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# NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

## University of Babylon / College of Engineering / Mechanical Engineering Dept.

Lecturer: Dr. Rafel Hekmat Class: 3rd B.Sc

## SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

Gaussian Elimination M ethod
We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian
elimination method. With this method, the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time.
This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number
such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of
the unknowns will be eliminated. Then, by substitution to another equation with two unknowns,
we can find the second unknown. Subsequently, substitution of the two values found can be
made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third
unknown. This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found.

Elementary Row Operations (EROs) represent the legal moves that allow us to write a sequence
of row-equivalent matrices (corresponding to equivalent systems) until we obtain one whose
corresponding solution set is easy to find. There are three types of EROs:

## -We can switch any two rows.

- We can multiply (or divide) “through” a row by any nonzero constant.
- We can add a multiple of one row to another row. Show example below:

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STEPS OF GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION (WITH BACK-SUBSTITUTION)
1) Write the augmented matrix.
2) Use EROs to write a sequence of row-equivalent matrices until you get one in the form:

We want “1”s along the main diagonal and “0”s all below. The other entries are “wild cards”
that can potentially be any real numbers.
3) Write the new system, complete with variables.
4) Use back-substitution to find the values of the unknowns.

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If we use the “- 2 ” to kill off the “8,” we can avoid fractions for the time being. Let’s first
switch R2 and R3 ,so that we don’t get confused when we do this. (We’re used to eliminating
down a column.)

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solve the following systems of equations by using Gauss elimination method with
back substitution

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z = 1, y = 2, x = -1

## We expressed a system in the matrix form AX B

Let’s say we want to solve ax b , where a 0 and a and b are real constants.

So x = a -1 b

## Solving the Matrix Equation AX B

The steps should look familiar:

Example
Given the system of equations
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Compute the unknowns x1, x2, and x3 using the inverse matrix method.

Det A=18

A- =

EXAMPLE
For the electric circuit shown in figure below, the loop equations are

Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I1, I2, and I3
For this example, the matrix equation is RI=V or I=R-1 V

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Det R=975

R-1=