and equity, which should be

sustainable. Traditional system optimization for included in such an urban transportation

urban traffic network mostly focuses on the optimization problem, Therefore, more

treatment of traffic congestion, while the advanced optimization model should be

environmental pollution is often overlooked. To researched and developed in the future.

date, most transport models and algorithms have

been proposed to analyze the travel demand and Acknowledgements

system optimization for purely motorized traffic Thank referees for their help to improve the

network. Few studies pay attention to such quality of this paper.

problems for urban multimodal traffic network,

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402 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

emission mitigation strategies vis-à-vis (CSCE). His areas of research interests include

GHG mitigation strategies. Transport Policy, land use and transportation interaction modeling,

12: 245-254 travel behavior analysis and travel demand

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292-301 Xiaobao Yang is currently an associate

professor of Beijing Jiaotong University. He

Bingfeng Si is currently an associate professor received his PhD in 2007 from School of

of Beijing Jiaotong University. He received his Economics and Management, Beihang

PhD in 2001 from School of Traffic and University (BUAA). His areas of research

Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University. He interests include transportation planning and

has visited and worked at the Hong Kong management, mixed traffic flow model, and

Polytechnic University, University of system science.

Southampton, and other institutions. His areas of

research interests include assignment model of Ziyou Gao is currently a full professor of

urban traffic network, flow analysis for Beijing Jiaotong University, director of the

multimodal traffic network and transportation Institute of System Science. He received his

planning and management. PhD in 1994 from the Institute of Applied

Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He

Ming Zhong is an associate professor of Civil has been on the editorial board of

Engineering in University of New Brunswick. Transportmetrica and Journal of Transportation

He is professional engineer of the Association of Systems Engineering and Information. His areas

Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of of research interests include complex of

New Brunswick, associate member of Institute transportation system, network flow analysis and

of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and member optimization, and system science.

of Canadian Society of Civil Engineering

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