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2 tayangan32 halamanUG notes on friction

Jun 07, 2018

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UG notes on friction

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UG notes on friction

© All Rights Reserved

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between the surfaces. This force is called force of friction and it acts

opposite to the direction of motion. Its line of action is at a tangent to

the contacting surfaces (e. g normal reaction forces. The magnitude of

this force depends on the roughness of surfaces.

Friction can be both a nuisance or useful in human civilization. For

instance it useful in power transmission by belts , in the application of

brakes ,screws jack ,bolts .It also undesirable in bearing and moving part

machines where it results in the loss of energy there by reducing the

efficiency of a machines.

1.0 Friction

force appears between the surfaces. This force is called force of friction

and it acts contrary to the direction of motion. Its line of action is at a

tangent to the contacting surfaces ( e. g normal reaction force). SS

Bhavikatti .The magnitude of this force depends on the roughness of

surfaces.

There are two types of friction:

(a) Friction in un-lubricated surfaces or dry surfaces, and

(b) Friction in lubricate surfaces.

The friction that exists when one dry surface slides over another dry

surface is known as dry friction.

If between the two surfaces a layer of an oil or lubricant is introduced, a

film of such lubrication is formed on both the surfaces. When a surface

moves on the other, in effect, it is one layer of oil moving on the other

and there is no direct contact between the surfaces. The friction is

greatly reduced and is known a film friction.

2.1 Friction in dry surfaces

Dry friction occurs in various scenarios namely;

Ø Uneven surfaces of bodies in contact (different degrees of

roughness of bodies in contact).

Ø Molecular attraction of particles of surfaces in contact

1. Static friction

In other words this is friction encountered before motion occurs (‘just’

before motion of the body).

Static friction is resistance equal to the force required to make the

body move.

2. Kinetic friction

When a body moves relative to another body, the resisting force

between them is called kinetic or sliding friction. It has been

experimentally found that the kinetic friction is less than the

maximum static friction.

This is because fewer parts of the object are in contact with a surface

once a body is in motion.

It is a value that shows the relationship the force of friction between

two objects and the normal force between objects.

It is given by the following equation;

= !", Where, , !#$%&#" are frictional force, coefficient of friction

force and normal reaction force respectively?

!

ð = "It is dimensionless, does not have units, it is a scalar thus the

direction of the coefficient does not affect any physical quantities.

Its value depends on the object in contact.

Its range is from 0≤ ≤1 with #=0 meaning that there is no friction

between the two bodies in contact and =1, means the frictional force

is equal to the normal friction. >1 means the frictional force is

greater than the normal force. E.g. an object such as silicon rubber.

Figure b

The normal reaction on the body and the frictional force tend to have

a resultant force. Thus the ratio between the frictional forces to

normal force is called co efficient of friction. It’s a constant for every

material. The angle between the normal and the resultant R is called

the angle of friction.

The coefficient of friction is different for different substances and

even varies for different conditions of the same two surfaces.

Figure S

An object lying on a surface horizontal, forces acting on the block are

its weight and reaction of surface N.

Small force P applied along the surface to block. For Block to remain

at rest, in equilibrium, a horizontal component F of the surface

reaction is required. As P gradually increases, the static-friction force

F Increases as well until it reaches a maximum. Value Fm. F is a static-

friction force.

The value of static friction (F) when the body just about to move is

called limiting friction or maximum static friction.

Fm = μ sN , where Fm is the maximum friction , coefficient of friction

and sN is the surface reaction .

Further increase in P causes the block to begin to move as F drops to

a smaller kinetic-friction force Fk.

3.0 Laws of friction.

between the surfaces.

(b) The frictional force opposes the motion or its trend to the motion.

(c) The frictional force depends upon the nature of the surfaces in

contact. (I.e. how rough or smooth is an object)

(d) The frictional force does not depend on the surface area and the

shape of the contacting surfaces.

(e) For moderate speeds, frictional force is independent of the relative

velocities of the bodies in contact

Law number three can be explained in this way. Two objects may have

different surface areas but if they weigh the same amount, they will exert

the same frictional force.

There are many instances where friction is so crucial. In transport systems,

it makes the wheels of locomotives grip the rails of the track. Whereas

also the tyres of cars have threads so as to increase friction between the

road surface and tire. This increases the grip of the car on the road

reducing accidents. Moreover friction is used by cars on bending roads

that is on banked roads, to balance the centripetal force. In braking

systems of automobiles friction between brake pads and the discs are is

used to stop motion of vehicles.

In industries it allows conveyer belts to turn without on pulleys without

slipping. Moreover carpenters when smoothening their articles they use

sand papers or sandering which uses a lot of friction between the

sandering surface and the wood.

Walking uses friction so that people would not slip.

Friction produces heat which may result fires. Also shoes, machinery got

worn out because of friction. Thus to reduce friction in such cases use of

lubricants like oil are used, and grease.

Suppose a body is on a horizontal plane the angle of friction is given by

theta on the diagram above .To find theta we need to first find the resultant

of the force R normal to the plane and the frictional force to give us L the

resultant.

Angle of friction can be applied to any plane surface.

The Pythagoras theorem is applied to find Lowered L will be the

hypotenuse.

5.1Angle of Repose

Angle of repose is applied in solid bodies and granular materials

Solid Bodies

The angle of repose is the maximum angle that a surface can be titled from

the horizontal, such that an object on it able to stay on surface without

sliding. This is applied when an object is just about to move but not yet

moving

point is reached when the gravitational force will be more than the

frictional force so that angle just before sliding is the angle of repose.

In granular materials this is the maximum angle in which the material do

no slip off a hip and this is the critical angle for the materials in a hip can

hold on without slumping.

reaction offered by a surface of a body. If OX is the direction of the body

tends to move then the force of friction in the opposite along OE .If the

body is in limiting equilibrium then the resultant R make an angle

lambda.

6.0 CLASSIFICATION AND PROCEDURES FOR SOLVING

FRICTION PROBLEMS

a horizontal force of magnitude S is applied the assuming the particle

remains in equilibrium ,the magnitude of the frictional force ,F, opposing

any motion will be equal to S i.e.

F=S

R

↑

F ←

→ S

↓

Mg

remains at rest so the equation F=S still is true but F cannot increase

indefinitely it can only increase up to a limit F max.

The normal reaction is the force perpendicular to the contact surface.

Fmax = µR

Points to note

1. The frictional force is said to be limiting when it equals its maximum

Fmax.

2. The inequality F<= µR is always true.

3. Unless told otherwise the friction is always assumed to be limiting.

There are instances however where the body moves in the direction of the

force applied .In this case: F>F max slipping occurs

F<F max no slipping occurs

There are also instances where the body accelerates in the direction of the

force applied. In this case it means the force that acted on the body is more

than the limiting frictional force.

And in this case the equation is F-S = ma

Where F is the applied force

S is the force of friction

M a is the resultant force

This equation applies in both horizontal surfaces and inclined planes.

6.2 FRICTION ON AN INCLINED PLANE

The diagram shows a body on an inclined plane and the different forces

acting on it.

N represents the normal reaction

f represents the frictional force

mg is the weight

Now we have to resolve the forces along the plane of equilibrium and the

perpendicular to the plane. Resolving along the plane gives us mgsinƟ

.Resolving perpendicular gives us mgcosƟ.

There are cases where there is a force apart from the frictional force which

is acting on the body.

In this case Fa is needed to move the body up the plane and Fs(µN) is the

frictional force opposing the motion. Notice the difference of the forces

on the body along the plane is Fa -µN since P will be greater than the

frictional force for the body to be moved.

Resolving perpendicular; N = WcosƟ

Resolving along the plane; Fa = µN +WsinƟ (this shows that the body is

moving in the direction of Fa.

7.0 Application of friction to blocks on inclined planes

There’s an extra force to deal with. The force of friction will oppose the

downhill component of the gravitational force.

Because energy is being lost through the friction between the mass and

the inclined plane, the law of conservation of mechanical energy is not

obeyed.

When an object makes an effort to move there is static frictional force

and this frictional force restricts movement

There is kinetic frictional force is e blocks slides on a horizontal plane or

inclined plane…

If a body rests on an incline plane, the friction force exerted on it by the

surface prevents it from sliding down the incline. Consider a mass m

resting on an inclined plane. If the angle of inclination is slowly increased,

a stage will come when the block of mass m will tend to slide down. This

angle of the plane with horizontal plane is known as angle of repose. For

satisfying the conditions of equilibrium all the forces are resolved parallel

to the plane and perpendicular to it.

Figure 7.1 shows the free-body diagram of the body, where the force W

is the weight force of the body, and N is the normal force exerted by the

surface on the body. The force P is the horizontal force, and F is the

friction force exerted by the surface. Friction force arises in part from the

interactions of the roughness, or asperities, of the contacting surfaces.

The body is in equilibrium and F =P. The force P is slowly increased. As

long as the body remains in equilibrium, the friction force F must

increase correspondingly, since it equals the force P. The body slips on

the surface.

The friction force, after reaching the maximum value, cannot maintain

the body in equilibrium. The force applied to keep the body moving on

the surface is smaller than the force required to cause it to slip. Why

more force is required to start the body sliding on a surface than to keep

it sliding is explained in part by the necessity to break the asperities of

the contacting surfaces before sliding can begin.

Figure 7.1

With increase of the pull or attractive force, the frictional force; the

resultant reaction and its inclination will increase.

The frictional resistance offered so long as the body does not move, is

known as static friction. F1 and F2 are the static frictional forces. It may

be noted that the direction of the resultant reaction RR is such that it

opposes the motion.

The ultimate value of static friction (F) when the body just tends to move

is called limiting friction or maximum static friction or friction of

impending slide. The condition, when all the forces are just in equilibrium

and the body has a tendency to move, is called limiting equilibrium

position. When a body moves relative to another body, the resisting

force between them is called kinetic or sliding friction. It has been

experimentally found that the kinetic friction is less than the maximum

static friction

angleϴ with the horizontal such that the block tends to move.

Resolving vertically

For sum of all vertical forces = 0

Mg - FSinϴ = 0

Resolving horizontally FCosϴ = f = µR = µ(mg - FSinϴ)

FCosϴ = Sinϴ/Cos ϴ (mg - FSinϴ)

FCosϴCosΦ = mgSinΦ - FSinϴ SinΦ

FCosϴCosΦ + FSinϴΦ = mgSinΦ

F(CosϴCosΦ + SinϴΦ = mgSinΦ

FCos(ϴ - Φ) = mgSinΦ

F = mgSinΦ/Cos(ϴ - Φ)

will be so if Cos(ϴ - Φ) = 1 or ϴ - Φ = 0

Φ = ϴ for the least value of F

F least = mgSinΦ

Hence the force F will be the least if its angle of its inclination with the

horizontal is equal to the angle of friction.

Reference

8.0 FRICTION ON LADDERS

Ladders are commonly used to climb walls or roofs and many times we

have experienced ladders slip causing harm to the people using them. To

understand this phenomenon we must check the equilibrium status of all

acting forces in this non concurrent force system

Fn2 is the reaction on the ground

Ff1 is the force of friction on the ground

Ff2 is the force of friction on the wall

Due to the self-weight of the ladder or when a man stands on the ladder

the upper part of ladder tends to slip downwards and hence the force of

friction between the ladder and the vertical Ff1 and similarly the lower part

of the ladder tends to move towards the right hence the friction is towards

the left.

B

RB WM

FB=µbRB

WL

Ɵ

O M N FA=µaRA

RA

an angle of Ɵ.The coefficient of friction between the ladder and the wall

is µb.

A person of weight WM starts to climb on the wall. Given

AB = L metres hence OA = LcosƟ

OB = LsinƟ

As the weight of the ladder will act at its centre AN = OA = LcosƟ

! !

Lets assume the person will climb up to a height of X metres from A and

that at that point the ladder started slipping.

Hence OM = XcosƟ

For the equilibrium of the system, the algebraic sum of the horizontal and

vertical components of the forces must be zero. Also the moments of all

the forces should be 0 about any point.

∑Fy = 0 therefore µbRB + RA = WL + WM

∑Fx = 0 therefore µaRB = RB

µbµaRA + RA = WL + WM

RA(1 + µaµb) = WL + WM

RA = WL + WM

1 + µaµb

Therefore RB = µa × WL + WM

1 + µaµb

We then apply moment equations;

∑MA = 0

9.0 Belt Friction

Each time band brakes or belt drives are made, the necessity of

calculating the frictional force and to some extent, the torsional forces,

occurs. In this case, flat belt frictional forces are the ones to be analyzed

to highlight this concept and the principles to be used are similar to the

ones used for analysis of various types of belts with v-belts included.

Through the application of this concept, flat belts are often used to

transmit torque developed by a motor to a wheel attached to a pump,

fan or blower.

Hibbeler explained this concept as follows:

The diagram, (b), above shows a free body diagram of a flat belt which

passes over a fixed curved surface. The total angle of belt to surface

contact in radians is β, the coefficient of friction between the two

surfaces is µ. We wish to determine the tension ! in the belt, which is

needed to pull the belt counterclockwise over the surface, and thereby

overcome both the frictional forces at the surface of contact and the

tension " in the other end of the belt. Obviously,# ! > "# .

Due to this unknown distribution, the analysis of the problem will first

require a study of the forces acting on a differential element of the belt.

above. Assuming either impending motion or motion of the belt, the

magnitude of the frictional force dF=µdv. This force opposes the sliding

motion of the belt, and so it will increase the magnitude of the tensile

force acting in the belt by dT. Applying the two force equations of

equilibrium, we have

'( '(

+!"# = 0$$$$$$$$$% cos & ) + *', - .% - '%/ cos & ) = 0

2 2

'( '(

+1 !"3 = 0$$$$$$', - .% + '%/ sin & ) - 4sin & ) = 0

2 2

!" %& !"

Since dθ is of infinite simal size, sin $= andcos $ = 1. Also the

# # '

%&

product of the two infinite simals dT and may be neglected when

#

compared to infinite simals of the first order. As a result, these two

infinite equation become

(!) = !*

and

!) = *!"

Eliminating dN yields

!*

= (!"

*

Integrating this equation between all the points of contact that the belt

makes with the drum, and noting that T=*+ at θ=0 and T=β yields

!*

./ 2

, = ( , !"

.0 - 3

*'

45 = (6

*+

Solving for -# , we obtain

-# = -7 8 92

Where

-7 : -# ;= belt tensions; -7 opposes the direction of motion (or

impeding motion) of the belt measured relative to the surface,

while -# acts in the direction of the relative belt motion (or

impeding motion); because of the friction-# > -7 .

= coefficient of static or kinetic friction between the belt and the

surface contact.

β = angle of belt to surface contact, measured in radians.

e = 2,718…, base of the natural logarithm.

As a result, this equation is valid for flat belts passing over any curved

contacting surface.

The relationship between tight side and slack side tension for a v-belt is:

$%

+

&'()* ! ,

! = "#

10.0 Axle Friction

Axle friction is the friction between an axle and its journal bearing. A

journal bearing provides literal support to the rotating shaft. Frictional

resistance of fully lubricated bearings depends on clearances, ᴓspeed

with which the shaft rotating and viscosity of the lubricant. Partially

lubricated bearings and axles can be assumed to be in direct conduct

along the straight line. To reduce friction, lubrication is generally applied

between the axle and the bearing block.

Circle of radius rf is

Called Friction Circle

The frictional force will act normal to N and opposing the motion.

Resultant of frictional and normal force will act at an angle !from N.F is

the tangential force of friction from wheel against axle (axle friction)

As the shaft begins to turn in the direction shown, it will roll up the inner

surface of bearing until it slips at A. Shaft will remain in a more or less

fixed position during rotation. Torque M required to maintain rotation,

and the radial load L on the shaft will cause reaction R at the contact

point A. For vertical

tangent to a small circle of radius rf called the friction circle

∑MA =0

M = Lrf = Lr sin ᴓ

For a small coefficient of friction, ᴓ is small that sinᴓ is approximately

equal tanᴓ

M = μ Lr (since μ= tan ᴓ ) _ Use equilibrium equations to solve a

problem. Moment that must be applied to the shaft to overcome friction

for a dry or partially lubricated journal bearing

+ ↑ Σ Fy = 0; R –L=0, R=L

References

· J.L Meriam and L.C Kraige Engineering Mechanics Statics Fifth

Edition (2002)

· Dansal R.K (2002)

· A text book of engineering

· Mechanics New Delhi.

· Laxmi Publication

· Bhavikatti

· R.C .Hibbeler 12th Edition

· B .Peerson Mechanics of solids (2013)

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