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(65-79)

(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal,


79-65 ( ‫لثةرة‬ ) March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Petrographic and Petrological Investigations


of the Neogene Lignite of Chomatero-Koroni,
SW Peloponnes, Greece.
Polla Khanaqa
Kurdistan Technology and Research Centres / Kurdistan Region/ Iraq
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a petrographic analysis of drilled cores of the Neogene (Pliocene)
lignite deposit of Chomatero-Koroni basin in SW-Peloponnes, Greece. The study involve by studying
polished slabs of lignites under both fluorescent and polarized microscopes in order to derive a standard
quantitative analysis of the lithotypes components (macerel analysis) in addition to macropetrographic
description of lithotypes. The study has proved that lignites, the primary of plants organs and tissues are
not yet obscured by digenetic processes. Therefore, lithotype description provides significant information
regarding origin, composition and coal seam development in the Neogene lignite deposits of Greece.
For this study eight lignite bearing lithologies are selected which showed that the lignites are
characterized by a high proportion of xylites and tissue-dominated lithotypes. This corresponds well with
the dominance of humotelinites in the macerel spectrum. The abundance of xylites in combination with
the general lack of carbonate partings and some paleobotanical and palynological evidence can be used as
a strong argument for the origin of the Chomatero-Koroni lignite from a taxodiaceous swamp forest. This
is unusual for Pliocene lignites in Greece. Reflectivity measurements show values corresponding to those
of normal immature lignites. The classification of ICCP is used for the first time in this paper on the coal
of south Europe.
Keywords: Greece coal, coal petrography, organic petrology, lignite lithotypes, origin
of coal, Fluorescence intensity measurements, Vitrinit-Refection.

Introduction been studied mainly with the aim to assess


This paper presents
E-mail:the results of a their economic potential [6- 9].
drpolla@hotmail.com
Small open mines operated near Koroni
petrographic analysis of the Neogene
lignite deposit in Chomatero-Koroni and Falanthi intermittently during the period
Basin (SW-Peloponnes). It is part of a of 1939 to 1945 and later. Previous deter-
broad range of investigations regarding minations of the heat value (3400 kcal/kg),
the constitution and genesis of lignites water content (28.9%) and ash content
in Greece [1-5] and Antoniadis, (8.6%), probably run from whole seam
Khanaqa et al., 2005 in press] carried samples, and demonstrated the relatively
out during the last two decades by the high quality of the lignite [9]. In the future,
Department of Geology at the such high quality lignites may be considered
University of Göttingen in cooperation as a possible additive to low quality lignites
with the University and the National such as the Pleistocene lignites of
Megalopolis in electric power generation.
Technical University of Athens.
Based on micropaleontological evidence
Lignites from the deposit at
from marine interbeds in the accompanying
Chomatero-Koroni have previously
sediments as well as palynological studies of
the lignite horizons from bore holes and

65
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Figure 1: Generalized map showing the location of the Basin of Chomatero-Koroni and
the position of the studied core.

mine outcrops an early Pliocene age is sedimentary sequences of the Olonos-Pindos


assigned to the lignite deposit [10, 11]. Zone. These consist essentially of Upper
Conclusions regarding the constitution, Triassic to Upper Cretaceous limestones.
genesis and coalification of the deposit Radiolarites of Upper Jurassic to Lower
are restricted to results of petrographic Cretaceous age mark the deep sea stage of
study. Since palynological data are not Tethyan rifting. Flysch sequences of latest
productive Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) and Palaeogene
age complete the succession. Upper Jurassic
Gelogical Setting Pre-Neogene to Lower Cretaceous limestone and younger
The Neogene basin of Chomatero- flysch deposits form the pre-Neogene
Koroni is situated within the tectonic western margin of the basin near the lignite
zone of the Central-Hellenic nappes, deposit (see figure 1) [12 ,13].
which are here mainly made up of

66
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Conglomerate

Lacustine marl
m
0
1

Conglomerate
N
e
g
o
n
e

Lignite seam 2
Lacustine marl
Lignite seam1
Sand
Flysch
Limestone
Radiolarite
N
P
e
g
o
n
e
r
-

Limestone

Figure 2: General section of the Neogene succession in the Basin of Chomatero-


Koroni and the surrounding pre-Neogene rocks of The Olonos-Andos Zone
(adapted from Albatakis, 1987)

Neogene the basin and varies between 0.5 and 7m


The Neogene succession is schematically in thickness. A second sedimentary cycle
represented in figure 2. The basal is initiated by a thick (about 100m)
sandstone overlies the pre-Neogene conglomerate overlying the marl and
sequence disconformably and crops out upper lignite disconformably. This is
mainly at the northern margin of the basin. succeeded by 100m thick lacustrine marl
The sands were overlay by the main with abundant gastropods and bivalves
lignite seam (seam 1) with a thickness of covering most of the basin surface. A third
10 to 20m. It consists of several coal sedimentary cycle is indicated by another
horizons separated by thin interbeds. Over conglomerate which, however, is
most of its known extent the main seam is preserved in a small erosional remnant
overlain by a succession of grey marls only.
reaching a thickness of up to 70m. Quaternary deposits are restricted in areal
Another lignite seam (seam 2) is restricted extent and thickness within the study area.
in areal extent to the northeastern part of

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Petrographic analysis remains and matrix occur in about equal


For a comprehensive petrographic proportions are termed “mixed
analysis of lignites it is imperative to tissue/matrix lithotype”.
include both, a macropetrographic In addition, there are lithotypes
description of lithotypes and seam consisting mainly of woody material
sections and a standard quantitative (“xylitic lithotype”) or exhibiting fine
analysis of components under the layering (“laminated lithotype”) due to an
microscope (maceral analysis). In lignites, abundance of leaf remains or algal
primary features of plant organs and respectively bacterial mats. In Greek
issues are not yet obscured by diagenetic lignites is the close association of coal and
processes. marl often necessitates the recognition of
Therefore, lithotype description pro- “carbonaceous marls” and “marly lignite
vides significant information regarding lithotypes”.
origin, composition and coal seam The results of macropetrographic
development in the Neogene lignite analysis of the main seam (upper part) are
deposits of Greece. given in fig. 3. The left column represents
Portions of a drill core were provided by the succession of lithotypes as
LARCO Company for the present study. distinguished on the basis of the ratio
The location of the drill site near between matrix and recognizeable tissue
Chomatero is shown in fig. 1. A detailed remains. Immediately to the right the most
macropetrographic description of the common accessory components and
upper 7m of the main seam was carried inclusions such as seeds, leave remains,
out along with the determination of the wood (xylite) and charcoal fragments
microscopic composition (maceral (fusain) as well as root traces and shelly
analysis) and ash content of 8 selected material are listed.
samples. The upper portion of the main seam
In addition, reflectivity of suitable studied here begins with about 30 cm of a
macerals (eu-ulminite) was measured mixed tissue/matrix lithotype bearing
from two samples in order to determine abundant xylite fragments and some
the degree of coalification. leaves and other plant remains. It is
succeeded by 25cm of a xylitic coal made
Macropetrographic description of up of about 25 to 50% xylite fragments
seam section and numerous other indeterminable plant
The macropetrographic description of the remains. The tissue lithotype with a
seam section is based on the terminology thickness of about 25cm following above
and classification set up by [14] and still contains a number of xylite fragments
adapted to the specific conditions in addition to other plant remains. The
characterizing Greek lignites by [1]. This lithotype succession is continued by a
classification is based on an essentially nearly 80cm thick mixed tissue/
subjective assessment of the ratio between framework lithotype, in which seeds, root
recognizable tissue remains and fine- horizons, xylite fragments and charcoal
grained organic matrix. As a general rule, layers (fusain) can be recognized along
the terms “tissue lithotype” and “matrix with numerous indeterminable plant
lithotype” are used, if tissue remains remains.
respectively organic matrix are clearly The succeeding 2m of the seam section
dominant. Lithotypes in which tissue are characterized by lithotypes consisting

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

mainly of xylite. A distinction may be The detailed maceral composition on an


made between purely xylitic and xylite- ash-free basis is listed in table 1.
rich lithotypes depending on an estimated Classification of the vitrinite respecti-vely
proportion of more or less than 50% huminite maceral group is here adjusted to
xylite. In this part of the seam there are the system proposed by the International
several fusain horizons and layers with Commission of Coal Petrology in 1994
abundant seeds and randomly distributed and published later [15, 16] which is
other plant remains. The following 1.20m applicable to lignites as well as
are dominated by mixed tissue/matrix bituminous coals. Table 2 shows a
lithotypes which are particularly tissue- summary of this vitrinite maceral
rich and fusain bearing at the base and classification and the correspondence to
characterized in the middle by high xylite lignite equivalents.
content. A 10 cm thick xylite layer The maceral composition reflects the
separates this part of the section from the general abundance of xylite in the coal of
succeeding tissue-rich lithotype which, in Chomatero-Koroni by the content of
turn, is interbedded by xylite and fusain telinite, a common derivative of woody
layers. tissue.
The uppermost 1.20m of the seam is However, maximum telinite values do
made up of a narrow alternation of tissue not, as a rule, coincide with xylitic
rich lithotypes, mixed tissue/ matrix lithotypes in our samples. This may in part
lithotypes, xylite lithotypes, silty marls be due to sampling procedures, since the
and shelly layers. An increasing number matrix may have been preferentially
of fusain layers occur toward the top of sampled rather than the massive xylites
this section and, in addition, xylite themselves. In part, this may also be due
fragments and leaf remains. to the fact that in the common maceral
The macropetrographic description of the classification telinite macerals, i.e.
core shows that the Pliocene lignite of textinites and texto-ulminites (Plate2.3
Chomatero-Koroni is characterized by a and Plate2.2) in the original lignite
high proportion of xylite and dominated maceral classification, derived from
by tissue-rich lithotypes. Fusain layers xylites are not distinguished from those
occur particularly in association with derived from other sources of tissues.
xylite rich horizons and the topmost High values of telinites can therefore also
portion of the seam. The shelly and marl be due to good preservation of mesophyll
layers near the top indicate the transition tissue. In most samples the gelified form
to the lacustrine marls overlying the seam. of telinite (texto-ulminite) predominates
over the ungelified variety (textinite).
Micropetrography
In selecting the (8) samples for the The detritic component (collodetrinite),
determination of the micropetrographic too, is generally highly gelified and, thus,
composition the highly variable upper part represented by the maceral type densinite
of the seam section was sampled more (Plate2.1) according to the traditional
closely in order to be able to observe the lignite maceral classification.
expected changes in maceral composition. Collodetrinite is clearly subordinate in
The results are summarized in graphic abundance to telinite in most samples
form in fig. 3 and related to the exceeding telinite in two samples only.
macropetrographic seam section.

69
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Core Macro Sample- Micropetrography


Depth petrography number (maceral composition)

Figure 3: Macropetrographic seam section showing the upper part of the main
seam and the maceral composition of selected lithotypes

The proportion of gelovitrinite is highly more evident in the diagram of fig. 4 in


variable. gelovitrinite values reach their which only the proportion of vitrinite
maximum in the one sample at the top of macerals, i.e. telinite, collodetrinite and
the seam near the transition to the gelinite are shown.
overlying marl. The liptinite component shows great
It seems to be noteworthy that high variation with regard to the proportion of
values of gelovitrinite are mainly due to the total maceral content (between 1% and
the occurrence of gelinite (Plate1.6) while 20%) as well as the proportion of maceral
corpogelinites play only a minor role types within the liptinite group.
despite good representation of tissue Particularly rich in liptinite (more than
remains. The contrast between high 20% of total maceral content) are the
telinite and low gelinite values becomes mixed tissue/matrix lithotypes near the top

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

sample (4) and near the base of the section (xylitic coal). In contrast, the proportion
sample (11). The high liptinite values in of mineral matter is as low as 4 to 6% in
sample (4) are mainly due to a resinite the lower part of the studied section. The
(Plate1.5) content of 7.5%. But values of ash content determined by
liptodetrinite, sporinite, and cutinite heating to 810°C according to ISO-norm
(Plate1.3 and Plate1.4) are quite common 1171 differ in part considerably from the
there as well. optically determined mineral matter
In sample (11) liptodetrinite is the most values and are generally higher.
frequent liptinite type, however, cutinite Apparently, diffusely distributed clay and
and resinite are well represented, while carbonate are only insufficiently recorded
sporinite plays a subordinate role only. in petrographic sections, while pyrite is
Cutinite is also quite abundant in the decomposed and much of its weight was
xylitic lithotype from the centre of the lost during heating.
studied section sample (9).
Characteristic for the entire lignite is the Determination of rank
near lack of alginite and bituminite Two samples, (9a and 11), which differ
(Plate1.2) and the only sporadic markedly in their maceral composition,
occurrence of suberinite (Plate1.1) and were selected for the determination of
fluorinate. In addition to the high liptinite rank. Reflectivity was measured on eu-
content the mixed tissue/matrix lithotype ulminites (telinites) following recom-
of sample (11) is characterized by an menddations for rank measurements of
unusual inertinite content of 21%, which lignites by ICCP. Some measurements on
is mainly due to the genetically related gelinites (eugelinites) were included.
maceral types fusinite (Plate2.4), Spectral fluorescence of sporinites has
semifusinite and inertodetrinite. High been omitted as a rank parameter since it
inertodetrinite values are also recorded in was obvious from maceral analysis that
sample (6) (tissue dominated lithotype). colour and intensity of fluorescence in
Optically deter-mined values of mineral sporinites varied greatly possibly due to
content are highly variable especially in oxidation of exines prior to being
the upper part of the seam. Pyrite content embedded into sediment.
reaches nearly 40% in sample (7) (mixed Thus, reliable values could not be
tissue/matrix lithotype). The proportion of expected from sporinite fluorescence.
other mineral matter (mainly clay and
quartz grains) exceeds 30% in sample 3

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‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
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Telinite

3
25 6 75
12

4
50 9 50
1

7
11
75 25

Collodetrinite 25 50 75 Gelinite

Figure 4: Relative proportion of macerals within the vitrinite group.


The diagram shows the predominance of telinite over collodetrinite
and the low proportion of gelinite.

Figure 4: Relative proportion of Macerals within the Vitrinite group. The diagram
shows the predominance of Telinite over Collodetrinite and the low proportion of
Gelinite

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

60 60
Sample 9 Sample 11

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 .275 0 .37 5 0 .425 0 .47 5


% 0 .275 0 .375 0 .425 0 .47 5
%
0 .325 0 .325

Figure 5 : Reflectograms from two samples shown good agreement of reflectivity


(Measurement of Vitrinite-Reflection on Eu-Ulminite and Eu-Gelinite).

The reflectograms of fig. 5 show good heating values of low rank coals depend to
agreement of reflectivity values between a considerable degree on coal lithotype
both samples. This is especially true if the and that reflectance values may provide a
few values above 0.4% in sample (9a) are more reliable measure of rank.
omitted. The average reflectivity of
0.325% corresponds to that of low rank Discussion
lignite (Weichbraunkohle). Comparable The lignite of Chomatero-Koroni clearly
values have been obtained from other differs from other important Plio-
Neogene lignites in Greece, e.g. the Pleistocene lignite deposits in Greece such
Lower Miocene lignite of Aliveri, Evia as the Pliocene lignites in the basin of
(0.27% to 0.33% Rm, [17] ), the middle Ptolemais [21] and the Pleistocene lignites
Miocene lignites of Moschopotamos of Megalopolis Peloponnes [3] and
(0.32% to 0.35%, [2] ) and the Pliocene Drama [20] by its high xylite content and
lignite of Ptolemais (0.31 to 0.33% Rm, the near lack of carbonate interbeds. On
[18] ). In contrast, Pleistocene deposits in the other hand, xylite-rich lignites are
Greece show slightly lower reflectivity known from Miocene deposits in Greece,
values, e.g. the Pleistocene lignites of such as Aliveri, Evia [5] and Vegora [22].
Megalopolis, Peloponnes (0.26% to The abundance of xylites in these
0.31% Rm, [19] ) and the somewhat Miocene deposits may be explained by
younger lignites in the basin of Drama their origin from taxodiaceous swamp
(0.28% to 0.31%, [1] ). forests, while the scarcity of xylites in the
According to the classification of Greek younger lignites may be due to their origin
lignites given by Chassapis et. Al. [20] from herbaceous swamps respectively
based on heating values (A.S.T.M. mires [21 and 4]. Similarly, the high xylite
Standards) the lignites of Chomatero- content suggests an origin from
Koroni rank as lignite B. It should be taxodiaceous forest swamp for the
noted, however, that heating values of Chomatero-Koroni lignites as well.
Greek lignites presented by [20] vary Hopefully, this should be confirmed by
within much wider ranges than the future studies of the xylotomy, carpology,
reflectance values listed above. Since palynology and organic petrology from
there is generally good control on the type additional new sections with high
of maceral used in reflectance resolution. The high proportion of
measurements it is concluded here that taxodiaceous pollen mentioned by [11

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

and10], however, strongly supports the [25] which are also the basis for the
idea that taxodiaceous swamp forests present paper. Of particular interest is the
played an important role in the original plot of the gelification index (ratio of
mire environment. Results of carpological gelified to ungelified humic macerals) vs.
studies by [23] suggest that Glyptostrobus the tissue preservation index (ratio of
(Taxodiaceae) was an important part of structured to detritic macerals) as
the swamp forest. However, the suggested by Diessel [26]. In the diagram
palynological results of [10] as well as shown by Antoniadis & Lampropoulou
preliminary studies in the open mine of [24] the majority of samples are grouped
Agias Pelagias (Kaouras, personal within the field designated by Diessel [26]
communication) indicate that fern spores to represent a dry forest swamp
and pollen of herbaceous plants are also environment. Only samples (6) and (12)
important elements in the pollen indicate a tendency toward wet forest
assemblages of lignites in the area. swamp. Though Scott [27] cautions
Macropetrographic evidence, however, against the exclusive use of macerals in
strongly suggests that lignites in the the reconstruction of environments of coal
section studied here originated from a formation there is good agreement
relatively dry forest swamp. between maceral derived reconstructions
Antoniadis & Lampropoulou [24] and evidence thus far collected from other
attempt to interpret the depositional sources, i.e. macropetrography,
environment of the Chomatero-Koroni palynology [10] and carpology [23] with
lignite by applying various indices to the respect to the depositional environment.
maceral data presented by Antoniadis et al However, it is

evident from this study and should be struction of peat forming environments in
emphasized that macropetrographic low rank coals.
lithotype analysis is an indispensable It seems to be particularly important to
source of information for the recon- point out that during the Pliocene
taxodiaceous swamp forests prevailed as

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

coal forming environments in the south of


Greece in contrast to northern Greece Aknowledgements
where the Taxodiaceae seem to have been I am deeply indebted to Prof. Riegel,
reduced in their role and largely replaced Univrsity of Goetingen, or offering many
by reed environments in wetlands since suggestions and corrections during all
the Messinian event [4]. Thus, the stages of this work.
Messinian event apparently had different My sincere thank Prof. Dr. Antoniadis,
effects on the regional vegetation Technical University of Athen for his help
depending on latitude as well as in fieldwork and photographing many
ecological habitat. features in this Paper.
References
[1] Kaouras, G. Antoniadis, P., Blickwede, H., & Riegel, W., Petrographische und
palynologische Untersuchungen an Braunkohlen im Becken von Drama,
Ostmakedonien (Griechenland). – N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1991, 3 (2). ,145-162.
[2] Khanaqa, P., Petrologische und sedimentologische Untersuchungen an der miozänen
Braunkohle von Meliadi und Moschopotamos (Griechenland). – Unpublished
Diploma thesis Univ. Göttingen: 1989, 118.
[3] Nickel, B., Riegel., W., Schönherr, T., & Velitzelos, E.,: Environments of coal
formation in the Pleistocene lignite at megalopolis, Peloponnesus (Greece) –
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Paläont. Abh. 1996. (200)1-2, 201-220.
[4] Riegel, W., Kaouras, G., & Velitzelos, E. Ecological aspects of coal formation in
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[5] Riegel, W., Wehmeyer, D., Meinke, K., Schwarz, G., Apostolikas, A., & Velitzelos,
E., Succession of depositional environments in the Neogene Basin at Aliveri, Evia
(Greece). – Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 1989, 70 (1), 261-273
[6] Albatakis, N., & Maglaras, K. Sedimentologische Untersuchungen des
Braunkohlebeckens von Koroni (Griech.). – Larko, A.G., priv. Archive, Athens. 1978:
[7] Albatakis, N., & Tsagarakis, D.,: Das Braunkohlebecken von Chomatero-Messinien
und ihre Verwertbarkeit. - Larko, A.G., priv. Archive, Athens, 1980.
[8] Fitrolakis, N., Geological map of Koroni-Pilos-Schiza, (1: 50.000). – IGME, Athens, 1980.
[9] Karageorgiou, M.,: Koroni, Velika and Kaliani lignite Basin. – Geol. Reconn. IGME,
Athens, 1951, (4) , 1-10.
[10] Koutsouveli, A., Mettos, A., Tsapralis, V., & Ioakim, C.,: Evolution et
reconstitution du paleoenvironment de la region de Koroni (Peloponnese meridionale,
Grece) en cours du Plio-Pleistocene d´après les analyses micropaleontologiques et
palynologiques. – VIII Congr. Reg. Comm. Mediter. Neog. Stratigraphie
(R.C.M.N.S.), Budapest, abstract. 1985.
[11] Ioakim, C., Palynologisch-stratigraphische Untersuchung der Bohrungen 553 und
655 in der Umgebung von Chomatero-Koroni. – IGME Athens, unpubl. Report,1986,
1-4.
[12] Fitrolakis, N.,: Geologische Untersuchungen im Becken von Pilis (Messinien). –
Ann. Geol. Pays Hell. 1968, 21 , 114-120.
[13] Fitrolakis, N., Geologische Untersuchungen in der Provinz von Pilias (Messinien).
– Ann. Geol. Pays Hell. 1971, 230.57-122.

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫ بةرط‬2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

[14] Vogt, W.,: Der makropetrographische Flözaufbau der rheinischen Braunkohle und
Brikettiereigenschaften der Lithotypen. – Forts. Geol. Rheinld. Westf. 1981 (2)29, 73-
89.
[15] International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP). The new vitrinite
classification (ICCP System 1994). – Fuel ,1998, 77 (5), 349-358.
[16] Taylor, G.H., Teichmüller, M., Davis, A., Diessel, C.F.K., Littke, R., & Robert, P.,:
Organic Petrology. – Borntraeger, 19981, 704.
[17] Meinke, K., Petrologische Untersuchungen an der miozänen Braunkohle von
Aliveri, Euböa (Griechenland). – Unpubl. Diploma thesis Univ. Göttingen part (II),
1987, p.1-98.
[18] Blickwede, H., Kohlenpetrographische Untersuchungen an den Braunkohlen von
Ptolemais (Nordwest Mazedonien, Griechenland). – Unpublished Diploma thesis
Univ. Göttingen, 1991, 1-42.
[19]Schönherr, T.,: Petrologische Untersuchungen an der Braunkohle von Megalopolis
im Tagebau Thoknia. – Diploma thesis Univ. Göttingen part (2),1987, 1-71. Unpub.
[20] Chassapis, K., Angelopoulos, K., & Katakis, D., Studies of the low rank Greek
coals. 1. Classification. – Intern. J. Coal Geol. 1989 (11), 305-314.
[21] Kaouras, G., Kohlepetrographische, palynologische und sedimentologische
Untersuchungen der pliozänen Braunkohle von Kariochori bei Ptolemais/NW-
Griechenland. Doctoral Diss. Univ. Göttingen 1989, 1-200.
[22] Velitzelos, E.,: Beiträge zur neogenen Flora Nordwest-Makedoniens. Die
Makroflora aus dem blauen Mergel des b-Komplexes im Becken von Vegora und die
Frage der Braunkohlegenese. – Proc. 6th Coll. Geol. A. Region, Athens, 1977, (3)1,
1155-1158.
[23] Velitzelos, E., & Gregor, H.-J. Neue paläofloristische Befunde im Neogen
Griechenlands. – Documenta naturae, 1985, 25 (1), 1-4.
[24] Antoniadis, P., & Lampropoulou, E., 1992: Depositional environment
interpretations based on coal facies analysis of Chomatero-Koroni lignite deposit. –
Documenta naturae (96) 13-24.
[25] Antoniadis, P., Kaouras, G., Khanaqa, P.A., & Riegel, W., Petrographische
Untersuchungen an der neogenen Braunkohle im Becken von Chomatero-Koroni,
SW-Peloponnes, Griechenland. - Acta Palaeobot. 1992, 32 (1), 27-37..
[26] Diessel, C.F.K., The correlation between coal facies and depositional environ-
ments. – Adv. Study of the Sydney Basin, Proc. 20th Symp. Univ. Newcastle, 1986,
19-22
[27] Scott, A.C.,: Coal petrology and the origin of coal macerals: a way ahead? – Intern.
J. Coal Geol.,2002. 50 (4), 119-134.

‫وطرافى لةسةر خةلَوزى بةردينى‬ َ ‫ولَينةوةى ثيَتر‬َ ‫ليَك‬


‫وماتيَرو‬
َ ‫ك‬
‫ونيَس لة يونان‬
َ ‫وث‬
َ ‫وذئاواى ثل‬َ ‫ر‬
ِ ‫ونى باشورى‬ َ ‫ور‬
َ ‫ك‬
‫ثؤل خانةقا‬
‫ عيَراق‬/ ‫هةريَمي كوردستان‬/ ‫دةزطاي تةكنؤلؤجياو توَذينةوةى زانســتى كوردستان‬

78
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪ 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫ثوختة‬
‫ل كردنةوةى ثيَتروَطرافــى خةلَوزى بةردينــى نيوَجيــن‬ ‫ئةم توَذينةوةيــة لة ئةنجامــى شيتة َ‬
‫( بليوَـسين) دةكوَلَيَتةوة‪ ,‬كـة لة ناوضةى كوَماتيَرو‪-‬كوَرونـى هةيـة‪ ,‬كـة دةكةوي َـتة باشورى‬
‫رِوَذئاواى ثلوَثوَني َـــس لة يونان‪.‬ئةوةى ئةم توَذينةوةيـــة بةدةســـتى هي َـــنا‪ ،‬ليَكوَلَينةوة بوو‬
‫لةســةر (‪ )polished slabs‬ى ليطنايــت لة ذي َ ـر مايكروَ ـسكوَثى فلوَرس ـيَنت كــة ئةذمارى‬
‫شيكردنةوةى ثيَوانةيـــى بوَ ثيَكهاتةكانـــى ليتوَتايـــث ( شيكردنةوةى مةســـيرالى) دةكات‬
‫سـةرةرِاى باسـى مايكروَطرافيكـى ليطنايتةكـة‪ .‬ئةم ليَكوَلَينةوةيـة سـةلماندى كـة ثيَكهاتةى‬
‫‪Prozess‬ثي َـك نةهاتووة‪ .‬لةم ثيَكهاتةيــة دةتوانري َـت ئةندام و‬ ‫بنةرِةتــى بةهوَى ‪Digenetic‬‬
‫َ‬
‫شانـة رِووةكيةكان ديارى بكري َـت‪.,‬لة ئةنجامـى هةلبذاردنـى هةشـت نموونةى (ليطنايـت)‬
‫وثر‬
‫وةك دةركةوت ريَذةيةكى بةرز لةتةختة (‪ )Xylite‬و شانةى رِووةكي بةشيَوةيةكى ضرِ ِ‬
‫ل رِيَذةى هيموَتيَلينايـــت دةطونجي َـــت‪ .‬رِيَذةى كســـيليت وبوونـــى‬ ‫تيَدايـــة‪ ,‬ئةمةش لةطة ًَ‬
‫كاربوَنايـــــت ومادةى رِووةكـــــى تايبةت‪ ,‬ئةوة دةســـــةلميَنيَت كـــــة خةلَوزى كوَماتيَروَ‬
‫سةرضاوةكةى دةطةرِيَتةوة بوَ دارستانى ‪. Taxodiaceous Swamp‬‬
‫رِيَذةى ثيَوانةيـى ثلةى تيشكدانةوةى ظيترينايـت (‪ )Vitrinite-Reflection‬دةيسـةلميَنيبَت كـة‬
‫ئةو خةلَوزةى توَذينةوةى لةســـةر كراوة بريتييـــة لة ليطنايتـــى ثيَنةطةيشتوو لة رِووى‬
‫جيوَلوَجيةوة‪.‬بـؤ يةكةميـن جار دةسـت كرا بـة بةكارهيَنانـى ثوَليَنكردنـى )‪ ,ICCP( 1994‬لة‬
‫سةر خةلَوزى باشورى ئةوروثا‪.‬‬

‫الدراسة البتروجرافية على فحم الكوماتيرو‪-‬كورونى في جنوب‬


‫غرب بلوبونيس‪ ,‬يونان‬
‫ثؤل خانقا‬
‫هيئة كوردستان للتكنلوجيا والبحث العلمي‪/‬اقليم كوردستان‪ /‬العراق‬

‫ألخلصة‬
‫تقدم البحث دراسة لنتائج التحاليل البتروجرافية لفحم النيوجين (بليوسين) المتوفرة في‬
‫حوض الكوماتيرو‪-‬كورونـى‪ ،‬الواقـع فـى جنوب غرب بلوبونيـس فـى اليونان‪ .‬انجزت البحـث‬
‫دراســة على ((‪ polished slabs‬للليجنايــت تحــت المهجــر الفلورســنت‪ .‬حيــث تــم حســاب‬
‫التحليــل القياســي للمكونات الليتوتايــب (التحليــل المســيرالي) بالضافــة الى الوصــف‬
‫المايكروجرافي‪ .‬لقد اثبتت الدراسة بان التراكيب الساسية لم تتكون بواسطة العمليات‬
‫التحويرية‪ .‬ومن هذه التراكيب يمكن تحديد العضاء و النسجة النباتية‪.‬‬
‫لقـد تـم اختيار ثمانيـة نماذج مـن الليجنايـت‪ .‬حيـث اظهرت انهـا تمتاز بالنسـبة العاليـة مـن‬
‫الخشــب (‪ )Xylite‬و النســجة النباتيــة وهذه تتوافــق مــع شيوع الهوموتلينايــت‪ .‬ان كثرة (‬
‫‪ )Xylite‬مـع وجود الكاربونايـت والمواد النباتيـة الخاصـة تثبـت بأن ذلك الفحـم يعود اصـلها‬
‫الى غابات ‪)Taxodiaceous Swamp(.‬‬
‫ان قياسـات درجـة النعكاسـية (‪ )Vitrinite-Reflection‬كشفـت ان الفحـم المدروس عبارة‬
‫عن ليجنايت غير ناضجة جيولوجيآ و هذا شائع للفحم البليوسين اليونانية‪ .‬ولول مرة تم‬

‫‪Received on 1/12/2004,‬‬ ‫اوروبا‪.‬لة ‪26/5/2005‬‬ ‫في جنوب‬


‫ثةسندكراوة‬ ‫‪ICCP ,1994‬‬
‫‪، 1/12/2004‬‬ ‫استخدام تصنيف‬
‫وةرطيراوة لة‬
‫‪Accepted on 26/5/2005‬‬

‫‪79‬‬