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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership 17239598

Assessment 1: Professional Task

Contemporary
Teacher Leadership
Report

17239598
Abstract
An essential criteria to supporting student learning, is the responsibilities schools have to
closely monitor and review their registers, so that any necessary adjustments can be made to
cater the needs of students. Several recommendations can be made to the stage 5 unit ‘Body
in Motion’ created in a previous unit from Western Sydney University. The following report
will include evidence-based recommendations in order to improve student’s standards within
literacy, numeracy, ICT capabilities, problem solving and critical and creative thinking in
accordance to the ‘Understanding by Design’ framework.

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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership 17239598
Assessment 1: Professional Task

Table of Contents
Executive Summary.……………………………………………………………...3
Comparative Table…………………………………………………………….......4
Evidence-Based Report: Recommended Adjustments…………………...7
Reconstructed Program…………………………………………………..…….12
Concept Map………………………………………………………………………………13
Scope and Sequence……………………………………..............................................14
Unit Outline……………………………………............................................................15
Assessment Task………………………………………………………………………….21
Reference List…………………………................................................................ 24
Original Documentations………………………………………………………26
Appendices 1: Scope and Sequence………………………………………………….27
Appendices 2: Unit Outline…………………………………………………………….28

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Executive Summary
Introduction

Planning is described to be the most essential skill in order to be an effective teacher


Bage, Grosvenor and Williams (1999). Bage et al., (1999) states that planning is an
important process where teachers are able to envision the learning they want to occur
and prepare the best strategies and practices that need to be implemented to optimise
student learning. This is evident within practices as a secondary teacher, where
educators work within a faculty to develop ‘unit outlines’ in order to identify
particular content that needs to be taught and goals in which students achieve learning
outcomes. This report has been developed to review the existing register at Emmaus
Catholic College, which is a school located in greater Western Sydney. The purpose
of this report is to make recommended adjustments in accordance to evidence based
research, to improve the stage 6 PDHPE unit ‘The Body in Motion’. Furthermore, all
recommendations to will be made with respect to the ‘Understanding by Design’
framework and Inquiry-Based approaches to teaching. By utilising the UbD
framework, educators are able to work within the standards that are driven by
curriculum, outline key learning goals for student success, plan student assessment
and devise efficient and engaging lessons (Saba, 2017).

Goals and Recommendations

The recommendations made in this report will focus on the following key elements:

 Improving student literacy and numeracy standards. This report will


look to implement teaching activities that improve the literacy and
numeracy standards among students.
 Modifying pedagogical approaches to enable students to develop skills
such as problem solving and creative and critical thinking. Effective
teachers ensure that students are challenged within their learning.
 Increase the use of ICT. Technology can help develop many practical
skills essential for the 21st century, such as creating presentations,
learning to differentiate between reliable sources and research-based
skills.
 Provide more opportunities for student-based learning. This allows
students to be in greater control of their learning and develop skills
essential for the 21st century such as the ability to work within
cooperative and collaborative groups.
 Provide greater opportunities to differentiate learning activities to
accommodate for students with a range of differing abilities within the
classroom.

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

Comparative
Table

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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership 17239598
Assessment 1: Professional Task

Area of concern Adjustments to the Research supporting


within the unit Unit Adjustments
The detail in which the existing The modified unit outline Research by Roth (2007) suggest that
scope and sequence was written implemented the Understanding by the UbD framework is essential in
was very brief, as it failed to Design approach when designing providing structure to the planning of
include the desired student the ‘Body in Motion’ unit of work. curriculum, assessment and informed
outcomes within each unit of work. This is evident where a concept teaching practices. The UbD
map was added to the unit outline framework should be implemented in
to identify what areas of the a three–stage backward mapping
curriculum need to be taught and process, in which the focus is on the
how they may be interrelated. In overarching learning goals and how
addition, greater planning was students will be assessed before
implemented the scope and identifying strategies to teach the
sequence and the formal assessment content Roth (2007). This results in
task, where the expected each lesson being created with a
educational outcome were made greater purpose in accordance to what
clear prior to planning learning educational outcomes are to be
activities. achieved (2007).

Upon reflection, the unit outline The modified unit outline The NSW Department of Education
could include greater emphasis to incorporates a range of activities (2017) states that literacy involves
improve the literacy and numeracy that promote the literacy standards students reading, listening to,
standards for students. Further, it is of students. These include reading, viewing, writing, creating oral
recommended that more writing, listening to or creating oral speeches and the ability to modify
opportunities should be given to speeches activities. Also, numeracy language for the purpose expressing
students to receive feedback to standards are targeted within the ideas to a range of contexts. For this
improve their learning. This allows adjusted unit of work, as students reason, the adjusted unit outline
students to act on feedback in order are required to analyse the angles of incorporates activities such as writing
to improve their literacy and biomechanical movements in order with persuasive language, multi-
numeracy skills. to make improvements to the media presentations and reading. Dor
correct form. numeracy, The NSW Department of
Education (2017) states that
numeracy should be integrated in to
each teaching area so that students
are able to make the connection
between using mathematic skills
purposefully in everyday living.

An area of concern within the The adjusted unit outline involves a The inclusion of Inquiry-Based
existing unit outline is the lack of significant increase in students approaches to teaching, activities
student-centred approaches participating in cooperative and such as cooperative and collaborative
teaching activities. The unit outline collaborative learning. This enables learning activities enables students to
could include more opportunities learning to be self-directed and develop innovative skills essential for
for cooperative and collaborative more engaging as students have an the 21st century workforce such as
learning, in order to increase increased role in within activities. communicating, delegating, critical
engagement. This is evident where students have and creative thinking, problem
been formed in mixed ability solving and higher order thinking
groups as well as greater of (Olsen, Aleven and Rummel, 2017).
opportunity for peer-to-peer Furthermore, studies by Smith-Stoner
teaching. and Molle (2010) states that
collaborative and cooperative
learning provides students with the
ability to review a range of different
perspectives, which then allows
students to build on ideas and
develop a final production, reflecting

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

a real life working context (Saba,


2017).

Upon further evaluation of the The modified assessment task Research by Kaur (2017) states the
unit outline and the assigned requires students to use ICT, with use of ICT is a great tool that allows
assessment task, it was found the aim of designing an assessment students to applying their knowledge
that activities within the lessons task that was more engaging. The in different forms of method delivery.
lacked the inclusion of ICT task asks students to video By doing this, Kaur (2017) further
throughout the unit. There are themselves demonstrating different states that students will more likely
minimal efforts for students to use biomechanical movements, have deeper understanding of the
ICT for research purposes, as well associated with a sport of their content and more likely to retain
as lacking the inclusion of ICT for choosing. They are then to use information when educating others.
students to express their voice-thread to display their Furthermore, studies by Livingstone
knowledge. knowledge in an engaging manner. (2012) found that when ICT was
There is also greater opportunity for incorporated in lessons, students were
students to use ICT for research significantly greater motivated and
purposes and creating engaging also found ICT use far more
presentations throughout the unit. stimulating, compared to the
traditional forms of learning.

The unit outline also lacks to The modified unit includes more Gould and Vaughn (2000) state that
include further strategies opportunities for extension differentiated teaching is an essential
associated with differentiated activities, designed for students teaching practice as it provides
teaching. Within the unit outline, who are quick to complete tasks. different learning pathways, so that
there is minimal reference into Further the adjusted unit outline students with differing abilities can
how the work may be includes more activities, which achieve the same learning
differentiated for the differing allow greater opportunities for opportunities as their peers. Further,
abilities of students within the students to peer-to-peer teach. Smyth (2018) state that proficient
classroom. Students who do understand content teachers understand their students and
are of great use as secondary how they learn, so they may adjust
teaching agents assisting peers to pedagogical practices to match
understand concepts. The modified student-learning styles. ). In relation
unit outline is also designed to give to students with special needs and
students greater choice in how they English as a second language, it is
may express their knowledge recommended that there are increased
opportunities for students to receive
and express their knowledge with
greater choice (Smyth, 2018).

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

Evidence-
Based
Report:
Adjustments and
Recommendations

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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership 17239598
Assessment 1: Professional Task

According to Bage, Grosvenor and Williams (1999) it is essential that educational


institutions regularly update their unit programs by providing evidence-based research
in order to make informed decisions about the best practices to facilitate learning. The
aim of curriculum planning is to set goals in which students achieve learning
outcomes and design formal assessments that provide evidence for academic
achievement (Bage et al., 1999). Once this has been achieved, it provides the
opportunity for teachers think critically about strategies within lesson planning, in
order to design engaging lessons that optimise student learning (Bage et al., 1999).
This report has been developed to review the existing register at Emmaus Catholic
College, which is a school located in greater Western Sydney. Although the existing
register has a respectable amount of teaching practices within the unit, the purpose of
this report is to make recommended adjustments in accordance to evidence based
research, to improve the stage 6 PDHPE unit ‘The Body in Motion’. Furthermore, all
recommendations to will be made with respect to the ‘Understanding by Design’
framework and an inquiry based approach to teaching and learning.

The ‘Understanding by Design’ is a framework used by many educational institutions.


The aim of the framework is to provide structure when planning curriculum, clarify
learning goals, revise student assessment and create engaging lessons that empower
students (Roth, 2007). The UbD framework follows the backwards-mapping
approach, where educators attempt to consider the overarching learning goals they
want their students achieve. Once these learning goals have been established, the next
step is to design formal assessment tasks in order to acknowledge how well students
understand content. Upon the completion of the first two elements of the UbD, the
last stage involves the planning of activities and instructional strategies that will be
employed. Studies by Roth (2007) justifies the purpose of UbD by stating that when
incorporating the UbD framework whilst planning, educators develop a deeper
understanding of curriculum and the desired educational outcomes for student
achievement. Therefore, this improves teaching practices because lessons are
designed with greater purpose in accordance to the curriculum. This approach was
adopted when adjusting the ‘Body in Motion’ unit, where a concept map was added to
the unit outline to identify what areas of the curriculum need to be taught and how
they may be interrelated. Secondly, the scope and sequence was modified to include
what specific educational outcomes relate to each topic area.

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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership 17239598
Assessment 1: Professional Task

Within the unit outline, adjustments have been made to the teaching practices to
include more opportunities for an inquiry-based approach. The adjusted unit outline
involves a significant increase in student-centred activities. This enables learning to
be self-directed and more engaging as students have an increased role in within
activities. Evidence by Towers and Panayotidis (2014) suggest that adopting an
inquiry-based approach is significantly more engaging compared to teacher-centred
learning because students are able to interact with one another and actively participate
with investigational activities, which is essential for developing skills such as problem
solving and critical thinking. Studies by Smith-Stoner and Molle (2010) emphasises
the benefits of cooperative and collaborative learning opportunities by stating that it
provides students with the ability to review a range of different perspectives, which
then allows students to build on ideas and develop a final production, reflecting a real
life working context. This approach is evident within the adjusted unit where there is
greater opportunity for students to collaborate and communicate ideas in order to
solve specific problems. Furthermore, there is also greater opportunity for students to
collaborate and delegate roles in order to present information they have acquired.
Studies by Olsen, Aleven and Rummel (2017) states that the advantage of
incorporating small cooperative and collaborative tasks enables students to develop
innovative skills essential for the 21st century workforce such as communicating,
delegating, critical and creative thinking, problem solving and higher order thinking.

Upon further evaluation of the unit outline and the assigned assessment task, it was
evaluated that the activities within the unit lacked the opportunities to increase ICT
use. This provided the opportunity to adjust the unit outline and the ‘Body in Motion’
assessment task so that there is an increased emphasis on ICT within several
activities. The use of ICT not only benefits students to research information but also
allows students to display their knowledge in different methods (Kaur, 2017). For
example, the modified assessment task requires students to be paired, where they are
then asked to video a demonstration explaining the different biomechanical
movements associated with their sport. They are then asked to use voice-thread to
display their knowledge in an engaging manner. By students applying their
knowledge in a presentation format and educating others, Kaur (2017) states students
are significantly more likely have a deeper understanding of the content and also

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

retain information. Furthermore, within prior lessons to the assessment task, students
were given the opportunity to use highly engaging apps, such as ‘hurdl’ and ‘coaches
eye’, which are accessible for free within the app store. These apps allow students to
video themselves demonstrating sporting movements and enable students to break
down and analyse their technique in order to improve performance. This was
strategically implemented within the unit outline to increase student engagement and
empower students to make the connection between what they are learning and how it
associated with real life contexts. By increasing ICT use, studies by Livingstone
(2012) suggest that students will significantly more likely be motivated to complete
tasks, compared to activities when ICT is not used.

Further, within the existing unit outline, there are many opportunities to include a
greater emphasis on activities that improve the literacy and numeracy standards for
students. The NSW Department of Education (2017) states that literacy involves
students reading, listening to, viewing, writing, creating oral speeches and the ability
to modify language for the purpose expressing ideas to a range of contexts. For this
reason, the adjusted unit outline incorporates activities that include many of the
strategies listed above such as writing with persuasive language, multi-media
presentations and reading. Further, it is also recommended that the existing unit
outline allows for greater opportunity to provide feedback in order for students to
gather a greater understanding with how well they are doing within the unit and
provide recommendations for areas that need improvement. Gan and Hattie (2014)
state that feedback is a great opportunity for teachers to improve literacy standards
within all teaching areas. In addition, it is crucial to integrate the inclusion of
numeracy skills within the unit of work. The NSW Department of Education (2017)
states that numeracy should be integrated in to each teaching area so that students are
able to make the connection between using mathematic skills purposefully in
everyday living. The use of numeracy is evident within the adjusted unit of work,
where students are required to analyse the angles of biomechanical movements or
skills and recommend adjustments in order to improve performance. Students also
required to use numeracy skills when tallying up numbers and measuring heart rates
during specific practical activities.

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

Lastly, upon further examination of the existing unit outline, it is recommended that
further differentiated strategies are implemented in order to accommodate for students
with a range of differing abilities. This may include modified tasks to assist gifted and
talented students, students with special needs and students with English as a second
language. As an educator, differentiated teaching is an essential teaching practice as it
provides different learning pathways, so that students with differing abilities can
achieve the same learning opportunities as their peers (Gould and Vaughn, 2000).
Further, Smyth (2018) state that proficient teachers understand their students and
adjust pedagogical practices to match student-learning styles. For this reason, the
adjusted unit outline provides many recommendations throughout the unit in order to
accommodate for the wide range of differing abilities within the classroom. This is
evident within the adjusted unit, where several extension activities have been
designed to accommodate students, typically gifted and talented students, who have
finished the set work early. In addition, it is highly suggested that students who
clearly understand the content may be used as peer-teachers, assisting peers who are
yet to understand the concepts of the lesson. Smith (2014) state that peer teaching
benefits the both the teaching peer and the peer learning. For the teaching peer,
retention of information is significantly higher when educating others, as well as the
increase of confidence, as teachers view them to be experts in knowledge (Smith,
2014). In relation to students with special needs and English as a second language, it
is recommended that there are increased opportunities for students to receive and
express their knowledge with greater choice (Smyth, 2018). For this reason, it is
recommended that the unit outline provide greater opportunity for students to express
their knowledge using different methods such as videos, posters, written work, multi-
media presentations and verbal discussions. This is to accommodate for the differing
abilities within the classroom, where students may feel like they excel or are more
comfortable using a particular method to show evidence of acquired information.

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Assessment 1: Professional Task

Reconstructed
Program

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Concept Map

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Scope and Sequence

Course Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4


Preliminary Topic: Topic: Topic: Students start the HSC
 Better Health for  Fitness Choices  The Body in Motion course in this term.
Individuals (30%) (20%) (30%)

Syllabus outcomes: Syllabus outcomes: Syllabus outcomes:


P7
P1 P5 P8
P2 P6 P9
P3 P10 P10
P4 P15 P11
P5 P16 P16
P6 P17 P17
P15
P16 Duration in weeks and
hours: Duration in weeks and
Duration in weeks and hours: 2 weeks
hours: 8 Weeks 4 Weeks
Topic:
Topic: Topic:  First Aid (20%)
 Fitness Choices The Body in Motion
(20%) Syllabus Outcomes:
Syllabus Outcomes: P6
Duration in weeks and P12
hours: 2 Weeks Duration in weeks and P15
hours: 6 weeks P16Duration in weeks
and hours: 6 weeks

U
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Unit Outline

Emmaus Catholic College 2018


Stage 6 Personal Development, Health & Physical Education Program

Unit Title: Core 2 – The Body In Motion Duration: 30 Hours Teacher:


Rationale or Focus
This compulsory module examines the scientific foundations of human movement. In this module, students explore how the body moves and why it moves in particular ways.
Students focus on the relationships between anatomy, physiology, fitness, biomechanics and efficient human movement.
This module forms a basis for a more detailed study of physiology and improving performance in the HSC course.
Practices
Discussion, Video analysis, Prac Tests, Brainstorm Investigate, Research, Dissection
Rote learning, Mini-Labs Group Work, Partner Work
Essential Content/ Contexts
 How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
 What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?
 How do biomechanical principles influence movement?
Main Outcomes
P7 explains how body systems influence the way the body moves
P8 describes the components of physical fitness and explains how they are monitored
P9 describes biomechanical factors that influence the efficiency of the body in motion
P10 plans for participation in physical activity to satisfy a range of individual needs
P11 assesses and monitors physical fitness levels and physical activity patterns
P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity concepts
P17 analyses factors influencing movement and patterns of participation.
Assessment – Assignment designing the perfect specimen for a sport of your choice using the subject specific terminology as the framework.
Assignment & Yearly examination – Specific questions based on this core.
Catholic Christian Values
Awe and wonder; Community; Sacredness of life; Stewardship of creation
Cross Curriculum Content
ICT  Work & Employment N/A Aboriginal & Indigenous N/A Civics & Citizenship  Difference & Diversity  Environment  Gender  Literacy  Multicultural
Key Competencies
Collecting & Analysing  Communicating Ideas  Planning  Working with Others  Working mathematically  Solving problems  Working with ICT 

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 Skeletal system  identify the location and type of Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 major bones involved in movement major bones involved in movement 1. Using the skeleton, Rote Learn the names of the bones listed. Do a series of competitions to see who can identify bones the quickest.
- structure and function of synovial joints eg. long bones articulate at hinge clavicle, sternum, humerus, scapula, cranium, cervical thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, ribs, ulna, radius, sacrum, pelvis, coccyx, femur,
- joint actions, eg extension and flexion joints for flexion and extension. tibia, fibula, tarsals, carpals, metatarsals, metacarpals, phalanges (AAL) CHIPS
2.Opportunities for PEER to PEER Teaching
Any students who don’t get it are to be teamed up with a student who does get it. This person is to teach the other how to do it and then,
once ready, is to tell another leader to do the test. Once given the clearance, the student can move onto the next content.

3. Opportunities for ICT


Using diagrams and clips from youtube, discuss the structure and function of synovial joints and joint actions, eg extension and flexion.
(AFL) CHIPS
In this lesson students will be taught a sense of Awe and wonder about the bones of the body and how they work together to give the body
shape and structure. By learning the names, they become examiners and they can support their classmates which promotes Community.
We will promote the value of the Sacredness of life as the wonder of each indivdual body will be impressed upon them. Finally, they will be
taught about their responsibility in terms of their Stewardship of creation as they are encouraged to understand their gift of and responsibility
towards life. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities; Working with
others & in teams; Solving problems; S’s are encouraged to develop a sense of Civics & Citizenship as they learn about the human body.

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 muscular system  identify the location of the major Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 major muscles involved in movement muscles involved in movement and 1. Using the teacher as a model, Rote Learn the names of the muscles listed.
 muscle relationship (agonist, related joint actions. deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, pectorals, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps,
antagonist). gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, rectus abdominus, external oblique, sacrospinalis (AAL) CHIPS
 types of muscle contraction  perform and analyse movements eg 2. Do a series of competitions to see who can name muscles the quickest. (AOL) CHIPS
(concentric, eccentric, isometric) overarm throw by examining: 3. Opportunities for PEER to PEER Teaching
-bones involved in the joint action
Any students who don’t get it are to be teamed up with a student who does get it. This person is to teach the other how to do it and then,
- muscles involved and the type of
once ready, is to tell another leader to do the test. Once given the clearance, the student can move onto the next content.
contraction
4. Opportunities for ICT
Using diagrams and clips from youtube, Discuss the necessity of muscle stabilisers.
Using diagrams and clips from youtube, Discuss the agonist v antagonist structure of the musculature of the human body.
6. Using the worksheet, select 3 movements. Identify the major muscles, bones, joint contraction types (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and
types of movements used. (AFL) CHIPS
Extension Activity
Use the teacher as a model, Describe the agonist and antagonist of one part of the human body
Flexion, extension, hyperextension; Dorsi flexion, plantar flexion; Inversion, eversion; Supination, pronation; abduction, adduction;
Elevation, depression; rotation, circumduction; Anterior, posterior; superior; inferior; Medial, lateral; proximal, distal, Concentric, Eccentric
and Isometric (AAL) CHIPS
8. Opportunities for PEER to PEER Teaching

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Students are to do a test for the teacher to demonstrate the bones, muscles, fundamental movements and planes of the body. Those
students who know them all will be required to be teachers for those students who do not know them all.
In this lesson students will be taught a sense of Awe and wonder about the muscles of the body and how they work together to give the
body shape and structure. By learning the names, they become examiners and they can support their classmates which promotes
Community. We will promote the value of the Sacredness of life as the wonder of each indivdual body will be impressed upon them. Finally,
they will be taught about their responsibility in terms of their Stewardship of creation as they are encouraged to understand their gift of and
responsibility towards life. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities;
Working with others & in teams; Solving problems; S’s are encouraged to develop a sense of Civics & Citizenship as they learn about the
human body.

8 Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..


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 respiratory system  analyse the various aspects of lung Opportunities for ICT
 structure and function function through participation in a 1. Using the workbook and resources using ICT , students are to identify information about
 lung function (inspiration, expiration) range of physical activities.
circulation, respiration & lung function. structure & function, inspiration, expiration, exchange of gases, components of blood, heart
 exchange of gases (internal, external)  analyse the movement of blood structure & function, arteries, veins, capillaries, pulmonary and systemic circulation. (AFL) CHIPS
through the body and the influence
2. Opportunities for NUMERACY
 circulatory system of the circulatory and respiratory
- components of blood systems on movement efficiency and As a result of the information, students are to measure their resting & exercise heart rates, blood pressure.
- structure and function of the heart, performance. 3. As a result of the information covered, students are to analyse what their lungs are doing during a variety of physical activities. Analysis
arteries, veins, capillaries scaffold; (AAL) CHIPS CHIPS
- pulmonary and systemic circulation Complete CHIPS LITERACY ACTIVITY for Core 2
- blood pressure In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the marvel of our heart and lung structure.
These organs are amazing! We further encourage the concept of the Sacredness of life for that very same reason. Collecting, analysing &
organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities; Working with others & in teams; Using technology;
Solving problems; We address Difference & Diversity as we look at the different structures of individuals in these organs. Particularly as we
address congenital defects or disease.

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 health-related components of  analyse the relationship between Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
physical fitness physical fitness and movement Opportunities for ICT, LITERACY and DIFFERENTIATION
 cardiorespiratory endurance efficiency. Students should consider
the question ‘to what degree is
 muscular strength Present using Multi-Media devices or any presentation of your choosing, How can some be considered health related and some skill
fitness a predictor of performance?’ related? Critically analyse the distinction made by the syllabus. Critically analyse scaffold.The distinction made by the syllabus. Critically
 muscular endurance
 flexibility analyse scaffold.
 body composition 2. Students are to complete the fitness tests. (Demonstrate) This can be done by a volunteer or by several or by all members of the class.
 measure and analyse a range of
NUMERACY – tallying.
 skill-related components of physical both health-related and skill-related
fitness components of physical fitness 3. Students answer questions about the purpose and benefits of testing physical fitness. This is done first as a class CHIPS ACTIVITY then
 power students write a detailed answer.
 speed INQURY BASED LEARNING – COOPERATIVE AND COLLABRATIVE LEARNING-ICT-DIFFERENTIATION
 agility  think critically about the purpose and 4. Students are to work in small and cooperative and collaborative learning groups (3-4) to develop a Multi media presentation on a specific
 coordination benefits of testing physical fitness sport and the components of fitness that are required Use ICT . Encourage students to present using ‘imovie’, keynote or PowerPoint.
 balance

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 reaction time
In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the simplicity of fitness. We further encourage
the concept of the Sacredness of life as we encourage the s’s to consider active lives. Collecting, analysing & organising info;
Communicating ideas & information; We address Difference & Diversity as we look at the different levels of fitness and the effect of those
different levels.
 aerobic and anaerobic training  design an aerobic training session Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 FITT principle based on the FITT principle 1. Class is to brainstorm a definition for physical activity.
2. S’s are to propose what level of activity they would require to improve their fitness.
 compare the relative importance of 3. Test a few students to investigate how hard they actually work to run up the stairs or around the school
aerobic and anaerobic training for
different sports, eg. gymnastics classroom block
versus soccer
Opportunities for ICT
4. Using ICT students are to research information about aerobic training and the FITT principle. Get s’s to propose the level
of FITT they think is necessary. Discuss the science & have them explain or complete a dictagloss activity.
5. Students design an aerobic training session for themselves based on the FITT principle. (AFL) CHIPS
6. In pairs, explain a case study to show how physically active people could be unhealthy and vice versa. (Don’t need a lot of time)
7. Students read the information about anaerobic training and then the scenarios in their workbook. Students need to differentiate between
the scenario being an example of aerobic training or anaerobic training for different sports. (AOL) CHIPS
Extension Activity
Students are to analyse the changing demands on the body from playing different positions in a sport of their choosing.
In this lesson, we will continue to promote the Sacredness of life as we encourage the s’s to be aware of the gift of life and how we can use
that gift with a better understanding of holistic health. We therefore will learn about Self Respect as we learn how to respect our own body,
particularly if we have not been doing this. The students will be Collecting, analysing & organising info, Communicating ideas & information
and Working with others & in teams as they have to work together to complete tasks. This encourages a sense of Civics & Citizenship as we
learn how people need to live to develop or maintain physical health. This also allows to develop an understanding of Difference & Diversity.
 immediate physiological responses to  examine the reasons for the changing Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
training patterns of respiration and heart rate Opportunities for ICT
 heart rate during and after submaximal physical 1. Using ICT students define the term and the importance of each.
 ventilation rate activity.
2. During the second period students are to participate in submaximal physical activity and discuss what happens to their heart rate,
 stroke volume
ventilation rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and lactate levels. Compare results. (AFL/AAL)
 cardiac output
In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the marvel of our body. We further encourage
 lactate levels
the concept of the Sacredness of life for that very same reason. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas &
information; Planning & organising activities; Working with others & in teams; Using technology; Solving problems; We address Difference &
Diversity as we look at the different structures of individuals in their results.
9 Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
In these last four lessons as we investigate biomechanical principles, we address Awe and wonder as we use the videotape to analyse
Teacher Note: These selected areas of biomechanics should be studies through
practical workshops and need only be dealt with in sufficient detail to understand the link
movement. We promote Community as we recognise the strengths of members of the community and we can give informed advice as to
to fundamental movement, eg. Why do you lean forward to accelerate? how members of our community can improve performance if they wish. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas &
information; Working with others & in teams; Using maths ideas & techniques; Using technology; Solving problems; As we use technology
for the video analysis, the ICT area is listed. We encourage Civics & Citizenship as we recognise skills. We also recognise Difference &

18
Diversity as we have differing gifts in differing areas. Finally we recognise Gender as we are sensitive to the differing needs of male and
 motion
female genders in these practical applications and the presentation of the data. (AOL) CHIPS (AFL) CHIPS (AAL) CHIPS
 the application of linear motion,
velocity, speed, acceleration, ASSESSMENT TASK LESSON
momentum in movement and  apply principles of motion to
performance contexts enhance performance through PRACTICAL LESSON
participation in practical workshops Opportunities for ICT-COOPARTEIVE AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
 balance and stability 1. Students in pairs design a 20 minute training session. Students are to use ‘hurdl’ and ‘coaches eye’ to video the biomechanical
 centre of gravity movements of the sport.
 apply principles of balance and
.
 line of gravity stability to enhance performance
 base of support through participation in practical 2. Students are to ensure they explain and analyse how these principles enhance performance.
workshops
 force Tell the students that they are to use the videos they have gathered in class for their assessment task.
 how the body applies force  apply principles of force to enhance
 how the body absorbs force performance through participation in Lesson 2
 application of force on an object. practical workshops
 1. In class students set up science experiments to explain and analyse fluid mechanics. Using different items that float and sink. Students
then discuss how fluid mechanics have influenced changes in movement and performance. Eg. new designed skins for swimming etc.
 fluid mechanics 2. Learning preparation: Students design a mindmap by selecting the key points from the unit and subject specific terminology. Students
 flotation, centre of buoyancy
also have to identify what they leant for each idea. (AFL) CHIPS
 fluid resistance

 apply principles of fluid mechanics to At the end of this unit please complete a Benchmark Quiz. & CHIPS Activity for Core 2
enhance performance through
participation in practical workshops
 describe how principles of fluid
mechanics have influenced changes
in movement and performance, eg
technique modification,
clothing/suits, equipment/apparatus

19
PDHPE UNIT EVALUATION
Please comment on each of the following:
Please list any additional
EVALUATION ITEM COMMENTS activities/resources you found useful.

Addressing of outcomes

Student achievement of
outcomes 

Addressing of content

Relevancy of learning
strategies

Suitability of learning
strategies for all students

Were the learning RECOMMENDATIONS


strategies varied enough I would recommend the following changes to this
unit:
Suitability of assessment 
strategies 

Adequacy and
accessibility of resources

Were students actively


engaged in learning
START DATE FINISH DATE TEACHER SIGNATURE DATE KLA COORDINATOR SIGNATURE DATE

20
Assessment

Western Sydney High School


PDHPE Stage 6

Outcomes being assessed

P7 explains how body systems influence the way the body moves
P8 describes the components of physical fitness and explains how they are
monitored
P9 describes biomechanical factors that influence the efficiency of the body in
motion
P10 plans for participation in physical activity to satisfy a range of individual needs
P11 assesses and monitors physical fitness levels and physical activity patterns
P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity
concepts
P17 analyses factors influencing movement and patterns of participation.

Task Instructions (Saba, 2017)

Students will form pairs to create a 20-minute training session for a sport of their
choosing. Students will be given time in class to develop content for their training
sessions and video necessary recordings associated with their assessment. Within this
assessment, students are required to list the anatomical features used, the components
of physical fitness that were used and the biomechanical movements that were
exploited. Students are then to upload any media recordings from their training
session onto a voice-thread media presentation representing their findings.

21
Task Description

Glossary Terms (Saba, 2017)

Identify: Recognise and name


Explore: To investigate
Explain: Relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident;
provide why and/or how
Outline: Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of
Analyse: Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate
implications

http://educationstandards.nsw.edu.au/wps/portal/nesa/11-12/hsc/exam-advice-
resources/glossary-keywords

22
Marking Criteria

(Saba, 2017)

23
Reference
List

24
Bage, G., Grosvenor, J. and Williams, M. (1999). Curriculum planning: prediction or response?
A case‐study of teacher planning conducted through partnership action research. Curriculum
Journal, 10(1), pp.49-69.

Gan, M. and Hattie, J. (2014). Prompting secondary students’ use of criteria, feedback
specificity and feedback levels during an investigative task. Instructional Science, 42(6),
pp.861-878.

Gould, A., & Vaughn, S. (2000). Planning for the inclusive classroom: meeting the needs of
diverse classrooms. Catholic Education, 3 (3), pp 363-374.

Kaur, S. (2017). ICT INTEGRATED EDUCATION: SHIFTING ROLE OF


TEACHERS. Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science & English Language, 4(23).

Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. Oxford Review
Of Education, 38(1), 9-24

Olsen, J., Aleven, V. and Rummel, N. (2017). Statistically Modeling Individual Students’
Learning Over Successive Collaborative Practice Opportunities. Journal of Educational
Measurement, 54(1), pp.123-138.

Roth, D. (2007). Understanding by Design: A Framework for Effecting Curricular


Development and Assessment. Cell Biology Education, 6(2), 95-97

Smith-Stoner, M., & Molle, M. (2010). Collaborative Action Research: Implementation of


Cooperative Learning. Journal Of Nursing Education, 49(6), 312-318.

Smith, S. (2014). Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer


Review. To Improve the Academy, 33(1), pp.94-112.

Smyth, E. (2018). Working at a different level? Curriculum differentiation in Irish lower


secondary education. Oxford Review of Education, 44(1), pp.37-55.

The NSW Department of Education (2017). Literacy and Numeracy Strategy 2017–2020. pp.3-
13.
Towers, J. and Panayotidis, E. (2014). Leading Inquiry-based Learning. Journal of Teaching
and Learning, 8(2).

25
Original
Documentations

26
Appendices 1: Scope and Sequence
Preliminary Course (120 hrs)

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10

Term 1 Core 2: The body in motion (30% course time)

Term 2 Core 1: Better health for individuals (30% course time)

Term 3 Option A: (20% course time) Option B (20% course time)

Term 4 Option B (20% course time)

27
Appendices 2: Unit Outline
Emmaus Catholic College 2018
Stage 6 Personal Development, Health & Physical Education Program

Unit Title: Core 2 – The Body In Motion Duration: 30 Hours Teacher:


Rationale or Focus
This compulsory module examines the scientific foundations of human movement. In this module, students explore how the body moves and why it moves in particular ways.
Students focus on the relationships between anatomy, physiology, fitness, biomechanics and efficient human movement.
This module forms a basis for a more detailed study of physiology and improving performance in the HSC course.
Practices
Discussion, Video analysis, Prac Tests, Brainstorm Investigate, Research, Dissection
Rote learning, Mini-Labs Group Work, Partner Work
Essential Content/ Contexts
 How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
 What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?
 How do biomechanical principles influence movement?
Main Outcomes
P7 explains how body systems influence the way the body moves
P8 describes the components of physical fitness and explains how they are monitored
P9 describes biomechanical factors that influence the efficiency of the body in motion
P10 plans for participation in physical activity to satisfy a range of individual needs
P11 assesses and monitors physical fitness levels and physical activity patterns
P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity concepts
P17 analyses factors influencing movement and patterns of participation.
Assessment – Assignment designing the perfect specimen for a sport of your choice using the subject specific terminology as the framework.
Assignment & Yearly examination – Specific questions based on this core.
Catholic Christian Values
Awe and wonder; Community; Sacredness of life; Stewardship of creation
Cross Curriculum Content
ICT  Work & Employment N/A Aboriginal & Indigenous N/A Civics & Citizenship  Difference & Diversity  Environment  Gender  Literacy  Multicultural
Key Competencies
Collecting & Analysing  Communicating Ideas  Planning  Working with Others  Working mathematically  Solving problems  Working with ICT 

28
7
 Skeletal system  identify the location and type of Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 major bones involved in movement major bones involved in movement 1. Using the skeleton, Rote Learn the names of the bones listed. Do a series of competitions to see who can identify bones the quickest.
- structure and function of synovial joints eg. long bones articulate at hinge clavicle, sternum, humerus, scapula, cranium, cervical thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, ribs, ulna, radius, sacrum, pelvis, coccyx, femur,
- joint actions, eg extension and flexion joints for flexion and extension. tibia, fibula, tarsals, carpals, metatarsals, metacarpals, phalanges (AAL) CHIPS
2.Discuss the structure and function of synovial joints and joint actions, eg extension and flexion. (AFL) CHIPS
In this lesson students will be taught a sense of Awe and wonder about the bones of the body and how they work together to give the body
shape and structure. By learning the names, they become examiners and they can support their classmates which promotes Community.
We will promote the value of the Sacredness of life as the wonder of each indivdual body will be impressed upon them. Finally, they will be
taught about their responsibility in terms of their Stewardship of creation as they are encouraged to understand their gift of and responsibility
towards life. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities; Working with
others & in teams; Solving problems; S’s are encouraged to develop a sense of Civics & Citizenship as they learn about the human body.

7
 muscular system  identify the location of the major Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 major muscles involved in movement muscles involved in movement and 1. Using the teacher as a model, Rote Learn the names of the muscles listed.
 muscle relationship (agonist, related joint actions. deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, pectorals, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps,
antagonist). gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, rectus abdominus, external oblique, sacrospinalis (AAL) CHIPS
 types of muscle contraction  perform and analyse movements eg 2. Do a series of competitions to see who can name muscles the quickest. (AOL) CHIPS
(concentric, eccentric, isometric) overarm throw by examining: 3. Discuss the necessity of muscle stabilisers.
-bones involved in the joint action 4. Discuss the agonist v antagonist structure of the musculature of the human body.
- muscles involved and the type of
contraction 5. Using the worksheet, select 3 movements. Identify the major muscles, bones, joint contraction types (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and
types of movements used. (AFL) CHIPS
Flexion, extension, hyperextension; Dorsi flexion, plantar flexion; Inversion, eversion; Supination, pronation; abduction, adduction;
Elevation, depression; rotation, circumduction; Anterior, posterior; superior; inferior; Medial, lateral; proximal, distal, Concentric, Eccentric
and Isometric (AAL) CHIPS
In this lesson students will be taught a sense of Awe and wonder about the muscles of the body and how they work together to give the
body shape and structure. By learning the names, they become examiners and they can support their classmates which promotes
Community. We will promote the value of the Sacredness of life as the wonder of each indivdual body will be impressed upon them. Finally,
they will be taught about their responsibility in terms of their Stewardship of creation as they are encouraged to understand their gift of and
responsibility towards life. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities;
Working with others & in teams; Solving problems; S’s are encouraged to develop a sense of Civics & Citizenship as they learn about the
human body.

8 Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..


16
10
 respiratory system  analyse the various aspects of lung 1.Students are to identify information about
 structure and function function through participation in a circulation, respiration & lung function. structure & function, inspiration, expiration, exchange of gases, components of blood, heart
 lung function (inspiration, expiration) range of physical activities. structure & function, arteries, veins, capillaries, pulmonary and systemic circulation. (AFL) CHIPS
 exchange of gases (internal, external)  analyse the movement of blood 2. As a result of the information, students are to measure their resting & exercise heart rates, blood pressure.
through the body and the influence 3. As a result of the information covered, students are to analyse what their lungs are doing during a variety of physical activities. Analysis
 circulatory system of the circulatory and respiratory

29
- components of blood systems on movement efficiency and scaffold; (AAL) CHIPS CHIPS
- structure and function of the heart, performance. Complete CHIPS LITERACY ACTIVITY for Core 2
arteries, veins, capillaries In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the marvel of our heart and lung structure.
- pulmonary and systemic circulation These organs are amazing! We further encourage the concept of the Sacredness of life for that very same reason. Collecting, analysing &
- blood pressure organising info; Communicating ideas & information; Planning & organising activities; Working with others & in teams; Using technology;
Solving problems; We address Difference & Diversity as we look at the different structures of individuals in these organs. Particularly as we
address congenital defects or disease.

17
 health-related components of  analyse the relationship between Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
physical fitness physical fitness and movement 1. Students are to discuss the differences between these two areas. How can some be considered health related and some skill related?
efficiency. Students should consider Critically analyse the distinction made by the syllabus. Critically analyse scaffold.
 cardiorespiratory endurance
the question ‘to what degree is 2. Students are to complete the fitness tests. (Demonstrate) This can be done by a volunteer or by several or by all members of the class.
 muscular strength
fitness a predictor of performance?’ 3. Students answer questions about the purpose and benefits of testing physical fitness. This is done first as a class CHIPS ACTIVITY then
 muscular endurance
students write a detailed answer.
 flexibility
 body composition
 measure and analyse a range of
 skill-related components of physical both health-related and skill-related In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the simplicity of fitness. We further encourage
fitness components of physical fitness the concept of the Sacredness of life as we encourage the s’s to consider active lives. Collecting, analysing & organising info;
 power Communicating ideas & information; We address Difference & Diversity as we look at the different levels of fitness and the effect of those
 speed different levels.
 agility  think critically about the purpose and
 coordination benefits of testing physical fitness
 balance
 reaction time
 aerobic and anaerobic training  design an aerobic training session Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
 FITT principle based on the FITT principle 1. Class is to brainstorm a definition for physical activity.
2. S’s are to propose what level of activity they would require to improve their fitness.
 compare the relative importance of 3. Test a few students to investigate how hard they actually work to run up the stairs or around the school
aerobic and anaerobic training for
different sports, eg. gymnastics classroom block
versus soccer 4. Students read the information about aerobic training and the FITT principle.
4. Get s’s to propose the level of FITT they think is necessary. Discuss the science & have them explain or complete a dictagloss activity.
5. Students design an aerobic training session for themselves based on the FITT principle. (AFL) CHIPS
6. In pairs, explain a case study to show how physically active people could be unhealthy and vice versa. (Don’t need a lot of time)
7. Students read the information about anaerobic training and then the scenarios in their workbook. Students need to differentiate between
the scenario being an example of aerobic training or anaerobic training for different sports. (AOL) CHIPS
In this lesson, we will continue to promote the Sacredness of life as we encourage the s’s to be aware of the gift of life and how we can use
that gift with a better understanding of holistic health. We therefore will learn about Self Respect as we learn how to respect our own body,
particularly if we have not been doing this. The students will be Collecting, analysing & organising info, Communicating ideas & information
and Working with others & in teams as they have to work together to complete tasks. This encourages a sense of Civics & Citizenship as we
learn how people need to live to develop or maintain physical health. This also allows to develop an understanding of Difference & Diversity.
 immediate physiological responses to  examine the reasons for the changing Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..

30
training patterns of respiration and heart rate 1. Students are to define the term and the importance of each.
 heart rate during and after submaximal physical 2. During the second period students are to participate in submaximal physical activity and discuss what happens to their heart rate,
 ventilation rate activity. ventilation rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and lactate levels. Compare results. (AFL/AAL)
 stroke volume In this lesson, s’s will be encouraged to further understand the sense of Awe and wonder at the marvel of our body. We further encourage
 cardiac output the concept of the Sacredness of life for that very same reason. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas &
 lactate levels information; Planning & organising activities; Working with others & in teams; Using technology; Solving problems; We address Difference &
Diversity as we look at the different structures of individuals in their results.
9 Written on the board- By the end of the lesson…………..
In these last four lessons as we investigate biomechanical principles, we address Awe and wonder as we use the videotape to analyse
Teacher Note: These selected areas of biomechanics should be studies through
practical workshops and need only be dealt with in sufficient detail to understand the link
movement. We promote Community as we recognise the strengths of members of the community and we can give informed advice as to
to fundamental movement, eg. Why do you lean forward to accelerate? how members of our community can improve performance if they wish. Collecting, analysing & organising info; Communicating ideas &
information; Working with others & in teams; Using maths ideas & techniques; Using technology; Solving problems; As we use technology
for the video analysis, the ICT area is listed. We encourage Civics & Citizenship as we recognise skills. We also recognise Difference &
 motion Diversity as we have differing gifts in differing areas. Finally we recognise Gender as we are sensitive to the differing needs of male and
 the application of linear motion, female genders in these practical applications and the presentation of the data. (AOL) CHIPS (AFL) CHIPS (AAL) CHIPS
velocity, speed, acceleration, Lesson 2
momentum in movement and 1. In class students set up science experiments to explain and analyse fluid mechanics. Using different items that float and sink. Students
performance contexts  apply principles of motion to then discuss how fluid mechanics have influenced changes in movement and performance. Eg. new designed skins for swimming etc.
enhance performance through 2. Learning preparation: Students design a mindmap by selecting the key points from the unit and subject specific terminology. Students
participation in practical workshops also have to identify what they leant for each idea. (AFL) CHIPS
 balance and stability
 centre of gravity At the end of this unit please complete a Benchmark Quiz. & CHIPS Activity for Core 2
 line of gravity  apply principles of balance and
 base of support stability to enhance performance
through participation in practical
workshops
 force
 how the body applies force
 how the body absorbs force  apply principles of force to enhance
performance through participation in
 application of force on an object.
practical workshops

 fluid mechanics
 flotation, centre of buoyancy
 fluid resistance

 apply principles of fluid mechanics to
enhance performance through
participation in practical workshops
 describe how principles of fluid
mechanics have influenced changes
in movement and performance, eg
technique modification,

31
clothing/suits, equipment/apparatus

32
PDHPE UNIT EVALUATION
Please comment on each of the following:
Please list any additional
EVALUATION ITEM COMMENTS activities/resources you found useful.

Addressing of outcomes

Student achievement of
outcomes 

Addressing of content

Relevancy of learning
strategies

Suitability of learning
strategies for all students

Were the learning RECOMMENDATIONS


strategies varied enough I would recommend the following changes to this
unit:
Suitability of assessment 
strategies 

Adequacy and
accessibility of resources

Were students actively


engaged in learning
START DATE FINISH DATE TEACHER SIGNATURE DATE KLA COORDINATOR SIGNATURE DATE

33
34