Anda di halaman 1dari 45

1- A quarter-wave monopole (as shown in the figure below) situated above a perfectly

conducting ground plane is excited by a sinusoidal source at its base. Find its radiation
pattern, radiation resistance, and maximum directivity.

Z in = 36.57 + j 21.25 Ω → Rr = 36.57 Ω, D = 3.282


3- Consider two half-wave linear wire antennas aligned, so that their axes are offset by 60° .
If the transmit antenna radiates 10 W of power at an operating frequency of 1 GHz, find:
(a) the max power that will be available at the receiver antenna when they are 1 km apart,
(b) the magnetic and electric field strength at the position of the receive antenna.
6- A linear infinitesimal dipole of length L and constant current is placed vertically a distance
h above an infinite ground plane. Find the first five smallest heights (in ascending order) so
that a null is formed (for each height) in the far-field pattern at an angle of 60° from the
vertical.
6- Yarıçapı a=0.001λ olan bakır (σ = 5.7 x 107 S/m) telden yapılan ve 175 MHz’te çalışan
yarım dalga boyu bir dipol anten 300 ohm’luk bir iletim hattına bağlanmıştır. Antenin
kazancını (G0) hesaplayın. Antenin radyasyon yoğunluğu U (θ) = A sin 3 θ olsun.
6- A resonant half-wave dipole with radiation resistance Rr=73 ohm is connected to a
transmission line with characteristic impedance is 300 ohm. The dipole is made of copper
with σ=5.7x107 S/m and f=175 MHz. Calculate the dipole gain if its field pattern can be
approximated by U (θ) = A sin 3 θ . The dipole radius is a=0.001λ.

λ= 3×108
1.75×108
= 1.714m, L = 0.86 m, a = 0.001λ = 1.714 × 10−3 m
π f µ0 L 0.86
Rs = = → RL = Rs = Rs = 0.278 Ω
σ 2πa 2π × 1.714 × 10−3
73
Γ = 73 + 300 = 0.6 → er = 1 − Γ = 0.64, ecd =
73−300
≈ 1 → e0 = erecd = 0.64
73 + RL
2π π π 3π 2
Prad = A∫ ∫ sin θ sin θd θd φ = 2πA∫
3
sin θd θ = A
4
0 0 0 4
4πU max 16
D0 = = → G0 = e0D0 = 0.64 × 1.7 = 1.08
Prad 3π

1- Yarıçapı 6.35 mm alüminyum (σ = 3.5 x 107 mhos/m) telden yapılan ve 100 MHz’te
çalışan yarım dalga boyu bir dipol anten 50 ohm’luk bir iletim hattına bağlanmıştır. Antenin
radyasyon, yansıma ve toplam verimini hesaplayın.
1- A half-wave dipole made of aluminum wire (σ = 3.5 x 107 mhos/m) with a diameter of
6.35 mm (0.25 in) is operating in free space at 100 MHz. The antenna is connected to a
transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 50 ohm. Determine the radiation,
reflection and the overall efficiency and the gain of the antenna.

ωµ L λ
f = 100 MHz → λ=3 m, Rs = = 3.358 × 10−3 Ω → RL = Rs = Rs = 0.12625 Ω
2σ 2πa 4πa
Rrad 73
ecd = = = 0.99827 = 99.827% ≈ 1
Rrad + Rohmic 73 + 0.12625
Z − Z0 73 + j 42 − 50 2
Γ= A = → Γ = 0.37134 → er = 1 − Γ = 0.864 = 86.4%
ZA + Z 0 73 + j 42 + 50
e0 = ecder = 0.8625 = 86.25% → G = ecd D0 = (0.99827)(1.643) = 1.64 = 2.148 dB
5- A z-directed electric dipole of current moment II resides on the y axis at y = y′ . In the far
zone, this source causes an electric field given below. Derive an expression for the total
power radiated by this dipole. Set up the proper expression for power, simplify it, but it is not
necessary to perform the last integration unless you wish to do so.
e − jkr jky ′ sin θ sin φ
E θ = jk ηIl e sin θ.
4πr

4- The magnetic radiation field of a short dipole oriented in the z direction, with dipole
moment m is given below. Find the radiation resistance for length λ 50 ≤ l ≤ λ 10 .
4- Dipol momenti m olan ve manyetik alanı aşağıda verilen z yönündeki kısa dipol antenin
λ 50 ≤ l ≤ λ 10 iken radyasyon direncini hesaplayın.
m sin θ e − jkr ˆ
H(r) = H φ (r) φˆ = j φ.
2λ r

−l 2 1
m= ∫
−l 2
I (z )dz =
2
I 0l , Pt = ∫∫ S
1
2 H η dA = 21 I 02Rr

 sin2 θr 2 sin θd θ = 2π  I 0l  m πη  l 


2 2
π m 
2
m 2π π
Pt =
2 ∫ 0
d φ ∫ 
0  2λr   4λ  2 ∫
0
sin 3 θ d θ = 21 I 02Rr → Rr =  
6  λ 
1- A linear dipole antenna of length 10 cm is oriented with its axis along z-direction and
driven with a peak current of 10 A at a frequency of 1 MHz.

a) Determine whether this is a Hertzian or short dipole antenna at this frequency.

c l
l = 10 cm, λ = = 300 m ⇒ = 3.3 × 10−4. Hertzian Dipole!
f λ

b) By what factor does the radiated electromagnetic field propagating through free space
change (if at all) between two locations situated at R1= 50 km and R2= 150 km from the
antenna?

1 1 E R 150
S ∝ 2
but E ∝ ∴ 1 = 2 = =3
R R E2 R1 50

c) What is the value of power density at R1=50 km. i) along the z-direction ii) perpendicular
to z-direction (in the z=0 plane)

15πI 02  l 
2

S (r , θ, φ) =   sin2 θ
r 2  λ 
i) For θ = 0° → S = 0 , (along the z-direction) ii) For θ = 90° → S = 0.21 pW m2

d) Is the state of polarization the same for waves emitted at arbitrary angles θ? If so, state
what it is. If not, indicate why not.

The radiation is linearly polarized in all directions. The axis of polarization lies perpendicular
to k̂ in the kz-plane.

e) What is the total (average) power radiated by the antenna?

15πI 02  l  l 
2 2
2π π π
PTOT = ∫ S (r, θ, φ)d Ω = ∫ ∫   sin2 θ r 2 sin θ d θ d φ = 30π 2I 02   ∫ sin 3 θd θ = 13.15 W
S 0 0 r λ 
2    λ 
 0
1- Answer the following questions:

a) Why is a half-wave dipole more useful than a short-length dipole, even though the
directivities of both antennas are nearly the same?

Greater efficiency because: impedance of half-wave dipole easier to match to common


system impedance and Rrad>>Rdiss for half-wave dipole.

b) Roughly sketch the current distribution along each arm of a dipole whose total length is
5λ 8 .

c) A 5 mm long z-oriented dipole is driven by a 3 GHz current of 1.5 A. What is the


amplitude of the E –field at a distance of 2 m along the + x axis? What is the corresponding
power density and direction of power flow at that location?

λ 4π
l = 0.005 m, λ = 0.1 m → l = → short dipole, kr = ≃ 126 >> 1 → Farfield
20 λ
2
2π l E
E = 120πI 0 = 7.07 V m → P = = 66.3 mW m2 along the + x -axis
λ 8πr 2η 0
2- Calculate the radiation efficiency for a λ/80 Hertzian dipole operating at 3 MHz in free
space. Assume that the dipole is made of copper wire (σ = 5.8 × 107 S/m) with a = 1.024mm.

dl 
2
1
2
Rr = 80π 2   = 80π 2   = 0.123 Ω,
λ   80 

−4 dl 1.25 m (4.519 × 10−4 Ω )


Rs = π f µ σ = 4.519 × 10 Ω → RL = Rs = = 0.0878 Ω
2πa 2π(1.024 × 10−3 m)
Rr 0.123
→ ecd = = = 0.583 = 58.3%
Rr + RL 0.123 + 0.0878

2- A Hertzian dipole of length L=2m operates at 1MHz. Find the radiation efficiency if for
copper σ=57MS/m and radius a=1mm.

1 1 10−3
δ= = = ,
πµ f σ π ⋅ 4π ⋅ 10−7 ⋅ 106 ⋅ 57 ⋅ 106 15
L 2 2
RL = = = = 0.084Ω .
σAloss σ2πa δ 57 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 2π ⋅ 10−3 ⋅ (10−3 15)
6

µo (βl )2  I av  (βl )2  I av    I av 
2 2 2
2l 
2
2 0.0067 2
Rr = ⋅    = 20 ⋅    = 80 π 
   
 = 80 π ( ) = 0.035 Ω ,
εo 6π  I o  6π  I o   λ   I o  1
P Prad Rrad 0.035
erad = rad = = = = 0.29, or 29% . seemingly, this has
Pin Prad + Ploss Rrad + Rloss 0.12
nothing to do with the condition of max power in the antenna circuit
3- Serbest uzayda yarim dalga boyu dipol anten 100 V’luk (peak) ve 50 ohm’luk bir kaynağa
bağlanmıştır. Dipol antenin giriş empedansı 73+j42 ohm’dur.Antenden yayılan toplam gücü
ve r = 100 m, θ = 45° için elektrik alanı hesaplayın.
3- A half-wave dipole in free space is connected to a 100 V (peak) source having a 50 ohm
impedance. The input impedance of the dipole is 73+j42 ohm. Find the total radiated power
and the magnitude of the E- field at r = 100 m, θ = 45°.

Magnitude of the current into the halfwave dipole at the feed point is
2
100 73 I 0
I0 = = 0.796 A (peak), Prad = = 21.58 W
50 + 73 + j 42 2
e − jk 1000 cos( 2 cos π 4)
π

E θ (r = 100 m, θ = 45°) = j 60I 0 = 0.290 V m


1000 sin π 4

1- 38 cm uzunluğunda olup z-yönünde ve merkezi orijinde olan bir dipol antendeki fazor
akım 1.3∠68° A ve λ = 7.6 m ’dir. r = 2 m, θ = 70°, φ = 135° noktasında elektrik ve
manyetik alan değerlerini ve güç yoğunluğunu hesaplayın.
1- A 38 cm long dipole oriented and centered on the z-axis is driven by a phasor input current
of 1.3∠68° A at λ = 7.6 m . Find the E & H fields at r = 2 m, θ = 70°, φ = 135° . Also
determine the time average Poynting vector at this location.

l 0.38 1
= = 0.05 = use triangular current distribution
λ 7.6 20

2D 2 2(0.38)2
= = 0.038 m ≪ 2 m ⇒ r = 2 m, θ = 70°, φ = 135° is in the far field
λ 7.6

2π − (2)
(1.38∠68°)e 7.6
kI le − jkr
Eθ = j η 0 sin θ = j 376.734 7.6 sin 70°(0.38) = 2.87637∠63.263° V m
8πr 8π(2)

kI 0le − jkr E 1
Hφ = j sin θ = θ = 0.007635∠63.263° A m → S = Re(E × H∗ ) = 0.0109 aˆr W m2
8πr η 2
1- The expression for the far electric field of two Hertzian dipoles at right angles to each
other (below figure), fed by equal-amplitude currents with 90° phase difference, is given
below. Find the far zone magnetic field, the radiation intensity, the power radiated, the
directive gain, and then directivity.
j βη(Idl ) − j βr
E= e [(sin θ − j cos θ cos φ) θˆ + ( j sin φ)φˆ]
4πr
6- A half-wave dipole placed symmetrically along the z-axis.

a) Determine the vector effective length (in terms of λ)

b) Determine the max value of the vector effective length and angle θ where this occurs.

c) Determine the ratio (in %) of the maximum effective length to its total physical length.
4- Find the directivity pattern and maximum directivity of a monopole antenna that has
electric field given by E θ = sin θ e − jkr r .

4- Consider two identical z-directed electric dipoles of current moment II which reside on the
x-axis, one at x = d and the other at x = -d. Determine an expression for Eθ(r,θ) under the
assumption that r is very large. Begin with the expression for Eθ in the far zone due to a
dipole at the origin and show your steps.
2- Find the shortest length of a center-driven dipole antenna such that there would be no
radiation in the direction that makes

a) 90o with the antenna axis; Express the dipole length in terms of the operating wavelength.

b) 75.52o with the antenna axis. Express dipole length in terms of the operating wavelength.
2- Consider a dipole antenna of length l = 5λ 2 .

a) Analytically determine the directions of the nulls in the radiation pattern.

cos ( kl2 cos θ ) − cos ( kl2 ) 2n + 1


l = 5λ 2 → kl = 5π, E n = = 0 ⇒ cos ( kl2 cos θ ) = 0 → cos θ =
sin θ 5

n = 0 → θ = 78.5 n = −1 → θ = 101.5
n = 1 → θ = 53.1 n = −2 → θ = 180
n=2 →θ =0 n = −3 → θ = 0

b) Generate a plot of the normalized radiation pattern.


3- Assume that the antenna of a 900 MHz handheld mobile phone can be modeled as a z-
directed monopole of length 4 cm on the on the infinite ground plane. The input power to the
antenna is 1 W and the radiation efficiency is 80%. Find the amplitude of the radiated electric
field at the base station located 1 km away from the antenna over a hill of height 300 m.

lm = 4 cm = ld ′ = 8 cm Prad = 0.8 W . From Stutzman

∫ ∫ U (θ, φ)d Ω , ∫∫
2 2
Prad = U (θ, φ) = U m F (θ, φ) , Ω= F (θ, φ) d Ω ⇒ Prad = U m Ω

2 2 2
E U (θ, φ) U m F (θ, φ) P F (θ, φ) F (θ, φ) 2η0Pr ad
= = = r ad ⇒ E =
2η0 r 2
r 2
Ω r2 r Ω

For a center-fed dipole antenna E θ = j ωAz (r)sin θ

  kl   kl    πl   πl 
 cos  cos θ  − cos   
− jkr cos  cos θ  − cos  
µI e  2   2  λ  λ 
Az ≈ 0  2 , F (θ, φ) =
k 2πr  sin θ  sin θ
 
 

f = 900 MHz ⇒ λ = 33.33 cm , l = 8 cm=0.24 λ ,

1000
r = (1000)2 + (300)2 = 1044.03 m , θ = tan−1 = 73.3° ⇒ F (θ = 73.3°) = 0.26
300


Ω= , Dmonopole (l = 4 cm) = 2Ddipole (l = 8 cm)
Dmonopole

Directivity increases as the length of a dipole increases from l << λ to l = λ . For


l = λ 2 we have D = 1.64 . Therefore D ≈ 1.55 ⇒ Dmonopole = 3.1 . Therefore

0.26 2 × 120π × 0.8 × 3.1


E = = 3 mV m
1044 4π
5- A very nice property of linear-reciprocal systems is superposition, and we can use it to
calculate quite accurately the pattern of any dipole. For example, consider a 2λ-long center-
fed dipole, oriented along the z-axis, with a peak current of Io.

a) Draw the current distribution on the dipole.

b) This antenna can be modeled by four distinct short dipoles located at z = ± λ 4 and
z = ± 3λ 4 .

1. Determine the current distribution of each of these 4-dipoles.

2. Calculate and draw (polar/linear) the E-plane pattern of the 2l-long dipole using the
approximation of 4-distinct short dipoles.

3. What is its peak directivity at what angle?

c) Compare the pattern calculated in (b) with the exact pattern of the dipole.

They are identical


4- Compute and plot the normalized far-field pattern F(θ) of a 3λ/2-length dipole antenna
occupying the segment (−3λ /4, 3λ/4) of the z-axis and has a current distribution given by
( )
I (z ) = I m sin  β 3λ 4 − z  .
 
8- A linear infinitesimal electric dipole of length l and constant current is placed vertically a
distance h above an infinite, perfectly conducting electric ground plane. Find the first five
smallest lengths (in wavelengths, in ascending order) so that a null is formed (for each height)
in the far-field pattern at an angle of 40o from the vertical

2- A dipole has length of L=1 m and is operated at 200 kHz.

a) Find the radiation resistance assuming a linearly-tapered current distribution, i.e.


I = I 0 L 2 − z ′ , −L 2 ≤ z ′ ≤ L 2 . (make short dipole assumption).

π L 
2
π  1 
2
λ = c f = 3 × 10 200 × 10 = 1500 m, Rr = η   = 120π 
8 3
 = 8.8 × 10−5 Ω
6 λ  6  1500 

b) Calculate the beam solid angle Ω A . (make infinitesimal dipole assumption).


9- A vertical infinitesimal electric dipole is placed at a distance h = 1.8λ above an infinite,
perfectly conducting electric ground plane.

a) Determine the angles (in degrees from the vertical) where the array factor of the system
will achieve its maximum value

b) Determine the angle θ where the max of the total field will occur

c) The relative (compared to its maximum) field strength (in dB) of the total field at the
angles determined in part (a)
1- An infinitesimal x-directed electric dipole is placed horizontally a distance h above an
infinite, perfectly conducting electric plane (x-y plane). Determine the E and H far-zone
fields.
e − jkr
3- The vector potential due to an x directed electric dipole at the origin is A = µx
ˆIl
4πr
where xˆ = sin θ cos φ rˆ + cos θ sin φ θ − sin φ φ . If we define g (r ) = e
ˆ ˆ − jkr
(4π r ) then the
components of the vector potential can be written as Ar = µ Ilg (r ) sin θ cos φ ,
Aθ = µ Ilg (r ) cos θ sin φ , and Aφ = − µ Ilg (r ) sin φ . From the above, determine the far-zone
magnetic field. (There are two ways to answer this question. One involves computing the far-
zone magnetic field from H = µ1 ∇ × Α by performing all the partial derivatives and,
subsequently, taking the limit of the result as r approaches infinity. The other involves
writing H = µ1 ∇ × Α in terms of the components of the vector potential and eliminating
various components on the basis of their limiting ( r → ∞ ) values. The latter requires a little
more thought than the former but results in far less wear and tear on the pencil and fingers.)
8- For a very thin center-fed half-wave dipole lying centered at the origin along the z-axis:

a) Find the charge distribution on the dipole if current distribution is I ( z ) = I 0 cos( β z ) .

b) Repeat part (a) for I ( z ) = I 0 (1 − 4 z λ ) , z ≤ λ 4 .


3- A 15 MHz uniform plane wave having a peak electric field intensity E0 = 0.05 V/m is
incident on a 2.5 λ long dipole at an angle θ. Assume lossless dipole.

a) Plot the current on the dipole.

b) Find the angles of incidence θ that will give a zero open circuit voltage Voc at the
terminals of the dipole.

c) Plot the far-field E plane pattern of the dipole (Polar plot).


d) Find the maximum effective length of the dipole.

e) If the dipole is connected to a matched load, what is the maximum power PL that can be
delivered to the load?

Or
3- Two half wave dipoles are arranged as shown in Fig. The first antenna is transmitting
300W at 300MHz. Find the open circuit voltage induced at the terminals of the receiving
second antenna and its effective area. Find available power at antenna two.

The open circuit voltage at antenna2 will be Vo 2 = he 2 ⋅ E1 . The antenna2 effective height is
L
sin θ 2
L − j β z cos θ 2Im
h2 (θ ) = ∫L I sin β ( ∓ z ) ⋅ e dz = ⋅ F (θ )
Io
m
2 β Io

2
L L
cos( β cosθ ) − cos( β )
F (θ ) = 2 2 ,
sin θ

or after substitution, for a half wave dipole L=λ/2 and where θ = θ 2 = 90o ,

π
2 I m cos( 2 cosθ 2 ) 2 I m c
h2 = ⋅ = = .
β Io sin θ 2 β Io π f

The E1 in place of antenna 2 will be


L
µo sin θ 2
L − j β z cos θ j 60 I o
E1 (θ ) = j ∫L I m sin β ( 2 ∓ z ) ⋅ e dz = ⋅ F (θ ) .
ε o 4π r r

2
For a half wave dipole,
π
cos( cos 60)
F (θ1 ) = 2 . So the electric field will be
sin 60
µo π
ε o cos( 2 cos60)
E (θ1 ) = ⋅ , or in the terms of effective antenna 1 height,
2π r sin 60
µ π
β o cos( cos 60)
εo 2
E (θ1 ) = he1, where he1 = ⋅ 2 .
4π r β sin 60

π1
60 I1 cos( 2 2 ) 2
We can calculate this to be E (θ1 ) = ⋅ = 0.6 I1 = 0.49 I1 .
100 3 3
2
The current I1 can be found from the given power P1,

1 2 P1 2 ⋅ 300
P1 = Rλ I12 → I1 = = = 2.87 A
2 2 73Ω 73
3 ⋅ 108
Finally, Vo 2 = he 2 ⋅ E1 = 0.49 ⋅ 2.87 = 0.448V .
π 3 ⋅ 108
The available power comes from the assumption that the antenna has a matched resistance for
the rest of the circuit,
1 1 V2 2 (he 2 E1 )2 0.4482
Pa = Rant I 2 = Rant (
2
) = = = 344 µW .
2 2 2 Rant 8 Rant 8 ⋅ 73
3- A half-wave dipole at 2 GHz is connected to a generator with Zg=50 Ω. The generator can
deliver a maximum of 1W of power to a load under impedance matched conditions:

a) Calculate the power delivered to the λ 2 dipole.

ZL − Z 0 73 − 50
Γ= = = 0.186, Pincident = 1 W → Pdelivered = (1− | Γ |2 )Pincident = 965 mW
ZL + Z 0 73 + 50

b) Calculate the current at the antenna terminal and the far-field electric field at a distance of
200m from the antenna (observation point) in the direction of maximum radiation.

1 2 2Prad 2 × 0.965
Prad = I 0 Rrad ⇒ I 0 = = = 162.6 mA
2 Rrad 73
3 × 108 2π
f = 2 GHz , λ= = 0.15 m , k = = 41.89 rad/m
2 × 10 9
λ
cos(π 2 cos θ) e − jkR
E θ = j 60I 0 max radiation at θ = 90o
sin θ R
e − j (41.89)(200)
E θ = j 60(0.1626) = j 48.8 × 10−3e − j 8378
200

c) If a small solenoid with N = 10 turns is placed at the observation point:

i) How would you orient the solenoid to pick up the antenna radiated field?

ii) If the radius of the solenoid loops is 1 cm, calculate the induced rms voltage across the
terminals of the solenoid.
5- A half-wave dipole along the z-axis is described by the constant current density
J(r) = zˆ I 0 cos(kz ) for −λ 4 ≤ z ≤ λ 4 .

a) Find the magnetic vector potential in the far field.

µ0I 0 e − jkr −λ 4 µ0I 0 e − jkr −λ 4


A ≈ zˆ
4π r ∫
−λ 4
cos(kz ′)e jkz ′ cos θdz ′ = zˆ
4π r ∫−λ 4
1
2 (e jkz ′ + e − jkz ′ )e jkz ′ cos θdz ′

µ0I 0 e − jkr cos( π2 cos θ)


A ≈ zˆ
2k π r sin2 θ

(b) Find the electric far field.

π cos2 [(π 2)cos θ ]


(c) Find the radiated power. Use the fact that ∫ 0 sin θ
d θ ≃ 1.22 .

(d) Find the antenna gain pattern.


2- An antenna operating at 1200 MHz is composed of a system of four elementary dipoles all
located on and parallel to the z axis, 50 cm apart. Thus the current density J is described as

Recall from lecture that, in the far field, the effect of moving an antenna is calculated quite
simply, namely if J(r) → E(r) then J(r − r1 ) → e ( j β r⋅r1 )E(r) . Using this fact, address the
following questions:

a) compute the vector potential A and electric field E.

b) compute the Poynting vector S, and intensity U.


c) compute the normalized power pattern, plot it.

d) compute the directivity. In what direction(s) does the peak occur?


3- In the previous problem, move all the antenna elements in the positive direction by an
amount 75 cm, and repeat the calculations. Which answers change? Which don’t? Why?
2- What antenna current is required so that the antenna will radiate 20 W if

a) the antenna is a 2 m long dipole antenna operating in the AM broadcast band at 1 MHz.

f = 1 MHz , λ = c f = 300 m , l = 2 m < λ 50 = 6 m ⇒ short dipole: P = Ppoint dipole 4

 ∆z 
2
1
P= 40 π 2 I 02   ⇒ I 0 = 67.56 A
4  λ 

b) the antenna is a 1 m long dipole antenna operating in the FM/TV broadcast band at 150
MHz.

f = 150 MHz , λ =c f =2 m,
l = 1 m = λ 2 ⇒ half-wave dipole: P = 36.6 I 02 ⇒ I 0 = 0.74 A

c) For the above two antennas, find the maximum distance from the antenna in the horizontal
plane at which the FCC standard of 25 mV/m field strength is maintained. Assume antennas
are vertical.

η0 k ( I 0 2)∆z η0 kI 0 ∆z
Short dipole E= sin θ ≥ 25 mV/m , r≤ sin θ
4π r 8π × 0.025

η0 kI 0 ∆z
Horizontal plane θ = π 2 , sin θ = 1 , r ≤ = 1.7 Km
8π × 0.025

η0 I 0 cos ( π2 cos θ )
Half-wave dipole E = ≥ 25 mV/m ,
2π r sin θ

θ = π 2 , sin θ = 1 , cos θ = 0 , cos ( π2 cos θ ) = 1

η0 I 0
r≤ = 1.8 Km
2π × 0.025
2- Consider an elementary, z-directed electric dipole of current moment II on the x-axis at
x=d. Assume that d is very large.

a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric field at the origin due to this dipole?
b) Let the dipole continue to be z-directed but move it to the point (d,d,0) in the xy plane.
What is the direction of the dipole’s electric field now?

Alternate solution method by reciprocity


3- Assume a cross dipole antenna as shown below figure. It is made of two half-wavelength
dipoles along z and y directions. Find the radiated fields assuming that the antennas are
excited by current sources with equal amplitude and phase. What is the polarization of
electric field in the far-zone region in the xz plane?
3- The transmitting antenna of a radio navigation system is a vertical metal mast of height
h=40 m insulated from the earth. A source operating at f=180 KHz sends a current with
amplitude Im=100 mA into the base of the mast. Assuming the current amplitude in the
antenna to decrease linearly toward zero at the top of the mast and the earth to be a perfectly
conducting plane, determine

(a) the effective length of the antenna (The effective length of a linear antenna of length L is
defined as the length le of an equivalent linear antenna with uniform current distribution I(0)
−L 2
such that it radiates the same far-zone fields in the H-plane, i.e. le = 1
I (0) ∫ I ( z ′) dz ′ .)
−L 2

(b) the maximum field intensity at a distance of R=160 km from the antenna,

(c) the time-average radiated power,

(d) the radiation resistance.


4- A thin linear dipole of length L is placed symmetrically about the z-axis. Find the far-zone
electric and magnetic fields assuming the current distribution is given by
7- A dipole antenna, with a triangular current distribution, is used for communicating with a
submarine at f =110 kHz. The overall length of the dipole is L = 230 m and the wire radius is
a = 1.5 m. Assume a loss resistance of 3 Ω.

(a) Evaluate the input impedance of the antenna, including the loss resistance. The input
reactance can be approximated by
(b) (3 points) Evaluate the radiation efficiency of the antenna

Hint: The far-field pattern of the above dipole has a term sin2(0.25βLcosθ). Use a one term
Maclaurin (Taylor) series expansion of this function before you use it in part (a).
9- Consider the double-dipole antenna. The dipoles are oriented along the x-axis and are
spaced a distance d from each other on the y-axis. The dipoles are fed in phase and with the
same amplitude (for cases 1-4). The dipole length is 0.625 lambda.

a) Calculate the antenna pattern (normalized). Define the E-plane and the H-plane, and write
their patterns mathematically.
b) For d=0.5 lambda, plot the E-plane and H-plane co-pol and x-pol patterns (linear in power,
radial in angle). Plot also the 45 degree co-pol and x-pol patterns. Clearly label the
polarization in the E-plane and H-plane patterns and on the z-axis.
c) The double-dipole is now placed a height h (h=0.25 lambda) above the ground plane (x-y
plane). Calculate the new pattern, determine the 3-dB beamwidth, and estimate the directivity
of the antenna (do not use the equation in Balanis). What do you think happens to the cross-
polarization level in the presence of the ground plane (assume the ground plane is infinite in
extent)?
d) Calculate the driving point impedance for one dipole antenna (in the double-dipole
antenna) in the presence of the ground plane. Use the graphs in the notes.

e) Which f/d reflector would you choose to match the antenna of case (3) above (with a finite
but small ground plane). Clearly state your reasons. Also, draw a realistic feeding mechanism
for the double-dipole antenna.