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J Syst Sci Syst Eng (Dec 2012) 21(4): 385-402 ISSN: 1004-3756 (Paper) 1861-9576 (Online)

DOI: 10.1007/s11518-012-5200-7 CN11-2983/N

MODELING THE CONGESTION COST AND VEHICLE EMISSION


WITHIN MULTIMODAL TRAFFIC NETWORK UNDER THE CONDITION
OF EQUILIBRIUM

Bingfeng SI1 Ming ZHONG2 Xiaobao YANG1 Ziyou GAO1


1
MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong
University, Beijing, China
bfsi@bjtu.edu.cn (), xbyang@bjtu.edu.cn, zygao@bjtu.edu.cn
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. Canada
ming@unb.ca

Abstract
Traditional system optimization models for traffic network focus on the treatment of congestion,
which usually have an objective of minimizing the total travel time. However, the negative externality
of congestion, such as environment pollution, is neglected in most cases. Such models fall short in
taking Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and its impact on climate change into consideration. In this
paper, a social-cost based system optimization (SO) model is proposed for the multimodal traffic
network considering both traffic congestion and corresponding vehicle emission. Firstly, a variation
inequality model is developed to formulate the equilibrium problem for such network based on the
analysis of travelers’ combined choices. Secondly, the computational models of traffic congestion and
vehicle emission of whole multimodal network are proposed based on the equilibrium link-flows and
the corresponding travel times. A bi-level programming model, in which the social-cost based SO
model is treated as the upper-level problem and the combined equilibrium model is processed as the
lower-level problem, is then presented with its solution algorithm. Finally, the proposed models are
illustrated through a simple numerical example. The study results confirm and support the idea of
giving the priority to the development of urban public transport, which is an effective way to achieve a
sustainable urban transportation.
Keywords: Multimodal network, vehicle emission, system optimization, bi-level programming

1. Introduction significantly in most cities of China, especially


With the rapid development of her economy, in developed cities like Beijing and Shanghai. At
transport infrastructures have been improved the same time, resident’s travel patterns have

* This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71071016, 71131001
and National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2012CB725400. It is also partially supported by
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos. 2012JBM056, 2012JBZ005.

 Systems Engineering Society of China & Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012


Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
386 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

been greatly changed. Table 1 gives the to limited land and financial investment.
distribution of the trip intensity and mode Moreover, such policies have shown their
choices of Beijing residents in 1986, 2000 and drawbacks in developing a sustainable society.
2005 respectively (Mao et al. 2008). As can be Transport-related externalities like congestion
seen in Table 1, travel demand and average trip and air pollution have been increasingly
distance in Beijing have been increasing concerned. As an example, Table 2 shows the
continuously. For example, total trips per day increasing contribution of vehicle emission to
per person have increased from 1.61 in 1986 to total air emissions in 1995, 1998 and 2000 in
2.84 in 2005 and the average trip distance has Beijing (Liu et al. 2007). It can be seen that CO
increased to 9.3 km in 2005 from 8.0 km in 2000. emission increased about 7%, whereas NOx
Traveling through automobile has experienced a emission increased almost 52%. These statistics
steady increase over the last 20 years, which is clearly show the significant threats from the
strongly negatively correlated with a steady motorization to a sustainable society. In this
decrease of the bicycle share, from more than regard, innovative policies and corresponding
65% in 1986 to only 30% in 2005. Bus share modeling tools are necessary to develop a
experienced a slight drop of 2.7% during the sustainable transportation system.
same period, and subway takes 5.7% since 2005. The main objective of transport management
These statistics clearly show that a “green” agencies is to develop policies or measures to
multimodal transportation system that can be achieve optimal system performance. Generally,
found everywhere in China in 1980s has been traffic equilibrium analysis and system
shaped to be automobile-dependent. optimization are important aspects for such work.
In order to support economic development, The former relies on assignment models for
transportation policies in China have been predicting travelers’ choice-behaviors through a
oriented to infrastructure development during network. In the past decades, various
the past decades, and consequently road equilibrium models and algorithms (Beckmann
development favoring private vehicles has been et al. 1956, Smith 1979, Dafermos 1980, Dial
a priority over public transport. However, the 1996) have been proposed, which purely base
increasing demand for motorized travel has themselves on motorized-traffic, which implies
significantly outpaced the road development due that they only paid attention to the automobile

Table 1 Trip intensity and mode split characteristics of Beijing by year

Mode split (%)


Total trips Average trip Total daily
Year
/per/day Distance/km trip/millions
bus subway taxi car bicycle

1986 1.61 - 9.39 29.31 0.36 5.24 65.09


2000 2.77 8.0 23.01 27.33 9.03 23.96 39.68
2005 2.84 9.3 29.20 26.60 5.70 7.60 29.80 30.30
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 387

Table 2 Contribution of vehicle emissions to travel time function and a fixed CO emission
Beijing air pollution (%) coefficient per link mileage. Rilett & Benedek
Year CO NOx (1994, 1998) developed a simple macroscopic
1995 76.8 21.7 CO emission model and used it in the
1998 82.7 40.2 TRANSYT-7F software, in which the average
2000 84 73 speed and the link length were used as input
driver’s route choice, while traveler’s mode variables. They investigated an equitable traffic
choice was largely neglected. Several assignment with environmental costs. Nagurney
assignment models for multimodal traffic (2000) utilized a fixed amount of CO emission
networks (Florian & Nguyen 1978, Fisk & rate per traveler per link to estimate the CO
Boyce 1983, Abrahamsson & Lundqvist 1999, emissions and developed a traffic network
Nagurney & Dong 2002, Yang & Huang 2004) equilibrium model incorporating an
were proposed. However, in these existing environmental criterion. These previous studies
models, the vehicles of different modes, rather simply extended well-known travel time
than the travelers, were treated as demand units function by adding link-based emission costs.
and they were assigned to the network. Traffic assignment procedure was improved by
Nevertheless, in practice, the flow pattern over considering environmental impact. However, a
an urban multimodal transport system is the rational traveler is typically interested in
results of the travelers’ combined mode-route selecting a combined mode/route choice that
choice, which should have congestion effect minimizes the generalized cost for his/her trip,
been considered. Therefore, using traveler, while the negative societal externality cost like
rather than vehicle as the demand entity for environmental pollution is generally neglected.
network assignment should be more logic. These result from different perspectives, namely
Further, the following two problems have not user optimization and system optimization. This
been fully considered in the previous studies: (a) raises questions concerning how to change the
the interactions between different transport traveler’s choice behaviors through traffic
modes in mixed urban traffic environment; and management measures, such as fuel tax and
(b) the green transportation – bicycle, which is congestion pricing, to reduce the congestion and
most common mode in nearly every Chinese improve air quality of the entire transportation
city. system.
In addition, traditional general equilibrium Traditional system optimization models
assignment models typically use travel time as focus on treatment of traffic congestion, which
the generalized cost to assign traffic flows over a usually has an objective of minimizing the total
network. Several researchers have investigated travel time through traffic network (Sheffi 1985,
traffic assignment methods based on Bell & Iida 1997, Yang & Huang 2005). For
environment cost functions. For example, Tzeng example, a number of regions have considered
& Chen (1993) developed a multi-objective alleviating traffic congestion by introducing
traffic assignment model using a simplified congestion pricing. The optimal road tolls for
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
388 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

minimization of total travel time can be easily provides a complete system optimization
determined using optimization methods. approach considering both congestion and
However, the negative externality of congestion, environment pollution simultaneously.
such as environmental pollution, is neglected in This study proposes a decision support
most cases. In the multimodal traffic network, framework for transportation policy makers,
travelers from original to destination should which simultaneously considers the objectives
make two successive decisions. The first one is of individual travelers and those of a multimodal
the mode choice and the second is the route transportation system as a whole. Firstly, based
choice. It is usually assumed that travelers on the analysis of travelers’ combined choices
always try to select the mode-route with the (in terms of their modes and routes), a
minimum travel cost consisting of congestion, variational inequality (VI) model is proposed to
travel time and potential fees. However, the flow describe equilibrium assignment for multimodal
pattern over such network resulted by all the traffic network, in which the interferences
travelers’ combined mode-route choice based on between different modes on the same road
user equilibrium is not necessarily optimal to the segments are taken into account. Secondly, the
system as a whole. Therefore, the transport computational models of congestion and the
management agencies can develop a reasonable negative external cost of vehicle emission of the
technologies or economic measures to guide the whole network are proposed based on the
travelers’ traffic-choice-behaviors and then lead equilibrium flow pattern over such network. On
to change the equilibrium flow pattern over the basis of these, a bi-level programming model
network in order to achieve certain goal of is then proposed to describe this comprehensive
system optimization. If such target of system social-cost based system optimization problem
optimization only consider the cost of traffic for the multimodal traffic network. The
congestion (i.e. the total travel time), regardless associated solution algorithms are also presented.
of the external cost of vehicle emissions, the Finally, the model and its algorithm are
optimal scheme may guide more travelers to illustrated through a simple numerical example.
choose cars as their travel modes and result to
produce more air pollution from the transport 2. Combined Equilibrium Model for
system, which will takes negative affects on the Multimodal Traffic Network
lives of urban residents and urban economic First of all, without losing any generality, it
development. At present, there is a widespread is assumed that the O-D demands in a
acceptance that incorporation of sustainable multimodal traffic network are given and fixed.
issues within transport policies is crucial. Many For a given O-D pair, the sum of travel demands
researchers (Yedla et al. 2005, Curtis 2008) used of different modes equals to the total travel
different models to assess alternative measures demand, that is
and also to develop policies for mitigating
 qwk  qw , w (1)
pollution resulted from GHG emissions. k

However, few of research works conducted where qw is the total demand between O-D
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 389

pair w; qwk is the demand that selects the In this paper, the internal congestion, travel
transport mode k between O-D pair w. time and potential fare are all assumed included
Secondly, for a given O-D pair and mode, the in the generalized travel cost. The generalized
sum of travel demands on different routes equals travel cost function for transport mode can then
to the travel demand of the corresponding mode, be written as the following:
that is g wk (q w )   f wk (q w )   wk   wk , w, k (5)

 hwk ,r  qwk , w, k (2) where g wk is the generalized travel cost for the
r
mode k between O-D pair w; q w is the vector
where hwk ,r is the travel demand on the route r of travel demands between O-D pair w, that is,
selected mode k between O-D pair w. q w = [q1w , , qwk ]; f wk (q w ) represents the
In addition, for the mode k between O-D pair internal congestion for mode k between O-D
w, the travel demand on road link a can be pair w, which is a function of the travel demand
represented by the travel demand on the routes, between O-D pair w;  wk denotes the potential
that is fare of mode k between O-D pair w;  wk
xak   denotes the equilibrium travel time of mode k
 hwk ,r  ak,,rw , a, k (3)
w r between O-D pair w;  and  are
where xak is the travel demand of mode k on the parameters.
road link a;  ak,,rw is route and road incidence Let gˆ wk (q w ) represent the travel cost
variable for mode k between O-D pair w, if the excluding travel time of mode k between O-D
mode k can access the road link a and it is on the pair w. That is
route r that connects the O-D pair w, then gˆ wk (q w )   f wk (q w )   wk , w, k (6)
 ak,,rw =1, otherwise,  ak,,rw =0. Then, the function (5) can be rewritten as
In general, traffic flow is defined as the
g wk (q w )  gˆ wk (q w )   wk , w, k (7)
number of all vehicles passing by a road section
Further, we assume that the travel time in the
during a time unit (minute or hour) for the
multimodal traffic network is additive. Thus, the
purely motorized system. However, in the
equilibrium travel time on route r for mode k
context of multimodal traffic network, the flow
between the O-D pair w can be expressed as
of each mode can be converted from the
corresponding travel demand, that is (Si et al.,  wk   tak  ak,,rw , w, k , r (8)
a
2008)
where tak denotes the equilibrium travel time of
U
vak = xak  ( k ) , k , a (4) transport mode k on road link a, which can be
Ak
computed by the link impedance function.
where vak is the flow of mode k on road link a; In the multimodal traffic network, the
U k is passenger car unit (pcu) conversion interferences among different modes will present
coefficient of mode k; Ak is occupancy rate of if there is no physical barrier between different
mode k, which indicates the average number of modes. Therefore, the link impedance function
travelers within each vehicle of mode k. for such system should be different from that for
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
390 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

single-mode transport system. The travel time is   qk  0


g wk  w , if w , w, k (11)
determined by not only the flow/capacity ratio   w qwk  0
of the mode being selected but also the flow of
  k hwk ,r  0
interference modes. The link impedance twk ,r  w , if k , w, k , r (12)
k
function in multimodal traffic network can be   w hw,r  0
formulated as: where  w is the generalized travel cost between
tak  f (tak (0) , v a , Ca ) , k , a (9) O-D pair w at equilibrium; twk ,r is the travel
where tak (0) is the free-flow travel time of mode time on route r for mode k between the O-D pair
w.
k on road link a; Ca is the practical capacity of
Note that the generalized travel cost
road link a; v a is the vehicle flow of different
functions and the link impedance functions
modes on road link a, that is v a  [v1a , , vak ] .
proposed in this paper are all asymmetric, which
In general, tak (0) and Ca can be assumed as the means that the generalized travel costs or the
constants and tak can be treated as a function of link travel times of each mode are influenced by
v a . According to the Equation (4), the flows of not only its own flow but also those from the
different modes on road link a can be expressed other competing modes. Dafermos (1980)
by the travel demand of corresponding modes. demonstrated that no equivalent optimization
Consequently, the Function (9) can be rewritten program can produce equilibrium flow pattern
as follows: for an asymmetric assignment problem and
tak  fˆak (x a ) , k , a (10) applied the variational inequality to the
asymmetric traffic assignment problem.
where x a is the vector of the travel demand on Therefore, in this paper, the following VI model
road link a, that is x a  [ x1a , , xak ] . is proposed to describe the equilibrium
In order to be consistent with choice assignment for multimodal traffic network: to
behavior theories, the user equilibrium defined find (x a , q w )   such that
in multimodal traffic network is divided into the
following two categories. One category   gˆ wk (q w )  (qwk  qwk )
w k
equilibrium exits among different transport (13a)
  fˆak (x a )  ( xak  xak )  0,
modes, namely the generalized travel costs of a k
the selected transport modes is the same and the where
minimum while the generalized travel costs of
  {(x a , q w ) |  qwk  qw ,
unselected transport modes must be not less than k
the minimum travel cost between a given O-D  hwk , r  qwk , xak   hwk ,r  ak,,rw , (13b)
pair. The other category is the traditional r w r

equilibrium among different routes for each qwk  0, hwk ,r  0, w, r , a, k}.
mode between the O-D pair. Therefore, the user The equivalence between the solution to
equilibrium in multimodal traffic network can be above VI model and the equilibrium conditions
described as: (11) and (12) is given by reference (Si et al.
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 391

2012). where Rak denote the CO emissions rate of


motor-mode k on link a (unit: gram/vehicle/km);
3. Social-Cost of Multimodal Traffic sak denotes the average speed of motor-mode k
Network on link a;  k ,  k , k are regression parameters
First, we consider the calculation of the cost corresponding to motor-mode k.
of traffic congestion. A general economic In addition, the variable sak in Equation (15)
definition of congestion is that it occurs when
can be represented by the corresponding travel
the quality of service of a facility depends on the
time and distance, that is sak  La / tak , where
intensity of use and the use approaches to the
La denotes the distance of link a. Accordingly,
facility’s capacity (Small & Verhoef 2007). For
the total vehicle emissions under the condition
urban traffic network, the most commonly used
of user equilibrium can be rewritten as
indicator of quality is travel time or speed.
  exp[ k  ( La / tak ]
In general, traffic congestion is quantified R ak  k , k , a (16)
based on the total travel time of all travelers k  ( La / tak )
using the transportation network (Sheffi 1985). This equation is similar to the one proposed
For a multimodal system, the total travel time at by Yin & Lawphongpanich (2006).
equilibrium, represented by Z , can be The volume of vehicular CO emission is
formulated as equal to the product of the emission factor times
Z    xak  tak . (14) the link load (Anderson et al. 1996). Obviously,
a k
the total vehicle emissions through the whole
Subsequently, let’s consider the computation multimodal traffic network at equilibrium can be
of the environment cost of motorized-transport. formulated as
The pollutants from vehicle emissions include
x k
CO, NOx, HC, PM, SO2 and so on. Because it is E    Aa  La  Rak . (17)
a k k
almost solely emitted by vehicles, some (e.g.,
Alexopoulos & Assimacopoulos 1993) consider Based on above computations of congestion
CO as an important indicator for the level of and vehicle emissions through multimodal
atmospheric pollution generated by vehicular traffic network, the social-cost based model
traffics. There are a number of emission models defined in this study can be formulated as:
of various complexities, such as the VT-Micro C  Vt  Z  Ve  E . (18)
model, the CMEM model, and the MOBILE6
where C denotes the social-cost of multimodal
model (Ahn & Rakha 2008). The following
traffic network with certain travel demand; Vt
macroscopic model (Rilett & Benedek 1994)
and Ve are the value of time (VOT) and the
that gives the relationship between the CO
social cost of vehicle emissions. It should be
production and the average vehicle speed is
noted, however, that the above model does not
adopted in this paper.
consider the social cost resulted from collisions.
 k  exp( k  sak ) This will be addressed in an enhanced model in
Rak  , k , a (15)
k  sak a future study.
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
392 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

4. Social-Cost Based System environment pollution. The following bi-level


Optimization Model programming is proposed to describe such a
The social-cost based optimal strategies for system optimization problem:
multimodal traffic network can be represented as upper-level programming: min C x(λ ) (19)
a leader-follower game problem, where the where λ represents the policy variables such as
transport management agency is the decision congestion tolls or transit fairs, x(λ ) is given
maker or the leader, and the travelers who can by the following lower-level VI model: to find
freely choose mode and route are the followers. (x a , q w )   such that
Generally the transport management agency can
influence by policies such as the pricing of   gˆ wk [q w (λ )]  {qwk  qwk (λ )}
w k
(20)
transportation services, but cannot control the   fˆak [x a (λ )]  {xak  xak (λ )}  0.
travelers’ choice behaviors. The travelers make a k

their choosing in a user optimal manner. It is It can be shown that the optimization
reasonable to assume that the transport objective in the upper optimization model,
management agency selects feasible strategy in including air pollution and traffic congestion
an attempt to optimize its objective. The over the whole network, is related to link traffic
travelers, after and with enough information of flows and the corresponding link travel times of
the multimodal network and the policies, make different transport modes, while the link traffic
mode-and-route decisions in an attempt to flows and the corresponding travel times are
minimize their generalized travel cost, resulting partially influenced by the policy variables λ .
in an equilibrium flow pattern over such The relationship between them is described by
network. Bi-level programming is an available the lower-level VI model with various
method to find the optimal strategies while the parameters. Accordingly, all optimization goals
benefits of transport management agency and in the upper optimization problem implicitly
travelers are considered simultaneously. depended on λ , that are described as C x(λ ) .
In the recent years, the bi-level programming The policy variables λ can be interpreted as the
approach has emerged as an important area for decision variables involved in such system
progress in handling complicated transportation optimization problem.
problems. Typical examples include network
performance optimization under the condition of 5. Solution Algorithm
ATIS (Si et al. 2008) and revenue strategy of Due to the intrinsic complexity of model
railway passenger transport (Si et al. 2009). formulation, the bi-level programming problem
Traditional optimization focuses on traffic has been recognized as one of the most difficult,
congestion only, which usually has an objective yet challenging problems for global optimality
of minimizing the total travel time through a in transportation system. In the past, researchers
network. In this paper, we extend such an (Abdulaal & LeBlanc 1979, Leblanc & Boyce
objective to a comprehensive social-cost case, 1986, Suwansirikul et al. 1987, Clegg et al. 2001,
which considers both the congestion and Patriksson 2008) have developed alternative
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 393

solution algorithms for this problem. Sensitivity algorithm. Step 1 solves a VI model, and a
analysis methods proposed by Tobin & Friesz simplified diagonalization method (Sheffi 1985)
(1988), which makes use of the derivatives of can be used as solution algorithm. This
the equilibrium link flows with respect to algorithm is based on a series of iterations to
perturbation parameters, are widely used for solve the optimization problem. Correspondingly,
network equilibrium problems (Friesz et al. at ith iteration, the optimization problem can be
1993, Yang & Yagar 1994, Chan & Lam 2002, described as
Si et al. 2009). By sensitivity analysis method, xak k
min F (x, q)    0 ta (x(i 1) )d 
( x ,q )
we can find the derivative of equilibrium flow of k a
(21)
each mode with respect to perturbation of the qwk
  0 g wk (q (i 1) )d 
cost function. In this paper, the perturbation is w k

assumed to be the potential fares of different In order to transfer the above combined
modes. With the derivative information, the assignment problem into the logit model, the
objective function of upper-level problem, functions g kw should be defined as follows (Si
which is implicitly non-linear function of the et al. 2008).
prices of transport services, can be linearly 1
g wk ( x)  ln x   wk , k , w (22)
approximated using Taylor’s formula. The 
well-known simplex method can then be The convex combinations algorithm (Sheffi
adopted for solving the upper-level 1985) can be used to solve the “diagonalized”
programming problem. Therefore, the algorithm minimization problem (21), which is described
used in this paper is summarized as follows: as the following:
Step 0: set the initial value λ (0) , and set the Step 0: initialization. Set qwk =0 and xak =0
number of iterations to i = 1. for any w, k and a. Compute gˆ wk (0) and tak (0) .
Step 1: find the solution of the lower-level of
Find the shortest route for mode k between O-D
the model, x(i ) , which is the link flow matrix
pair w and get the corresponding minimum
for different modes.
travel time  wk (0) . Then calculate the generalized
Step 2: find the linear equation of the matrix,
travel cost of mode k between O-D pair w.
x(λ (i 1) ) , through sensitivity analysis and
Execute the travel demand assignment between
Taylor expansion.
O-D pair w according to the following rules:
Step 3: put the linear equation of the matrix
into the upper-level of the model to update the qw , if g wk (0)  min{g wl (0) }
qwk (1) =  lK (23)
parameter value of λ (i ) by solving upper-level 0, otherwise
problem.
Subsequently, perform all-or-nothing
Step 4: examine the convergence. If k (1)
assignment to load qw for mode k and obtain
λ  λ (i1) or i = N, then iteration stops, where
i

N is the maximum number of iterations. the travel demand of mode k on road link a,
Otherwise, set i = i+1 and start a new iteration. xak (1) . Set iteration n=1.
Note that Step 1 is the key step of the above Step 1: compute gˆ wk ( n ) and tak ( n ) based on
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
394 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

qwk ( n ) and xak ( n ) respectively. of one O-D pair (1-9), 9 nodes, 12 links, two
Step 2: find the shortest route for mode k motorized modes (car and bus) and one
between O-D pair w and get the corresponding non-motorized mode (bike).
minimum travel time  wk ( n ) . Then calculate the Here, the following performance functions
generalized travel cost of mode k between O-D proposed by Si et al. (2008) are used to describe
pair w and execute the travel demand the link travel time within multimodal traffic
assignment between O-D pair w according to the network.
following rules: vamotor
tak  tak (0) [1   ( ) ]
qw , if g wk ( n )  min{g wl ( n ) } Camotor
k ( n)
uw   lK (24) (26)
0, otherwise xanon  motor 
[1   ( ) ], k , a
Canon  motor
Perform all-or-nothing assignment to load
uwk ( n ) for mode k and obtain yak ( n ) . xanon  motor
tanon  motor  tanon  motor(0) [1   ( ) ]
Step 3: compute Canon  motor
(27)
1 vamotor
qwk ( n 1)  qwk ( n )  (uwk ( n )  qwk ( n ) ) , w, k (25a) [1   ( 
) ], a
n Camotor
1
xak ( n 1)  xak ( n )  ( yak ( n )  xak ( n ) ) , k , a (25b) where tak and tanon  motor denote the travel
n
times of motor mode k and non-motor mode on
Step 4: convergence test. If a convergence
link a respectively; tak (0) and tanon  motor(0) are
criterion is met, stop. The current solutions,
the free-flow travel times of motor mode k and
{ qwk ( n 1) } and { xak ( n 1) }, are the sets of
non-motor mode on link a; Camotor and
equilibrium travel demands and link demands
Canon  motor are the practical capacities of motor
for the transport mode k respectively; otherwise,
and non-motor modes on link a; xanon  motor
set n=n+1 and go to step 1.
represents the non-motor flow on link a, which
is the same as the number of travelers who
6. Numerical Example
choose non-motor mode on link a; vamotor
A simple numerical example is used to
denotes the pcu (passenger car unit) flow of all
illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed
motor modes on link a; the parameters take the
models. The multimodal traffic network used in
values of  =0.15,  = 4,  =0.01 and  =2.
this study is shown in Figure 1, which consists

Figure 1 The simple multimodal network tested


Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 395

The parameters in CO emission model (16) algorithm for the lower-level problem is
are given by  k =11.14,  k =0.05 and  k =3.28 analyzed using the gap measure proposed by
(Anderson et al. 1996). The parameters in the Boyce et al. (2004). The gap at iteration n for
generalized travel cost function (5) take values such combined assignment model can be defined
of  =1,  =0.2. The input data of different as
links are presented in Table 3 and the data gap(n)   { tak ( n )  ( yak ( n )  xak ( n ) )
pertinent to different traffic modes such as the a k (28)
non-motor(n )
pcu conversion coefficient, the average ta  ( yanon-motor(n )  xanon-motor(n ) )}
occupancy rate, potential user fee and so on are
where yak ( n ) and yano  motor ( n ) are respectively
listed in Table 4 (Si et al. 2008). For brevity, the
the auxiliary flows of mode k and no-motor on
cases of q w =10000 and q w =20000 is used to
link a at iteration n given by an all-or-nothing
represent the low demand and high demand case
assignment based on link travel time.
of the multimodal traffic network under study
Figure 2 shows the gaps against the iteration
respectively.
number for different O-D demands respectively.
The convergence of the convex combinations

Table 3 Data of different links

free-flow travel times/h practical capacities/pcu/h


links distance/km
car bus bike motor non-motor
(1,2) 0.111 0.178 0.261 1000 600 6
(2,3) 0.128 0.194 0.278 700 400 4
(1,4) 0.100 0.167 0.250 1500 800 8
(2,5) 0.106 0.172 0.256 700 400 4
(3,6) 0.089 0.156 0.239 700 400 4
(4,5) 0.078 0.144 0.228 1000 600 6
(5,6) 0.094 0.161 0.244 1000 600 6
(4,7) 0.133 0.200 0.283 900 500 5
(5,8) 0.111 0.178 0.261 700 400 4
(6,9) 0.144 0.211 0.294 700 400 4
(7,8) 0.094 0.161 0.244 900 500 5
(8,9) 0.100 0.167 0.250 900 500 5

Table 4 Data of different models

modes pcu coefficient average passengers potential fee/¥


Car 1 4 20
Bus 1.5 20 5
Bike
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
396 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

It can be seen that the solution algorithm has a and the potential fees of the motorized modes
good convergence especially for the cases with (car and bus) when q w =10000 and q w =20000
lower O-D demand. respectively. It can be seen that the car share will
In this example, the policies variables is reduce with the increase of related potential fee
assumed to be potential fees, such as congestion (congestion pricing) and it will increase with the
pricing or bus fare, that is λ  [ car , bus ]T . The increasing potential fee of bus (transit fare).
traffic authority can influence travelers’ choice Meanwhile, it can be found that, in the case
behaviors by adjusting potential fees of car or of the high demand and serious traffic
bus to reduce the social-cost of multimodal congestion, with increasing potential fee of bus
traffic network. Next we analyze the change of or car, the decline rates of the car shares are
mode shares with the policy variables λ . Figure lower than that in the case of the low demand.
3 shows the relationship between the car shares For example, under the conditions of q w =

8.00E+05

7.00E+05 high demand


low demand
6.00E+05

5.00E+05
gap value

4.00E+05

3.00E+05

2.00E+05

1.00E+05

0.00E+00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
iteration times

Figure 2 The convergence of the algorithm for the lower-level problem

0.8 0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
the car share
the car share

0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3
0.2
0.2 0
0.1
0 0.1 the 15
potential 0
20 30 0
0 fee of car/¥ 10
the potential fee of car/¥ 0 20
10 45 30
40 20 40
40 30 the potential fee of bus/¥
the potential fee of bus/¥

Figure 3 The changes of car share with λ under low demand (right) and high demand (left)
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 397

10,000 and  car =  bus =0, the car share is 50%. emission of the whole network will be
When the potential fees of car and bus are minimized when the potential fee of car is
increased to ¥45, the corresponding car share maximized and the potential fee of bus is set
will change to 42%. While the car share will zero. Similarly, the network emission will
change from 57% to 58% in the case of increase with the increase of the bus fee or the
q w =20000. This can be explained as the decrease of the charge applied to car use. The
following: in the case of the low demand, results imply that the total emission of the whole
transport system still has a lot extra capacity and network will be reduced by boosting the bus
accordingly the congestion within network is not shares or reducing the car share when the traffic
significant. The impact of travelers’ choice demand is low. Further, when the bus fee is set
behaviors on their travel time is not significant, zero, the congestion of whole network will be
while relatively the travelers are more sensitive slightly increased, while the emission of whole
to the fee increases. Therefore, travelers tend to network will be sharply reduced through the
choose the bicycle, which is fee free, when the increase of the potential fee applied to the cars.
potential fees of car and bus increase. On the For example, under the condition of M bus =0,
contrary, when traffic demand is high and road the total travel time of whole network will
capacity is tight, there is serious congestion in increase from 8162h to 13263h with an average
the network. Under such a condition, the increase of 62% when the potential fee of car is
impacts of travelers’ choice behaviors on their increased from zero to ¥45, while the total
travel time are relatively significant and emission of whole network will decrease from
travelers are more sensitive to travel time. 35324g to 5944g with an average decrease of
Therefore, travelers prefer to choose the mode 83%.
with shorter travel time like car rather than Similarly, Figure 5 shows the relationship
low-speed mode such as bike. between the congestion/emission and the
Subsequently, we analyze the changes of potential fees for bus/car when the travel
congestion and emission of the whole network demand is high q w =20000. It can be seen that,
by varying the policy variables λ. Figure 4 in the case of the high demand, the congestion
shows the relationship between the congestion will be minimized when the potential fee of car
/emissions over the network when q w =10,000. is set as ¥15 and the potential fee of bus is set
It can be seen that, in the case of the low zero. The congestion will increase
demand, the congestion is minimum when the monotonically as the potential fee of bus
potential fees of car and bus are zeroes. As the increases. The results imply that the total travel
travel cost of car and bus increases, the time of the network will be reduced by boosting
congestion will increase monotonically. The the medium-speed and high-occupancy mode
results imply that the total travel time of the share when the traffic demand is close or even
entire network will be reduced by boosting the higher than the capacity. On the other hand, the
high-speed mode shares (e.g., car and bus) when emission of the whole network will be
the traffic demand is low. On the other hand, the minimized when the potential fee of car is
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
398 J Syst Sci Syst Eng

maximized and the potential fee of bus is set the potential fee of bus increase from zero to
zero. The emission of network will increase as ¥45, while the total emission of the network will
the bus fee increases or the potential fee applied increase from 12,278g to 51,597g with an
to the cars decrease and will be maximized when average increase of 320%.
the potential fee of car is set zero and the Based on the above example, it can be seen
potential fee of bus is highest. Further, it is also that the potential fee of car is the main factor
found that, when the car fee is set as ¥45, both affecting the social-cost of multimodal traffic
the congestion and the emission of whole network. It can be concluded from the above
network will be significantly increased with the results that, when the traffic authority increases
increase of the bus fee. For example, under the the potential fee of car and consequently reduces
condition of M car =¥45, the total travel time of the mode share of the private car, it will reduce
the entire network will increase from 28,886h to the traffic congestion and vehicle emissions at
82,973h with an average increase of 187% when the network level. These observations clearly

Figure 4 The changes of congestion (left) and emissions (right) over network with λ under low demand

Figure 5 The changes of congestion (left) and emissions (right) over network with λ under high demand
Si et al.: Modeling the Congestion Cost and Vehicle Emission within Multimodal Traffic Network
J Syst Sci Syst Eng 399

confirm and support the idea of giving the optimization objectives and traffic management
priority to the development of urban public policies, such as congestion pricing and
transport, which is an effective way to achieve a emission control, are studied and presented. And
sustainable urban transportation. conclusions based on the study results are made.
It should be noted that this paper only
7. Conclusions considers the social costs related to traffic
At present, sustainability has become a congestion and automobile emission. In practice,
global development trend. In China, there are extra goals and costs, such as
transportation policies oriented to the socioeconomic benefits, investment budget,
infrastructure development are no longer traffic accidents and equity, which should be
sustainable. Traditional system optimization for included in such an urban transportation
urban traffic network mostly focuses on the optimization problem, Therefore, more
treatment of traffic congestion, while the advanced optimization model should be
environmental pollution is often overlooked. To researched and developed in the future.
date, most transport models and algorithms have
been proposed to analyze the travel demand and Acknowledgements
system optimization for purely motorized traffic Thank referees for their help to improve the
network. Few studies pay attention to such quality of this paper.
problems for urban multimodal traffic network,
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emission mitigation strategies vis-à-vis (CSCE). His areas of research interests include
GHG mitigation strategies. Transport Policy, land use and transportation interaction modeling,
12: 245-254 travel behavior analysis and travel demand
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292-301 Xiaobao Yang is currently an associate
professor of Beijing Jiaotong University. He
Bingfeng Si is currently an associate professor received his PhD in 2007 from School of
of Beijing Jiaotong University. He received his Economics and Management, Beihang
PhD in 2001 from School of Traffic and University (BUAA). His areas of research
Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University. He interests include transportation planning and
has visited and worked at the Hong Kong management, mixed traffic flow model, and
Polytechnic University, University of system science.
Southampton, and other institutions. His areas of
research interests include assignment model of Ziyou Gao is currently a full professor of
urban traffic network, flow analysis for Beijing Jiaotong University, director of the
multimodal traffic network and transportation Institute of System Science. He received his
planning and management. PhD in 1994 from the Institute of Applied
Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He
Ming Zhong is an associate professor of Civil has been on the editorial board of
Engineering in University of New Brunswick. Transportmetrica and Journal of Transportation
He is professional engineer of the Association of Systems Engineering and Information. His areas
Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of of research interests include complex of
New Brunswick, associate member of Institute transportation system, network flow analysis and
of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and member optimization, and system science.
of Canadian Society of Civil Engineering