Anda di halaman 1dari 180

FA N A U T O

ET
M
J
SMART

AT I O N

SMOKE, EXHAUST AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS



A
PP
N

LIC ATIO

S M O K E , E X H AU S T

Aironn İklimlendirme Sistemleri San. ve Taahhüt A.Ş. AND PRESSURIZATION


Head Office: Tatlısu Mah. Şenol Güneş Bulvarı Mira Tower Kat: 2 D: 12
Şerifali - Ataşehir / İstanbul
Tel: (0216) 594 56 96 Fax: (0216) 594 57 17
E-mail: info@aironn.com.tr
SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS
Ankara regional directorate: Yıldızevler Mah. 708. Sok No: 8/2, 06550 Çankaya / Ankara
Tel ve Fax : (0312) 441 80 88 E-mail: ankara@aironn.com.tr

www.aironn.com.tr
EN
As you are well aware, everything starts with encouragement.
The demand that you will raise for your own products
today will promise the domestic goods to be of higher quality and
more reasonable day by day.
A nation that relies on its own is the
one that has gained the right to live.
Turkey may only advance with the development
of Turkish economy with Turkish hands.
Buy Turkish goods, use Turkish goods.
Let Turkish Lira remain in Turkey.

M. K. Atatürk
S M O K E , E X H AU S T

AND PRESSURIZATION

SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS
CONTENTS page

AIRONN:
Dynamic Air Management 5

Jet Fan Ventilation Systems for Car Parks 55

System Components 79

Project Management Process 89

Pressurization system 101

Jet Fans 117

J- Smart 121

Axial Fans 125

Fan Selection Curves 141

Tests and Certifications 163

References 171

FA N O T O
ET
M
J
AKILLI

AS
• YO N

U S
YG
I

ULAMA
1
Aironn:
Dynamic Air Management
6
A
ironn commenced operations with the purpose of being the manufacturers
in ventilation industry and forming its manufacturer identity as a speciali-
zed establishment focused on fans. Aironn, which manufactures fire,
smoke, pressurization fans and jet fans as its primary product group,
started out with setting up a Research and Development department. The company
considered Research & Development as a universal culture and strengthened its
competitiveness through innovation.

It was certificated that the Aironn products, which were tested by the organization
named Applus having an internationally accredited fire resistance test laboratory,
could resist to 300 °C for 2 hours. Aironn Tubeaxial Fan and Jet Fan groups also
have EN 12101-3 CE certificate.

Research & Development Department is separated into two working groups specific
to the subject; Combustion Group and Fan Design Group.

CFD studies and distinctive fan blade designs of Fan Design Group are carried out
within the body of Aironn. Aironn Test Laboratory established at the beginning of
2011 by means of fan test tunnels designed within Aironn as per the standards ope-
rates in order to experientially carry out the performance verification tests of axial
Fans, Cell Fans and Jet Fans within their product range.

While planning the location and design of test tunnels, the installations were con-
ducted with the foresight of a potential influence from flows outside the channels..
In the disciplines of air craft and mechanical engineering at the levels of bachelor
and master’s degrees, it is regularly checked if the values of fan performance mea-
surement realized by the expert engineers experienced in experimental aerodyna-
mics are in accordance with the verified numerical performance values.

7
8
The department of ‘Fire-Fan Interaction and Analysis Laboratory’ based on optical
methods will also be set up in the developing test laboratory in near future.

Aironn analyzes through CFD the real interaction of axial fans, which will function in
the smoke exhaust shaft and fresh air shaft of jet fan system, at the time of indoor
fires and proposes solutions.

Aironn also realizes the automation services of its installed systems. J-Smart, which
is especially developed for jet fan automation, is an innovative practice. J-Smart also
brings along a significant advantage in terms of initial in-
vestment costs. Since it requires less cabling and material,
it provides 50 % savings on such costs. The jet fan can be
run at the required cycle between 0 & 100. The motors
consume 7 to 8 times more power in start-up compared to
their routine operation conditions. In J-Smart system, star-
ting current is less than 80 %. The facts that it can operate
at a cycle between 0 & 100 and the starting current is low
provide energy saving between 30 % and 50 %. As the motor is a soft start, mecha-
nical parts do not have difficulty which extends the life of the system. Motor runs
more silently. Since J-Smart system provides more data, it enables the control of the
system in a more versatile and proper manner.

Aironn invests in employing a professional team of engineers in order to keep the


customer satisfaction as high as possible. By taking the advantage of having advan-
ced production facilities, it meets customer demands fast and comes up with flexible
solutions. Aironn, which can meet the expectations of the investors, mechanical
project office, implementation firm, control firm fast and be a solution partner if re-
quired, proves its customer oriented nature with post-sales services.

9
We are proud of being a domestic manufacturer investing in research
and development.

10
R
esearch and Development, which is the main principle
of production according to the mentality of Aironn,
closely follows up productivity, certification, technologi-
cal and scientific developments. In our CFD
(Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, we use 2 CFD
codes; Ansys CFX and CFD Design. We can now explain
the real behaviour of Aironn brand axial smoke exhaust
and jet fans, which we manufacture thanks to CFD
codes, for the evacuation of smoke in case of indoor
fires as well as their real interaction with the ambient
fluid system. The study on ascertaining the location and capacity of axial and jet fans
can now be explained via CFD numerically as well, and our firm is able to provide
objective answers to the customers. Aironn, with its CFD codes, can at the same
time make distinctive fan blade designs within its structure.

Aironn has many car park projects that solved via CFD the real interraction of jet fan
system and axial fans, which work with the smoke exhaust shaft and fresh air shaft,
to the fluid by applying smoke evacuation systems in car-parks at the time of fire.

Research and Development is the priority of our company that gains more and more
experience day by day in order to respond in the most correct and fastest way to the
immediate solution seeking of the market and calculation restrictions. Research and
Development department within Aironn is divided into two special study groups as
Combustion Group and Fan Design Group. Carrying out analysis as to under which
circumstances the indoor geometry and fresh air suction trigger and weaken fire in
case extinguishing system does not work in car-parks and enclosed spaces and
working on numerical methods are among the future goals of Combustion Group.
Fan design, on the other hand, is especially a sensitive subject that we pay special
attention to.

One of the mottos that we also adopted as our guidance is “There is no time and
cost difference between installing the pipe slanted or straight”. This might sound
simple to some, but is actually closely related to our fan design subject. In order to
improve the fluid system of our axial type smoke exhaust fans and jet fans, and
design fans which can function in line with the requirements of our customers, it is
required to improve the blades of the fans day by day.

11
Research and Development, which is the main principle of production
for Aironn, means efficiency and following up the technological
and scientific developments by also applying them. Aironn does
the following study exampled below for all the equipment of fans
produced by Research and Development and Design team;

ANALYSIS OF STRAINS ON THE SHEET METAL PARTS AS PER


SHEET METAL BODY DESIGN AND LOAD PATTERN IN AXIAL
FANS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

SUMMARY
In this study; in various sheet metal body designs, various sheet metal thickness
values and various load patterns, effects on load carrier sheet metal parts are exa-
mined by using finite element method. 3 different body types are studied and by
using different metal sheet thickness values in these body types, the conditions of
metal sheet parts that form the construction according to the parallel and vertical
fan axis installations are examined under static load.
Interior diameter of the examined fan is taken as 1250mm. Fan motor is a smoke
exhaust motor with 45 kW power and has a temperature endurance of 300°C/2H.
Fan propeller has nine blades.

Solidworks is used for CAD modelling and ANSYS v14 Mechanical is used for finite
element modelling.

In the study; various bending angles, bending times and sheet metal thickness
values are observed and various strain and stress values of motor and fan hub carr-
ying parts are recorded. Through these analyses, whether different constructions
and different sheet metal thickness values are convenient for the load pattern is
revealed.

INTRODUCTION
Fans are turbomachines which pressurize air and similar gases to make it flow through a
specific flow path. Generally, electric motors are used for driving fans. Fans consist of

Figure 1 – View of motor and propeller of axial fans

12
propeller, motor and body. Propeller and motor are assembled to the body by sheet metal
parts. In other words; body is the carrier of motor and propeller by support sheet metal
parts.

These sheet metal parts can be in various thicknesses, bending types and designs.
They are assembled to each other by welding and / or nuts & bolts to form the fan
body. The fan which is modelled has a cylindrical shaped outer body, 2 horizontal
ground assembly legs, 2 motor support legs and a motor carrying base.

Figure 2 – Computer modeled view of axial fan

MODELLING
3 different types of fan body were modelled. For cylindrical outer body, horizontal as-
sembly legs and motor support leg, the sheet thickness was taken as 4 mm. Two
different sheet thicknesses - 4 mm and 5 mm – were modelled for motor carrying
base. Various bending angles and extra bendings were tried for motor support leg.
Modelled fan bodies are;

Figure 3 – Body structure of bending angles of motor support legs for Type 1 fan body

13
Figure 4 – Additional bendings on motor support leg for Type 2 fan body

Figure 5 – Type 3 fan body and bending angles of motor support leg

Projection of the motor leg was reflected over the motor carrying base drawing, and
the surface where the force would be applied in the analysis was formed.

Figure 6 – Projection of the motor leg on motor carrying base.

14
By use of SolidWorks program, fan bodies whose design and modelling had been
made, were later saved in .SLDPRT format by ‘save as’ option. This newly saved file
was invited to the program once more, and solid bodies were deleted and surface
bodies were formed.

Figure 7 – Surface bodies were formed by deleting solid bodies on the drawing.

Figure 8 – Surface bodies which belong to fan sheet metal parts

Surface bodies obtained were then saved as in .STEP format again.

ANALYSIS
ANSYS Static Structural module was used during calculations by finite element
method. Static Structural window was opened within Workbench window which is

15
user interface and three dimensional figure models in STEP format were introduced
to the work page by selecting “import”.

Figure 9- ANSYS Workbench user interface and display image of Static Structural modules

As galvanized sheet was used at the stage of fan production, “structural steel” was
selected for the material features of parts for analysis purposes on “engineering
data” tab.

Figure 10 – “Engineering data” tab where the material features are introduced and material features

16
By opening work analysis file program window where the material features were int-
roduced, sheet thickness features for surface charts were set down.

Figure 11 – Sheet thicknesses were given separately for each part

As the sheets would be connected to each other by nuts & bolts method, the holes
on the sheets to be connected were grouped within. For this grouping, “Named
Selection” was used.

Figure 12 – Classification of holes to be bolt on

17
For the surfaces that are in contact, “Frictionless contact” type was selected. For de-
tached surfaces, “Pinball radius” was selected for the application of contact type.

Figure 13- Determination of the contact type and the selection of Pinball radius

For nuts & bolts method, “Bonded” contact type was applied to the edges of the clas-
sified holes. As the surfaces with holes were disjointed, it was enabled by use of
“Pinball radius” that the contacting edges identified each other.

Figure 14- Bolted joint contact type

18
After necessary contacts were identified for fan sheet body model, boundary conditi-
ons were set to the problem. For the axial rotation of the fan horizontally, “fixed support”
boundary condition was identified to the bottom surface of horizontal assembly leg
and the part was fixed in numerical space. The weight of motor and fan was taken as
P = 290 kg and the centre of gravity was calculated in Solidworks program.

Figure 15 – Calculation of the centre of gravity coordinates of the motor and fan

The centre of gravity coordinates are as follows; X= 0,14 mm Y= 2,29 mm Z =


-113,08 mm The centre of gravity coordinates took the diameter centre of cylindrical
sheet as reference.

In the definition of force for motor and fan, “Remote force” option was selected by
taking the centre of gravity coordinates of motor and fan as force application centre
of the force that is 2900N. Motor support leg projection surface was selected as
force application surface.

Figure 16- Definition of boundary conditions on fan body and loads

19
After the definition of necessary boundary conditions for analysis, the process of
meshing was initiated by calculations using finite element method. After meshing,
the mesh quality is as follows;

Figure 17 – View of sheet metal parts after meshing and Orthogonal Quality

Figure 18 – Aspect ratio after meshing

Figure 19 – Skewness distribution after meshing

20
Figure 20 –Element Quality after meshing

Figure 21- General view of Fan body after meshing

Figure 22 – Motor carrying base after meshing

After the completion of meshing, the problem, to which the boundary conditions and
loads were defined, was solved by use of Solve tab. Meshing and definition of boun-
dary conditions were reformed in line with the body type and load pattern.

21
COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS

1) Strains in Fan Body in Horizontal Loading


Four different analyses are made for horizontal loading. Fan body types and sheet
metal thicknesses in these analyses are:

1. Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-1
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

2. Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-1
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

3. Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-2
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

4. Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-3
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

Total Deformation of fan bodies

22
Figure 24- Analysis 2 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

Figure 25- Analysis 3 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

Figure 26- Analysis 4 – Total deformation of fan body in case of horizontal load

23
In case of horizontal load, deformations of fan bodies over motor carrying base were
observed to be more. In 4 different analyses carried out, the total deformation
values in case of horizontal load are as follows;
1st Analysis: 1,61 mm
2nd Analysis: 0,87 mm
3rd Analysis: 1,56 mm
4th Analysis: 1,55 mm

Equivalent Stress on Sheet Metal Parts

Figure 27- Analysis 1 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 28- Analysis 2 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

24
Figure 29- Analysis 3 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 30- Analysis 4 – Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

As seen in figures 27, 28, 29 and 30, the stress is concentrated on motor carrying
base and motor support legs. In 4 different analysis carried out, the maximum equ-
ivalent stress values on sheet metal parts are as follows;

1st Analysis: 188,08 Mpa


2nd Analysis: 150,12 Mpa
3rd Analysis: 128,98 Mpa
4th Analysis: 171,36 Mpa

25
Distribution of Equivalent Stress Safety Factor on Fan Bodies

Figure 31 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 32 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 33 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

26
Figure 34 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of horizontal load, minimum equivalent
stress safety factors came out as follows;

1st Analysis: 1,32


2nd Analysis: 1,66
3rd Analysis: 1,93
4th Analysis: 1,45

Distribution of Tensile Stress Safety Factor on fan bodies

Figure 35 - Analysis 1 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

27
Figure 36 - Analysis 2 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 37 - Analysis 3 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 38 - Analysis 4 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of horizontal load, minimum
tensile stress safety factors came out as follows;
1st Analysis: 1,21
2nd Analysis: 1,47
3rd Analysis: 1,82
4th Analysis: 1,44

28
Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base
in case of horizontal loading

Figure 39 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 40 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

29
Figure 41 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 42 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

In figures 39, 40, 41 and 42, it is seen that the stress that occurs on motor carrying
base is concentrated around motor bolt connection holes. Regional stress and de-
formations on parts are shown by color dispersion.

30
Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 43 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 44 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

31
Figure 45 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 46 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

In different analyses carried out for horizontal loading, the safety factor was over 1.
The minimum deformation value was observed in the second analysis and maximum
safety factor was in the third analysis.

32
1) Stress on fan body in case of vertical loading
7 different analyses were carried out for vertical loading. The types of fan body and sheet metal
thickness of parts used in the analyses are as follows;

1st Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-1
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

2nd Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-1
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (the number of motor connection holes is
reduced)
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

3rd Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-1
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

4th Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-2
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

5th Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-2
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (bends are welded)
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

6th Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-2
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm (bends are welded)
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 5mm

7th Analysis
• Fan Body Type: Type-3
• Horizontal Ground Assembly Leg Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Cylindrical Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Support Leg sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm
• Motor Carrying Base Sheet Metal Thickness: 4mm

33
Figure 47 - Analysis 1 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 48 - Analysis 2 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 49 - Analysis 3 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

34
Figure 50 - Analysis 4 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 51 - Analysis 5 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

Figure 52 - Analysis 6 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

35
Figure 53 - Analysis 7 • Total deformation of fan body in case of vertical loading

In case of vertical loading for fan bodies, it was observed that the motor support leg
was forced to be twisted due to moment effect caused by the load. As per 7 different
analyses, the total deformation values in case of vertical loading are as follows;
1st Analysis: 1,33 mm
2nd Analysis: 1,33 mm
3rd Analysis: 1,18 mm
4th Analysis: 1,33 mm
5th Analysis: 1,19 mm
6th Analysis: 1,01 mm
7th Analysis: 1,51 mm

36
Equivalent Stress on Sheet Metal Parts

Figure 54 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 55 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 56 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

37
Figure 57 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 58- Analysis 5 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

Figure 59 - Analysis 6 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

38
Figure 60 - Analysis 7 • Equivalent stress on sheet metal parts

As seen in figures 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60, the stress is concentrated on
motor carrying base and motor support legs. In 7 different analysis carried out, the
maximum equivalent stress values on sheet metal parts are as follows;

1st Analysis: 718,19 Mpa


2nd Analysis: 294,97 Mpa
3rd Analysis: 294,98 Mpa
4th Analysis: 245,48 Mpa
5th Analysis: 252,43 Mpa
6th Analysis: 254,42 Mpa
7th Analysis: 721,95 Mpa

In case of vertical loading, the equivalent stress was observed to have reached the
highest value in the 1st and 7th analyses.

Distribution of Equivalent Stress Safety Factor on Fan Bodies

Figure 61 - Analysis 1 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

39
Figure 62 - Analysis 2 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 63 - Analysis 3 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 64 - Analysis 4 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

40
Figure 65 - Analysis 5 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

Figure 66 - Analysis 6 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

41
Figure 67 - Analysis 7 • Equivalent stress safety factors on fan bodies

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of vertical loading, equivalent stress
minimum safety factors came out as follows;

1st Analysis: 0,34


2nd Analysis: 0,84
3rd Analysis: 0,84
4th Analysis: 1,01
5th Analysis: 0,99
6th Analysis: 0,98
7th Analysis: 0,34

Distribution of Tensile Stress Safety Factor on fan bodies

Figure-68- Analysis-1 Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

42
Figure 69 - Analysis 2 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 70 - Analysis 3 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 71 - Analysis 4 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

43
Figure 72 - Analysis 5 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

Figure 73 - Analysis 6 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

44
Figure 74 - Analysis 7 • Tensile stress safety factors on fan body

In analyses carried out for fan bodies in case of vertical loading, tensile stress
minimum safety factors came out as follows;
1st Analysis: 0,35
2nd Analysis: 0,79
3rd Analysis: 0,79
4th Analysis: 0,91
5th Analysis: 0,88
6th Analysis: 0,87
7th Analysis: 0,35
It was observed that the tensile stress was concentrated around the bending edges
of motor support leg.

Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carr-


ying base in case of vertical loading

Figure 75 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

45
Figure 76 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 77 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

46
Figure 78 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 79 - Analysis 5 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

47
Figure 80 - Analysis 6 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

Figure 81- Analysis 7 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor carrying base

In figures 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 and 81, it is seen that the stress that occurs on motor carrying
base is concentrated around motor bolt connection holes. Regional stress and deformations on
parts are shown by color dispersion.

48
Distribution of deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 82 - Analysis 1 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 83 - Analysis 2 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

49
Figure 84 - Analysis 3 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 85 - Analysis 4 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

50
Figure 86 - Analysis 5 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

Figure 87 - Analysis 6 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

51
Figure 88 - Analysis 7 • Deformation, stress and safety factors on motor support leg

In different analyses carried out for vertical loading, the safety factor was over 1 in
the 4th analysis. The minimum deformation value was observed in the 6th
analysis.

RESULT

As a result of static analysis for axial fans carried out by finite elements method as
per 3 different fan body types, various sheet metal thicknesses and different loading
conditions modelled on the computer; it was concluded that Type-2 fan body was
more suitable for horizontal and vertical loading conditions. For horizontal loading,
motor carrying base which is in 4 mm thickness was found sufficient whereas motor
carrying base in 5 mm thickness was deformed less in case of vertical loading.

52
OUR FAN TESTING LABS

It is a great source of pride both within ourselves and for our company to know that
our axial fan performance and motor power curves calculated by using numerical
methods are also confirmed experimentally.

While planning the location and design of test tunnels, the installations were con-
ducted with the foresight of a potential influence from flows outside the channels.

In the disciplines of air craft and mechanical engineering at the levels of bachelor
and master’s degrees, the values of fan performance measurement realized by the
expert engineers experienced in experimental aerodynamics were understood to be
in accordance with the verified numerical performance values.

53
2
System Components
1 Jet Fan Car Park
Ventilation System
Definitions

V
entilation systems designed for enclosed car parks are planned based on
two basic needs. First need is to discharge gases –listed below- which are
hazardous to human health and released by the cars in the garage during
daily use. Second one is to help the evacuation of people and intervention
of fire brigades to the fire and reduce financial damage caused by high temperature
in case of fire.

EXHAUST GASES
Nitrous dioxide NO2
Carbon monoxide CO
Benzene C6H6
Benzo(a)pyrene BaP
Sulphuredioxide SO2
Lead Pb
Carbon C
Ozone O3

CO EFFECT
CO Concentration (Parts Per Million) Effect

1500 Headache after 15 minutes, faint after


30 minutes, death after 60 minutes
2000 Headache after 10 minutes, faint after
20 minutes, death after 60 minutes
3000 Safe up to 5 minutes maximum, faint
after 10 minutes.
6000 Çok kısa sürede baş ağrısı ve baş
dönmesi, 10-15 dakikada hayatını
kaybetme.

Acceptable Maximum CO Concentration


World Health Organization 1987

CO Limit For 8 hours 25 ppm


For 1 hour 75 ppm

56
CAR PARK CO CONTROL
Germany Required CO ventilation level is 12-16m3/h-m2. This
makes 4 or 5 air changes per hour.
(Garagenveordnungen Der Länder)
England 6 air changes per hour is required in whole HVAC system
under normal circumstances. 50% of the exhaust points
must be near the ceiling, other 50% must be near the
ground. (Approved document B, Fire Safety, B3 section
11.6)
ABD ASHRAE 13.3 m3/h- m2 (3.7 l/s-m2)
NFPA 18 m3/h- m2 (5 l/s-m2)

CAR PARK CO VENTILATION


Air Change Fan Capacity per square
m3/h-m3 meter m3/h-m2
England 4.0 - 5.0 12.0 - 16.0
US 6.0 18.0
NFPA ASHRAE 4.4 13.3
NFPA 6.0 18.0

CAR PARK SMOKE CONTROL


Removal • Helping fire brigades
of with evacuation of smoke
Smoke more rapidly through
ventilation after the fire
is extinguished.

Discharge • It is made to help


of reducing smoke density
Smoke and temperature level EXHAUST EXHAUST EXHAUST
during fire.
• Smoke evacuation
system does not aim to
protect any part of the
car park against smoke
or help people’s
evacuation from
the car park.

Smoke • Helping fire brigades for


Control locating the source of fire
• Controlling fire more
rapidly SUPPLY EXHAUST SUPPLY
• Performing required
search and rescue
operations

57
STANDARDS FOR SMOKE CONTROL

BS 7346-7 Components for smoke and heat control, Part 7: Code of


practice on functional recommendations and calculation
methods for smoke and heat control systems for covered car
parks systems.

TS EN 12101 Smoke and heat control systems Part 5: Guidelines on


functional recommendations and calculation methods
forbsmoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems
Part 5: Calculation methods for smoke and heat discharge
systems.

NFPA 92 Recomended Practice for Smoke-Control System

Smoke released from fires in enclosed car parks is very dangerous because it can
move very fast through the partitions in the car park without encountering any
obstacles.
If these partitions are wide and height of the car park is low, smoke free lower layer
depth decreases and smoke spreads in whole car park and it gets difficult to find
the source of fire because of poor visibility.
About ten years ago, enclosed car park ventilation was used to be made by exhaust
of dirty air and supply outdoor air only by use of ducted system or ventilation of
outdoor air naturally. This sytem was also used for the exhaust of smoke at the time
of fire.
The fact that ducted HVAC systems are cumbrous in installation, cost, energy con-
sumption, artitechtual conditions and aesthetics has recently paved the way for jet
fan systems that are more innovative and ergonomic and resulted them to become
more popular and widely used.

Basic Principle in Jet Fan Systems

Basic principle of jet fan systems is directing smoke to the building exhaust ope-
nings (shafts) by creating momentum in necessary situations.This type of system
provides advantages in proper distribution of fresh air in the whole enclosed space
and exhaust of this air. This system is composed of main exhaust fans, exhaust
shafts; fresh air fans and fresh air shafts in multi storey car parks, jet fans, CO de-
tector systems, smoke or heat detector systems, smoke dampers, fresh air dampers,
main control panels and other panels.

58
Advantages of jet fan systems over other systems;

Because the only duct line in a jet fan system is the building shaft; pressure losses
in jet fan systems will be less than the other systems. Consequently, power con-
sumption and operating costs of fan motors used in jet fan systems will be less than
the other systems.

In ducted systems, 50% of the exhaust grills are designed at ceiling level and 50%
of them are designed at ground level. Because jet fan systems create high velocity
air flows at ceiling level; heavy gases at the ground level are directed to exhaust
shaft by mixing with the exhaust flow. Taking into consideration that the smoke is
stratified at the ceiling level at the beginning of fire, ducted system will only use 50
% of its capacity. When the smoke reaches the ground, it will not be able to provide
the visibility range specified in standards.

REVERSE STRATIFICATION

VENTILATION

FIRE SOURCE

Another advantage of jet fan systems is keeping smoke under control in case of fire
by partitioning the car park according to the fire scenarios. So, ducted systems can
discharge smoke but cannot control smoke.

Jet fan systems can discharge smoke faster than traditional ducted systems
which typically have 10 air change rate per hour.

Jet fans are only used for directing airflow and reverse stratification if air flow velo-
city exceeds critical air flow velocity. Because car parks are very wide spaces, airflow
control is much more complicated. Jet fans should prevent smoke from diffusing
transversely through proper design.

59
Jet fan systems should be considered as a whole. Every step concerning the system
should be considered properly and carefully. Proper design, CFD and car park analy-
ses are important steps in system’s design. Production, automation and service are
other important steps. Production should be supported by research and
development.

Fire Energy Is Transferred To Smoke Air Flow

Air Flow

Critical Velocity

60
2 System Design

2.1. Present Arrangements and Standards in Car Park Ventilation

It is required in our country that smoke exhaust system is used in enclosed


car parks over 2.000 m2. This is stated in article 60 under “Regulation on Fire
Protection of Buildings” (2009).

1. In order to consider the car parks, which are used for motor vehicles, as open
type, the total opening area must be more than 5% of the floor area. Otherwise,
these car parks are considered enclosed. In open car parks, if the openings are
on both facades, they must be opposing and each opening area must be more
than half of the total necessary opening area. If the openings face an open space
like an areaway, the width of the open space in question must at least be as high
as story height of the car park and for each additional story opening to areaway,
it must be increased at least as much as its half. In enclosed car parks covering
a total area of over 600 m2, automatic sprinkler system, fire extinguisher cabinet
and hose couplings must be present.

2. For enclosed car parks over 2.000 m2, mechanical smoke exhaust system must
be set up. This system must be independent from other systems serving other
parts of the building and provide at least 10 air changes per hour.

As there is no criterion in the fire code of our country regarding the use of jet fans,
“Internationally accepted standards should be taken as a basis in matters not stated
in the regulations“ should be applied. Most known and applied source, “Code of

61
RESEARCH AND DESIGN CFD
DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

PROJECT PRODUCTION TEST


DESIGNING

AUTOMATION COMISSIONING AFTER SALES


SERVICES

62
practice on functional recommendations and calculation
methods for smoke and heat control systems for covered
car parks” BS7346-7:2006, should be taken as a basis.
As per this standard, on the condition that jet fans are
used in car parks, smoke zones will be properly designed
for safety and automatic fire detection system will be set
up.
In the fire code of Turkey and other standards, it is stated
that 10 air changes minimum is required. However, the
word ‘minimum’ is generally omitted and ‘10 air changes’
is taken as a standard without the consideration of
design criteria. BS 7346-7:2006 mentions 4MW of fire
load in car parks having a sprinkler system. However, vehicles such as public trans-
port vehicles, minivans and jeeps, carry much more fire loads than what is specified
as a basis. As the usage of plastics has risen in the structure of such today’s vehic-
les, the fire load of these vehicles is at least twice more than the ones determined
for normal vehicles and there are also examples of some vehicles having five times
more fire loads. Also taking into account the materials used in automobile upholster,
the real fire potential will be much higher. While determining the smoke exhaust
rate, ‘10 air change’ generally remains insufficient.

The required minimum smoke exhaust theory should be based as per the following
data;

Released heat load : 4MW


Radiation losses : 25 %
Ring of fire : 12 m
Open section beneath the
smoke layer : 1.75 m
Supply air temperature : 15 °C

As per the specified values, the required minimum smoke exhaust rate is around
60.000 m3/h.

2.2. Criteria to be considered during design

At the stage of designing jet fan ventilation systems, the following points should be
taken into consideration in general;
• Exhaust points
• Fresh air intake points
• Fire load in design
• Means of Egress
• Fire-fighting (Fire brigades’ access point to the building)
• Car park geometry
• Required Fresh air flow rate
• Required Exhaust air flow rate
• Smoke control
• Activation of jet fans
• Other factors

63
2.2.1 Exhaust system

One or more exhaust outlets are placed at the points that are believed to be most
appropriate and practical. They are most ideal to be across the fresh air intake and
at the furthest point within the car-park borders. Minimum two parallel fans should
be placed to each exhaust shaft.Exhaust shafts should either be of ferro-concrete or
steel construction. These practices will enable an effective air flow within the car
park.
Big car parks should be divided into zones taking into account the standardized bo-
undaries and geometry. Each zone should have an exhaust shaft. These exhaust
shafts should be away from the zone borders if there is not any physical division in
between the zones. As per BS, zone border should be 2.000 m2 in sprinkler free
systems and 4.000 m2 in systems with sprinkler.

2.2.2 Fresh Air Supply

The car parks should be designed in a way to supply fresh air. In single storey car
parks, ramps usually supply this need. Fresh air supply enables the ramps that are
exposed to high concentrations of poisonous gas released due to traffic to be effici-
ently ventilated.

In multi-storey car parks, alternative ways are being developed for fresh air supply.
For fresh air supply in these car parks, holes for fresh air shafts are born on walls
and fans are placed inside the shafts.

2.2.3. Fire load calculation

Fire load calculation is an important factor for creating a realistic design and calcu-
lating a reliable ventilation flow rate.

It is generally accepted that 4 MW of energy is released from a car fire at peak heat
release rate. However, as stated earlier, some vehicle types have much more fire
loads than this.

2.2.4. Means of Egress

The emergency exit points and access route of fire brigades should be determined
at the stage of designing. To avoid exposure to smoke in emergency exit and fire
brigade access points, these points should be well identified. During jet fan distribu-
tion and localization of shafts, this factor should not be overlooked.

As shown in Figure 1, smoke is controlled at the time of fire in order to keep the po-
isonous gases away from the emergency exits and through that way, fresh air is pre-
served in bigger part of the car park.

64
This is one of the main differences that distinguish the ducted systems from jet fan
system. Ducted systems discharge the flue gases from the grills located both low
and high. Jet Fan Systems, on the other hand, different in principle provides a better
smoke control with the help of jet fans.

FRESH AIR

Figure 1 – General view of the jet fan smoke exhaust systems

Ducted System

50 % suction from
upper section

50 % suction from
lower section

65
2.2.5. Fire-fighting

Rendering the access of fire brigades to the building as well as their fire-fighting
efforts possible is the key factor of a car-park ventilation system. Regardless of
where the fire breaks out, the design of the building should allow the fire- fighting
teams to find at least one access point not affected by the smoke. So, by keeping
the visibility range at sufficient levels, it is enabled that the fire brigades approach
the scene safer and intervene in a more cautious way.

Ducted systems that can be identified as “traditional” cause the visibility range to
be at limited levels by letting smoke spread to all parts of the car park, so it hinders
human escape and fire brigades’ reach to the fire point as well as their intervention.
With the help of an exhaust flow rate calculated by taking the engineer’s approach,
jet fan system can control the smoke regardless of car park size. This will make both
the reach of emergency exit points and the access and intervention of fire brigades
possible.

2.2.6. Fresh Air Flow Rate

Fans inside shaft supply required amount of air and keep the CO concentration
inside the car park at a specific rate depending on the level of poisonous gases re-
leased due to vehicle traffic inside.
The highest CO concentration allowed by World Health Organization (WHO 1987) in
order to create a healthy environment inside the car parks is;
75 ppm for 1 hour
25 ppm for 8 hours
In German Standards (2004), this rate is declared as 50 to 60 in average for a 15
minute long period. In English Standards (2006), it is 30 ppm for 8 hours and cannot
exceed 90 ppm on ramps and holes for 15 minutes. The practice in our country is
close to German Standards.
Under normal ventilation conditions, air flow rates can be set as 3 air changes per
hour at the times when vehicle traffic is not intense inside the car park. The number
of jet fans that are controlled as per the level of poisonous gases inside and the qu-
antity of flow rates can be diversified.

The air change as per BS 7346 Standard for daily ventilation:


Single storey car park volume - 6 air changes per hour

For daily ventilation, ‘4 to 5 air changes’ is applied per hour in our country.

The cycle of the jet fans identified by the fresh air quantity supplied depending on
the smoke release and the exhaust quantity during fire is switched by means of
sensors. Fresh air supplied during smoke exhaust/discharge circulates all through
the fire zone by means of jet fans which are located according to the previously de-
termined fire scenario. By this way, the smoke is carried to the shaft dampers.
However, it is important to state that the shaft dampers only at the fire zone should
be open at the time of fire. The closed shaft dampers on other floors will prevent the
spread of smoke to these floors.

66
Region-1 Region-1

Region-2 Region-2

Region-3 Region-3

Fire
Control
System In
Region 2

Region-1 Region-1

Region-2 Region-2

Region-3 Region-3

Region-1

Region-2

Region-3

67
2.2.7. Smoke Control

Smoke exhaust system is set up in order to evacuate the people in the car park at
the time of fire before they are harmed by the smoke, increase the visibility range of
the fire brigades who arrive at the scene of incident and prevent the temperature
rise within the car park.
As a basic guide, in order to keep the smoke under control, it should be discharged
with the exhaust capacity as much as the least released smoke flow rate. Fan capa-
cities should be determined based on this criterion for car parks and zones less than
2000 m2 rather than 10 air change.
The smoke is directed to the exhaust point through an air corridor by the jet flows
created by the jet fans. At the time and after the exhaust system and jet fans catch
the smoke, a smoke corridor will be formed.
Jet fans to be activated at the time of fire depend on the zone where the fire breaks
out. The information provided through the fire detection system helps the fans
control the smoke flow.

The activation of all the jet fans available or many in numbers causes excessive and
unbounded air flow also overloading the shafts. So, the car parks are divided into
zones having proper smoke control within in order to avoid the unnecessary functi-
oning of jet fans in big car parks.

This principle is generally figured in Figure 2.

Figure 2- Zone functioning principle in general

68
Air velocity in the corridor should be designed in a way to overcome the buoyancy
force the smoke was exposed to due to fire load. For this case, a nominal load of
4MW is taken into account. As all the air exhausted from the car park will flow in the
smoke corridor, it will also have a significant cooling effect on the flue gas. This way,
the fire damage caused by the flue gas will be reduced to a certain extent.
The width of the smoke corridor depends on a number that changes based on factors
such as the height of the above of the car park beam, number of the beam and
depth of the beam, size of the car park and car park geometry.
Taking the factors affecting the width of smoke corridor as a basis; velocity related
with the height of the above of the car park beam is required for the control of the
flow created by a certain fire load. Taking this into consideration, the air flow volume
to be exhausted from the car park will need to be calculated depending on the fire
conditions. This is figured in Figure 3.

Figure 3- Smoke corridor

69
Figure 4- Protection of floors where there is no fire

2.2.7. Activation of Jet Fans

At the time of system design, the below listed criteria should be taken into conside-
ration in order to ensure reliability.
• Fan impulse
• Distance between fans
• Number of fans
• Exhaust flow rates of fans in shafts
• Smoke displacement quantity
• Location limits
Jet fan impulse enables the movement of 8 times more of the air than the quantity
passing through the fan. As a result, the unnecessary usage of fans will render the
system useless as mentioned earlier. The usage of limited number of fans, on the
other hand, will remain insufficient for the system’s control of the air flow.

With regard to location limits, they affect the aerodynamic performance of the
system in forecasting the intervals in between and numbers of jet fans to be placed.

70
Other Factors to be taken into consideration in project designing

1. Smoke exhaust shafts should be positioned as per the fire escape stair
locations.
2. During the positioning and directing of jet fans, it should be paid attention that
the entrained smoke will not affect the fire escape stairs and escape corridors
and not enter the safety halls and stairs due to dynamic pressure.
3. In jet fan systems, exhaust discharge fans should immediately become active to
enable the required smoke discharge. After the evacuation of the people from
the car park, jet fans should be activated to direct the smoke to exit points.
• The duration of this process depends on one or a few factors;
• The geometry and size of the car park
• Location and number of jet and discharge fans
• The number of people present in the car park
• Location and number of exits
• This time period is generally considered as 3 minutes.

4. The air velocity should not exceed 5 m/s in exit routes and ramps. Exceeding of
air velocity limit may hinder the people’s escape.
5. Main exhaust fan capacity should be divided into two and connected to different
power sources. If any problem occurs, at least 50% of the system will be working
this way.
6. Intake openings used for natural ventilation should be sufficient, there should be
no smoke recirculation and air should be well distributed. The maximum inflow
velocity should be 2m/s.
7. If the jet fans are placed on car park ceilings vertically over the vehicles, the ef-
ficiency is 55 % whereas when placed horizontally on the driving corridor ceiling,
the efficiency is 90 %.
8. In order to prevent the attraction of airflow to the ceiling (coanda effect), reflec-
tors are used in order to keep the air away from the ceiling.

DOĞRU YERLEŞİM = CORRECT PLACEMENT

RIGHT PLACEMENT RIGHT PLACEMENT

WRONG PLACEMENT WRONG PLACEMENT

71
9. In open car-parks, dead spots can be eliminated by supporting the natural venti-
lation by jet fans.
10. Due to low ceiling height in underground car-parks (around 2.5 meters), it should
be taken into account that the smoke may spread to the whole floor in a very
short time in case of fire.
11. During the sizing of the fan group, pressure drop that occurs in the entire system
starting from the fresh air intake until the exhaust point should be taken into
account.
12. Beams or any other obstacle on the ceiling should be taken into account while
placing the jet fans. These obstacles cause turbulence by developing resistance
to airflow.

DISTANCE OF
SUCTION SIDE

DISTANCE BETWEEN JET FAN


AND CEILING
DISTANCE TO BEAMS

13. Necessary precautions should be taken for the obstacles close to jet fans. The
beams and columns should not prevent the smoke from spreading along and
not cause turbulence. For the highest performance of fans, the distance
between the nearest beam/wall and fan should at least be 0.5 m at the fan ent-
rance and 2 m at the fan exit. Beam height should not be more than 0.4 m. In
case of otherwise, the fans should be hung down or the distance to the beam
should be increased.
14. As the installments such as springs, trays etc. pass underneath the beams, mo-
unting of jet fans adjacent to the ceiling does not provide an advantage in terms
of benefiting from the car park height. So, the bottom surface of the jet fan
should correspond to the bottom surface of the installment which is closest to
the floor.
15. Reflux of the smoke should not exceed 10 m.
16. Through jet fans, the air can be carried 20 to 80 meters away.
17. The size and number of jet fans depend on the purpose of use; whether it is for
smoke exhaust (CO) or smoke control.
18. At the stage of design, it is necessary to foresee the probable refluxes in case
of smoke. The refluxes extend the exhaust time as a result of the adverse direc-
tion of the smoke aimed to be discharged. The unwanted flow of smoke is also
a factor that affects negatively the escape of people and fire-brigade’s interven-
tion. There is also the risk of smoke entering the unnecessary areas and dama-
ging the building components in vain.

72
Why do the refluxes occur?

After the smoke is first directed from the jet fan, displacement increases due to a
couple of environmental factors mentioned below and momentum effect of the fan
over the smoke will be less. As the smoke moves away from this jet effect, an irre-
gular flow will appear and start to spread. So, the arrangement of the jet fan distri-
bution from this angle at optimum level is an important factor.

At design stage, foreseeing refluxes requires experience on CFD programs rather


than knowledge on fluid dynamics. The intervention of the designer will be more pos-
sible after using the related CFD equipment.
In order to enlighten this subject, it will be useful to mention a research carried out
at Heat and Combustion Engineering Department of Ghent University.
As per this research, the following findings were obtained;
d= a(vcr-vin)
0 m < d < 15 m.
So, reverse stratification distance is related with the critical velocity, feed rate and
“a”.
a= 111qc”
qc”: convective heat transfer per unit area
d: reverse stratification distance
The following findings were obtained for critical velocity;
It increases parallel with the area of the source of fire
It increases parallel with the convective heat transfer quantity per unit area
It increases parallel with the car park height
It slightly decreases as the width of the car park increases
These situations will naturally go parallel with the horizontal reflux distances. In order
to avoid refluxes, it is necessary to correctly arrange the horizontal and vertical dis-
tance between the jet fans. As stated, this changes based on the thermal power of
the heat source, car-park height and width. The change of critical velocity with the
heat flow is shown below. The width here is 16 m and height 2.4 m.

2.6
Vcr,in (m/s)

2.2

1.8

1.4

1
0 500 1000 1500
q -N
conv (kW/m ) 2

AF = 26 m2 - Dh = 2.4 m - w = 16 m

Figure 5: Change of critical velocity with the heat flux

73
3 Design Control Stage
CFD Analyses

3.1 CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Cold Flow Analyses and


Smoke Spread Analyses

In the system in which the design stage is over and commissioning stage is next, per-
formance evaluation of the system is made with the help of “Cold Smoke Tests”. In
this test; smoke tablets and smoke generators are used to observe smoke dischar-
ge. However; if the system fails this test, a problem such as observing the system all
over again might be faced.
Consequently, simulating the test is a better choice than performing it in real life with
designed and constructed system. This will obviously be beneficial for the investor
in terms of time and cost.
If we are to comment on the car park volumes taking into account that there are cars
inside either moving or parked in, they have an irregular flow path. The fluid which
gained momentum by jet fans is exposed to various surface tensions (in other words
“friction forces”). In this point of view, it may not always be possible to predict fluid
movements without performing CFD analysis.
When interpreting cold flow analyses results, the system should meet the following
criteria in evaluating system performance:
• Conformity of jet fans to main flow space
• Suitability of shaft locations
• Preventing refluxes as much as possible
• No clearance
• System should meet the occupant comfort in terms of shaft air flow velocities
• Pressure gradient should not be higher than zero (in terms of refluxes)
In addition to fire smoke discharge analyses;
• Smoke mushroom cloud diameter should not exceed 10m
• Jet fan should make cooling effect (to prevent harmful effects of smoke on buil-
ding structure)
• Smoke should be diluted in terms of displacement (Poisoning effect of smoke
should not affect places in high displacement values – smoke is poisonous over
100ppm)
• Range of vision values should be in acceptable levels.

3.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Steps

In order to evaluate the results when system is constructed and to verify the system
design; car park flow analyses are performed after pre-planning period. CFD process

74
is performed for optimizing the system and locating clearances if any. Design steps
are as follows;

After two dimensional design, three dimensional solid geometry is built. Solution is

made after identifying the analysis values required for parameter value solutions
such as meshing, flow space in steady state or time dependent numerical web, so-
lution of flow equations in enclosed space; flow velocity, pressure, temperature, local
mean lifetime and smoke distribution and concentration, flow rate in any cross-
section, sufficiency of ventilation, performance of any fan in working conditions etc.

By ‘display’ and ‘complete analysis’ options, problem solving results are revealed in
a clearer way.

75
t = 240 s

t = 240 s

t = 240 s

76
3.3 Cooling Effect of Jet Fans

Below are some figures that we believe might be useful. We conducted a study to
prove that jet fans also had a cooling effect. According to this study, the temperatu-
re of smoke which drifts throughout the space can be reduced down to 30˚C.
Consequently, sprinkler equipments which are far from the fire will not be activated
and will be prevented from operated in vain.

Figure 6 – Smoke temperature gradient

Figure 7 – Smoke temperature gradient

77
Figure 8 – Space Temperature Distribution

Figure 9 – Space Temperature Distribution

Figure 10 – Space Temperature Distribution

78
3
System Components
1 Jet Fan Car Park Ventilation
System Definitions

I
n the scope of car park ventilation and smoke exhaust systems; car-parks are
designed reqiuring the usage of Jet fan ventilation systems, which leaves out the
necessity of a duct within the car parks, combined with Jet Fans, Axial Exhaust
Fans and Fresh Air Fans.

The system works with the control of jet fans in sufficient numbers, as combined with
the usage of main axial exhaust fans in proper capacity, according to sensed CO con-
centrations and smoke signals, from a programmable main control panel, in line with
the flow chart which had been determined earlier.

Control panel should be programmed according to the quantity of airflows/ventilati-


on necessary in car park to provide a healthy and safe environment for daily ventila-
tion and ventilation in case of emergency/fire situations.

All the equipment and services provided below including detailed engineering
studies, project management as described below should be perceived as the inse-
perable parts of Car Park ventilation system with Jet Fans.

80
Main Components of Jet Fan Systems

System Control Panel

Control panel is responsible for the operation of all the


mechanical equipments (axial fans, jet fans, smoke/
air dampers, doors etc.) of the system in compliance
with the scenarios identified to PLC (Programmable
Logic Card), according to the signals coming from all
carbon monoxide sensors and/or fire/smoke detecti-
on systems.

Jet Fans (In floor ceilings)

Jet fans are ventilation equipments which are responsib-


le for transferring the high velocity of air present in car
park, have sound absorbers at suction and discharge
sides and are assembled to the ceiling. They are respon-
sible for circulating air through all the sections of car park
by moving air in small volumes in high velocities and con-
sequently creating a low pressure area near the ceiling of
the car park.

Capacities, sizes and numbers of equipments required to


be used can vary depending on the geometry of car park,
suppliers and types of these equipments. Jet fans come
ready for assembly process with assemble legs and all
accessories from the supplier.

Axial Fans (for exhaust and/or fresh air


requirement)

Main duty of the axial fans is the discharge of dirty air


and/or fire smoke from the car park and supply of
fresh air from outside required for the car park.
Capacities and power values of axial fans are calcula-
ted according to the exhaust and fresh air flow rates
specified by local car park fire and ventilation codes.
The fans and accessories selected according to these
calculations are typically supplied as demounted.
These should be assembled properly in the field.

81
Storey Dampers (axial fan dampers, wall
dampers)

Air/Smoke dampers are located in ventilation shafts


and are responsible for the circulation of exhaust and/
or fresh air between storeys.

Sound absorbers (round type,


offstage type)

Sound absorbers are responsible for reducing


the noise generated by main axial fans to the
desired sound levels. They are located in inlet
and outlet of axial fans.

Supplementary and subsidiary equipments


(fire doors and screens, hooters, warning
signs etc.)

Various supplementary devices can be used for incre-


asing the safety level of the system.

82
Detection accessories which ensure smooth operation of ventilation
system:

Fire/Smoke detection systems

Thanks to fire /smoke detection systems, it is possible to immediately detect fire or


a smoke source in car parks and put fire safety sytems into use. Sensors are distri-
buted and addressed in car park according to the related codes.

CO detection systems

By means of CO detection systems, air pollution inside car park can be measured at
any time. In line with these measurements, ventilation system works in various ca-
pacity levels as per the need. So, ventilation system works with part load when the
car park is not fully used whereas it works with full load when the car park is full.
Sensors are distributed and addressed in car park according to the related codes.

These components and information flow among them are demonstrated below.

Smoke/Fire
detection system

CO Detection system Power supply

Control Panel

Smoke dampers
Jet fans

Axial fans Fire doors, Fire screens,


Hooters, Visual warning
signs etc. Supplementary
equipments

83
2 Definitions of System
Components
1. Axial Type Smoke Exhaust Fans (300˚C, durable for 2 hours)

General features which axial type smoke exhaust fans should have are listed below;
• Fan body should be larger than gear and motor group.
• Fan body should be manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and fan hub
should be manufactured from cast aluminum.
• Fans should conform to the temperature and endurance values (300˚C and 2
hours of duration) specified in EN 12101-3.
• Fan motors should have the certificates which show that they conform to fire re-
sistance class.
• Isolated with ISO-H and in IP 55 protection class, fan motor should be single or
double speed IEC type motor. Fan and motor combination should have tempera-
ture endurance certificate (Standart EN 12101-3)
• Fan blades should be assembled in correct angle with the hub which can meet
the required air flow rate. They also should be balanced statically and dynami-
cally according to DIN ISO 1940-1.
• Fan body linkage components and motors should have the implementation flexi-
bility for horizontal and vertical assembly.
• In cases that the sound levels of fans are considered critical, they may also be
supplied with sound absorber body (with double casing, 50 mm rock wool isola-
tion and shell type body).
• All the accessories which are used with these fans should endure specified
maximum operating temperature.
• There should be inspection hatches in the body of these fans which enable
access to motor and make wiring easier.
• There should be a terminal box coupled on the fan which has high temperature
endurance and manufactured from aluminum. Fan motors should be in IP55 pro-
tection class.
• Power switch box connectors should be manufactured from ceramic.
• Fan assembly supports and spring vibration isolators, which are suitable for ho-
rizontal and vertical assembly, should be supplied with the fan.
• 2 asbest free, fire proof flexible duct connection components and their accesso-
ries which support the connection between fan and ducting should be supplied
with each fan.
• On the condition that the air reverse-returns when the fan is not working or one
of the parallel mounted fans is working, and if the suctioning of air over the non-
working fan (by-pass) is mentioned in the project ; back draft damper moving
with the air flow should be mounted to the air outlets of these fans. If these
dampers are required to be motor driven, one piece of micro switch should be
placed on the damper in order to see if it is completely open and the axial fan
should not be activated before the damper is in completely open position. (except
for emergency situations)
• Unless otherwise specified, selected fan maximum rotational cycle should be
1475 rpm.
• Power supply should be 380V/50Hz/3 phase

84
2. Axial Type Fresh Air Fans

General features of axial type fresh air fan are:


• Fan body should be larger than gear and motor group.
• Fan body should be manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and fan hub
should be manufactured from cast aluminum.
• Fan blades should be assembled in correct angle with the hub which can meet
the required air flow rate. They also should be balanced statically and dynami-
cally according to DIN ISO 1940-1--Fan assembly supports and spring vibration
isolators, which are suitable for horizontal and vertical assembly, should be
supplied with the fan.
• There should be inspection hatches in the body of these fans which enable
access to motor and make wiring easier.
• Fan body linkage components and motors should have the implementation flexi-
bility for horizontal and vertical assembly.
• In cases that the sound levels of fans are considered critical, they may also be
supplied with sound absorber body (with double casing, 50 mm rock wol isolati-
on and shell type body).
• On the condition that the air reverse-returns when the fan is not working or one
of the parallel mounted fans is working, and if the suctioning of air over the non-
working fan (by-pass) is mentioned in the project ; back draft damper moving
with the air flow should be mounted to the air outlets of these fans. If these
dampers are required to be motor driven, one piece of micro switch should be
placed on the damper in order to see if it is completely open and the axial fan
should not be activated before the damper is in completely open position. (except
for emergency situations)
• Unless otherwise specified, selected fan maximum rotational cycle should be
1475 rpm.
• Power supply should be 380V/50Hz/3 phase

3. Jet Fan (300˚C, durable for 2 hours)

• Jet fans should have a body manufactured from hot-dip galvanized steel and
should be in form of axial fans.
• Fans should conform to the temperature and endurance values specified in EN
12101-3.
• Inlets and outlets of jet fans should have a sound absorber and bodies of jet fans
should be manufactured in one piece form.
• According to DIN ISO 1940-1 norm, it will be statically and dynamically balanced
at Q=6,3 quality.
• With ISO-H isolation and at IP55 protection class, single speed IEC type motors,
which are suitable to run with double speed or frequency convertor, will be used.
Together with the fan and motor combinatoion, it should have temperature en-
durance certificate (EN 12101-3 standard).
• Assembly supports should be assembled to the fan body.
• Directing blades made of galvanized steel should be existent at the air outlet of
the fan in order to direct the airflow.
• Fan motor should be 3 phase IEC motor and of efficiency class IE2, insulation
class H, protection class IP54. The front connections of the motor exposed to air
current with the terminal box outside the body should be made. The cable chan-
nels should be made of steel and convenient to function under ambient tempe-
ratures. Terminal box protection class should be IP65 and motors should either

85
be double or single cycle. For the ease of assembly, there should be support legs
on the fan body.
• After the jet fans are hung in place and in case a motor intervention is required,
the jet fans should have a sliding motor assembly eliminating the need of taking
the jet fan down.
• In order to avoid any foreign material to gain access inside the fan, protection
grid should be mounted over the fan inlet and this grid should be made of gan-
vanized steel wires.

4. Storey Dampers

Smoke dampers, which are commanded by car park ventilation/jet fan system
control panel, has multiple fan blades and suitable for operation in high temperatu-
re levels. Drive on/drive off and off position should have an indicator, the length of
a single blade should not exceed 2.0 m, the thickness of blades should be 1,50 mm
minimum and airfoil. Damper frame should be manufactured from galvanized sheet
metal.

To two position damper servomotor and damper-servomotor link mechanism, all


kinds of accessories serving for the intended purpose are included even if it is not
mentioned here.

Frame should have a flange which allows damper to be directly mounted to the wall.
Damper blades are moved by a servomotor which is connected to its body.
Servomotor and its mechanism are placed in an independent partition in the damper
body.

5. System Control Panel

Jet fan ventilation systems should be designed central control panel (if defined,
support control panels) and a PLC programmed according to an operation algorithm
during project phase, and operate with car park CO and smoke detection systems
integratedly.

Storey dampers, fresh air fans, jet fans and exhaust fans should be controllable by
these control panels according to the fire scenario which had been determined.
Main MASTER PANEL should be located in automation room and by using this panel;
conditions of zones and faults of systems in the zones should be tracked.
For the control of all the system components and panels from a single centre, the
car park may be watched, commanded and controlled through a computer to be
located in an area outside the car park and a screen connected to it.

Frequency converters of main shaft and jet fans should be located inside theses
control panels. The control points for Jet & Axial fans, which are to be controlled by
means of frequency converters, are listed below;
• Operating information
• Fault information
• Control in desired cycle rate between 0% - 100% - proportional control
• Rotation selection (For bi-directional fans)
• Reporting on Operation duration
• Maintenance time alert
• “Motor over loaded” alert

86
• “Motor stopped” alert
• “Low voltage” alert
• “High voltage” alert
• “Grounding fault” alert
• U/V/W phase for each (grounding short circuit information)
• Phase U-V, U-W, V-W short circuit information

For motorized smoke dampers;


• Full open information
• Control

For other systems


• Carbon monoxide alarm (2 grades and if desired more)
• Fire alarm information
• There should be a Fire Situation Reset push button on the body.
• There should be light indicators showing Stand-by / Fault / CO modes.

Features which control panels should have;


• TUV or equivalent approval
• CO-sampling sensors
• All required system control modes and communication BUS interfaces
• Coordination and protocol equalizations with Garage Fire and Smoke Detection
System, which are not within the scope of this specification but will be supplied
and mounted as part of Electric Work
• Each zone on the master panel can be activated manually.
• Panels should be able to control all the equipments, shaft fans and jet fans in
the system one by one as independent from each other, at the required speed
and direction and in a way that they can be programmed at different times. PLC
software should be written in that respect.
• All system components and fault signals should be tracked by a touch-operated
LCD screen which is located on master panel.
• Related automation software, all internal and operational diagrams, related
programming,
• Fire situation reset push button
• Light indicators of Stand-by / fault / CO modes
• Timer for controlling CO ventilation

There should be dry contacts for the ones listed below:


• For CO detection system
• For fire alarm system
• For system tracking by BAS (Stand-by / fault / CO / Fire etc.)

Related automation software, all internal and operational diagrams and program-
ming should be supplied with control panel.

Maintenance switches:
In order to be able to de-energize during maintenance, there should be on and off
maintenance switch on the jet fans. If there is lock switch on the control panel for
jet fan, there might not be an extra maintenance switch.
With the fire signal, it should be enabled that fans are constantly run at high tempe-
rature by by-passing the frequency convertors and thermic protectors on the panels.
It should be possible to observe all the system components through a touch screen
of LCD panel on the Master panel and intervene.

87
6. CDF (Computational Fluid Dynamics Stimulation)

For achieving smoke control in a closed space, project design is made according to
air volume to be exhausted, shape and size of car parking garage, jet fan selection
determined by shaft locations. Project is supported by computational fluid dynamics
analyses. It is examined by the simulations generated by these analyses which focus
on discharge of exhaust gases in building in daily use or in case of fire. This way, the
behaviour of air flow and smoke exhaust in a real case can be foreseen.
In order to verify the project studies on jet fan ventilation system and ascertain the
position of jet fans in a sensitive manner, 3D model of the car park in question
should be formed and computional fluid dynamics stimulation should be done under
the defined conditions. Stimulation should be done through CFX, CFDesign or similar
internationally known software. The number and location of jet fans should be opti-
mized depending on the stimulation results.

As a result of this study;


• Details of air flow to appear within the car park
• Air velocity profiles
• Smoke distributions should be presented with detailed reports.

In a fire scenario, the following analyses should be made:


• Smoke concentration at ceiling level, visibility range and air movements
• Smoke concentration 1,5 meters above the floor, visibility range and air
movements
• Heat distribution within the car park at the time of fire
• Air velocity profiles

For daily ventilation, the following analyses should be made;


• Distribution of air velocity and air movements 0,5 meter above the floor
• Distribution of air velocity and air movements 1,5 meters above the floor
• Distribution of air velocity and air movements 2,0 meters above the floor
• Details of air flow details to appear within the car park
• Air velocity profiles

7. Commissioning and Delivery

All electrical data, current values consumed by the fans at various speeds, sound
levels, air volumes should be measured and presented as a report. The software on
the control panel should be checked and necessary settings/revisions should be
made according to field measurements. Whether the system scenario is realistic or
not should be checked and necessary corrections should be made. Cold smoke test
should be carried out at different floor and zones and the functionality of the system
should be confirmed. All the results should be presented as a report.

88
4
Project Management
Period
1. PREPARATIONS FOR ASSEMBLY

2. ASSEMBLY
• Assembly safety
• Mechanical assembly
• Controls on jet fans prior to assembly, jet fan assembly
• Controls on axial fans prior to assembly, axial fan assembly
• Mechanical assembly of dampers and sound absorbers
• Electrical equipment assembly
• Automation panel assembly
• Wiring assembly
• End connections of panels and fan motors, connection of jet fans to grid circuit

3. COMMISSIONING
Start up
• System control panel
• Controls on jet fans before start-up
• Controls on axial fans before start-up

4. TEST
• System mechanical tests
• Sytem electrical tests
• System functional tests
• Smoke test
• Cold smoke test
• Hot smoke test
• CFD test
• Real fire test

5. PERIODICAL CONTROLS AND MAINTENANCE

90
1 Preparations before the
Assembly

B
efore giving a start to the assembly, it is very important to go through the
following tasks. First of all, necessary assignments should be made within
the supplier and project officer should be designated. This project officer
will be in close communication with the customer at all the stages of
system set-up in the field until the end of the project and will be responsible for the
smooth commissioning of the system.

Visits should be paid to the field and during these visits;

• General observation should be made about the field,


• Exhaust shafts and fresh air intake points should be checked,
• Jet fan assembly locations should be checked
• Ventilation shafts exhaust and fresh air points should be checked, their sizes
should be measured and compared with the values in the project, constructional
condition of the shaft should be checked. If gaps are planned to be left for
natural air ingress, their sizes and locations should be checked. The discharged
air should be prevented from going back in.

The details not shown in the project should be checked in the car park;
• Openings not visible in the plan, possible by-pass points,
• Obstacles, extremely low beams and/or curtain walls,
• Locations, directions and structures of ramps and/or vehicle entrance/exit
points openings
• Structure of shafts, especially the shaft inlets opening outwards should be
checked.
• The locations of air dampers to be put in shafts should be checked.
• Attention should be paid to the release points of exhaust air to the atmosphere

Scenarios for the daily and emergency operations of the system should be determi-
ned. After this, all will be programmed to PLC (Programmable Logic Card) by the aut-
horized control panel manufacturer. For the proper setting of this scenario, a systems
flowchart should be prepared by the supplier. This chart should be shared with the
customer and project officers. The supplier should also check the types of energy
cables that will command the project equipment and make the necessary warnings
ensuring the usage of correct cable types in the field. Otherwise, although the field
equipment is fire resistant, the whole system may lose its function at the time of fire
due to the usage of incorrect cable types and that the cables are not fire resistant.

It should be born in mind at all stages that jet fan ventilation


system is a fire safety system.

91
2 Assembly

Assembly Safety

• Fans should not be assembled in explosive and hazardous areas.


• Protective foil on jet fans should be removed only after jet fan is assembled in
its place.
• Against all involuntary actions, precautions should be taken at the time of as-
sembly to avoid the rotation of blades.
• General safety rules should be taken into account against all probable accidents.
Against involuntary operations, main switch should be turned off.
• Fans should be lifted and carried by means of proper lifting and transport
vehicles.
• During lifting and transport, one should not stay under the load in case of pro-
bable accidents caused by the sliding and falling of the equipment.
• The assembly should be done by the authorized and competent staff meeting all
the requirements of the process.
• All the system obligations and specifications should be fulfilled by the system
builder and implementer.
• For all kinds of operations, precautions should be taken against the rotation of
blades in case of any inattentive behavior.
• While watching the rotation of fan rotor, safety glasses should be used.
• Safety parts (motor protection, safety grid etc) should not be demounted and de-
activated. It should be checked as to whether they are in place and correctly
mounted.

92
MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY

Controls on jet fans before assembly

• After jet fan is unpacked, it should be checked before mounting as to whether


any damage is sustained during transportation.

Jet Fan Assembly

• Position of jet fan mounting should be in compliance with the project. If there is
anything non-conforming /against the project, the project officers should be in-
formed and made aware accordingly. Necessary measures should be taken in
the field.
• Jet fans can either be directly mounted to the ceiling or hung by a suspension
system depending on the structure of the ceiling.
• Jet fan should be mounted as in balanced and proper state should not oscillate
and cause tautening of the body, jet fan blades should be prevented from
rubbing the body.
• Jet fan mounting holes should first be marked on the ceiling by use of a templa-
te and then drilled.
• Anchor bolts should be screwed well and balanced.
• Jet fan carrier rails are recommended to be mounted to the ceiling by use of
minimum M8 screws.
• If there are obstructions in the direction of jet fan air outlets, jet fan should be
levelled down and/or horizontally moved. All changes should be noted to the
project and reported to the project officers.
• The lengths and diameters of carrier should be sufficient and the weight of the
jet fan unit should be distributed equally on the carrier.
• Jet fan body should be protected against any deformation throughout the as-
sembly process.
• Jet fan should be within reach for maintenance works.

93
Controls on axial fans before assembly

• After the axial fan is unpacked, it should be checked before mounting as to


whether any damage is sustained during transportation.

Axial Fan Assembly

• Local laws, standards, norms and rules should be taken into consideration.
• If the fan is mounted outdoors, rain water should certainly be prevented from
gaining access into the fan or the isolation. Flexible connection should be used
in round sound absorber connection of fans. This is generally a well-accepted
practice.
• “Vibration isolator” should be placed beneath the fan carrier legs in order to avoid
active and passive vibration.
• It should be ensured that the fan mounting location is convenient for maintenan-
ce works.

Mechanical Assembly of Dampers and Sound Absorbers

• Motorized dampers should be selected, because the automation will be turned


on and off automatically in line with the data received from the system as requ-
ired by the program.
• On and off must be as fast as possible (3 – 15 seconds)
• There should be no object hindering the movement of blades. Control and
change of the electric motor should be taken into consideration at the time of
assembly.
• Sound absorbers should be mounted to the exhaust fan by flexible connections
and their weights should be on the floor by use of carrying legs independent from
the fan.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY

Automation Panel Assembly

• Automation panel should be located on a carrying base as stated in the project.


• Automation panel should be at a different location.
ATTENTION! If the fan is to be operated as connected to the fire alarm system, all
the electrical protections of fan motor including PTC (thermistor) should be deacti-
vated at the time of fire.

Wire Harness Assembly

• Hot-dip galvanized cable ducts should be used for electric cables and these
cables should be properly installed through these ducts.
• Data cables should not be installed in the same duct with the energy cables.
Energy cables have a negative effect on the transmitted data.
• All kinds of cables should be addressed in a systematic way and labeled with a
durable material.
• Cables should be selected as per the conditions of fire code in practice.

94
• The cables should be in one piece with no joints from the supply point until the
receiver.

Making the end connections of panels and fan motors

1. Panel modules should be connected by mechanical assembly and mounted to the


floor over a carrying base.
2. The inlets to the panel and end connections of coupling wire between all kinds of
supply, power, control and dead cables that reached the panel and panel modules
should be made in a safe and tight manner.
3. The inlet joints and end connections of fan motor cables to terminal box should
be made by use of flexible end connectors, cord end terminal and cable terminal.
4. Terminal box covers should be closed, nuts including sleeve nuts should be
screwed tight enough.

Connection of Jet Fan to Grid Circuit

• Connection should be made by licensed electricians.


• After the completion of connection, connection box cover should be tightly closed,
dust ingress or moisture should be avoided.
• Electrical data are present on the identification plate of the jet fan. Jet fan should
be connected to the grid circuit with a 4 core, noncombustible, nonflammable,
heat tolerant cable that is also of good quality without any addition made.
Electric cable should not be in contact with the jet fan body or attached.

95
3 Commissioning

Start-up

System control panel


• The location of the control panel should be kept closed against the entry of any
personnel but the competent ones. To ensure this, the area should be furnished
with all kinds of security and warning signs.
• Thermal switch current settings in the panel should be made in accordance with
the nominal currents of fan motors.
• The connection points of all the equipment in the panel, contactor, terminal and
digital / analog inputs should be checked once more and the connecting screws
should be tightened if necessary.
• Functional checks of control panel ventilation system and covers should be made.
The location of control panel should be free of moisture and dust.

Controls before the start-up of jet fans


The following controls should be made;
• There is not any foreign material on the jet fan or within the sound absorber and
protective members are in place
• Electrical connections are in accordance with the wiring diagram and electrical ins-
tallation codes in practice
• There is nobody in front of the jet fan when it first runs for the sake of prevent any
free parts that might have remained inside from popping out causing injuries.
• After the above controls, jet fan is run for a short while and stopped to check the
rotation of the fan blade. The fan blade should be in the same direction as the
arrow sign on the fan body. If it rotates in the opposite direction, 2 of the phases
should be replaced.

While running the jet fan once more to see if it is in operational order, the following
controls should be made;
• Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds and it should
be ensured that the measured rates are not above the nominal currents stated in
the label.
• It should be ensured that the jet fan blades rotate in a smooth manner and there
is no extreme sound caused by vibration.

Controls before the start-up of axial fans


• The electrical connections should be completed in a proper manner and the motor
protection should be mounted.
• Protecting members such as safety grid should be in place
• Foreign materials and assembly equipments should be put away from the operati-
on zone.
• Cable entries should be isolated (against water)
• Label power rates should not be exceeded.
• Connections should be made in accordance with the label rates.
• Fan suction inlet should be clean
After the above controls, axial fan is run for a short while and stopped to check the ro-
tation of the fan blade. The fan blade should be in the same direction as the arrow sign
on the fan body. If it rotates in the opposite direction, 2 of the phases should be
replaced.

96
4 Test

System Mechanical Tests

All the fans that have been mounted are checked mechanically in order to see if they
are secure enough.
It should be checked that the jet fan blades rotate smoothly.
It should be ensured that there is no extreme sound caused by vibration.
Flexibility of vibration insulator pads during the operation of fans should be checked.

System Electrical Tests

Voltage reaching each fan motor is measured. It should be observed that the fan is
suitable for the operating voltage and all three phases are complete and in close
rates.
Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds and it should be
ensured that the measured rates are not above the nominal currents stated in the
label.

System Functional Tests

Before giving a start to system functional tests, the operations of CO and smoke de-
tection systems to relay data to car-park ventilation system should be checked by
the customer. The contractor should not initiate the functional tests before receiving
a confirmation from the customer.

It is checked that the system is operating synchronously as per the fire and ventila-
tion scenarios. It is checked that the CO detection, fire detection and other signals
reach the automation panel. It should be tested that there is no problem in the ope-
ration of jet fans, exhaust and fresh air fans, motor operated dampers in the way
they are programmed as per the CO/fire signals coming from the areas stated in the
project. The operation of fans is tested under daily ventilation conditions.

Cold Smoke Test

In cold smoke test, artificial smoke is generated by special smoke tablets or smoke
machines in an area selected as per the demand of the customer. Signal of the
sensor in that area is obtained artificially. It is observed that the fans connected to
this signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before the smoke spreads
out, it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point under the control
of jet fans and discharged.

97
98
Hot Smoke Test

Hot Smoke Test should certainly be carried out in the custody of fire brigades only
after the permission granted by the local fire authority.

In hot smoke test, hot smoke is generated by use of special fire trays in an area se-
lected in line with the demand of the customer. It is aimed to exhaust the smoke at
high temperature caused by the conflagration of flammable chemicals on these
trays. Signal of the sensor in that area is obtained artificially. It is observed that the
fans connected to this signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before
the smoke spreads out, it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point
under the control of jet fans and discharged.

CFD Test

The purpose is to start a car fire in a virtual environment and observe the smoke
exhaust ability of the car park ventilation system. This way, safety of the system can
be improved by making critical decisions even before the assembly process.
Before CFD analysis, the following subjects should be mutually agreed upon;
• Approved projects should be received from the customer.
• Critical fire points should be ascertained on the project.
• Fire size in MW, number of cars planned to be burnt, number of fires to break
out should be decided.
• Fire curve should be agreed.
After agreement is reached regarding these items, the contractor will carry out CDF
analysis, prepare the necessary modellings and report to be submitted to the
approval.

Real Fire Test

Real fire test should certainly be carried out in the custody of fire brigades only after
the permission granted by the local fire authority.
In real fire test, a car is set on fire at an area selected as per the demand of the cus-
tomer and hot smoke is generated. It is aimed to exhaust the smoke at high tempe-
rature caused by the fire artificially started inside these cars. Actual / Artificial signal
of the sensor in that area is obtained. It is observed that the fans connected to this
signal operate in accordance with the fire scenario. Before the smoke spreads out,
it is observed that the smoke is directed to the exhaust point under the control of jet
fans and discharged.

99
5 Periodical Control and
Maintenance

Fire Regulations of Turkey, 2009


SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Design Principles – Article 85
In this regulation, it is required that all kinds of systems, device and equipment
should be tested during the course of assembly and operation enabling the continu-
ity of performance and operations, and are put through periodical controls, tests and
maintenance. Pressurization, ventilation and smoke discharge systems to be instal-
led should be tested and maintained under the custody of fire attendent.

In order not to face with an undesired condition, periodical controls should be regu-
larly made.
The following controls are recommended to be made once a year;

ATTENTION! The operations mentioned in items a,b and c should be carried out
after electricity is cut off from the master switch.

a. It should be ensured that the hub screw of the fan blade is not loose; if so, it
should be tightened.
b. If fan blade is dirty, it should be cleaned.
c. It should be ensured that the protecting components are in place.
d. Current (amperage) measurement should be made at both speeds.
e. Vibration should be checked.
f. Whether there is a loud noise caused by the engine bearing should be checked.

Vibration detection: dirty and corroded blades may lead to an increase in vibration.
In this case, the blades should be cleaned or balanced once again; if no result is ob-
tained, it might be necessary to renew the blade.

Roller Bearings: average life expectancy of bearings mostly depends on the opera-
ting conditions and the environment. Sound and heating should be checked periodi-
cally. It is recommended that the results of controls as of the first start-up should be
recorded.

100
5
Pressurization Systems
1

1. Axial pressurization fans


2. Smoke detector
3. Differential pressure sensor
4. Inverter control panel

102
Pressurization Systems

Pressurization Systems – Article 89


1. If the stair well height is higher than 30.5 m, emergency satairway should be
pressurized (except for residences). Even if emergency stairways which serve
for basement and upper storeys are in the same stairwell and if separated by a
smoke proof wall at ground level which is resistant to fire for 120 minutes and
has separate exits, the height of upper storeys are taken as base for the
stairwell.
2. In the buildings that have more than 4 basements, emergency stairways which
serve for basements are pressurized.
3. If building height is more than 51.50m, pressurization of emergency stairways
is a must.
4. Emergency lift shafts should be pressurized in order not to be affected by fire.
5. When the pressurization system works and all the doors are closed, pressure
difference between pressurized stairwell and occupied spaces should at least
be 50 Pa. In case the doors are open, this value should at least be 15 Pa.

NFPA 92

Building Type Ceiling Height (m) Pressure Difference (Pa)


With Sprinkler Any 12.5
Without Sprinkler 2.75 25.0
Without Sprinkler 4.57 35.0
Without Sprinkler 6.40 45.0

103
Fire Pressure

Ks : 3460 kg K/(m2s2)
T0 : Ambient temperature (K)
TF : Fire scene temperature (K)
h : Ceiling height x 2/3

Minimum pressure difference calculation – Article 89

To = 294 K (21˚C)
Tf = 1200 K (927˚C)
h = (2/3) x 2.75m

ΔP = 16.3 Pa
With safety factor of 1.5
ΔP = 16.3 Pa x 1.5 ≈ 25 Pa

The force applied to the door handle to open the door by overcoming the force
applied on the door both by the pressurized air and automatic door closer should not
exceed 110 Newton.

Low Pressure Side


Door Handle

High pressure side


Door closer

Mr + A ΔP (W/2) – F (W-d) = 0
ΔP : pressure difference, (Pa)
F : total force to open the door, (N),
Mr : Door closer and friction moments, (N.m)
W : Door width, (m)
A : Door area, (m2)
d : distance between door handle and door frame, (m)

Maximum pressure difference is determined according to maximum force which


must be applied to the door handle. The purpose is to make sure that people can
open the escape doors at any time.

Fr = Mr / (w-d)
Fr : Force which must be applied to overcome Mr moment, (N),
Mr : Door closer and friction moments, (N.m)
W : Door width, (m)
d : distance between door handle and door frame, (m)

104
The force which is required to overcome forces applied by door closing device and
friction is specified by Fr. Fr force should be considered in determining upper pres-
sure difference value. Detailed information about Fr values can be found in Design
of Smoke Management System and NFPA 92.

W=1m
H = 2.15 m
d = 0.075 m
F = 110 N

ΔP = 2 (W-d) (F - Fr) / (W A)
For Fr = 40 N then ΔP = 60 Pa
For Fr = 25 N then ΔP = 73 Pa

(8) Pressurization system should provide required air velocity which is enough to
prevent smoke access into the pressurized space during fire-fighting. This air velo-
city value should be provided when the doors of two adjacent floors and escape
doors are full open. Average velocity value should at least be 1 m/s when all the
doors are full open.

No wall clearance
Critical velocity (m/s)

Wall clearance is 0.93 m2

Wall clearance is 1.86 m2


Wall clearance is 2.79 m2
or Mechanical ventilation

Fire temperature (°C)

(11) For preventing excessive pressure rises in stairwell, it is required to implement


solutions like excessive pressure dampers and frequency controlled fan systems.

Excessive pressure prevention methods


• Opening outside escape doors
• Barometrical damper
• Variable air volume through feed back control

105
Excessive Pressure Prevention Methods

Pressure sensor

Floor Floor Floor • Fan with by-pass damper

• Variable cycle fan


Barometrical
dampers • Fan with variable line
and blade

• Fan with inlet vane


Fan Fan Fan
Staircase door Floor Floor
open to outside

Excessive pressure Excessive pressure prevention Excessive pressure prevention


prevention through through barometrical dampers with variable air volume
open door to outside through feed back control

(12) Air supply from multiple points should be made for pressurizing enclosed stair-
cases higher than 25 m. When air supply is made from two supply points, the distan-
ce in between these points must at least be half of the staircase height. If the height
of the building is more than 51.50m, then there should be a supply point in every
floor or in every three floors.

Air Supply from Single Point

Pressurization fan
Roof level Supply air

Exterior door

Air Supply From Multiple Points

Roof Level Shaft

Duct

Pressurization fan

Exterior door

106
There are two main criteria in pressurizing stairwells; one is maintaining the minimum
pressure difference value which will prevent smoke ingress into stairwell and the
other is keeping the value below the maksimum pressure difference which hinders
the opening of doors. The higher the building is, more problems in meeting the
maximum and minimum pressure difference criteria depending on the outside tem-
perature appear.

Height Limitation

Pressurization Fan Fire Automation


• Pressurization fans are called out by fire alarm panel when fire mode is activated
by fire detecting sensors, water flow switches and fire alarm button.
• If desired, pressurization fans can be activated by building general evacuation
warning.
• Control units of pressurization fans should be independent for each stairwell and
they could operate on their own with the information transmitted from the pres-
sure difference sensors located along stairwell.
• Pressurization fans should not stop with the resetting of fire alarm panel. A diffe-
rent reset button should be identified.
• If there is smoke in the air which these fans receive from outside, the fans should
stop working automatically without any delay.

Roof Level Shaft

Duct

Pressurization fan

Outside door

107
1 Stairways
In case of a fire in a building, stairwells should be available for residents to evacua-
te the building easily. To avoid smoke ingress into the stairwell, a supply fan should
be used for supplying fresh air into the stairwell (which is called pressurization). The
principle of stairwell pressurization systems is generally based on a blow system
from a single point by use of a fan placed on the buildings. Smoke control using pres-
surization can be achieved by overcoming forces caused by chimney effect, wind
effect and fire (temperature) effect.

Stairwell pressurization is generally made by placing the fan in the top of the building
and supplying air from single point. We say generally here because the fan does not
necessarily have to be placed on top of the building. It is also possible to locate the
fan at the base of the building and pressurize through bottom blowing. The tests in
which the exit door is open and air is supply is from one point showed that the pres-
sure difference between the stairway and the occupied space at the areas close to
the air supply was at a high level preventing the opening of doors and remained in-
sufficient in avoiding smoke ingress at remote points. Particularly, this situation is
felt more significantly in high buildings. Multiple point supply methods are used for
eliminating the disadvantages of one point supply. Air supply from multiple points
means the supply of air through outlets at different locations into the stairwell by a
fan connected ducting system. By using this method, a much more stable pressure
distribution can be achieved.

The system is simply composed of fan, frequency inverter, smoke detector, control
unit, control panel and pressure differential sensor. When the doors are closed, fre-
quency inverter adjusts the fan speed according to the data transmitted from pres-
sure sensor to keep pressure differential of 50Pa between stairwell and indoor. In
case of fire, frequency inverter adjusts fan speed to maintain air flow in 1m/s velo-
city opposite to the direction of the stairs according to the data transmitted from the
control panel when the smoke is detected by the detector. This has two aims; first
is to evacuate people safely and second is to make the intervention of fire brigades
easier.

Single-stage or multiple-stage pressurization systems can be achieved by single-in-


jection or multiple-injection. In single-injection systems, pressurization fan is located
at the tip. However, single-injection is not sufficient for high stairwells. Single-
injection systems are not recommended for buildings higher than 8 floors (Design of
Smoke Management Systems 1992). Particularly, when there are open doors, the
required pressure level can not be obtained. Multiple-injection systems are utilized
to eliminate the negative effects of open doors. For a safe pressurization system,
there should not be more than three floors between two injection points.

108
Sample Pressurization Fan Flow Rate and Pressure Loss Calculation

As per the standard called “Class E” in BS 5588 – Part 4, calculations are made
based on buildings which have an evacuation time of more than 10 minutes.

Intended purpose of building use : Housing estate


Total number of storeys of the
building (basements are included) : 20
Construction materials : Intermediate wall thightness values will be
used.
Building height : 60 m
Storey height : 2,7 m
Storey area : 760 m2
Stair well : Has a cross-sectional area of 11.5 m2 in the
building core

Sample Pressurization Fan Flow Rate and Pressure Loss Calculation

If the doors between stairwell and indoor are closed, air inside the stairwell will
infiltrate into occupied spaces. Infiltration area for each floor can be found by
Table 1.

Table 1. Air inflitration data for walls and tiles

İnflitration area
Constructional Component Wall tightness
ratio A/Awall

Building outer walls (building


Tight 0.70 x 10-4
fractures, including fractures of Medium 0.21 x 10-3
windows and doors) Building Slack 0.42 x 10-3
interior walls and stairwell walls
Very Slack 0.13 x 10-2

Elevator well walls


(building fractures included Tight 0.14 x 10-4
but fractures of windows Medium 0.11 x 10-3
and walls excluded) Slack 0.35 x 10-3

İnflitration area
ratio A/Awall

İnflitration area ratio A/Atile


(Including building fractures and
fractures around vertical passages)
Medium 0.52 x 10-4

Note: A : İnflitration area (m2)


Awall : Wall area (m2)
Atile : Tile area (m2)

Ası_md = 2 x (2,5 m + 4,6 m) x 2,7 m x (0,11 x 10^-3)


= 0,00422 m2

109
Area of infiltration from stair door can be found with Table 2

Table 2. İnflitration data when doors are closed


Inflitration area
Door Type
(m2)

Single-leaf door which opens


to pressurized space
0.01

Single-leaf door which opens to


outdoor from pressurized space
0.02

Double leaf door 0.03

Elevator Door 0.06

Inflitration area value in the ground floor where the main exit door is found as
0.02m2 and this value is 0.01 m2 in other floors.
Because stairwell door (SI_mk) and stairwell wall (SI_md) are parallel connected
flow ways; the total effective inflitration area between stairwell and occupied space
in ground floor (z) is;
Ası_mz = Ası_md + Ası_mkz = 0,00453 + 0,02 = 0,02422 m2

And in other floors (-5..-1\1..15);


Ası_m-5..15 = Ası_md (-5..15) + Ası_mk (-5..15) = 0,00453 + 0,01 = 0,01422 m2

Total inflitration area (SI_m) from the stairwell is;


Ası_mt = Ası_mz + Ası_m (-5..15)
= 0,02422 m2 + 19 storeys x 0,01422 m2
= 0,2944 m2

For the desired pressure value of 50 Pa between stairwell and corridor when the
doors are closed (KK), air flow rate passing through infiltration area of 0.3006 m2 is
calculated as follows;

Habson and Steward Relation

AE = Effective flow area


Qkk = 0,83 x 0,2944 √ 50 = 1,728 m3/s

In case main exit door in the ground floor, the door of fire floor (the floor where the
fire broke out) and the door of the floor above the fire floor are open; the velocity
of the air flowing through these doors should be 1 m/s minimum

In case the infiltration is caused by open doors, inflitration area is the same as the
door sectional area. Pressure difference between hallway and outside is conside-
red to be zero in ground floor.

When the air flows from open doors, infiltration area can be accepted as the
sectional area of the doors. Because air flow velocity through open doors is
considered as 1 m/s, air flow rate in fire floor (yk), which should be discharged
from open stair door (SI_yk) to outside is;
Qsı_yk = 1.932 m2 x 1 m/s = 1.932 m3/s

110
The air which is infiltrated from fire floor to lobby, hallway or occupied spaces should
be able to flow outside the building freely. To accomplish this, infiltration areas and
openings in building envelope should be sufficient in fire floor. Otherwise, a ventila-
tion opening should be made to the fire-escape stairs from the adjacent space.

Minimum Av which is opened directly from hallway to outside


Av = 1.932/ 2.5 = 0.773 m2

This opening is considered as a series of air flow paths with door in stairs. Effective
flow area in this case is:

Asd_yk = 0.718 m2

Required pressure difference for air to flow at a rate of 1.932 m3/s from an
effective infiltration area of 0.718 m2 is;

3Psd_yk = (1,932 m3/s ÷ 0,83 x 0,718)^2 = 10.51 Pa

Effective infiltration area should be calculated for the floor which is above the fire
floor. However, infiltration area value of the outside walls will be used instead of ven-
tilation opening for this floor.
Infiltration area from the outside walls (from Table 1);

Aıd_yk = 0.5 x 2 x (20 m + 38 m) x 2,7 m x (0,21 x 10^-3)


= 0,0328 m2

Asd_ykü = ((1.932 x 0.0328 ÷ √(1.932^2 + 0.0328^2)) = 0.0328 m2

Infiltration area, from the doors opening to the stairs and from the walls to the occu-
pied spaces, of the other 17 floors (kk) where the doors are closed is calculated as:

Ası_kk = 17 floors x 0,01422 m2 = 0.242 m2

Infiltration area from the outside walls is calculated as:

AID_kk = 17 x 0.0328 m2 = 0.558 m2


And the total effective infiltration area of these floors is:
Asd_kk= ((0.242x0.558÷√(0.242^2+0.558^2)) = 0.221 m2

111
So, total infiltration area between stairwell and outside is calculated as:

Asd= 1.932 + 0.718 + 0.0328 + 0.221= 2.904 m2 And air flow rate as per
velocity criterion is:

Q = 0.83 x 2.901 m2 x √(10.11)Pa = 7.82 m3/s hesaplanır.

Air Flow Rate Calculation Based on Pressure Difference Criterion

In case main exit door in the ground floor, the door of fire floor (the floor where the
fire broke out) and the door above the fire floor are open, required air flow rate to
keep pressure difference at 10Pa between these floors and outside is:

Total infiltration area between stairwell and outside in three floors (ak) where there
are open doors (ak) is calculated as;

Asd_ak = 1.923 +0.718 + 0.0328 = 2.68 m2

Thus, for 10Pa of pressure difference;

Qsd_ak = 0.83 x 2.68 m2 x √10 Pa = 7.03 m3/s

Evaluation of Calculated Air Flow Rate Values

In case all the doors are closed and the pressure difference is 50Pa Qkk = 1.764
m3/s

Velocity criterion when there is minimum 1 m/s of air velocity from open doors Qhk
= 7.8 m3/s

Pressure criterion when there is minimum 10 Pa of pressure difference between the


stairwell and outdoor in the floors where there are open doors is calculated as Qbk
= 7.03 m3/s

Because the velocity criterion is the highest value, it is the required air flow value for
fan selection. Required minimum air flow rate is 1.764 m3/s for keeping pressure
difference at 50Pa and elimination of infiltration when all the doors are closed. If it
is very high, the pressure difference cannot be stable at 50Pa and this can cause
difficulty in opening the doors.
To eliminate this, relief damper or frequency inverter control should be used.

112
Pressure Loss Calculations of Ducts

For an 50 x 100 cm duct;

Table 4.5 Absolute Surface Roughness Coefficient for Duct Materials (ε)

Type of the material Absolute Surface Coefficient ε (mm)

Glass and seamless plastic duct


0,0 ... 0,0015
PVC pipe
0,01
Sheet metal duct (clamped duct)
0,15
Concrete duct (smooth)
0,5
Concrete duct (rough)
1,0 ... 3,0
Polished pipe
0,0015
Brick duct
3,0 ... 5,0
Flexibel pipe (according to
0,2 ... 3,0
manufacturing materials)

For the sheet metal duct from the table; ε = 0.15 mm = 15 x 10^4 m

l = 22 m v = 16.25 m/s d = 0.48 m


ε/d = 1.5 x 10^-4 /0.48 = 3.125 10^-04
v.d = 16.25 m/s . 0.48 m = 7.8 m2/s

Dynamic viscosity can be found from table 1: 15.68 x 10^-6 m2/s

Inertia forces
Viscosity forces

vs = Velocity of the fluid


d = duct diameter
µ = dynamic viscosity of fluid
v = kinematic viscosity of fluid – v = µ/ρ
ρ = density of fluid

Table 1. 1 Dynamic Viscosity

Temperature Dynamic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity


-t- -μ- -ν-
(K) (kg/m s) x 10-5 (m2/s) x 10-6

100 0.6924 1.923


150 1.0283 4.343
200 1.3289 7.490
250 1.488 9.49
300 1.983 15.68
350 2.075 20.76
400 2.286 25.90
450 2.484 28.86

113
Re = 10,05/15,68 x 10^-6 = 5 10^5

Duct pressure loss co-efficient value is found “λ = 0.024” from Chart 1.1 by using
ε/d ratio and Reynolds number;

Chart 1.1 calculation of λ;

Reynolds number Re
Smoke

For air at 20 ˚C

Duct pressure loss coefficient

114
p1 – p2 : Pressure difference between certain points (N/m2 = Pa)
l : Duct length (m)
R : Pressure loss in 1 meter (Pa/m)
λ : Duct pressure loss coefficient
d : Duct diameter (m)
ρ : Density of air (kg/m3)
v : Velocity of air (m/s)

= 0.024 x 22 m / 0,48 m x (1.2 (kg/m3) / 2) x 16.25^2 = 174 Pa

Pressure losses on the diffusers and dampers should also be added to calculated
pressure loss.

115
2 Elevators

Elevators – ARTICLE 62
• Elevator well and engine room should resist fire at least for 60 minutes and be
manufactured from non-flammable materials.
• In the elevator well, there should be a ventilation and smoke discharge chimney
which has an area of 0.025 times more than the well area (area of the chimney
can at least be 0.1m2) or wells should be pressurized.

Emergency elevators – ARTICLE 63


• At least one elevator should be used as an emergency elevator in the buildings
which are higher than 51.50 meters.
• Engine room of the emergency elevator should be a separate room and ele-
vator well should be pressurized.

3 Lobby, Hallway and Common


Spaces
Obligation – ARTICLE 87
• Smoke control system in the common spaces of buildings, which are higher than
51.50 meters, such as lobbies and hallways is obligatory.

Smoke Discharge System Automatization


• Hallway smoke discharge system should only be activated if there is smoke in
hallway. That is to say, it should be activated when smoke detector detects
smoke.
• It is not appropriate for the fire warning buttons to activate the scenario for smoke
discharge.
• If flow switches connected to the sprinkler system serve for multiple smoke zones,
they should not be used for activation of smoke control scenario.

116
6
Jet Fans
AIR-JF SERIES

AXIAL
JET FANS

■ Axial type jet fans


■ Ecliptic fan blade profiles which allows bi-
directional blowing without efficiency loss
■ Fan body with integrated sound absorber
■ Rail assembly motor connection
■ Ø 315-355-400-500 mm diameter range
■ 300°C/2h fire resistantce certificate in
compliance with EN 12101-3
■ Galvanized sheet metal body
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamical balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Two-pole and Two/Four pole double cycle motor
options
■ Class H insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ High temperature resistant terminal box
coupled with fan
■ Protection grill and adjustable baffle

AIR-JF Series Jet Fan Components

Rail assembly structure which allows Adjustable baffle Protection grill for fan inlet Racking legs which allows assembling in
easy access to motor-fan group without various dimension ranges
demounting the device.

Aironn design special fan blade form Dynamically balanced fan hub
which allows bi-directional blowing
without loss

118
Dimensions

MODELS A B C D E G ØN

AIR-JF-315 367 479 1506 558 521 120 13


AIR-JF-355 407 519 1656 598 561 120 13
AIR-JF-400 452 564 1886 643 606 120 13
AIR-JF-500 552 666 2356 745 708 120 13

MODEL Thrust Motor power (kW) Current draw (A) Speed (rpm) LpA dB Sound level Weight
(N) at 3 meter distance (Kg)
(LpA dB)

AIR-J-U-315 32/8 0,75/0,12 1,8/0,4 2.850/1.460 60/45 50


AIR-J-U-355 58/14 1,5/0,25 3,6/0,7 2.850/1.460 68/52 61
AIR-J-U-400 82/20 2,2/0,37 5,1/1,0 2.850/1.460 72/55 80
AIR-J-U-500 120/30 3/0,55 6,5/1,5 2.900/1.470 81/62 116

Accessories

Emergency stop switch Frequency inverter CE GOST R


(optional accessory) Rusya

119
7
J-Smart
J-Smart
“Smart” Jet Fan Automation
Implementation

I
n all the implementations done so far, jet fans have been used as double stage
and bidirectional conditionally and the control of these fans made by means of
motor safety switch/contactor/ thermal and auxiliary relays as well as PLC inlet/
outlet units connected to such data. Also, jet fan motors have been manufactu-
red with two speed Dahlander wound motors. So, the cabling is made separately for
1. and 2. speed with (4 + 3 = 7 x 2.5 mm2) cable.

For carbon monoxide system, low (0-50 PPM) and high (50-120 ppm) level alarm
data is obtained and the system operates according to this 2 levels. The carbon mo-
noxide level data in zones cannot be observed in detail in ppm.

In J-SMART “smart fan” implementation, all the jet fans are operated with “frequ-
ency inverters” with Fire Mode property. This way, there is no need for the usage of
materials such as contactor/ thermal and auxiliary relays. As the jet fans are cont-
rolled with the frequency inverter, they are manufactured as single wound. This way,
it is possible for jet fans to be operated at the required speed between % 0 & % 100
rather than double speed. In addition, by laying a cable in size of 4x 2,5 mm instead
of 7x2,5 mm, the costs of cables and labour involved in cable installation can be
saved. As the frequency inverter and central PLC commu-
nicate on the panel over a single cable, there will be
no need for an extra PLC inlet/outlet units for jet
fan condition, malfunction and command
information.

Besides, with J-Smart CO addition, jet fan


automation system and carbon monoxi-
de alarm system can be presented in
one package. This way, the user can
see the average carbon monoxide
value for each zone from the J-Smart jet
fan automation system panel screen in
a detailed manner. This enables the
user to operate the jet fans of zones
having different carbon monoxide densities
at different speeds. This way, significant
energy is saved.

122
ADVANTAGES
Longer lasting Jet Fans

Frekans invertörlü çalışmada kalkış, hız değişimleri ve duruş aşamaları yumuşak bir
biçimde gerçekleştiğinden jet fan motor mekanik aksamında zorlanmalar oldukça
azalır. Yıpranmanın azalması sonucunda mekanik aksamların ömrü uzar, yenilenme
gereksinimleri azalır, bakım ve malzeme giderlerinden tasarruf edilir. Frekans inver-
törü, şebeke beslemesini, motor bağlantılarını ve motorun ısınmasını sürekli izleye-
rek gereken durumlarda koruma sağladıklarından jet fanın bu gibi nedenlerle arıza-
lanmasını önlerler.Bu noktalarda sisteme zarar verebilecek herhangi bir anormallik
belirlediklerinde bunu hata olarak kaydederler. Bu sayede bakım-arıza personelinin
hataların nedenlerini geriye dönük olarak aramalarına yardımcı olurlar. Bu sayede jet
fanın toplam arıza oranını azaltmak ve hataların kaynaklarını daha çabuk ve daha
doğru olarak teşhis ederek gidermek mümkün olmaktadır.

Less Cabling Cost

When a single speed motor is used, the cable section is 4 x 2,5 mm². The cost of
N2XH FE 180 cable with section of 4 x 2,5 mm² is 56 % less than N2XH FE 180
cable with 7 x 2,5 mm² section. Besides, using a cable section of 4 x 2,5 mm² means
reducing the labour cost.

PPM Consumed Power (kW)


50 45 40 35 30 25
Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz
100-120 1,5

Example: Operation with frequency inverter at 35 Hz, 80-100 1,1

the fan power of 1,5 kW will reduce down to: 60-80 0,51

(Low frequency / nominal frequency)³ x Nominal 40-60 0,76

power= (35/50)³ X 1,5 kW) = 0,76 kW 20-40 0,32


0-20 0,18

More flexible Scenarios

Single cycle jet fan motor


With J-Smart “smart” automation implementation,
PPM Jet fan speed frequencies (Hz)
the users can operate the jet fan system at the re-
100-120 50
quired speed either as time-adjusted or depen-
80-100 45
ding on the carbon monoxide level. There are no
60-80 40
two speed limits such as 1st cycle and 2nd cycle.
40-60 35
In the zones having different carbon monoxide
20-40 30
densities, jet fans can operate at different speeds
0-20 25
proportionately as per ppm values.

Less Malfunction Source

In jet fan implementation with frequency inverter, much less switch material is used. As savings are
made over contactors, phase sequence relay and phase protection relay, thermal switch and motor

123
winding, less malfunction sources occur. By also eliminating the starting
current during the start-up of jet fans as well as mechanical strains, it
increases the lifespan of the motor.

More silent operation

In jet fan implementation with frequency inverter, the start-up of jet fans is more
silent than direct start implementation.

Less Energy Consumption

In start-up with frequency inverter, starting current


does not exceed 1,5-2 times more of the rated current
of the motor. This starting current rate reaches 3 – 4
times in voltage control based devices and 7 to 8
times in stepped control based motors. During slow
down, frequency inverter does not draw any current
from the grid circuit and even consumes the energy
supplied back by the motor running like a generator
on a resistance. Voltage controlled devices, on the
other hand, generate currents towards the low speed
winding, and supply voltage to the main winding if ne-
cessary during slow-down. This means energy con-
sumption throughout the slow-down process. With the
usage of inverter, energy savings are provided up to
30 – 50 % compared to the stepped jet fans.

Control of more points

Jet fan & Axial Fans (With frequency inverter)


• Fan operating information
• Fault information
• Control in desired cycle rate between 0% - 100% - proportional control
• Rotation selection (For bi-directional fans)
• Çalışma Süresi raporlama = Reporting on Operation duration
• Bakım zamanı bilgilendirme = Maintenance time alert
• Motor aşırı yükte bilgisi = “Motor over loaded” alert
• Motor durduruldu bilgisi = “Motor stopped” alert
• Düşük gerilim bilgisi = “Low voltage” alert
• Yüksek gerilim bilgisi = “High voltage” alert
• Topraklama hatası = Grounding fault alert
• Faz U/V/W - toprak kısa devre bilgisi - ayrı ayrı = Phase U/V/W – “Grounding short
circuit” alert
• Faz U-V, U-W, V-W kısa devre bilgisi = Phase U-V, U-W, V-W short circuit alert

Motorized smoke dampers


• Damper full open information
• Control

Other Systems
• Carbon monoxide alarm (All values between 0-100 ppm are detailed)
• Fire alarm information

124
8
Our Axial Fans
AIR-A SERIES

AXIAL TYPE
FRESH AIR FANS

■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm


diameters
■ Galvanized coated sheet metal body
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
(ABS fan baldes as alternative)
■ Dynamical balancing in accordance with
ISO 1940/1-1986
■ Convenient for horizontal and vertical installations
■ Adjustable fan blade angle
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options
■ Class F insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ Terminal box coupled with fan (optional)
■ Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-A Series Axial Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized coated Unique Aironn design Dynamically


sheet metal body cast aluminum fan blades balanced fan hub

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor Inspection hatch which allows easy Vibration damping isolator options
access to motor and makes electrical
connections easier.

126
Dimensions

MODELS A B C 0D E F G H 0N

AIR-A-400 456 360 417 400 430 280 363 488 9x8
AIR-A-450 515 400 417 455 482 330 363 548 9x8
AIR-A-500 556 450 417 500 532 380 369 593 9x8
AIR-A-560 622 500 417 560 596 410 363 666 9x8
AIR-A-630 696 540 417 634 667 450 363 728 9x8
AIR-A-710 776 600 417 714 747 510 364 818 9x8
AIR-A-800 867 680 555 805 838 610 505 910 11x16
AIR-A-900 968 760 680 904 939 670 627 1009 11x16
AIR-A-1000 1069 850 750 1005 1040 760 701 1110 11x16
AIR-A-1120 1188 950 750 1124 1159 840 698 1129 12x16
AIR-A-1250 1308 1060 750 1250 1279 950 700 1354 12x16

Examples of Accessories

Sound absorber with Protection grill Companion flange Motorized/ Emergency stop Frequency Differential Pressurization Terminal connection
steel sheet metal body unmotorized switch inverter pressure sensor system control box
(with Al-Zn coating dampers installations panel
alternative)

127
AIR-A SERIES

AXIAL SMOKE
EXHAUST FANS

■ 300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance


with EN 12101-3
■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm
diameters
■ Hot-dip galvanized sheet metal body
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamical balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Convenience for horizontal and vertical
installations
■ Adjustable fan blade angle
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options
■ Class H insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high
temperature resistance and has porcelain
connecting terminals.
■ Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-A Series Axial Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip galvanize Unique Aironn design cast Dynamically balanced fan hub
coated sheet metal body aluminum fan blades

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor Inspection hatch which allows easy High temperature resistant terminal Vibration damping isolator options
access to motor and makes electrical connection box
connections easier

128
Dimensions

MODELS A B C 0D E F G H 0N

AIR-A-400 456 360 417 400 430 280 363 488 9x8
AIR-A-450 515 400 417 455 482 330 363 548 9x8
AIR-A-500 556 450 417 500 532 380 369 593 9x8
AIR-A-560 622 500 417 560 596 410 363 666 9x8
AIR-A-630 696 540 417 634 667 450 363 728 9x8
AIR-A-710 776 600 417 714 747 510 364 818 9x8
AIR-A-800 867 680 555 805 838 610 505 910 11x16
AIR-A-900 968 760 680 904 939 670 627 1009 11x16
AIR-A-1000 1069 850 750 1005 1040 760 701 1110 11x16
AIR-A-1120 1188 950 750 1124 1159 840 698 1129 12x16
AIR-A-1250 1308 1060 750 1250 1279 950 700 1354 12x16

Examples of Accessories

Sound absorber with Protection grill Companion flange Motorized/ Emergency Frequency Differential Control panel for
steel sheet metal body unmotorized stop switch inverter pressure sensor pressurization
(with Al-Zn coating dampers installations systems
alternative)

129
AIR-AS SERIES

“SOUND ABSORBER BODY”


AXIAL TYPE FRESH AIR FANS

■ Aironn licenced 50mm thick rock wool isolated


double membrane body structure
■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm
diameters
■ Hot-dip galvanize coated sheet metal body ■ Adjustable fan blade angle
■ Cast aluminum fan blades (ABS fan blades as ■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor
alternative) options
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO ■ Class F insulation
1940/1-1986 ■ IP55 Protection class
■ Convenience for horizontal and vertical ■ Terminal box coupled with fan (optional)
installations ■ Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-AS Series Axial Fan Components

Hot-dip galvanized coated, Unique Aironn design cast aluminum Dynamically balanced
50mm thick rock wool isolated double fan blades fan hub
membrane body

IE2 Efficiency class Vibration damping


fan motor isolator options

Examples of Accessories

Protection grill Companion flange Motorized/ Emergency Frequency Differential Control panel for Terminal
un-motorized stop switch inverter pressure sensor pressurization connection box
dampers installations systems

130
AIR-AS SERIES

“SOUND ABSORBER BODY” AXIAL TYPE


SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ Aironn licenced 50mm thick rock wool isolated


double membrane body structure
■ 300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compli-
ance with EN 12101-3
■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm
diameter
■ Hot-dip galvanized sheet metal body
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986 ■ Class H insulation
■ Convenience for horizontal and vertical ■ IP55 Protection class
installations ■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has
■ Adjustable fan blade angle high temperature resistance and has porcelain
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor connecting terminals.
options ■ Protection grill on discharge outlet (optional)

AIR-AS Series Axial Fan Components

Hot-dip galvanized, 50mm thick rock Unique Aironn design cast Dynamically balanced fan hub
wool isolated double membrane body aluminum fan blades

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor High temperature resistant terminal Vibration damping
connection box isolator options

Examples of Accessories

Protection grill Companion flange Motorized/ Emergency stop Frequency Differential Control panel for
unmotorized switch inverter pressure sensor pressurization
dampers installations systems

131
AIR-AC SERIES

CELL TYPE AXIAL


FRESH AIR FANS

■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm


diameters
■ Galvanized sheet metal body
■ Body structure (glass wool layered) with sound
isolation
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Adjustable fan blades
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor
options
■ Class F insulation
■ IP55 protection class
■ Terminal box coupled with fan (optional)

AIR-AC Series Axial Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip Unique Aironn design cast Dynamically balanced fan hub
galvanized sheet metal body aluminum fan blades

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor Inspection hatch which allows easy
access to motor and makes electrical
connections easier.

132
Dimensions

MODELS A B C D E F G H

AIR-AC-400 519 434 557 572 29 514 337 510


AIR-AC-450 569 486 607 552 29 534 424 535
AIR-AC-500 619 535 657 592 29 534 424 535
AIR-AC-560 708 569 774 762 39 684 590 800
AIR-AC-630 778 679 844 742 29 684 571 760
AIR-AC-710 858 759 924 742 29 684 670 760
AIR-AC-800 948 809 1114 954 50 854 950 970
AIR-AC-900 1043 904 1209 1104 50 1002 950 1000
AIR-AC-1000 1143 1145 1309 1104 50 1004 1100 1000
AIR-AC-1120 1263 1123 1430 1305 50 1205 1200 1200
AIR-AC-1250 1393 1253 1560 1305 50 1205 1200 1200

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop Frequency Differential Control panel for Terminal


switch inverter pressure sensor pressurization connection box
installations systems

133
AIR-AC SERIES

CELL TYPE AXIAL


SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ 300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compli-


ance with EN 12101-3
■ Dimension range between 400-1250 mm
diameters
■ Galvanized sheet metal body
■ Body structure (rock wool layered) with sound
isolation
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Adjustable fan blades angle
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor
options
■ Class H insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has
high temperature resistance and has porcelain
connecting terminals

AIR-AC Series Axial Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized sheet Unique Aironn design cast aluminum Dynamically balanced fan hub
metal body fan blades

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor Inspection hatch which allows High temperature resistant terminal
easy access to motor and electrical connection box
connections.

134
Dimensions

MODELS A B C D E F G H

AIR-AC-400 519 434 557 572 29 514 337 510


AIR-AC-450 569 486 607 552 29 534 424 535
AIR-AC-500 619 535 657 592 29 534 424 535
AIR-AC-560 708 569 774 762 39 684 590 800
AIR-AC-630 778 679 844 742 29 684 571 760
AIR-AC-710 858 759 924 742 29 684 670 760
AIR-AC-800 948 809 1114 954 50 854 950 970
AIR-AC-900 1043 904 1209 1104 50 1002 950 1000
AIR-AC-1000 1143 1145 1309 1104 50 1004 1100 1000
AIR-AC-1120 1263 1123 1430 1305 50 1205 1200 1200
AIR-AC-1250 1393 1253 1560 1305 50 1205 1200 1200

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop Frequency Differential Control panel for


switch inverter pressure sensor pressurization
installations systems

135
AIR-AR Series

ROOF TYPE AXIAL


FRESH AIR FANS

■ Dimension range between 400-900 mm


diameters
■ Galvanized sheet metal body
■ Horizontal air throw, mushroom shaped design
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Adjustable fan blade angle
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor
options
■ Class F insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan
(Optional)

AIR-AR Series Roof Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized Unique Aironn design cast Dynamically balanced fan hub
coated sheet metal body aluminum fan blades

IE2 Efficiency class fan motor Inspection hatch which allows easy
access to motor and makes electrical
connections easier.

136
Dimensions

MODELS A B C D E F

AIR-R-U-400 400 420 32 500 700 680


AIR-R-U-450 455 420 32 555 800 680
AIR-R-U-500 500 420 32 600 800 685
AIR-R-U-560 560 420 32 660 900 706
AIR-R-U-630 630 450 32 730 990 768
AIR-R-U-71O 710 500 32 810 1150 817
AIR-R-U-800 800 560 32 900 1260 919
AIR-R-U-900 900 680 32 1000 1330 1073

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop Frequency Differential Control Panel for Terminal


switch Inverter Pressure Sensor Pressurization connection box
Installations System

137
AIR-AR SERIES

ROOF TYPE AXIAL


SMOKE EXHAUST FANS

■ 300°C/2h fire resistance certificate in compliance


with EN 12101-3
■ Dimension range between 400-900 mm
diameters
■ Galvanized sheet metal body
■ Horizontal air throw, mushroom shaped design
■ Cast aluminum fan blades
■ Dynamic balancing in accordance with ISO
1940/1-1986
■ Adjustable fan blade angle
■ Two/Four/Six pole and double cycle motor options
■ Class H insulation
■ IP55 Protection class
■ Terminal box which is coupled with fan, has high
temperature resistance and has porcelain
connecting terminals

AIR-AR Series Roof Fan Components

Corrosion resistant dip galvanized coated Unique Aironn design cast aluminum Dynamically balanced fan hub
sheet metal body fan blades

300°C/2h fire resistant fan motor Inspection hatch which allows easy High temperature resistant
access to motor and makes electrical terminal connection box
connections easier.

138
Dimensions

MODELS A B C D E F

AIR-R-U-400 400 420 32 500 700 680


AIR-R-U-450 455 420 32 555 800 680
AIR-R-U-500 500 420 32 600 800 685
AIR-R-U-560 560 420 32 660 900 706
AIR-R-U-630 630 450 32 730 990 768
AIR-R-U-71O 710 500 32 810 1150 817
AIR-R-U-800 800 560 32 900 1260 919
AIR-R-U-900 900 680 32 1000 1330 1073

Examples of Accessories

Emergency stop Frequency Differential Control Panel for


switch Inverter Pressure Sensor Pressurization
Installations System

139
140
9
Fan Selection Curves
AIR-A-U/400-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

AIR-A-U/400-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

142
AIR-A-U/400-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/400-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

143
AIR-A-U/450-6/Two-Pole/ Airflow-Pressure Curve

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28

AIR-A-U/450-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28

144
AIR-A-U/450-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

AIR-A-U/450-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

145
AIR-A-U/500-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

AIR-A-U/500-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

146
AIR-A-U/500-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

AIR-A-U/500-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

147
AIR-A-U/560-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28

AIR-A-U/560-6/Two-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28

148
AIR-A-U/560-6/Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

AIR-A-U/560-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

149
AIR-A-U/630-6/Two-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20

AIR-A-U/630-6/ Two-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20

150
AIR-A-U/630-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

AIR-A-U/630-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

151
AIR-A-U/710-3/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

AIR-A-U/710-3/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

152
AIR-A-U/710-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/710-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

153
AIR-A-U/800-3/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

AIR-A-U800-3/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

154
AIR-A-U/800-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/800-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

155
AIR-A-U/800-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/800-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

156
AIR-A-U/900-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/900-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

157
AIR-A-U/900-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/900-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

158
AIR-A-U/1000-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curve

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/1000-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

159
AIR-A-U/1000-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/1000-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

160
AIR-A-U/1250-6/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

AIR-A-U/1250-6/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

161
AIR-A-U/1250-9/Four-Pole/Airflow-Pressure Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

AIR-A-U/1250-9/ Four-Pole/Power Curves

8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

162
10
Testing and Certification
LGAI
LGAI Technological Center, S.A.
Campus UAB s/n
Apartado de Correos 18
E - 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona)
T +34 93 567 20 00
F +34 93 567 20 01
www.applus.com

X/F

Title:
Determination of the category of a fan for smoke extraction at
300ºC/2h according to the European standard UNE EN 12101-3:2002 Nº 9/LE 897

File No. 13/5402-2107


and UNE EN 12101-3:2002/AC:2006, "Smoke and heat control
systems - part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust
ventilators."

Tested material:
A fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h reference “AIR-A-U/1250-
9-18/30-4-50Hz/300-2” from AIRONN

File number: 13/5402-


13/5402-2107

Sponsor reference:
Aironn Havalandirma
Ve Klima Sistemleri
Sanayi Dis Ticaret
Limited Sirket.
Baris Mahallesi Dr. Zeki Acar
Cadessi. 1802 Sokak No:3
(Tübitak karsisi)
Posta kodu:41400
Gebze-KOCAELI/TURKEY

Report date:
29th April of 2013

Test carried on:


15th February of 2013

This document will not be reproduced otherwise than in full.


Only the reports with the original signature or collated will be legally valid.
This document consists of 41 pages out of which 34 are annexed
d
LGAI Technological Center S.A. Inscrita en el registro Mercantil de Barcelona, Tomo 35.803, Folio1, Hoja Nº B-266.627 Inscripción 1ª C.I.F. : A-63207492

Page 1

5. - CLASSIFICATION

5.1 Specifications of received fan


Fan reference: “AIR-A-U/1250-9-18/30-4-50Hz/300-2” supplied by Aironn:
 Motor:
- Manufacturer: LEROY SOMER
- Model: LSHT200 LT
- Serial number: 728519A13001
- Type: F300
- Constructive size: 200 L
- Power: 30 kW
- Impeller rotational speed: 1460 rpm.
- Voltage: 400 V
- Frequency: 50Hz
- Cos ϕ: 0.84
- Polarity: 4p

Has the next classification:

CLASS F3
F300 (60
(60 minutes of minimum operation).
Motor model: LSHT200 LT of LEROY SOMER

Fan model:
AIR-
AIR-A-U/1250
U/1250-
1250-9-18/30-
18/30-4-50Hz/300-
50Hz/300-2: Operation during 133
133 minutes
Including 9 minutes of warming and 2 minutes for the stop.

Fan located inside the furnace with the inlet and outlet air flow in
horizontal direction.

Fire Laboratory Responsible Fire Resistance Responsible


LGAI Technological Center, S.A. LGAI Technological Center, S.A

The results refer exclusively to the sample, product or material tested and under the
conditions indicated in this document.

Quality Service Warranty


Applus+, guaranties that this work has been realized following the exigencies of our Quality and
Applus+
Sustainable System, complying with honoring the contractual conditions and the legal standard.
We would be very grateful if you would send us any comment you consider appropriate , addressing
either to the signatory of this document or to the Applus+ Quality Director, to the direction
satisfaccion.cliente@appluscorp.com

File number: 13/5402-2107 Page: 7

164
165
LGAI
LGAI Technological Center, S.A.
Campus UAB s/n
Apartado de Correos 18
E - 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona)
T +34 93 567 20 00
F +34 93 567 20 01
www.applus.com

X/F

Title:
Determination of the category of a fan for smoke extraction at
300ºC/2h according to the European standard UNE EN 12101-3:2002 Nº 9/LE 897
and UNE EN 12101-3:2002/AC:2006, "Smoke and heat control

File No. 13/5402-230 systems - part 3: Specification for powered smoke and heat exhaust
ventilators."

Tested material:
A fan for smoke extraction at 300ºC/2h reference “AIR-J-U-315-45
0,12-0,75 4-2 50Hz 300-2” from AIRONN

File number: 13/5402-


13/5402-230

Sponsor reference:
Aironn Havalandirma
Ve Klima Sistemleri
Sanayi Dis Ticaret
Limited Sirket.
Baris Mahallesi Dr. Zeki Acar
Cadessi. 1802 Sokak No:3
(Tübitak karsisi)
Posta kodu:41400
Gebze-KOCAELI/TURKEY

Report date:
29th April of 2013

Test carried on:


13th February of 2013

This document will not be reproduced otherwise than in full.


Only the reports with the original signature or collated will be legally valid.
This document consists of 43 pages out of which 36 are annexed
LGAI Technological Center S.A. Inscrita en el registro Mercantil de Barcelona, Tomo 35.803, Folio1, Hoja Nº B-266.627 Inscripción 1ª C.I.F. : A-63207492

Page 1

5. - CLASSIFICATION

5.1 Specifications of received fan


Fan reference: “AIR-J-U-315-45 0,12-0,75 4-2 50Hz 300-2” supplied by
Aironn (6 blades):
 Motor:
- Manufacturer: LEROY SOMER
- Model: LSHT80L
- Serial number: 395110
- Type: F300
- Constructive size: 80
- Power: 0.75/0.12 kW
- Impeller rotational speed: 2880/1470 rpm.
- Voltage: 400 V
- Frequency: 50 Hz
- Cos ϕ: 0.84
- Polarity: 2/4p

Has the next classification:

CLASS
CLASS F300 (60
(60 minutes of minimum operation).
Motor model: LSHT80L of LEROY SOMER

Fan model:
AIR-
AIR-J-U-315-
315-45 0,12-
0,12-0,75 4-
4-2 50Hz 300-
300-2: Operation during 13
134 minutes
Including 7 minutes of warming and 2 minutes for the stop.

Fan located inside the furnace with the inlet and outlet
outlet air flow in
horizontal direction.

Fire Laboratory Responsible Fire Resistance Responsible


LGAI Technological Center, S.A. LGAI Technological Center, S.A

The results refer exclusively to the sample, product or material tested and under the
conditions indicated in this document.

Quality Service Warranty


Applus+, guaranties that this work has been realized following the exigencies of our Quality and
Applus+
Sustainable System, complying with honoring the contractual conditions and the legal standard.
We would be very grateful if you would send us any comment you consider appropriate , addressing
either to the signatory of this document or to the Applus+ Quality Director, to the direction
satisfaccion.cliente@appluscorp.com

File number: 13/5402-230 Página: 7

166
167
168
169
MY TOWERLAND ATAŞEHİR

EVORA PARK

RINGS ISTANBUL
11
References
References

SELİN YAPI - RINGS İSTANBUL TEKNİK YAPI - EVORA PARK


Smoke Exhaust Fans, Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans
Pressurization Fans and Jet Fans

DEDEMAN BOSTANCI HOTEL AVRASYA EXHIBITION CENTER


Smoke Exhaust fans and Jet Fans Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

LİMAK MERSİN STADYUM MY WORLD EUROPE


Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans Smoke Exhaust Fans, Pressurization
Fans and Jet Fans

172
JUMEIRAH BEACH HOTEL - BAKU, KAHRAMANMARAŞ - RONESANS
AZERBAIJAN SHOPPING CENTER
Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans Smoke Exhaust Fans

SHAHDAG SHOPPING CENTER & AĞAOĞLU ANDROMEDA


HOTEL – AZERBAIJAN Smoke Exhaust Fans, Jet Fans and
Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans Ex-Proof Fans

MY TOWERLAND ATAŞEHİR HYATT HOTEL – BAKU, AZERBAIJAN


Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Fans

173
ARTAŞ GÜNER İNŞAAT; SARISSA HOUSES
ISPARTAKULE 1 AND Smoke Exhaust Fans and
ISPARTAKULE 2 HOUSES Jet Fans
All Ventilation Fans, Fire Smoke
Exhaust, Sanctuary Fans and
Aspirators

ARTAŞ GÜNER İNŞAAT; PIRI REIS UNIVERSITY


ISPARTAKULE 3 HOUSES Smoke Exhaust Fans and
All Ventilation Fans, Fire Jet Fans
Smoke Exhaust, Sanctuary
Fans and Aspirators

ÇALIŞKAN İNŞAAT; SAMSUN RONESANS


ISTANBUL YORUM HOUSES SHOPPING CENTER & HOTEL
All Ventilation Fans, Jet Fans, Smoke Exhaust Fans
Smoke Exhaust Fans, Roof
Aspirators, Duct Type Aspirators,
Cell Type Aspirators

EDREMIT IDAPARK BAYRAKTAR GROUP –


SHOPPING CENTER BAYRAKTAR PLAZA
Smoke Exhaust Fans and Cell Smoke Exhaust Fans
Type Apirators

AYKUTOGLU SHOPPING ASTAY REAL ESTATES


CENTER & RESIDENCE AKADEMIA APARTS
Smoke Exhaust Fans and Smoke Exhaust Fans and
Jet Fans Jet Fans

AGAOGLU 212 RESIDENCE DUMANKAYA ADRES-BOTANİK


Smoke Exhaust Fans, Smoke Exhaust Fans and
Pressurization Fans and Jet Fans
Jet Fans

174
MASLAK – MY HOME SUNEL TOBACCO FACTORY
Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Smoke Exhaust Fans
Fans

NEZİH TOWERS GOLDEN WAY HOTEL


Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet
Fans Fans

FEVZIYE SCHOOLS GREIF FACTORY


FOUNDATION ISIK COLLEGE Roof Type Smoke Exhaust Fans
Smoke Exhaust Fans,
Ventilation Fans

BOZ GROUP; ASHGABAT IMES HOTEL


RACECOURSE -TURKMENISTAN Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet
Jet Fans and Duct Type Fans Fans

ANTAKYA MAHVELI CAR PARK OZKARDESLER TRADE CENTER


Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet Smoke Exhaust Fans and Jet
Fans Fans

ACARLAR TRADE CENTER 112 IMMEDIATE AID – DENIZLI


Smoke Exhaust Fans Smoke Exhaust Fans

175
AĞAOĞLU MY PRESTIGE CHEEF BASAKSEHIR MUNICIPALITY
RESTAURANT Cell Type Aspirators
Cell Type Aspirators

AKSARAY UNIVERSITY BORSA RESTAURANT


Cell Type Aspirators Cell Type Aspirators

AIRPORT SHOPPING CENTER TARFAŞ A.Ş. - BURSA


Cell Type Aspirators Duct Type Aspirators

176
As you are well aware, everything starts with encouragement.
The demand that you will raise for your own products
today will promise the domestic goods to be of higher quality and
more reasonable day by day.
A nation that relies on its own is the
one that has gained the right to live.
Turkey may only advance with the development
of Turkish economy with Turkish hands.
Buy Turkish goods, use Turkish goods.
Let Turkish Lira remain in Turkey.

M. K. Atatürk
FA N A U T O
ET
M
J
SMART

AT I O N

SMOKE, EXHAUST AND PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS



A
PP
N

LIC ATIO

S M O K E , E X H AU S T

Aironn İklimlendirme Sistemleri San. ve Taahhüt A.Ş. AND PRESSURIZATION


Head Office: Tatlısu Mah. Şenol Güneş Bulvarı Mira Tower Kat: 2 D: 12
Şerifali - Ataşehir / İstanbul
Tel: (0216) 594 56 96 Fax: (0216) 594 57 17
E-mail: info@aironn.com.tr
SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS
Ankara regional directorate: Yıldızevler Mah. 708. Sok No: 8/2, 06550 Çankaya / Ankara
Tel ve Fax : (0312) 441 80 88 E-mail: ankara@aironn.com.tr

www.aironn.com.tr
EN