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PROPOSAL ON SHOPPING MALL CONSTRUCTION ON PHASE 4, MUKIM

JALAN BAKRI, MUAR, JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM.

NEO CORP SDN. BHD.

3 JUNE 2018
CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 COMPANY ORGANIZATION0 1
1.2 SCHEDULE 3
1.2.1 GANTT CHART 3
1.2.2 S-CURVE 4
1.3 MEETING MINUTE 6
1.4 SITE LOCATION 15
1.4.1 KEY PLAN 15
1.4.2 STATUS OF LAND 16
1.4.3 LOT NUMBER 16
1.4.4 FORMS AND PROCESS TO CHANGE LAND STATUS 16
1.5 SITE INVESTIGATION 17
1.6 ACTUAL PROJECT 21
1.6.1 LOCATION PLAN 21
1.6.2 LAYOUT PLAN
1.6.3 SUMMARY OF PROJECT 22
1.6.4 CONTOUR PLAN 22
1.7 SOIL INVESTIGATION 23
1.7.1 BORELOG 23
1.7.2 PROCEDURE OF WORK 24
1.8 MARKET STUDY 27

2.0 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN 33


2.1 SKETCHUP 33
2.2 CUT AND FILL 35
2.3 PURPOSE LEVEL 35
2.4 IDEA OF NEW TECHNOLOGY 36

3.0 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 37


4.0 INFRASTRUCTURE 38
4.1 ROAD TRAFFIC 39
4.2 DRAINAGE S YSTEM 42
4.2.1 MANUAL ALAM SEKITAR MESRA ALAM (MASMA) 42
4.2.2 ON SITE DETENTION 44
4.2.2.1 Above-ground storages 44
4.2.2.2 Below-ground storages 44
4.2.2.3 Combined storages 44
4.2.3 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION 45
4.2.3.1 Site-based Methods 46
4.2.3.2 Catchment-based Methods 46
4.2.4 FLOW CONTROL REQUIREMENT 46
4.2.4.1 Design storm 47
4.2.4.2 Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) 47
4.2.4.3 Site Storage Requirement (SSR) 47
4.2.4.4 Site Coverage 47
4.2.5 GENERAL CONSIDERATION 48
4.2.5.1 Drainage system 48
4.2.5.2 Multiple Storage 48
4.2.5.3 Site grading 49
4.2.5.4 Construction tolerances 49
4.2.5.5 Signs 49
4.2.6 ABOVE-GROUND STORAGE 50
4.2.6.1 Surface Tank 50
4.2.7 BELOW GROUND STORAGE 51
4.2.7.1 Underground Tanks 51
4.2.7.2 Pipe Packages 52
4.2.8 MASMA DRAINAGE CONCEPT 53
4.2.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE 54
4.2.10 CALCULATION FOR DRAINAGE 55
4.3 WATER SUPPLY AND RETICULATION SYSTEM 60
4.3.1 SKETCH OF WATER RETICULATION SYSTEM 61
4.3.2 CALCULATION FOR WATER RETICULATION SYSTEM 62
4.4 OTHERS FACILITIES 65
5.0 PLANNING PERMISSION 67

6.0 PROCUREMENT 68
6.1 TABLE OF CONTENT FOR DOCUMENT TENDER 68
6.2 CONTRACT – TALK WITH DATO’ ZUL 69
6.3 TYPES OF TENDER 71
6.3.1 TENDERING PROCESS 72

7.0 CONSTRUCTION 75
7.1 PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION 75
7.1.1 EXCAVATION 75
7.1.2 CUT AND FILL 76
7.1.3 COMPACTION 76
7.1.4 PILLING 76
7.1.5 CONSTRUCTION OF GROUND FLOOR AND FIRST FLOOR 76
7.1.6 FLAT ROOF CONSTRUCTION 77
7.1.7 INFRASTRUCTURE 77
7.2 TECHNOLOGY USED IN CONSTRUCTION 78
7.2.1 DRONE 78
7.2.2 BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) 80
7.3 INSPECTION FORM DURING CONSTRUCTION 84
7.4 PLANT AND MACHINERIES 85
7.4.1 EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT 86
7.4.1.1 BACKHOE 86
7.4.1.2 EXCAVATOR 87
7.4.2 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT 88
7.4.2.1 PNEUMATIC COMPACTORS 89
7.4.3 HAULING EQUIPMENT 90
7.4.3.1 DUMP TRUCKS 90
7.4.3.2 CONCRETE TRUCK 92
7.4.4 HOISTING EQUIPMENT 93
7.4.4.1 TRUCK MOUNTED CRANE 93
7.4.4.2 HAMMERHEAD TOWER CRANE 94
7.4.5 PILE EQUIPMENT 95
7.4.5.1 PILE MACHINE 96
7.5 SITE WORK 98
7.5.1 SITE VISIT 98
7.5.2 ACTIVITIES ON SITE 104
7.5.2.1 PLASTERING WORK 104
7.5.2.2 WELDING 107
7.5.2.3 MACHINE TESTING 109
7.6 PROCESSES AND FORMS IN APPROVAL STAGE 110

APPENDICIES

APPENIDIX A 111

APPENDIX B 112

APPENDIX C 113

APPENDIX D 114

APPENDIX E 115

APPENDIX F 116

APPENDIX G 117

APPENDIX H 118

APPENDIX I 119
INTRODUCTION
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 COMPANY ORGANIZATION

MOTTO PLAN, BUILD, ACHIEVE

VISION THRIVE THE WORLD INTO A BETTER LIFE

TO BUILD AND INNOVATE TECHNOLOGY FOR BETTER


MISSION
FUTURE
PRESIDENT ENGINEER

WAN MUHAMAD FAIZ


FARIZAL BIN WAN
YAHYA

HEAD OF PROJECT

ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN


BIN IBRAHIM

ENGINEER ENGINEER

ADRIANA FARNIZA MUHAMMAD NAZMI


BT POZI@FAUZI AIMAN BIN
ZULKAPLY

DRAFTER

NOOR FATEEN
NABIELLA MAULAD
AZEMI
1.2 SCHEDULE

1.2.1 GANTT CHART


1.2.2 S-CURVE

Week Planning (%) Actual (%)


25/2/2018 3 3
1/3/2018 9 12
6/3/2018 15 12
11/3/2018 20 16
16/3/2018 25 20
21/3/2018 28 25
26/3/2018 34 29
1/4/2018 39 39
6/4/2018 42 40
11/4/2018 48 42
16/4/2018 52 46
21/4/2018 59 51
26/4/2018 62 58
1/5/2018 68 65
6/5/2018 75 72
11/5/2018 80 80
16/5/2018 95 94
20/5/2018 100 100
1.3 MEETING MINUTE
MEETING MINUTE 1

DATE : 19 FEBRUARY 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA
ABSENT : ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI

ACTIVITES:

1. Briefing on project. We need to do a soil investigation on our selected site, we are


encouraged to find a near site to ease us in conducting related studies and experiment.

2. Forming a group consist of five members.

3. One person was assigned as a group leader and we all agreed to assign Wan Mohd Faiz
Farizal Bin Wan Yahya as our leader.

4. Choose a site to implement the project. Our site is located at Industrial Park developed
by Sime Darby Properties.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 2

DATE : 26 FEBRUARY 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITES:

1. A rough scheduling was done to help us in managing our project. (refer to 1.2:
Schedule)

2. We choose to change our site location due to some reason. Our new site is located at
Bukit Gambir, Johor.

3. Our project title on the selected site is Cadangan Membina dan Menyiapkan Sebuah
Masjid Dua Tingkat dan Menukar Masjid Lama kepada Dewan.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 3

DATE : 5 MARCH 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITES:

1. We decided to go for site visit. The details are as below:


a. Venue : Bukit Gambir, Johor
b. Time : 11.00AM
c. Date : 8 March 2018
d. Participation : All members

2. We discussed on our desk study and after tomorrow’s visit, we are needed to improve
our report with useful information such as site picture, soil condition, features available
on the site, etc.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 4

DATE : 8 MARCH 2018


TIME : 9:00 P.M.
MEETING HELD : COLLEGE CAFETERIA, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA
ACTIVITIES:
1. Based on this morning visit, we can conclude that:
a. Our site is more to architecture design and we cannot have the site investigation
report (bore log).
b. Site technician, En Izzat Bin Mustaffa recommended us to visit his company’s
site at Jalan Bakri, Muar.
c. The new propose site is as below:
i. Project title : Cadangan Membina dan Menyiapkan Kerja-kerja
Tanah, Jalan, dan Perparitan untuk Pembangunan
‘Muar Timber Industrial Park’.
ii. Address : Lot PTD 13399, PTD 13400, dan PTD 8531,
Mukim Jalan Bakri,
Daerah Muar,
Johor Darul Ta’zim.
iii. Date : 15 March 2018

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 5

DATE : 15 MARCH 2018


TIME : 9:00 P.M.
MEETING HELD : COLLEGE CAFETERIA, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITIES:

1. This morning, we went to our site in Jalan Bakri, Muar.


2. We managed to do our site work ahead from schedule. The site work done is 3 of us
were given opportunities to test-drive the new machine on that site. The details were as
below;
a. Model : EC480DL
b. Dimensions
i. Length : 12.1m
ii. Width : 3.62m
iii. Height : 3.67m
c. Weight : 47400kg
d. Manufactured in : Korea
3. The Project Manager, En. Norashikin was willingly to supply some important
information about the project. (refer to Appendix B)

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………
Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya,
Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 6

DATE : 19 MARCH 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITIES:

1. We decided to construct a shopping mall with a sport complex on top of the mall.
2. After the visit on site, we decided to choose Phase 4 out of 4 phases at Jalan Bakri,
Muar. Reasons why we choose Phase 4 are due to;
a. Phase 4 is much smaller than other phase. The area for construction in Phase 4
was about 80 acres and it was quite large for the construction of mall.
b. Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 are too huge with the total area of 1,000 acres.
3. We divided the task equally between each members.
4. We designed our proposed mall and proceed to the using of software such as AutoCAD,
STAADPRO and Microsoft Project.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 7

DATE : 16 APRIL 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITIES:

1. We discussed further about our project and design a sketch of shopping complex
building roughly before start any software.
2. Some of members do another works such as collected some data and information about
the project we proposed.
3. We planned and design an infrastructure for our project to includes into infrastructure
report.
4. We also discussed some part for plant and machinery report.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 8

DATE : 30 APRIL 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITIES:

1. ESTEEM and ACAD were done. We finalize all the software before key in into the
report.
2. There are some videos of our site work during site visit. One of our team members take
part to edit the video nicely to submit into the report.
3. We finalize our part for plant and machinery report and infrastructure report before the
last week.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
MEETING MINUTE 9

DATE : 14 MEI 2018


TIME : 9:00 A.M.
MEETING HELD : BILIK KULIAH, UTHM.
PRESENT MEMBERS : ABDUL HADI IZ’AAN BIN IBRAHIM
ADRIANA FARNIZA BINTI POZI@FAUZI
MUHAMMAD NAZMI AIMAN BIN ZULKAPLY
NOOR FATEEN NABIELLA MAULAD AZEMI
WAN MOHAMAD FAIZ FARIZAL BIN WAN YAHYA

ACTIVITIES:

1. This will be our last meeting before presentation and we do finalize our project
2. Each members of group submit their part and we combine to make a report.
3. We also touch up a little from all the reports to make it perfect before submit to the
lecturer.

Prepared by; Confirmed by;

………………………… …………………………

Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi, Wan Mohamad Faiz Farizal Wan Yahya

Secretary. Leader.
1.4 SITE LOCATION

In site location, key plan of the selected site will be shown, as well as the status of land, lot no of
site, and forms regarding the process of changing land status from agricultural to industrial park.

1.4.1 KEY PLAN

The key plan of the site selected is as shown in Figure 1.1 below.

Figure 1.1: The key plan of the site selected in Bakri, Muar.
1.4.2 STATUS OF LAND

The land on Bakri is agricultural area where initially the area of construction undergoes palm oil
plantation activities. As for the ownership of the land, it is owned by individual and not the
ownership of government.

1.4.3 LOT NUMBER

The site selected is at Lot Asal (PTD 13339, PTD 13400 and PTD 8531), Mukim Jalan Bakri,
Daerah Muar, Johor Darul Takzim.

1.4.4 FORMS AND PROCESS TO CHANGE LAND STATUS

To change the land status from agricultural to industrial use, there are few processes that need to
be accomplish. Below are the processes:
i. Fill Form 12A
ii. The application need to attached:
a. Seven (7) copies of layout plan that have been approved by Planning Authority
b. One (1) copy of Proposal Development Report that follows the regulations by
Department of Urban and Rural Planning.
c. Three (3) copies of Proposal Development Report.
d. One (1) copy of Land Accreditation.
e. One (1) copy of Memorandum and Articles of Association.
f. One (1) latest copy of Board of Director (Form 49)
g. One (1) latest copy of Company Shareholder (Form 24)
iii. Payment depends on area of the land with extra payment is needed to convert from
agricultural land to industrial land with 20% from current land price.
iv. Forms for the process are shown. (Refer to attached paper)
1.5 SITE INVESTIGATION

Site investigation is done to gain enough information about the site surrounding to make a better
planning for future references. From site investigation, we will know about existing structures and
services, so that the propose structure would not be interfering the existing services. If the structure
shall interfere with the existing structure, a formal letter should be given to the services company
and wait for their action either they would like to corporate by move their part line of services and
ease the construction project. For our company investigation, there are several utilities existed
near the site which is communication road, electricity, water and sewerage. (Refer to Appendix A)

a. Communication Road

A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or
otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or vehicle. Based on site desk study, the construction
is located between primary and secondary road which is a good communication road between the
construction and public road for the trucks to arrive and dispatch. The road for the trucks to enter
the construction area will be on secondary road as it will not disturb the flow of primary road.
MALL AREA

Figure 1.1: Existing Communication Road


b. Electricity

An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to
transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors suspended
by towers or poles. Based on site reconnaissance the power line is located near the site location.
One of the reason that it is located near the site is because there is a school located nearby. As for
electricity the utility is provided by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB).

MALL AREA

Figure 1.2: Existing power lines


c. Water

A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic
components which provide water supply. A pipe network for distribution of water to the consumers
which may be private houses or industrial, commercial or institution establishments. Based on site
reconnaissance, the water supply network is located along the primary road near the site location.
This utility is provided by the state government for this case, the water supply network is provided
by Ranhill Syarikat Air Johor (Ranhill SAJ).

MALL AREA

Figure 1.3: Existing water services


1.6 ACTUAL PROJECT

1.6.1 LOCATION PLAN

The location of our project is in Mukim Bakri, Muar, Johor Darul Takzim. The location is as shown
in Figure 1.4 below:

Figure 1.4: Location Plan

1.6.2 LAYOUT PLAN

This project comprises of 4 phases with overall area of construction is about 100 hectares. The
shopping mall construction will take place on phase 4. The layout plan is shown in the next page.
(Refer to attached paper)
1.6.3 SUMMARY OF PROJECT

Our project will take about 24 months to be fully completed. The owner of the project is Johor
Corperation, Civil and Engineers are from MUDA Consult Sdn. Bhd. and the main contractor is
from Pembinaan Jurubina Sdn. Bhd. The details are shown in attached paper.

1.6.4 CONTOUR PLAN

(Refer to Appendix B)
1.7 SOIL INVESTIGATION

Soil investigation, also called geotechnical investigation, represents a method of determining


physical properties of soil at a construction site. This procedure is done with the aim of establishing
whether soil is safe and solid for construction. Not until the soil samples are analysed can a
construction project start. Soil investigation require the application of several different methods
and represents an essential part of the building and site preparation process. The results of this
underground investigation can affect the development of the construction project.

Although many people fail to recognise the importance of soil investigation, this is a vital
and necessary step of the construction process. In fact, the characteristics of soil can vary
significantly depending on location and can affect the stability of the foundation. Other factors,
including weather, soil management and climate changes, can also affect soil properties and, thus,
the building. This step of the construction process bears such a great importance because it can
cause foundation failures due to the insufficient bearing capacity of the soil. This can pose a serious
threat to the safety of the nearby area. If the soil is not appropriate for a certain construction, it
may even collapse, endangering homes and lives of other people.

As already mentioned, the results of soil investigation can affect the entire building project.
Depending on the bearing capacity of soil, its properties, the rate of soil settlement and other
relevant data, engineers need to adjust the depth and type of the foundation, decide on the necessary
construction elements, choose appropriate building techniques and predict possible problems and
solutions. Finally, soil investigation provides you with a certain level of predictability and stability
when it comes to possible construction expenses. By conducting this type of investigation, you’ll
be able to anticipate any possible problems and plan your finances accordingly. Otherwise, you
might start your building project and invest a lot of money only to realise that soil isn’t appropriate
for it.

1.7.1 BORELOG

The data for borelog results are shown in the next page. (Refer to attached paper)
1.7.2 PROCEDURE OF WORK

Borehole logging should ideally be carried out in the field at the time of drilling, in order to take
advantage of interactions with the drillers and to ensure that the soil and rock core samples are
recovered, bagged and boxed in an appropriate manner. The logging area should be well lit and
ventilated and have sufficient bench or work space for the laying out of multiple core trays. If the
logging area is fully enclosed, the facility should be equipped with a dust extraction system.

a) Materials and equipment

This list does not include items of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) or other items required
for field or laboratory work. The following basic items are required by the geologist for logging
such as TMR Geotechnical Terms and Symbols Form (F:GEOT017), TMR Borehole Drilling Data
Sheet (F:GEOT026). TMR Core Logging Data Input Sheet (F:GEOT199) and TMR Detailed
Defect Log Form (F:GEOT533).

b) General project/Location information

Whist the drillers are setting up over the test location, general project/borehole location
information should be recorded on the draft borehole log. This information should be cross-
referenced against, (and consistent with) information recorded on the TMR Borehole Drilling Data
Sheet (F:GEOT026). General project/borehole location information should include project name,
location, job no, etc.

c) General drilling data

The drilling methods, drill bit types, run lengths, sample types and intervals, core-loss and core
recovery and rock quality designation (RQD) percentages should be recorded on the draft borehole
log during the drilling. These items should also be cross‐referenced against the TMR Borehole
Drilling Data Sheet (F:GEOT026) upon completion of the borehole.
d) Detailed weathering grade

Localised variation in weathering grade within a broader weathering zone is shown in the “USCS/
Weathering” column, for intervals of width greater than 100 mm. (Significant intervals of less than
100 mm width may be mentioned in the “Additional Data and Test Results” column. Data entry
for the detailed weathering is facilitated by use of the TMR Core Logging Data Input Sheet
(F:GEOT199).

e) Detailed intact strength histogram

A detailed down-hole histogram representation of intact strength is provided by the “Intact


Strength” column. Data entry for this histogram is also facilitated by use of the TMR Core Logging
Data Input Sheet (F:GEOT199). The more detailed presentation provided by the intact strength
histogram is designed to highlight the degree of strength variation, within the broader layer context

f) Detailed defect spacing histogram

The defect spacing histogram provides a visualisation of discontinuity distribution down the hole,
considering all discontinuities aside from those defects that are drilling induced. This histogram
should be reconcilable against RQD and reflective of the discontinuity sets listed in the “Materials
Description” column.

g) Additional data and test results

The “Additional Data and Test Results” column is populated with insitu and laboratory test results
and any data obtained from the monitoring of installed instruments. Other significant features
within a layer, for example shear zones, broken zones, clay bands and distinctive joints should also
be described in this column.
h) Additional remarks

At the bottom of the borehole log sheet, there is a “Remarks” section, where any footnotes can be
entered. These may include definitions of terms or symbols that are not included on the TMR
Geotechnical Terms and Symbols Form (F:GEOT017). Definitions of abbreviated Map Unit
names can also be entered here.

i) Borehole log finalisation

After completion of the initial draft borehole log, an overview should be carried out to ensure that
any identified geological boundaries make sense in the context of a developing geological model.
This is best achieved by laying out adjacent boreholes for comparison and by drafting geological
sections.

Once all necessary corrections have been made and no laboratory test results are
outstanding, the “FINAL” borehole logs can be approved for release by the reviewer. Only
finalised borehole logs can be included in the finalised Geotechnical Report, which is appropriately
reviewed and approved by departmental Geotechnical Section.
1.8 MARKET STUDY

A questionnaire has been distributed throughout the Bakri town to gain some information needed
for the project to succeed. A group of 20 respondent were chosen randomly to answer the
questionnaire provided and data analysis were performed to gain enough information.
(Questionnaire can be referred on attached paper)

Table 1.1: Respondent by gender

Gender Respondent

Male 8

Female 12

Gender

40%

male
60%
female

Figure 1.4: Percentage of respondent by gender

Based on the results shown in Figure 1.4, mostly the respondents that participate for this
questionnaire is female with the majority of 60% which gives the number of 12 respondents out
of 20 total respondents while the balance of 40% is from 8 male respondents. There is no
respondent with neither one of the gender stated.
Table 1.2: Respondent by age

Age Respondent
< 20 years old 3
20-40 years old 7
> 40 years old 10

Age

15%

50% < 20 years old


35% 20-40 years old
> 40 years old

Figure 1.5: Percentage of respondent by age

Figure 1.5 shows the results on age of respondents that participate in this questionnaire.
The highest percentage of age is the senior region that is aged above 40 years old with 50% from
the whole chart (10 respondents). The percentage is then followed by adults that is aged between
20 to 40 years old with 35% (7 respondents) and the least respondents come from teenagers that is
aged below 20 years old with only 15% (3 respondents). This figure shows that mostly the area is
covered by old folks and adults.
Table 1.3: Respondent by races
Races Respondent

Malay 10

Chinese 6

Indian 4

Races

20%

50% malay
chinese
30%
indian

Figure 1.6: Percentage of respondent by races

From Figure 1.6, 50% of the respondents (10 respondents) in Bakri, Muar is Malay while
Chinese covered about 30% of total respondents which is about 6 respondents and India is around
20% of total respondents (4 respondents). As the conclusion, the area of construction in Bakri,
Muar consisted of multi-racial communities and not conquered by only one race.
Table 1.4: Past Activity Information

Activity Respondent
Agriculture 12
Mining 0
Aquaculture 0
Forestry 8
Old building 0
Others 0

Activity

0% 0% agriculture
40% mining
60% aquaculture
forestry
0% old building
0%
others

Figure 1.7: Percentage of past activity on site

Based on Figure 1.7, the respondents answered that there were two past activity or situation
before the construction takes place which are agricultural and forestry. The highest activity that
takes place in Bakri, Muar is agricultural activity with 60% followed by 40% of forestry. There
are no evidence said that on the area of construction have ever had any aquaculture activity, mining
or old building.
Table 1.5: Type of Soil

Type of soil Respondent


Peat soil 17
Soft soil/ sand 0
Red soil 1
Black soil 2
Clay 0
Others 0

Type of soil
0% 0%
5%
0% 10% peat soil
soft soil/ sand
red soil
black soil
85%
clay
others

Figure 1.8: Percentage of type of soil on site

Figure 1.8 shows the results on the type of soil in the area of construction. 85% of the
respondent (17 respondents) said that the type of soil is peat soil. 10% of respondents (2
respondents) said that the soil is black soil while only 5% of respondents (1 respondent) said that
the soil is red soil. We concluded that the soil at Bakri is peat soil because of the existing of palm
oil plantation at the area of construction and its surrounding.
Table 1.6: Facilities needed

Facilities needed Respondent


Residential 1
Mall 15
Public station 2
Industry 2
Park/ playground 0
Others 0

Facilities needed
0%
0% 5%
10% 10% residential
mall
public station
industry
75%
park/ playground
others

Figure 1.9: Percentage of facilities needed

The results of facilities needed by the community around the area of construction are shown
in Figure 1.9. About 75% of respondents (15 respondents) agreed to build a mall due to lack of
entertainment and shopping complex. There are 10% respondents (2 respondents) that want to
have public station such as railway or bus station while the other 10% respondents (2 respondents)
want to have industrial park. The least number of respondents which is only 5% of respondents (1
respondent) want to have residential building in the area.
ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN
2.0 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Concept that focuses on the components or elements of a structure or system and unifies them into
a coherent and functional whole, according to a particular approach in achieving the objective(s)
under the given constraints or limitations. Design has two levels of meaning where in a restricted
sense, it means designation that is usually shown as visual symbols, it refers to the adaptation of
desired end of purpose. This application of design in architectural context refer to its general usage
where design is known as aesthetic value in buildings. Architecture often includes design or
selection of furnishings and decorations, supervision of construction work, and the examination,
restoration, or remodeling of existing buildings.

Below is the architectural plan of the mall that is shown using architectural drawing
software called as SketchUp, cut and fill drawing before and after preliminaries work, the purpose
level and idea of new technology proposed.

2.1 SKETCHUP

SketchUp is a 3D modeling computer program for a wide range of drawing applications such as
architectural, interior design, landscape architecture, civil and mechanical engineering, film and
video game design. It is available as a web-based application. SketchUp is owned by Trimble Inc.,
a mapping, surveying and navigation equipment company. There is an online library of free model
assemblies (e.g. windows, doors, automobiles), 3D Warehouse, to which users may contribute
models. The program includes drawing layout functionality, allows surface rendering in variable
"styles", supports third-party "plug-in" programs hosted on a site called Extension Warehouse to
provide other capabilities (e.g. near photo-realistic rendering) and enables placement of its models
within Google Earth.

SketchUp let the user view the building in 3D concept so they will have overview of overall
project. In our project, we use SketchUp to render the interior and exterior view of our mall.
SketchUp process take about one whole week to be completed
Figure 2.1: SketchUp from inside of mall

Figure 2.2: SketchUp from outside of mall


2.2 CUT AND FILL

23 24 25 26 27
11.000

9.555

9.320

9.310

8.000

7.980

7.328
9.560

7.325

5.650
Grid
23 24 25 26 27
Properties

Distance (m) 40 40 40 40 40

Height (m) 10.28 9.44 8.66 7.65 6.49

Area (m2) 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600

Volume (m3) 16,448 15,104 13,856 12,240 10,384

Cut

Fill

Cut volume (m3) 45,408 - -

Fill volume (m3) - - - 22,624

Borrow volume (m3) - - - - -

Remove volume (m3) 22,784 - -


2.3 PURPOSE LEVEL

The purpose level for our construction is 8m where the highest existing level is 11m and the
lowest is 5m. The purpose level drawing before the clearing is as shown in Appendix C and the
purpose level drawing after the clearing is as shown in Appendix D.

2.4 IDEA OF NEW TECHNOLOGY

For this project, we have proposed to use drone and Building Information Modeling (BIM). A
drone is made from diverse light composite materials in order to increase manoeuvrability while
flying and reduce weight. It can be equipped with an assortment of extra equipment, including
cameras, GPS guided missiles, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), navigation systems, sensors,
and so on. Drone is use in site for surveying. BIM could be a collaborative device utilized by
architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industries based on a number of software
solutions. It may be a technology and a process to oversee construction projects. BIM could be a
set of technology developments and processes that has changed the way infrastructure is designed,
analyzed, constructed and managed. BIM can upgrade and improve planning process, plan and
construction of projects.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
3.0 STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Structural design basis starts with the type of structure to be designed. For any structural design to
commence, we require certain data. These data include information about type of structure, site
conditions, loading conditions, type of environmental exposure, earthquake zone and wind zone.
structural design requires estimation of properties of material, approximate analysis of structural
model, and estimation of potential external loads, in order to ensure the safety and satisfactory
operational functions of the structure.

Esteem 8 Software is an engineering software developed in Malaysia together with


expertise from Singapore and New Zealand. As the software title speaks, Esteem 8 is a software
specifically designed to provide integrated solution for structural engineer for designing reinforced
concrete building. The user interface is user friendly and most of the toolbar icon is self-
explainable with easily accessible help context. Adopting classic interface of Microsoft Office,
rows of shortcut toolbar of various input and commands with adjustable size are provided at top
region of the window. It can input and analyze almost any building shape; let it be orthogonal or
freeform. Esteem 8 allows (by using combinations of input available) user to input any kind of
floor plan limited by imagination of architect. With a single click after input, Esteem 8 generates
reports and construction drawing for submission.

With the help of Esteem 8, we could render the result from structure built in Esteem 8
such as beam, foundation and column. The results are as below (Refer to attached paper):
INFRASTRUCTURE
4.0 INFRASTRUCTURE

Infrastructure is a term architects, engineers, and urban planners use to describe essential facilities,
services, and organizational structures for communal use, most commonly by residents of cities
and towns. Politicians often think of infrastructure in terms of how a nation can help corporations
move and deliver their goods such as water, electricity, sewage, and merchandise are all about
movement and delivery via infrastructure. Infra means below, and sometimes these elements are
literally below the ground, like water and natural gas supply systems. The global information
infrastructure being developed for communications and internet involves satellites in space where
not underground at all, so that of road where it is above the ground, it tells that the infrastructures
are not mostly below ground but can be found above ground too.

All countries have infrastructure in some form, which can include these systems such as
roads, tunnels, bridges, highway, mass-transit systems (e.g., trains and rails), airport runways,
control towers, telephone lines, cell phone towers, dams, reservoirs, hurricane barriers, pumping
stations, waterways, canals, ports, electrical power lines, connections (i.e., the national power
grid), fire stations, hospitals, clinics, school, public parks and other types of green infrastructure.

As in our project, we will attach about road and traffic of the site area, the drainage system
around the building, water supply and reticulation system installed in the mall and other facilities
that is necessary for our project and in this case, we choose landscaping project as it suits the initial
idea of mall construction.
4.1 ROAD TRAFFIC

Road design is part of highway engineering. Structural road design is designing a road for its
environment in order to extend its longevity and reduce maintenance. Roads are designed and built
for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Storm drainage and environmental
considerations are a major concern. Below is the traffic for roads construction (refer to attached
paper):
4.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEM

4.2.1 MANUAL ALAM SEKITAR MESRA ALAM (MASMA)

The main focus of Urban Storm Water Management Manual or Manual Alam Sekitar Mesra Alam
(MASMA) is to manage the storm water on site instead of draining it away as quickly as possible
and control at source approach. This approach utilizes detention, retention, infiltration and
purification process. The quality and quantity of the runoff from developing area can be maintained
to be the same as predevelopment condition from the aspect of quantity and quality runoff, also
known as uncontaminated zero contribution to the peak discharge. This manual has now become
mandatory for new development applications.

Storm water management has development to the point where there are now two
fundamental different approaches to controlling the quality, and to some extent, the quality of
storm water runoff. In addition to the traditional conveyance-oriented approach, a potential
effective and preferable approach to storm water management is the storage-oriented approach.
The function of this approach is to provide for the temporary storage of storm water runoff at or
near its point of origin with subsequent slow release to the downstream storm water system or
receiving water (detention), or infiltration into the surrounding soil (retention).

Detention and retention facilities can reduce the peak and volume of runoff from a given
catchment which can reduce the frequency and extent of downstream flooding. Detention/retention
facilities have been used to reduce the costs of large storm water drainage system by reducing the
size required for such systems in downstream areas.
Figure 4.1: One of MASMA concept

Figure 4.2: Hydrograph schematic


4.2.2 ON SITE DETENTION

On site detention (OSD) may be provided as above ground storages, below ground storages or a
combination of both. There are many types of detention included in above ground storages and
below ground storages. The usage is depending to the site condition and its suitability.

4.2.2.1 Above-ground storages

The main advantages of above-ground storages are they can generally be easily incorporated into
the site by regarding or modification to the design of surface features and relatively inexpensive
compared to below-ground storages. The above-ground storages include:

(a) Landscaped areas


(b) Impervious areas
(c) Flat roofs
(d) Surface tanks

4.2.2.2 Below-ground storages

The main advantages of below-ground storages are they are out of sight, occupy less physical
space and will not cause any inconvenience with ponding or water that could result using above-
ground storage. The examples of below-ground storages are:

(a) Underground tanks


(b) Pipe packages

4.2.2.3 Combined storages

With combined storages, a proportion of the total storage is provided as below-ground storage,
whilst the remainder of the storage is provided as above-ground storage.
Figure 4.3: Typical On-Site Detention Facilities

4.2.3 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION

Detention on development sites has been seen as the solution to problems of established areas
where additional development or redevelopment is occurring. Generally, it is not possible, either
physically or financially, to progressively enlarge drainage systems ad redevelopments that
increase imperious areas and runoff rates and volumes occur. Simplified hydrographs are
combined with an assumed outlet relationship to determine a critical volume of water to be stored.
Often several cases are considered, to allow for different storm durations. A storage is then to be
provided for this critical volume.

Permissible site discharge (PSD) and site storage requirement (SSR) are used for an OSD
development. There are two basic approaches that may be used for determining the required PSD
and SSR as follows:
4.2.3.1 Site-based Methods

The PSD and SSR values to be applied to a particular development site are determined by
hydrologic analysis of the development site only, without any consideration of the effect of site
discharges on the downstream catchment. The PSD is the estimated peak flow for the site prior to
development for a selected design storms, the only concern is that post development site discharges
are reduced to pre-development levels. PSD values may be determined using either the Rational
Method or a hydrograph estimation method.

Site-based methods do not consider the effects of post-development discharges on the


downstream catchment since it is assumed that reducing discharges to pre-development levels is
sufficient to prevent increases in downstream flooding.

4.2.3.2 Catchment-based Methods

The PSD and SSR values are determined from an analysis of a total catchment instead of a single
site. Catchment modelling is undertaken to determine the maximum values of PSD and SSR for a
selected design storm that will not cause flooding at any location within the catchment.

OSD storages may be analysed using a hydrograph estimation technique, but the Rational
Method is most popular. Rational Method hydrograph techniques are acceptable for OSD as
development sites are relatively small and any errors introduced will most likely be minor.

4.2.4 FLOW CONTROL REQUIREMENT

There are many requirements to design a flow control system in MASMA including design storm,
Permissible Site Discharge (PSD), Site Storage Requirement (SSR) and site coverage. These
requirements are a must to ensure that the system created can behold for the next upcoming few
hundreds of years and lessen the maintenance work.
4.2.4.1 Design storm

The design storm for discharge from an OSD storage, termed the ‘discharge design storm’, shall
be the minor system design ARI of the municipal drainage system to which the storage is
connected.

4.2.4.2 Permissible Site Discharge (PSD)

The PSD is the maximum allowable post-development discharge from a site for the selected
discharge design storm and is estimated on the basis that flows within the downstream storm water
drainage system will not be increased.

4.2.4.3 Site Storage Requirement (SSR)

The SSR is the total amount of storage required to ensure that the required PSD is not exceeded
and the OSD facility does not overflow during the storage design storm ARI.

4.2.4.4 Site Coverage

Where possible, the site drainage system and grading should be designed to direct runoff from the
entire site to the OSD system. Sometimes this will not be feasible due to ground levels, the level
of the receiving drainage system, or other circumstances. In these cases, as much runoff from
impervious areas as possible should be drained to the OSD system.
Table 4.1: Relative proportions for composite storages system

4.2.5 GENERAL CONSIDERATION

4.2.5.1 Drainage system

The storm water drainage system for site must:

a. Be able to convey all runoff to the OSD storage, up to and including the storage design
storm
b. Ensure that OSD storage is bypassed by all runoff from neighbouring properties

4.2.5.2 Multiple Storage

In terms of construction and recurrent maintenance costs, it is preferable to provide fewer larger
storages than a larger number of smaller storages. Multiple storages should be carefully treated
when preparing a detailed design.
4.2.5.3 Site grading

Sites should be graded according to the following general guidelines:

a. Grade the site for surface drainage such that no serious consequences will occur if the
property drainage system fails.
b. Avoid filling the site with storm water inlets that are not needed.
c. Direct as much of the site as possible to the OSD storage.

4.2.5.4 Construction tolerances

The OSD systems are important in protecting downstream areas from flooding. Every effort should
be made to avoid, or at least minimise, construction errors. The design should allow for the
potential reduction in the storage volume due to common post-construction activities such as
landscaping, top dressing and garden furniture.

4.2.5.5 Signs

A permanent advisory sign for each OSD storage facility provided should be securely fixed at a
pertinent and clearly visible location stating the intent of the facility.

Figure 4.4: Typical OSD Advisory sign


4.2.6 ABOVE-GROUND STORAGE

4.2.6.1 Surface Tank

Surface tanks are normally provided on residential lots for rainwater harvesting. These tanks
collect rainwater from the rooftops of buildings and store it for later domestic use. Surface tanks
may also be used solely for on-site detention or utilised in combination with storage provided for
rainwater harvesting. Since surface tanks will only provide detention volume for rooftops of
buildings, other forms of detention storage must also be provided if flows from the whole site
area to be reduced.

Figure 4.5: Typical Multi-Purpose Surface Tank


4.2.7 BELOW GROUND STORAGE

Providing a small proportion of the required storage volume underground can often enhance a
development by limiting the frequency of inundation of an above-ground storage area. In difficult
topography, the only feasible solution may be to provide all or most the required storage volume
below-ground. However, it should be recognised that below-ground storages:

 Are more expensive to construct that above-ground storage systems


 Are difficult to inspect for silt and debris accumulation
 Can be difficult to maintain
 Can be dangerous to work in and may be unsafe for property owners to maintain.

When preparing a design for below-ground storage, designers should be aware of any statutory
requirements for working in confined spaces. Where practicable, the design should minimise the
need for personnel to enter the storage space for routine inspection and maintenance.

4.2.7.1 Underground Tanks

a. Basic Configuration: Typical below-ground storage tanks are either circular or rectangular
in plan and cross-section but due to their structural nature, can be configured into almost
any geometrical plan shape.

Figure 4.5 Typical Below-Ground Storage Tank


b. Structural Adequacy: Storage tanks must be structurally sound and be constructed from
durable materials that are not subject to deterioration by corrosion or aggressive soil
conditions. Tanks must be designed to withstand the expected live and dead loads on the
structure, including external and internal hydrostatic loadings.

c. Horizontal Plan: Site geometry will dictate how the installation is configured in plan. A
rectangular shape offers certain cost and maintenance advantages, but space availability
will sometimes dictate a variation from a standard rectangular plan.

d. Bottom Slope: To permit easy access to all parts of the storage for maintenance, the floor
slope of the tank should not be greater than 10%.

e. Ventilation: It is very important to provide ventilation for below-ground storage systems


to minimise odour problems. Ventilation may be provided through the tank access opening
or by separated ventilation pipe risers. Although the inflow and outflow pipes can provide
some ventilation of the storage tank, their contribution is unrealiable and should not be
considered in the design.

f. Overflow provision: An overflow system must be provided to allow the tank to surcharge
in a controlled manner if the capacity of the tanks is exceeded due to a blockage of the
outlet pipe or a storm larger than the storage design ARI.

g. Access Opening: Below-ground storage tanks should be provided with openings to allow
access by maintenance personnel and equipment.

4.2.7.2 Pipe Packages

A pipe package is a below-ground storage consisting of one or more parallel rows of buried pipes
connected by a common inlet and outlet chamber
The size of a pipe package is determined by the storage volume requirements and the physical
availability of space on the site. A pipe package does not need to be installed in a straight line
along its entire length, it can change direction anywhere along its length to fit any site space
limitation.

4.2.8 MASMA DRAINAGE CONCEPT

Rooftop

Multi-Purpose Surface Tank

Surface Tank for Reuse

Pipe Line

Underground Storage Tank Parking Lot

Final Discharge (such as River)

Figure 4.6: MASMA Drainage Concept


4.2.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE

Inspect development site to Undertake site survey and prepare


identify drainage constraints. contour plan.

Prepare Preliminary Drainage Discuss site layout with


Plan. Architect/builder/developer.

Review Architectural/building, Submit Preliminary Drainage Plan


landscape plans. with Land Sub-division
Application.

Select discharge control device Obtain copies of approved plans


and finalise storage volumes. and conditions

Design Storage System Design drainage conveyance


system.

Prepare calculation sheets and Prepare detailed design drawing.


maintenance schedule.

Review design. Submit Detailed Drainage Plan


with Building Plan Application
4.2.10 CALCULATION FOR DRAINAGE

Figure 4.7: Rainfall station at JPS Kluang, Johor


Table 4.2: Time Area Method calculation output of post for time = 55min
Figure 4.8: Graph of Time Area Method for time = 55min
Table 4.3: Time Area Method calculation output of post for time = 55min
Figure 4.9: Graph of Time Area Method for time = 60m
4.3 WATER SUPPLY AND RETICULATION SYSTEM

Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and
distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as
for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of
potable water is perhaps the most vital. People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing,
carrying away wastes, and other domestic needs. Water supply systems must also meet
requirements for public, commercial, and industrial activities. In all cases, the water must fulfil
both quality and quantity requirements.

Water reticulation system is basically the water distribution network and once the water
has been collected and treated it needs to get to the consumer. Water is supplied today most
commonly through an infrastructure of pipes. These pipes are most commonly constructed
from plastic, metal (ferric) or concrete. Water is delivered by making use of the scientific
principles of pressure and the energy created delivers the water to its destination. Water
reticulation systems can be either gravity flow or pressurised or a combination of both. Gravity
flow avoids any potential equipment failure in a pumped system.

4.3.1 SKETCH OF WATER RETICULATION SYSTEM

(Refer to attached paper)


4.3.2 CALCULATION FOR WATER RETICULATION SYSTEM

For commercial premises water demand calculation:

14 to 18 L per m2 gross floor area.

Mall construction (department store building):

45x45 = 2025 m2

2025 m2 x 18 L = 36450 L of water demand.

For storage tank size:

We chose rectangular water tank. To full fill the demand of 35450 L of water, the tank size
should be;

Height: 0.5 m

Width: 0.3 m

Length: 0.3 m

Filled Depth: 0.4 m


Network Table

Node Elevation Head Pressure


Pipe 1 15m 7m 8m
Pipe 2 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 3 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 4 8m 9m 7m
Pipe 5 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 6 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 7 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 8 8m 9m 1m
Pipe 9 8m 10m 2m
Pipe 10 8m 10m 2m
Reservoir TP1 15 15 0

Table 4.4: Network table for pressure

Length Diameter Velocity Unit Head loss


Node Roughness Flow LPS
(m) (mm) (m/s) (m/km)

Pipe 1 104.4 250 100 25.60 0.52 2.04


Pipe 2 275.4 150 100 2.87 0.16 0.43
Pipe 3 11.5 150 100 22.73 1.29 19.67
Pipe 4 46 150 100 11.00 0.62 5.13
Pipe 5 81.5 150 100 11.00 0.62 5.13
Pipe 6 88.6 150 100 11.00 0.62 5.13
Pipe 7 87.5 150 100 11.00 0.62 5.13
Pipe 8 18.6 150 100 22.73 1.29 19.67
Pipe 9 63.8 150 100 11.73 0.66 5.78
Pipe 10 84.4 150 100 11.73 0.66 5.7

Table 4.5: Network table for pipe line system


4.4 OTHERS FACILITIES

For other facilities, we chose to do a landscaping project around the mall area. By definition,
to be properly said, landscaping a property means activity of making improvements
or maintaining past improvements to the area of construction on that property's grounds.
Landscaping can be either in a practical or in an aesthetic way. In an extended sense, everything
on the site that stands outside of the building itself is part of a property's landscaping. Here is our
purpose landscaping project that have been done by using SketchUp software.

Figure 4.10: Landscaping area of mall


Figure 4.11: Landscaping outside of mall
PLANNING
PERMISSION
5.0 PLANNING PERMISSION

(Refer to attached paper)


PROCUREMENT
6.0 PROCUREMENT

6.1 TABLE OF CONTENT FOR DOCUMENT TENDER

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TENDER SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................

1.Background ...........................................................................................................................

2.Nature of the contract............................................................................................................

3.Subject of the contract ..........................................................................................................

4.Duration and place of performance of the framework contracts ........................................

5.Provisions on progress monitoring .....................................................................................

6.Provisions relating to tenders ..............................................................................................

7.Prices and estimated volume of the framework contract ....................................................

8.Identification of the tenderer, joint tenders and subcontracting .........................................

9.Procedure for selecting tenderers and evaluating tenders ...................................................

10.Procedure for awarding specific contracts ........................................................................


6.2 CONTRACT – TALK WITH DATO’ ZUL

Contract is defined as terms and condition that set the rights and obligations of the contracting
parties, when contract is awarded or entered into. Condition of contract in Malaysia usually are
followed these four forms, which are:

PWD 203 standard form: Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR)

PAM standard form : Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM)

FIDIC standard form : International Federation of Consulting Engineers

PWD 203

The Malaysian Public Works Department (Malay: Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia), abbreviated
JKR, is the federal government department in Malaysia under Ministry of Works Malaysia
(MOW) which is responsible for construction and maintenance of public infrastructure in West
Malaysia and Labuan. In Sabah and Sarawak, a separate entity of Public Works Department
exists under respective state government's jurisdiction but both departments are also
subordinate to the parent department at the same time. PWD 203 is the traditional forms of
contract based on drawings and specification (203) or bill of quantities (203A) produced for
use in public sector or government projects in both building and civil engineering contracts.

FIDIC

FIDIC is the International Federation of Consulting Engineers. Its members are national
associations of consulting engineers. Founded in 1913, FIDIC is charged with promoting and
implementing the consulting engineering industry’s strategic goals on behalf of its Member
Associations and to disseminate information and resources of interest to its members. Today,
FIDIC membership covers 104 countries of the world.
PAM 2006

The Malaysian Institute of Architects (Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia) form of contract for
building works are the most often adopted standard forms of contract used for building works
in the Malaysian private sector. PAM 2006 is the third generation of the PAM standard form.
PAM 2006 comes in two version which is with quantities and without quantities. There are
total of 38 clauses in PAM 2006.

Important clauses in PAM 2006

Clauses Descriptions

1.0 Contractor’s Obligations

2.0 Architect’s Instructions (AI)

3.0 Contract Documents, Programme and As-built Drawings

11.0 Variations, Provisional and Prime Cost Sum

15.0 Practical Completion and Defects Liability

21.0 Date of Commencement, Postponement and Date for Completion

22.0 Damages for Non-Completion

23.0 Extension of Time

24.0 Lost and/or Expense Caused by Matters Affecting the Regular Progress of the
Works

30.0 Certificates and Payment

36.0 Notice
6.3 TYPES OF TENDER

A tender can consider as an offer to do work or supply goods at a fixed price. Qualified
contractors are invited to submit sealed bids for construction or for supply of specific and
clearly defined goods or services during a specified time interval. The tender process is
designed to ensure that the work to be done for client or government is given out in a fair way.
In tender, cost is one of the common factor to be taken into. However, various characteristics
could be considered as well such as reputation of contractor handling previous projects.

Tender can be varies on it types as well and different tender chose its contractor is such
different ways. Apart from that, project type can be affecting the type of tendering use as
different projects might have different complexity, duration and skill level needed on contractor
hired to accomplish the objective of the project without neglecting cost issue and quality. Some
of type of tender includes open tender, selective tender, negotiated tender, serial tender and
term tendering. However, in this section, we will further discuss on open tender on how it
benefits the construction industry and also the reason of its broaden uses in projects.

Open tendering is the main tendering procedures and widely used by both the
government and private sector. The client advertises the tender offer with details given on the
project and key information of the proposed works such as project type and inviting interested
contractor to tender. In the legal sense such tender notices constitute invitation to treat, a mere
request by the employer for suitable contractor to submit their bids or offers.

If the pre-requisite to tendering on the form of possession of the necessary registration


has been identified in the tender notice, then the advertisement is directed to only that particular
class of the public having the said qualifications. In order to reduce number of enquiries, earnest
money is deposited where it is usually done in private project. Until the receipt of an original
tender selected then it will be returned.
6.3.1 TENDERING PROCESS

1. Pre-tender Stage

At pre-tender stage, when the clients have an idea, client will appoint consultant to discuss
further about the project. Consultant will do their job by advising, managing the tender and
contract besides transferring the idea into the drawing. At this stage client and consultants
will discuss on about the project scope, duration of project and budget that client willing to
allocate. Researcher believes that pre-tender stage is most crucial matter because it will
initiate the next step of a project and might also affect further stages of project by either
progressively or hinders the progression of project to be completed within time given.

2. Tender Advertisement

Tender advertisement also called tender notice. The conventional tender notice will
advertise in local newspaper. In tender notice, basic requirement should be appearing are:

 Class of contractor, head and subhead needed.


 Location, date, and time to obtain the tender document.
 Fees for tender document.
 Location, date and time for submission of tender doc.

3. Closing of Tender

The time and date of tender closing process would be mention in tender notice. If the
contractors fail to submit their bids within specific time and date, it considers the
contractors refuse to bid for the tender. Besides, tender validity period was also started in
this time. At this period, contractors can withdraw back their bids if they are no more
interested to fight for the tender. Consultant use this period to make assessment and
evaluation each of the offers.
4. Tender Opening and Evaluation Process

Quantity surveyors usually will handle tender opening process. In order to preserve the
integrity of the competitive process, it is essential that the evaluation of proposals is
undertaken objectively, consistently and without bias towards particular suppliers. Tenders
are usually evaluated against a pre-determined set of criteria. The evaluation of the tenders
shall be prepared the soonest possible after the tender opening. A report prepared by the
Quantity Surveyor will describe the findings of the said evaluation and it will be supported
by tables and graphs. In the end, the Quantity Surveyor will recommend which tenderer,
who in his opinion, is the most suitable to undertake to execute the project.

5. Tender Award

An evaluation team will examine each tender received and make recommendations as to
which tender represents best value for money. Once the contract has been awarded, both
the successful and unsuccessful tenderers will be notified. Once the final decision has been
made on the tender award, the tender administrator creates the tender results notification
which is in letter form, and then sent to all participating contractors.

These were some of open tender characteristics in the construction field:


 Be open to all qualified and interested bidders,
 Be advertised locally (and internationally, when required),
 Have objective qualifications criteria,
 Have neutral and clear technical specifications,
 Have clear and objective evaluation criteria, and
 Be awarded to the least-cost provider, without contract negotiations.

Open tender can have many benefits where those benefits is as below:

 It allows any interested contractor to tender. Therefore, it gives opportunity for an


unknown contractor to compete for the work.
 Allowing the tender list to be made without bias. Client will obtain the bargain possible.
No favouritism in selecting contractors.
 Ensuring good competition not obliged to accept any offers.
 Traditional method of tendering, familiar to all sector of the engineering and
construction industry.

Open tender as other type of tender has content in order to make the tender completed.
These contents include:

 A letter of invitation to tender.


 The form of tender.
 Preliminaries: including pre-construction information and site waste management plan
 The form of contract, contract conditions and amendments. This might include a model
enabling amendment for building information modelling (BIM), making a BIM
protocol a contractual document.
 A tender pricing document or contract sum analysis on design and build projects.
 Employer's information requirements for BIM.
 Design drawings, and perhaps an existing building information model.
 Specifications.
CONSTRUCTION
7.0 CONSTRUCTION

7.1 PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION


a. Excavate
b. Cut and Fill
c. Compaction
d. Pilling
e. Construction Ground Floor & Construction of 1st Floor
f. Flat roof Construction
g. Infrastructure

7.1.1 EXCAVATION

Before the excavation process can start, the site being carefully inspected to make sure that the
natural environment and artefacts encompassing it are endured throughout excavation. Next,
the plans for the size and depth of the site are made and the excavation company makes
drawings from them to clearly mark the excavation site’s boundaries. Once these two
imperative steps have been taken, the excavation work can start. The whole excavation process
incorporates setting out corner benchmarks, surveying ground and top levels, excavation to the
approved depth, dressing the loose soil, making up to cut off level, the construction of
dewatering wells and interconnecting trenches, making boundaries of the building, and the
construction of protection bunds and drains. Then, the ground over which the filling must be
done should be cleaned off all grass, loose stones, rubbish of all types etc. If there is water
within the area, it should be pumped or bailed out. If the plinth depth doesn’t exceed 45cm
above ground level and if the exposed ground is B.C. soil, then remove the BC soil utterly to
avoid uneven settlement of the flooring. Select the refilling material from the excavated stuff
and stock it one by one for reuse. Estimate the quantity of refilling within the plinth and in pits.
Decide the quantity of material available. Place the order for any further refilling material
required. Engage labourers for refilling. Keep all tools for refilling and compaction prepared.
7.1.2 CUT AND FILL

After the excavation process has being completed, the next progress is to fill up the area needed
by using bulldozer and backhoe. The area that being fill is according to the drawing proposal
by the architect.

7.1.3 COMPACTION

As for the following progress, the cut and fill area needed to be compact. This were done by
using pneumatic rollers that our company has leash. Numerous cycle have been apply to make
sure all the area is being compact thoroughly.

7.1.4 PILLING

The next progress is installing the foundation. For this construction, we are using RC Square
pile as for our foundation. This type of foundation is suitable for our site due to our soil profile.
The pile was ordered using the catalogue that have been provided. The process of installing is
by pile machine. Piles are first cast at ground level and at that driven into the ground using a
pile driver. Typically, a machine that holds the pile impeccably vertical, and then vibrates it
into the ground. The pile driver hence performs two functions - first, it acts as a crane, and lifts
the pile from a horizontal position on the ground and rotates it into the right vertical position,
and second, it driven the pile down into the ground. Piles should be driven into the ground until
refusal, at that point they cannot be driven any longer into the soil.

7.1.5 CONSTRUCTION OF GROUND FLOOR AND FIRST FLOOR

After the completion of pilling process, we proceeded to the next step which is building the
mall. The first step that needed to do is to forming a ground beam formwork and after it is
being done, pouring concrete to the area of formwork is crucial after the arrival of the concrete
truck. After opening the formwork of the ground beam, formwork for column is being built
and the same process is implemented after the formwork have been completed. For
construction of column the same process is being implemented as slab and beam. As for first
floor, the same step as ground floor.
7.1.6 FLAT ROOF CONSTRUCTION

A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The
slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat roofs have up to approximately 10°. For
our mall construction, it is advisedly to use modern flat roof as it is a recommended style among
the modern cotemporary style. Modern flat roofs can use single large factory-made sheets such
as EPDM synthetic rubber, PVC (polyvinyl chloride), TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin) etc.
Although usually of excellent quality, one-piece membranes are called single plies are used
today on many large commercial buildings and the foremost why it is advisably to use flat roof.
Apart from its advantages flat roofs tend to be sensitive to human traffic. Anything which
produces a crack or puncture in the waterproofing membrane can quite readily lead to leaks.
So, the engineer advice that not more than 1000kg live load must exceeded at the roof and the
roof top area must limited for maintaining process only.

7.1.7 INFRASTRUCTURE

For infrastructure construction, our mall implement road, drainage, water supply and
reticulation pipe. For road construction, we followed through JKR specification of road
construction. The drainage system, we have implemented MSMA in our construction. The
construction of MSMA is depends on the calculation of rainfall intensity and catchment area
for our area. The calculation has been made by MSMA ware program. For water supply we
needed to fill the form at the SAJ to gain excess their internal pipe to be connected to our
construction. Finally, the reticulation for sewer the size of the pipe is depended on the brochure
that we have selected.
7.2 TECHNOLOGY USED IN CONSTRUCTION

Most construction industry professionals acknowledge that increased adoption of technology


is in their future. Yet many still resist committing their time or money, and others invest
sporadically, hoping to see results by using tech for tech's sake. Improved project outcomes
can only occur through understanding the most significant of the individual applications and
devices that are currently available and realizing how those technologies are already
synergistically working together and giving rise to emergent processes. These processes will
likely supplant many of the standalone systems that now dominate the tech landscape and will
represent the new normal for project execution in the not-so-distant future. While technology
can improve the design and construction process, implementation of technology must be part
of a broader strategic platform.

7.2.1 DRONE

A drone is made from diverse light composite materials in order to increase manoeuvrability
while flying and reduce weight. It can be equipped with an assortment of extra equipment,
including cameras, GPS guided missiles, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), navigation
systems, sensors, and so on. Drone is use in site for surveying. We can utilize drones to quickly
overview our job site and build maps. Rather than utilizing human resources, heavy machinery
& expensive surveying tools, drone produce complex data, so we can get the job done in half
the time & money, with more prominent accuracy. These small crafts are effortlessly piloted
by remote and can transmit quickly the information they are gathering to a live feed and SD
data storage instantaneously. This makes the task of creating exceptionally precise maps and
providing important information to various companies much simpler. Information merely
acquire can be uploaded right away to a server, where it can be gotten to by individuals all over
the globe who are allow authorization.

Drones can reach high-risk areas and tightly-squeezed in locations that are quite a bit
harder to reach with a human crew. Besides that, drone is able to keeping the project on-track
and also on-budget. By identifying the parts of the project that are going off-track, having the
ability to avoid any causalities, thoroughly observing our job sites; we will be much way better
prepared to expel any increments to project time and cost. Using drones allows you to have
more real-time point by point control over the project, so you can keep track of the progress
outwardly, and achieve closure at perhaps a faster time then already assessed.

Drones in construction can improve the projects on site. One of the advantages using
drone technology on site is to prevent costly mistake. The high-resolution images captured by
a drone are then turned into precise 2D orthophotos and 3D models, creating a wealthy digital
representation of our jobsite. Then, drone data platforms like 3DR Site Scan make it easy to
overlay design files onto drone maps, enabling to pinpoint constructability challenges in pre-
construction spot mistakes, and measure progress amid construction. Using drone also can
improve safety of workers at site. The leading cause of private sector labourer fatalities on the
construction site is falls, speaking to about 39% of all deaths. Drones can be utilized to keep
workers’ feet planted immovably on the ground when they might otherwise need to climb to
take manual measurements or engage in other activities that can be supplanted with a drone.

The leading cause of private sector worker fatalities on the construction site is falls,
representing nearly 39% of all deaths. Drones can be used to keep workers’ feet planted firmly
on the ground when they might otherwise have to climb to take manual measurements or
engage in other activities that can be replaced with a drone.

In our project, drone is used to determine the topography and contour of our site. This
has saved time on our project reducing delay of further processes for our project. This can
ensure our project is in the range of expected time thus benefits both client and contractor side.
Accurate data had also been obtained throughout the GPS it was installed and the integration
of the drone with satellite has helped use in order to have a better viewing angle on the site
condition. Accuracy is important in the site surveying system as it would affect future
construction process and may affect all aspect of all construction processes. With drone usage,
human error in using surveying equipment has been eliminated and in returns provide us with
more accurate data and helps in calculation for construction in future process.

Safety factor has been also assured in our project as site surveying does not use the any
personnel other than those who controls the drone hovering the site. The usage of drone ensures
our construction workers avoid dangers in site surveying such as the terrain of site that may
include falls and pits. As we all know, construction is still a natural habitat for natural animals.
In site construction, many dangerous bugs swarm the site lurking in the thatch which in the
past, cases on bug infection on workers has been known.
Last but not least, drone usage has also known to reduce worker cost and needed
personnel in our site surveying. This is because drone can be operated only with fewer
personnel thus cutting cost on workers. With fewer, workers on site, monitoring of personnel
would be much easier and health care related can be potentially reduced.

Figure 7.1: Drone used for surveying

7.2.2 BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM)

BIM could be a collaborative device utilized by architectural, engineering and construction


(AEC) industries based on a number of software solutions. It may be a technology and a process
to oversee construction projects. BIM could be a set of technology developments and processes
that has changed the way infrastructure is designed, analyzed, constructed and managed. BIM
can upgrade and improve planning process, plan and construction of projects. BIM applications
in construction projects bring numerous benefits to construction players such as improving
communication between construction players and facilitating quicker design decision.

In addition, one of the BIM highlights is ease of use related to its devices; thus, the use
of BIM can diminish time spent in design as well as diminish cost and duration of construction.
BIM can be applied to all construction project stages, which are pre-construction stage,
construction stage and post-construction stage. Table below shows the BIM applications in a
construction project.
Phase Stage Uses of BIM

- Enhances accuracy of existing


Existing conditions modelling
conditions and documentations.

- Identifies schedule sequencing or


Planning
phasing issues.

- Encourages way better communication


and faster design decision.
Design - Perform clash discovery and clash
Pre-construction

analysis.
- Increases design adequacy.
- Empowers project manager and
contractor to see construction work
Scheduling sequence, equipment, materials and
track progress against coordination and
timelines established
- Enables era of take offs, counts and
Estimate measurements specifically from a 3-
Dimensional (3D) project model
- Diminishes costs of utility request and
Site Analysis
devastation.

- Enables exhibit of construction process,


counting access and exit roads, traffic
Construction

flows, site materials and machineries.


Construction - Provides superior tracking of cost
control and cash flow.
- Enables tracking of work in genuine
time, faster flow of resources and way
better site management.
- Keeps track of built resource.
construction

- Manages facilities proactively.


Operation / facilities - Enables planned maintenance and
Post-

management provides review of maintenance history

Table 7.1: BIM applications in a construction project.


The benefits of executing BIM in construction projects can be seen in each construction
stage. Firstly, BIM gives support to design, scheduling, and budgeting of built assets. BIM
gives a platform to assist architects initiate the method of developmental design. The speed of
design can be expanded when using the database provided by BIM tools as less communication
with engineers is required. A visualization of the construction process through a 4D model
incredibly enhances understanding of processes and makes a difference to recognize
construction issues as well as possible problems within the building assets process. The 4D
BIM models allow exhibit of how a construction project would influence traffic flows, access
and exit roads, public transport and capacity of materials on site as well as, scheduling of
machineries and personnel. BIM gives a compelling way to improve design and documentation
quality altogether. BIM saves 10% of contract value through clash detection. BIM helps to
attain 3% of cost estimation accuracy.

Figure 7.2: Building Information Modeling

BIM were also applied in our projects. 2 sections of BIM stages were applied including
3D and 4D. 3D modelling were used with Maya 3D to which modelling is conducted and the
reassess the model dimensions. In time perspective which is BIM 4D, software such as
Primavera and Navisworks were used to integrate with the 3D model constructed in Maya 3D.
These usage of BIM in our project has benefits us in terms of cost performance by
avoiding cost issues with number of reworks by modelling faults as 3D model allows us to
inspect models in a better perspective. By using Maya 3D in our projects, we have built a model
based on the dimensions given in our planning and drawing. With these in hands, any correction
and fault detection are much easier which in turn reduce the amount of rework in construction
process thus avoiding any unnecessary cost and maintain our time interval in the suggested
range. With an accurate dimension that were stated in the modelling sections, our contractor
had done a high-quality job in constructing each component of building without reworking
dimensions of their works. 3D modelling in our project also has reducing the RFI or “Request
for Information” to the management for information as confusion on the dimensions has been
finalize in an accurate reading in modelling section.

Another section of BIM that we used is BIM 4D which has been significantly affect the
performance of our project in terms of time dimensions. In our project, BIM 4D has
significantly helped us in organizing processes. These were done by an excellent scheduling
by 4D software such as Navisworks and Primavera and also by organizing processes of
construction project in an orderly fashion which integrates well within other processes. Usage
of BIM has helped in the due date of each process. This can alert our team in which where the
process can be finished.

With BIM usage, investing is required for the technology and software to be used in
projects. The cost of BIM related matters is around RM15,000 with the whole budget of project
about RM10 million. Therefore, BIM related cost is about 0.0015% of the whole project. In
return, unnecessary cost is cut away, cost overrun has been avoided and the project is remaining
on track on its time interval and range.
Figure 7.3: Example of BIM applied in construction building

7.3 INSPECTION FORM DURING CONSTRUCTION

(Refer to attached paper)


7.4 PLANT AND MACHINERIES

It is a common fact that we find a wide variety of construction machineries on every


construction sites, which make the construction jobs easy, safe and quicker. Good project
management in construction must vigorously pursue the efficient utilization of labour, material,
and equipment. The use of new equipment and innovative methods has made possible
wholesale changes in construction technologies in recent decades. The selection of the
appropriate type and size of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time
and effort and thus the job site productivity of a project.

These act as a backbone within the case of huge construction projects. Proper utilize of
the suitable equipment contributes to economy, quality, safety, speed and timely completion of
a project. Equipment are utilized for highway projects, irrigation, buildings, power projects etc.
There are factors that one has to be compelled to consider in other to arrive at an acceptable
value for such plant and machinery and these factors include the size of plant and machinery,
the size of the machine, the manufacturer, and the make of the plant and machinery.

There are some advantages of utilizing the construction equipment in site work. One of
the advantages are to reduce the overall construction costs especially for large contracts. To
maintain the high-quality standards often required by present-day design and specifications.
Using the construction equipment also can increase the rate output through work progress with
the best effective and efficient method.
7.4.1 EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT

Earthmoving equipment is overwhelming hardware, regularly heavy-duty vehicles outlined for


construction activities such as earthworks. They are utilized to move huge amount of soil, to
dig foundations and also can be used for landscaping. Earthmoving equipment may too be
alluded to as; heavy trucks, heavy machines, construction equipment and heavy vehicles. Most
earthmoving equipment employ hydraulic forces as its source for movement. Earthmoving
hardware is primarily utilized within the construction industry, but other major applications
incorporate mining, digging and other heavy-duty work. In our project, we use backhoe and
excavator for stripping topsoil, digging trenches and burrowing foundations.

7.4.1.1 BACKHOE

Backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or larger
comprising of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically
mounted on the back of a tractor of front loader, the latter forming a ‘backhoe loader’.
Basically, the backhoe has three segments which is the boom, the stick and the bucket. The
other appendages on a backhoe is stabilizer legs which is function to keep the tractor consistent,
minimizing the jostling impact of digging with the backhoe. They also secure the tractor so that
it won't slip into the ditch or hole.

Backhoe is suitable for digging below the machine level. It is designed primarily for
excavation below ground and it is especially employed for trench excavation works. Backhoe
can be efficiently used to trim the surface avoiding manual effort. It posses the positive digging
activity and precise lateral control. The advantages of using backhoe in construction is it can
be used for wide assortment of tasks for example construction, small demolitions, light
transportation of building materials, powering building equipment, digging holes or
excavation, landscaping, paving road, etc. The backhoe bucket can also be replaced with
powered the achievement such as a breaker, grapple, auger, or a stump grinder.
Figure 7.4: Backhoe

7.4.1.2 EXCAVATOR

An excavator is a machine used for construction activities. The excavator comprises of a house,
undercarriage, boom, stick and bucket. The undercarriage contains a motor and gears which
aid in movement of the equipment. The house contains an engine, oil and fuel cylinders. The
house connects to the under carriage through a cylindrical casket enabling it to spin freely at a
360 degrees angle. A boom attaches to a stick which is used to lift the bucket. Crawler
excavator runs on two endless tracks (chain wheel system).

Crawler excavators are used in hilly areas where risks of sliding of machinery are on
the verge. This type of excavator has low ground pressure because of spreading of load on large
area. Therefore, it is also used where soil support is weak. There are other characteristics that
make these excavators stand out in the crowd such as its fuel economy and dependability. It
has advanced design, which ensures better visibility and vast workspace. This triggers extra
comfort and enhanced productivity. Crawler excavator have improved hydraulic systems,
which contribute to better controllability and smooth movements.
The excavators are used in various ways. First, excavators are used for digging of
trenches, holes and foundation. Excavators also used for driving piles, in conjunction with a
pile driver, driving shafts for footings and rock drilling. Besides that, the usage of excavator is
for demolition work and general grading or landscaping. Next, it is also used for mining,
especially, but not only open-pit mining and lastly is for river dredging.

Figure 7.5: Excavator

7.4.2 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

Compaction equipment is machines such as rollers that is used to expel air from a soil mass to
achieve high density of soil. Compaction is the process of artificially increasing the density of
soils by forcing the soil particle close together, primarily by expelling air from the void spaces
in the soil. An increasing in soil density caused by the expulsion of water from the void spaces
is referred to as consolidation. Consolidation is a long-term process normally requiring months
or years while compaction takes place in a much shorter time. The increased density obtained
by soil compaction improves the construction characteristics of the soil in several respects.
Among the improved characteristics are such as increased strength, reduced compressibility,
improved volume change characteristics and reduced permeability.

7.4.2.1 PNEUMATIC COMPACTORS

The pneumatic-tired rollers are widely used for compaction of subgrades, bases, bituminous
mixes, and many types of material. Pneumatic tyre rollers consist of a box mounted over two
axles, the rear axle having one more wheel than the front axles so arranged that they are located
in plan in between the rear wheels. Generally, there are four wheels in the front and five in the
rear. Weights in the range 12-45 tonnes are common. The layer thickness should be 10-20 cm
when compacting. The tyre pressure should be a minimum of 0.5 MN/m2. One pneumatic roller
is generally required for an output of 25 m3/hour. Pneumatic-tired rollers can be ballasted to
adjust the weight. Depending on size and type, the weight may vary from 10 to 35 tons.
However, more important than gross weight is the weight per wheel for the material being
compacted.

In other word, pneumatic roller is used for road construction is to ensure the maximized
road density, high performance and efficiency; no unnecessary clearances, hit mats at the
optimal temperatures, ensure complete coverage and smoothness and simplify night-time
operation. Another advantage is that pneumatic rollers can be used on both soil and asphalt so
a road building contractor can save by having one compactor for both stages of construction
which are base and asphalt.
Figure 7.6: Pneumatic Compactors

7.4.3 HAULING EQUIPMENT

Hauling equipment, in particular, is used to move building/drilling supplies, soil, and other
materials. There are many types of hauling equipment used, where trucks are one of the
example of hauling equipment that is commonly used in construction industries. Their high
travel speeds allow for quicker transportation of materials when traveling on established roads.
Their low hauling costs also allow for flexibility when determining the total hauling capacity
or in the event of a change in destination/route. In this section, there are two types of truck used
which is dump trucks and concrete trucks.

7.4.3.1 DUMP TRUCKS

Dump trucks are used to move aggregates from one point to another and using the hydraulic
components to lift up the rear contents so it can fall to the ground. These trucks are available
in many configurations and sizes. There are two common type of dump trucks which are side
dump and rear dump. In our project, we choose to used rear dump due to its availability and
easy to handle than side dump where it is can easily topple down if the operator is lack of skills.

One of the most distinctive features of dump trucks is their expansive dump bed.
Idealize for carrying construction debris or other loose objects, this bed permits drivers to safely
haul all sorts of materials. Next, dump trucks come in a wide range of design options to way
better suit the requirements of varying projects. For example, whereas numerous small dump
trucks are moderately similar to flatbed trucks, large dump trucks generally come equipped
with more axels, a wider range of dumping options, and joint additions to supply better control
and an increased range of movement. Last, dump trucks are specifically designed to function
under tough working conditions, providing drivers with total control. The power take-off
system included in modern dump trucks provides significant strength to the truck’s lift
mechanism, ensuring that no matter how heavy a load might have, truck will be able to handle
the weight.

Figure 7.7: Dump truck


7.4.3.2 CONCRETE TRUCK

The concrete transport trucks (in-transit mixer) are made to transport and mix concrete up to
the construction site. They can be charged with dry materials and water, with the mixing
occurring during transport. With the process, the material has already been mixing. The
concrete truck function is to maintain the concrete's liquid state, through turning of the drum,
to the point of delivery at the construction site.

Concrete truck has three different conditions of drum when the concrete is mixed which
is at the job site, in the yard and in transit. Concrete mixed at the job site is, when traveling to
the job site, the drum is turned at agitating speed (slow speed). The concrete is completely
mixed after arrived at the job site. Next, when the concrete mixed in the yard, the drum is turned
at high speed or 12-15 rpm for 50 revolutions. This allows a quick check of the batch. While
driving to the job site, the concrete is agitated slowly. Lastly, when the concrete mixed in
transit, the drum is turned at the medium speed or about 8 rpm for 70 revolutions while driving
to the job site. The drum is then slowed to agitated speed.

Concrete mixers are loaded with a mixture of sand, aggregate, cement, water and other
binders which are mixed to produce a uniform mixture ready for construction. The type of
machine depends on volume of work and specific site conditions. The drum mixing method is
used in these machines. The equipment has a drum and a set of rotating blades inside. The
blades are engineered to lift materials as the drum rotate and this drop to the bottom when it
reaches the top. This cyclic process achieves a uniform mix.
Figure 7.8: Concrete truck

7.4.4 HOISTING EQUIPMENT

A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around
which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven
and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. There are two common types of
hoisting equipment which are mobile cranes and tower cranes. Mobile crane is crane that is
mounted on moving unit while tower crane is static and stuck into ground.

7.4.4.1 TRUCK MOUNTED CRANE

A truck-mounted crane has two parts which is the lower and upper. The carrier, often referred
to as the lower, and the lifting component which includes the boom, referred to as the upper.
These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side.
These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine
powering the undercarriage and the crane.

The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump
mounted on the lower. In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two
engines. One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the
outriggers and jacks. The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own.

Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special
equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place. It can
move heavy materials over short distances on the crane itself. Truck mount cranes has a better
site accessibility. Truck mount crane do not need the support pads required for conventional
crane setup. On a site where the ground is sandy or soft, a truck mount crane may perform
better than another model without the need for supports that are as large or extensive. Besides,
truck mount cranes require routine inspections to ensure safety and optimal performance, these
inspections are shorter because the crane is simpler and more compact.

Figure 7.9: Truck mounted crane

7.4.4.2 HAMMERHEAD TOWER CRANE

The Hammerhead crane or the “Giant cantilever” crane is a fixed jib crane that provides a so-
called “racking” motion. A hammerhead jib carries a trolley that traverses the bottom of the jib
to change the hook radius. Its upper load block is integral with the trolley. With the load hoist
rope dead end fixed at the jib tip, the hook maintains a constant elevation as the trolley changes
radius. Trolley travel is controlled by an independent winch and rope system. The advantages
of hammerhead crane used in construction are it is a static crane with a fixed location and often
used for specific purpose. The general data of selected machine are as below.
Figure 7.10: Hammerhead tower crane

7.4.5 PILE EQUIPMENT

Piles are formed by long, slender, columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced
concrete, or sometimes timber. The type of pile will determine the pile driving equipment that
is most suitable. Other determining factors include; height, manoeuvrability on the site, surface
conditions, obstructions such as existing surfaces, and so on. Piling equipment can be used to
drive piles into the ground, thus creating stable and solid foundations. There are various sorts
of piling equipment, such as hydraulic, vibratory and diesel-powered hammers, as well as
various types of cranes. As long as the principle of the pile driver has existed, so too have
variations on the device. Most of these variations have to do with the power source of the
device, as well as the method in which the device is used. Some of the types of pile driver have
come in and out of fashion over the last two centuries, while new technologies have been
developed to make the device more useful for large-scale industrial processes.
7.4.5.1 PILE MACHINE

A pile driver is a device used to drive piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings
or other structures. The term is also used in reference to members of the construction crew that
work with pile-driving rigs. Our company have chosen the Liebherr R942 HD-SL Vibro Rig
since it is suitable for our mall construction installation of an RC square pile with a diameter
of minimum 600mmx600mm. This machine offers an economical and time advantage for our
construction due to its engine capacity. Our company have chosen this machine due to noise
environment friendly since there is a school and residential nearby.

Pile-driving and drilling machines must function reliably. When used outdoors on
building sites, the swivelling joints of the leaders and the bearing positions on the swivelling
joints are subjected to harsh conditions, such as high temperature fluctuations, moisture and
dirt. When pile-driving, impacts and shocks subject the bearing position to stress. Pile driving
is relatively easy in many soils. Since the soil at the toe is in a compacted condition for
displacement piles, end bearing can often carry a substantial load. There are no "soft bottom"
soil conditions so large settlements for end bearing piles are eliminated. Driven piles displace
and compact the soil. Other deep foundation options can require the removal of soil and
considerable subsidence, which can undermine the support of adjacent structures and cause
excessive deformations, both of which can result in structural problems.
Figure 7.11: Pile machine
7.5 SITE WORK

Site wok normally references all excavation, backfill, etc. for the project. In addition to all the
earthwork required on a project the incorporation of miscellaneous things such as retaining
walls, paving, concrete walks and patios, landscaping, erosion and sedimentation control, etc.
can be included. The site work scope of work is in numerous occasions, all the scope of work
activities on the exterior of the project. Site utilities are normally included as well as the
excavation and backfill for the electrical site lighting, the irrigation, etc. on the project.
Depending on the project, a huge site work contractor perhaps chosen as the common
contractor on a large site work project.

7.5.1 SITE VISIT

Site visits have been done for this project at our selected site area. We have chosen Bukit
Gambir, Tangkak and Bakri, Muar as our site. Initially, we choose Bukit Gambir as our site
area but after few considerations due to limited knowledge in that area, Encik Izzat (TPM
Technopark/ JCorp Technician) have suggested to visit his company project located at Bakri,
Muar which is under his supervision too.

We have visited these two site visits and gained new experiences on doing three site
works during these visits including plastering work, welding, and driving excavator. The
person in charge during our site visit at Bukit Gambir is Encik Izzat (TPM Technopark/ JCorp
Technician) and Encik Norashikin (Project Manager of Pembinaan Jurubina Sdn. Bhd.) in
Bakri, Muar. We run the site visit for 9 weeks from February to May. The details for first and
second site visit for the site work process is as below:
First site:

Venue : Masjid Bukit Gambir, Tangkak

Date : 8 March 2018

Time : 9:00 am – 2:30 pm

Person involved:

1. En Muhd Izzat Bin Mohd Raini (Technician)


2. En Fikri Irshad Bin Mokhtar (Site Supervisor)
3. Abdul Hadi Iz’aan Bin Ibrahim (Student)
4. Adriana Farniza Binti Pozi@ Fauzi (Student)
5. Muhammad Nazmi Aiman Bin Zulkaply (Student)
6. Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi (Student)
7. Wan Muhammad Faiz Farizal Bin Wan Yahya (Student)

Tentative :

Time Activities

9.00am – 9.30am We went to site visit at Bukit Gambir, Johor.

9.30am – 10.30am We arrived there and site technician, En Izzat invited us to the site
office. He explained briefly about the project.

10.30am – 11.30am En. Izzat brought us to the site. Since the project is still ongoing, he
offered himself for site tour.

11.30am – 11.45pm We started our first site work which is plastering. The site
supervisor, En. Fikri taught us the procedure for plastering (refer to
3.0: Plastering Work)

11.45am – 12.00pm En. Fikri taught us the next site work which is welding work and its
procedure. (refer to 4.0: Welding)

12.00pm – 2.30pm The site works are finally done. Then, En. Izzat continue to the
Question and Answer session.

2.30pm Site visit is done, we thanked En. Izzat for his corporation.
Figure 7.12: Arrived at Masjid Bukit Gambir, Tangkak.

Figure 7.13: Site visit with Encik Izzat, TPM technician


Second site:

Venue : Muar Timber Industrial Park, Mukim Jalan Bakri, Muar.

Date : 15 March 2018

Time : 11:00 am – 3:30 pm

Person involved:

1. En Norasikin Bin Mat Ani (Project Manager)


2. Cik Shaidda Binti Mohd Yusof (Project Engineer)
3. En. Muslim Bin Norasikin (Safety Officer)
4. En Hamad Bin Abdul Wahid (Surveyor)
5. En Ahmad Bin Md Senin (Head Technician)
6. En Muhd Izzat Bin Mohd Raini (Technician)
7. Abdul Hadi Iz’aan Bin Ibrahim (Student)
8. Adriana Farniza Binti Pozi@ Fauzi (Student)
9. Muhammad Nazmi Aiman Bin Zulkaply (Student)
10. Noor Fateen Nabiella Maulad Azemi (Student)
11. Wan Muhammad Faiz Farizal Bin Wan Yahya (Student)

Person involved (unofficial):

1. Mr. Lim Kee Soon (Operator)


2. Mr. Lee Chen Xiang (Operator)
3. En. Aspar Bin Kanimon (Operator)
4. En Suhadi Bin Sahak (Operator)
5. En Maskuri Bin Suparjan (Operator)
6. Mr. Katlimuthu (Operator)
Tentative :

Time Activities

10.30am – 11.30am We went to site visit at Bakri, Muar

11.30am – 12.00pm We arrived and the project manager, En Norasikin Bin Mat Ani
invited us to the site office. He explained briefly about the project,
history of site and existing structures.

12.00pm – 12.45pm En. Muslim, safety officer of the project brought us to the site and
explained about safety on site, machinery used, technology adopted
and site restriction.

12.45pm – 1.00pm En. Hamad, the surveyor for the site explained a little bit about the
site topology and work progress at that time.

1.30pm – 2.15pm For our site work, the operator of excavator machine, Mr. Lim,
taught us to drive the excavator machine. He also explained about
the machineries used and its importance to speed up the process as
well as make the work easier to be done.

2.15pm – 3.00pm Question and Answer session that have been described in detail by
En Ahmad and Cik Shaidda. They answered most of our question
perfectly.

3.00pm – 3.30 pm Last speech by En Norashikin to conclude this site visit and our
representative, Wan Faiz Farizal to thank all of them for their
corporation.

3:30pm Headed home.


Figure 7.14: Machineries briefing.

Figure 7.15: Briefing about site history and topology with En. Muslim, En. Ahmad and En.
Izzat.
7.5.2 ACTIVITIES ON SITE

7.5.2.1 PLASTERING WORK

1. First, prepare the wall. Use a paint brush to expel any excess dust and dirt from the wall.
Gently brush the bricks with water, this helps the plaster to stick.
2. Make plaster mix. Pour water into your mixing bucket. Include three buckets of sand,
half a bucket of cement, and half a bucket of lime. Use the mixer to combine all of the
ingredients. Make sure to put on dust mask, safety glasses and protective gloves before
do the work.
3. Scoop up the plaster. Put a corner of the hawk into the plaster mix and use the trowel
to push the mix onto the hawk. Rest the trowel on the hawk, tilt the hawk back and rub
the plaster onto the trowel.
4. Next, apply the plaster to the wall. When applying plaster to the wall, work from top to
bottom and from right to left. Equitably spread the mortar over the wall. Proceed
applying the plaster until covered all of the wall.
5. Screed the wall. Once the plaster is touch dry, screed the wall. Screeding takes any
excess plaster off the wall to allow it a pleasant flat finish. Start at one side of the wall
and work your way across, keeping the straight edge level.
6. Check the plaster is level. Hold the spirit level vertically against the wall to check that
the plaster is flat and plumb. In case there is as well much plaster and the wall is not
flat, rub the spirit level into the plaster until it’s level.
7. Patch up the wall. After the final screed, there may well be areas where the plaster is
uneven or patchy. Use the trowel and hawk to apply plaster where it’s required.
8. Lastly, cut the corners of the wall. Run the side of the trowel along the four edges of
the wall – the left and righthand sides and at the top and bottom. This can be to make
sure the plaster is square to the wall, ceiling and floor. Use the trowel to rub and clean
up any plaster that has fallen on the floor.
Figure 7.16: Place the skim coat on the angle before we put the angle bar

Figure 7.17: The angle bar is placed onto the skim coat
Figure 7.18: Adriana is doing the plastering after the angle bar has been placed.

Figure 7.19: Hadi is plastering the column where the angle bar that has been placed.
7.5.2.2 WELDING

1. Firstly, before start the welding, get an auto-darkening welding protective cap. The
sparks and light that welding gives off is greatly shinning and can harm our eyes. There
is too the plausibility of metal debris or sparks flying into our face. Always wear gloves
when welding something.
2. Using a stick welder, set the welding machine to DC positive first. DC positive provides
a large amount of penetration and is the setting that you should use if you are just
starting out.
3. Next, set the amperage on the stick welder. Use the knob on the welding machine to set
the machine to the amperage that it recommends on the electrode’s packaging.
4. Put rod inside of the welding gun. Place the rod into the tip of the welding gun and
tighten the tip so that the rod remains within the gun.
5. Hold welding gun with two hands. It will improve the exactness and will assist weld
straighter lines. Strike the rod against the metal. Tap the tip of the rod gently onto the
metal and sparks should start to form. Successfully started the weld once we see and
hear sparks.
6. Make a straight line with the rod. Gradually move down the sheet of metal along with
the rod. Touch the metal with the rod for one or two seconds to tack weld.
7. After that, break the slag off with a hammer. After make the weld, metal will form over
the weld like a shell. This material is called slag and is incredibly hot. Gently tap the
slag with a hammer until it comes off in sheets.
8. Lastly, clean off the slag with a wire brush. Use a wire brush and rub back and forth
over the weld. Clean off the remaining slag and make sure there is no metal debris left
on the weld.
Figure 7.20: En. Fikri test the temperature of stick welder.
7.5.2.3 MACHINE TESTING

1. We were given briefing about the machine by the operator, Mr.Lim. The details are as
below:

a. Model : EC480DL
b. Dimensions
i. Length : 12.1m
ii. Width : 3.62m
iii. Height : 3.67m
c. Weight : 47400kg
d. Manufactured in : Korea

4. He told us some precautions on how to climb the machine. He told us to be careful so


that we not fall from the machine due to the machine’s height.
5. He taught us to drive the excavator. Firstly, push down the level that function as a
handbrake for the machine.
6. Control the left joystick and tilt the wrist to the left to rotate the cab and bucket towards
the left. Push it to the right and it rotates the cab and bucket to the right. It also will
raise and lower the boom.
7. Then, control the right joystick and push it forward to tilt the bucket out. Pushing
backward will tilt the bucket in. To scoop, tilt it toward yourself and the bucket curls
in. Tilt it away from you and the bucket curls away.
8. Before left the excavator, pull up the level to make sure the machine is at safety
condition.
7.6 PROCESSES AND FORMS IN APPROVAL STAGE

(Refer to attached paper)


APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
(EXISTING SERVICES DRAWING)
APPENDIX B
(CONTOUR DRAWING)
APPENDIX C
(PROPOSE LEVEL - BEFORE)
APPENDIX D
(PROPOSE LEVEL – DRAWING)
APPENDIX E
(MALL DRAWING)
APPENDIX F
(FOUNDATION DRAWING)
APPENDIX G
(BEAM DRAWING)
APPENDIX H
(COLUMN DRAWING)
APPENDIX I
(SITE VISIT PROVE)