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Automotive Engineering Lab 2

(MEC 2630)
Experiment FLUID 4: Reynold Osborne

Group 1
Ahmad Nafis Bin Muhd Radzi

Date of Experiment: 4th Nov, 2016


Fluid flow can be classified to three regimes which is laminar, transitional and turbulent regime.Laminar regime is
a regime where the flow is characterized by smooth streamlines and highlyordered motion. Turbulent is a regime
where flow is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered motion. Transitional regime is where
the flow fluctuates between laminar and turbulent before it becomes fully turbulent.

The transitional from laminar to turbulent flow depends on geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface
temperature, and type of fluid. However, Osborne Reynolds discovered that the flow regime mainly depends on
the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. This ratio is what wecalled as Reynolds number.

At small or moderate Reynolds numbers the viscous forces are large enough to suppress
theses fluctuations and to keep the fluid “in line”. Thus, the flow is streamlined and in ordered motion. However,
at large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces, which are proportional to the fluid density and the square of the fluid
velocity, are large relative to the viscous force. As the results, the viscous force cannot prevent the random and
rapid fluctuations of the fluid. Thus,the flow will be in disordered motion.

The boundary of Reynolds number for laminar, transitional and turbulent regime varies bygeometries and flow
condition. For example, flow in a circular pipe is laminar for Reynolds number less than 2300, turbulent for
Reynolds number larger than 4000 and transitional in between. However, we will have other boundaries if the pipe
cross sectional area is a square. This experiment is to visualize the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow in a pipe
and to determine the boundary of Reynolds number for flow in the pipe.

First by controlling the flow rate, establish the laminar flow. Then by slowly increase the flowrate observe what
happened to the dye streak. Record the flow pattern change and it volumetricflow rate reading. Determine the
boundary of Reynolds number of laminar, transitional andturbulent regine.

1. To demonstrate laminar, transition and turbulent flow
2. To introduce Reynolds number to classify laminar, transition and turbulent flow


1.Hydraulic Bench.
2.Reynolds experiment apparatus..

1. Fill the water tank with water and allow it to stand for some time so that the water comesto rest.
2. Partially open the outlet valve of the glass tube and allow the flow to take place at a very low rate.
3. Allow the flow to stabilize then open the valves at the inlet of the dye injector and allow the dye to move through
the tube. Observe the nature of the filament.
4. Record the data to the table.
5. Observed the regime, then sketch the flow of the dye.
6. Measure the discharge by collecting water in the graduated cylinder for a certain interval zof time.
7. Repeat the steps 3 and 5 for different discharges


 Laminar flow- highly ordered fluid motion with smooth streamlines.

 Transition flow - a flow that contains both laminar and turbulent regions.

 Turbulent flow-a highly disordered fluid motion characterized by velocity and fluctuations
and eddies.

According to the Reynolds`s experiment, laminar flow will occur when a thin filament of dye
injected into laminar flow appears as a single line. There is no dispersion of dye throughout the flow, except the
slow dispersion due to molecular motion. While for turbulent flow, if a dye filament injected into a turbulent flow,
it disperse quickly throughout the flow field, the lines of dye breaks into myriad entangled threads of dye.

In this experiment we have to firstly is to observe the characteristic of the flow of thefluid in the pipe, which may
be laminar or turbulent flow by measuring the Reynoldsnumber and the behaviour of the flow, secondly to
calculate the range for the laminar andturbulent flow and lastly to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by
using theReynolds number formula.

After complete preparing and setup the equipment we run this experiment. But firstlywe have to
calculate the area of bell mounted glass tube, the viscosity of water and thedensity of water. The density of water is
1000 kg/m³, the area of glass tube is 78.53 x 10-3m²,while the viscosity of water is1x 10-6 m²/s, this is done for
easy step by step calculation.

We observe that the red dye line change with the increasing of water flow rate. Theshape change from thin threads
to slightly swirling which still contains smooth thin threadsand then fully swirling. We can say that this change is
from laminar flow to transitional flow and then to turbulent flow and it’s not occurs suddenly.


As the water flow rate increase, the Reynolds number calculated also increase and thered dye
line change from thin thread to swirling in shape.

Laminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number calculated is below than 2300;transitional flow
occurs when Reynolds number calculated is between 2300 and 4000while turbulent flow occurs
when Reynolds number calculated is above 4000.

It is proved that the Reynolds equation is dimensionless, no units left after the zzcalculation

 Fluid Mechanics 2nd Edition: Fundamentals and Applications by Yunus A. Cengel and John
M. Cimbala.
 Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Manual