Kunihiko
Kasahara
•
• •
Kunihiko Kasahara
Acknowledgments
A heartfelt thankyou to my friends Marieke de Hoop, Paulo Mulatinho
and his wife Silke Schroeder, and to Michiko Yoshihara. They all
encouraged me to write this book and supported me in every possible
way. I have made a great many wonderful friends throughout the world
thanks to origami, and for that, too, I am grateful.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
..
I
Contents
Preface 5
What is origami? 5
Origami symbols 6
Paper 7
The link between esthetics and
geometry 8 Going farther 36
Regular hexagon 36
Chapter 1 Dividing Areas 9 Regular octagon 36
.
Dividing areas in half 10 Regular heptagonal (7sided) pyramid 37
Spiral shape 11 Regular heptagon 37
A monument to Froebel 13 The answer lies in between 38
Dividing angles in half 14 More "nonconstructible" shapes 40
Roulette 14 Regular 16sided polygon 40
Grass 15 Regular 17sided polygon 40
Crow 15 Regular 18sided polygon 41
Dividing angles in thirds 16 Regular 24si.ded to nsided polygon 41
Star of David 16 Two theorems and their proofs 42
Regular hexagon 18 Dividing a square in half: 20 shapes 44
Vase 19 The Super Tangram 46
Regular 12sided polygon 20 Origami and tangrams 48
Twelvewinged spinning top 21 Original tangram 48
Dividing segments into parts 22 Row's tangram 48
Division by iteration 22
Shooting Star 24 Chapter 3. ThreeDimensional Objects 50
Regular octagon 26 Boxes 50
UFO 26 Nesting boxes 51
Regular pentagon 28 The cube and some variations 52
American method 28
Regular polyhedrons 54
Japanese method 28 Cube made of surface modules 54
Mon kiri 29 · The five Platonic solids
Characteristics of the regular
(regular polyhedrons) 55
pentagon 30
\ Three basic elements of polyhedrons 56
Drawing template for the
Cube made of corner modules 56
regular pentagon 30
,. Cube made of edge modules 58
Cube (hexahedron) 58
Chapter 2. Fun with Geometry 31
Tetrahedron, octahedron, and
The golden rectangle 31 . icosahedron from 30° modules 59
'
The impossible becomes possible 32 Dodecahedron from 54° modules 60
Another way to fold a The Platonic solids: Five good friends 61 ·
regular pentagon 32 More edge modules '62
Compass folding 34 The octahedron: Five variations 63
Equilateral triangle and square 35 Afterword 64
Regular pentagon 35 lndex 64
Contents 3
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4
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Preface
We start off with a square piece of paper. lf we fold it according to origami rules, we place
a corner on top of another corner, one edge on top of another. We are really applying
mathematical principles for dividing segments, angles and areas into equal parts.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel ( 1782  1852), a German teacher, recognized the con
nection between origami and geometry. He found origami a very useful teaching aid, which
he used in a playful manner to help children develop an interest in and understanding of
geometry. l myself am neither a teacher nor a mathematician, but during the course of my
40year work with origami, l have come to greatly appreciate his ideas.
About 150 years have passed since Froebe! taught, and origami has grown since then by
leaps and bounds. l am filled with pride and joy that l have been given the opportunity to
publish a book based on Proebel's ideas, which will hopefully give them renewed recogni
tion. l sincerely hope that this joy will convey itself to the readers of my book.
at ls Origami? •
What is origami? This question has kept me occupied for 20 years. l am sure this has hap
pened to you as well: it is often very difficult to clearly explain a simple matter with which
you are very familiar. l have searched for an answer to my question in many encyclopedias
and origami books, but unfortunately have never found a satisfying definition. All expla
nations, in my view, only touch part of what origami is and therefore do not do justice to
its wide range of characteristics and possibilities.
For me, the answer can be found in a kind of symbiosis, the coming together of different
aspects that make up the whole. My own personal definition of origami is as follows:
Origami is a traditional game of folding paper that unites sculptural esthetic aspects with
functional and geometricmathematical principles. Origami opens up interesting possibilities
for people of all ages, regardless of sex, nationality, or language. With respect to my
definition of origami as a game, l have heard several contrasting opinions. Many experts
seem to think that calling it a game belittles the value of origami. For me, however, the
playful aspect is essential to origami and by no means takes away from its significance.
Play and a playful mindset create joy and enthusiasm, without which all arts and sciences
would be empty.
    ~~
0 iqami Symbols
i&l~'. are the most important origami symbols. They are used all over the world, and
form the basis of the folding instructions in this book.
Fold forward
• Fold backward
_;...: .. Step fold (pleat in a mountain and valley fold like a step)
) Sink· fold
6 Origami Symbols
Paper
l have used simple, square origami papers for all the models shown in this book.
Where an oblong or a polygonal shape is needed, l will show how to make this from
a square piece of paper.
Paper 7
..     
The link Between Esthetics and Geometry
Haga's Theorem
Triangles a, b and c are similarto each
other. Their sides have the same
ratios, 3 : 4 : 5.
=
b the American tradition.
l
• Dividing Areas 9
. '  ~
Dividing Areas in Half
•. . ~ .. ·······~··· .. ··············· •
If you fold a square diagonally, you will create a .. . .
... . .,
right: isosceles triangle. We will take its area to be 1. •.
. .
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Now continue to halve this triangle again and again
by placing the acute angles on top of each other, 1
ten times in total (see diagrams 1 through 7). ••
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1 1
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1 ·  = L.·
2 21
1 1 1 1
2. 2 =4 = 22
1 1 1 1
· = 
4 2 8 23
1 1 1 1
8. 2= 16 = 24
•
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10 Dividing Areas in Half
•
Spiral Shape
1
The shape that is produced after halving the triangle ten times (see
diagram 7) is an esthetically pleasing object. However, if you unfold
1
it again and change the orientation of the three folds along sides a
and b (turn mountain folds into valley folds), you will turn the two
dimensional, flat shape into a fascinating, plastic spiral shape.
Spiral Shape 11

T, ::==.:c Row did not use quite the same method Interestingly enough, origami paper usually has a
~ ::::.;:;.&rated on pages 10 to 11. This method of white side and a colored side. If you consider figure
~ :: :::e area of a right isosceles triangle was B again and keep this in mind, you will realize that
y:_:_2e by Jun Maekawa, of Japan. It is easier to the colored areas (folded over the square) com
=::.31d than Row's idea of how to halve areas, pletely cover the white area. And so it is proven,
r::::•• ·: iigure A. The idea is the same, but very simply and clearly, that if the area of the
~~·rc's method is even simpler aad must there original square is taken to be 1, the areas of the
itr: ::;e s...oen as progress. What is more, following two shapes in figure B are half of the area of the
::: .. s nethod, the square can only be halved about square, or 1 /2.
.= · .
:imes.
Froebe!, too, discussed these mathematical
If ..e compare the two methods, it becomes principles and got as far as figure B, but never
c:7. ious that both shapes have the same area (see arrived at figure Don page 13.
4~t..re B). This is easy to see, and was noted by
Froebel.
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A Monument to Froebel 13
Dividing Angles in Half
The previous pages discussed dividing areas in half.
We will now move on to dividing angles in half.
'
Follow the stepbystep instructions to fold the
Crow and Grass. Then we will examine the
completed figures with respect to the angles that
were created and what this means in a mathema
tical context. You will learn a lot of interesting facts
about angles. Finally, you will see an example
concerning the division of angles into three parts
(page 16).
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Roulette
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Learn these geometry_~
facts.
* * * = 67.5°
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Inside reverse
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Grass 15
,II.   
Dividing Angles in Thirds
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Fold the right
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,
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t opposite way, the direction
of spin will change. Tuck the part
between the
lines under.
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Fold in the order given.
Characteristics of an
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equilateral triangle
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60°
Continue with
Learn these
step 3.
characteristics wel I:
Star of David 17
    ~
Regular Hexagon
On pages 16 and 17, you learned the f aiding tech
nique for ar equilateral triangle. From this, you
can easi 1 1old a regular hexagon (see figure E);
however, me resulting hexagon will be quite small.
E
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Mark points a and
b with short folds.
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Point b should end up
on top of marking line
c; point a remains fixed.
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60° .: 60°
15°
45°
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Why not try to fold this unusual vase from other regular polygons?
Vase 19
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Regular 12Sided Polygon
Next we'll fold a regular 12sided polygon Use this form to fold a
(dodecagon). Vase, following the
method shown for the
hexagon on the previous
pages .
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90° I 3 = 30°,
Mark only the top dividing the right
layer of paper with angle into 3
a short marking parts, as was
line. shown for the
Star of David.
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20 Dividing Angles in Thirds
TwelveWinged Spinning Top
This example shows how we can create a figure
with twelve corners from a square piece of paper.
The Spinning Top will start to turn if you blow on it
from above.
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Mr. Fujimoto's method of division does not end
with seven equal parts, and can be used to divide
segments into 9, 11, 13, ... 91, 101, ... etc. equal
parts. Can you work out the folding rhythms? V'l
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This technique does not
A _1 have a mathematical basis,
2 but is the best way to divide
1/i'l I@ a segment into thirds.
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Division bv
~ Iteration 23
Shooting Star dividing segments into equal parts. As an example,
we use Jun Maekawa's masterpiece (see page 25).
(method of Jun Maekawa)
By changing the dividing factor, I was able to
By making this pretty Shooting Star, you can put greatly simplify the folding pattern. The method I
into practice the method you have just learned for use here is based on division into twelve parts.
Start by
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with your
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in 3 equal
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the Star.
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Shootinq Star 25
~ ~    ~
Regular Octagon
The regular octagon is easily made by repeated
halving of angles. However, I would like to introduce
UFO
you to a different technique here, called isoarea
folding. This was invented by Toshikazu Kawasaki, a
Japanese mathematician and prominent origami
scholar.
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45°
Regular
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45° 45°
Open
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UFO 27
Regular Pentagon
Many blossoms have five petals; for example, sakura regular dodecagon). Many people in the past have
(the Japanese name for "cherry blossom," the tried to fold a regular pentagon.
symbol of Japan), ume (Japanese cherry blossom),
momo (peach blossom), and kikyo (mountain bell). In the following, I will introduce two of several pos
You can well imagine how difficult it is to fold .five sible solutions, one according to Japanese tradition
petals of equal size from a square of paper. This task and one according to American tradition.
might be a little easier with a pentagonal paper
shape, but unfortunately it is also rather tricky to The error for the American method is 0.6%; for
produce this. the Japanese method, +0.2°/o. Both deviations are
smaller than the accuracy that can be achieved
The obvious answer is to divide the 360° angle at the through folding, so both techniques are therefore
center of the square by five (360° I 5 = 72°). But 72° handy methods of approximation.
cannot be folded as easily as 120° (for an equilateral
triangle), 90° (for a square); 60° (to make a regular
hexagon), 45° (for a regular octagon) or 30° (for a
American Method
This is a slightly easier
folding technique, but
it will result in a
smaller pentagon (see •
•
diagram on page 29)
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Fold only one marker.
Fold two short
•
Japanese markin lines.
Method
28 Regular Pentagon
Pentagram.
Cherry blossom.
This diagram
shows the results American
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of both methods, .
Mon kiri I(?~
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indicated.
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Monkiri 29
,
Characteristics of the Regular Pentagon
Both pentaqentoldino techniques result in only a into a rather large error, even with methods that
very minor error for the central angle of the regular theoretically produce an exact result. Methods of
approximation in practice often give a more accurate
pentagon, compared to its exact theoretical value. I
don't really like the term "error." If you try to divide result than theoretically exact methods. Kasahara
360° into five equal parts simply by folding, it is manages, through integration of the third dimension,
to use a simple method to fold theoretically exact
almost impossible to avoid errors. If we look at the
characteristics of the regular pentagon from a differ drawing templates for regular polygons that otherwise
cannot be constructed following Euclidean methods,
ent point of view, we will come across a link to the
or can be done only with great difficulty.
golden mean (see Diagram A).
Regular hexagon
(see page 18).
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How can we divide the side of a square into
fifths with only 1112 folds? r
1
=
a 1/5 the length of the side of a b = 2/5 the length of the side
square of a square
, Fold in the Proof: Proof: Triangles S and s are
,
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Triangles a and b
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Fold in the order
e: L = 2 : (fs + 1)
indicated. .
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The shape looks like an
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Folding steps a to c (enlargements of 7 to 9):
b Insert the bottom end of the spiral into the radial c
slot and pull upward. Arrange the sides of the
pentagon to cover each other.
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Equilateral Triangle and Square
Using the same folding technique, you can also fold an equilateral triangle and a square.
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Fold on lines
th.at are
B there.
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ex = 180°  72° = 54 0
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Compass Folding 3 5
Going Farther
Now that you are familiar with compass folding, the shape of a regular heptagonal pyramid, already
you can apply this technique to the regular hexagon exists (see page 37). Well, yes, it's a pyramid  isn't
and the regular octagon. I have already given the that good enough for you? Then you might want to
templates required for division into seven and nine have a look at pages 38 to 39. ·
equal parts on page 23.
Editor's comment: When we speak of regular poly
Afterwards, we will bravely confront the challenge gons that cannot be constructed mathematically,
of folding the regular heptagon, which cannot be we always refer to the fact that they cannot be
constructed using a compass and a ruler. To con constructed using Euclidean means, i.e., using only
struct a figure that up to now could not be a compass and a ruler. This does not mean that
constructed, we have to embrace a new way of there aren't methods of construction using
thinking and confront the problem with additional means that enable us to construct
imagination, in a playful manner. One solution, in these. Origami is just one of the additional means
of nonEuclidean construction, but by no means
the only one.
Regular Hexagon
•
Regular Octagon
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1800 450 = 67.50
~ ex =
2
3 6 Going Farther
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Regular ,
octagon.
Regular Heptagonal
(7Sided) Pyramid ..
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Calculating angle a
The triangles that result from connecting the
center of a polygon with its corners are
isosceles tri~ngles, with two equal angles a
and a central angle a.
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a= = 51.428571° ...
7
180°  a 4500
a=  = 64.285714° ...
2 7
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; r1 _f ~~     . . .. . . ~
\ J_
2
•
7
I
I
I
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/ R10
:,1 R9?
I
I
Regular Heptagon
'
I
1
2.
.
? l,l r:
•
6 ".>

ff
' .
..' "' R8
  •   1
•
The determining point  ,     
.: I I
~
~ I
lies just above the central ' '• •'
'•;
,,
line. Always start with :"i, I
the colored side  I .
70 0
facing up.
 .           ,_. /\
•
Polygon Polygon
,..,..._ .. • , , . . . . I
I z J \< ; 6 ? S' 9 to // ,2 13 I Z. ,3 f<. f { 1? lr 9 ID II re:
I
I
! ·• ,,.. R10
/,
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R1 : i I/ R12 '
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II   .  ~    
I ' 72 0
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,' t
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( 2. ) ~ s (, 'J & 9 /0 II (:Z. 13 !¥'. ft I{, 19 Always start with the f z 3 fl y ( ? 19 /0 II /:Z. /) ,~ IS /( 17 fl,
.
<
RS I
I
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'I
. i
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' II
I/ Determining point
R 17 I ies between
Ii R16 and R18. \"
'  78.75 0
' =79.411 0
...

Regular 18Sided Regular 24Sided to n
. Polygon Sided Polygon
/ 2 J ',<. t 6 7 fs 9 1 l 1/1/2 /JI' 1
/, I ~· 2( 2 ~l'IZf
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,
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/1/)4.,4...l++,.+:.:j...!++++i++t++t+M
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1111/Vv
,/V ,~~·l++++1Hftt++ttHTin',,~'
., / v vr
/
' = 82.5°
<
I
I
R9
I
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I
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 = 80°
What is more, we can also deduce the following In preparation for the
from figure A (page 43): proof, fold one of two ,
4x
®
,
, ,
®
, ,
, ,
/
s
a
s
(j) Unfold a
completely. b
•
• s
b
s
I II CD III CD
I
. ·,' c ~c r,,
••
! @ @ @
I
' I
•  •
~
'
~
I
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'
'
'
' ®
i c
® ®
b
a2 + b2 = c2 Pythagorean theorem
a+b a+b
A
a2 s
® B
s s
c
a+b s a+b
. s
•
s
Now cut off the fours triangles and place them, as Since the two squares A and B are of equal size, the
shown in figure 10, on the second paper square. Pythagorean theorem has been proven.
. _, 
Dividing a Square in Half:
20 Shapes A
4 shapes
M
••
•
.
13 shapes resulting
1 from figure M.
1
A + B + C = 20 shapes.
.
N
c
We can develop more shapes from figure N; how
ever, side lengths I, m, and n do not exist in the
other 20 shapes, and these shapes therefore cannot
be combined with them.
It is difficult enough to combine seven pieces in the Tip: In the set of 20 blue pieces on pages 44
right way  but we are playing with a Super and 45, there are only two possible combina
Tangram made up of 20 pieces (see pages 44 and tions for creating a square from two pieces,
45)! As an introduction, I have designed a few as shown above.
fairly simple puzzles. In addition to giving you the
outline of the figure to be made, I have also
indicated the number of tangram pieces required.
All you have to do is to choose the correct pieces
to cover the outlined area. (Hint: pieces may be
flopped.)
You will see that even this is difficult. For this reason,
I called my game "Super Tangram," the incredibly
complicated tangram of the computer age .
••
Puzzle 1
Use 14 pieces to create this
column of three squares.
Puzzle 4
Eight pieces of the Super
Tangram are enough to make
th is Ostrich.
Puzzle 3
Nine pieces make up this Swan.
Original Tangram
The surface of each
tangram piece is 1/4, Examples
1/8, or 1/16 of the area
of the entire tangram.
Bow.
•• M~
L
G G I
A ~~~ 8 A t.....::.L..:::.:... _:::, B A '~.::::1 8
BO= BG BM = MP= CN = NL BM= NK
Puzzle: Use the 7 tangram pieces of the rightmost square to form three squares of equal size.
As you can see from the diagrams below, all 20 pieces of the Super Tang ram can be formed from the
elements of the original tangram. This proves once again that all 20 figures are equal in area .
••
I am sure everybody will agree that boxes are one same size of paper. If you are wondering which box
of the most popular shapes that can
•
be made in has the greatest volume, you can calculate this with ·
traditional origami. the help of differential calculus, developed by Sir
Isaac Newton (1643  1727), who was a physicist
There is no limit to the shapes and possible varia and mathematician. The box . with a baselineto
tions of these. I would like to introduce a few in height ratio of 4: 1 is the one with the greatest
this chapter. The first example shows nesting boxes, volume. If you need a more detailed explanation,
a traditional model. It consists of a number of boxes please consult a math teacher.
of different sizes, which were all folded from the
.
,.,:;;;.:::::=::::;;:;.,,,o:::;::;;=:!=::~/ Start with the colored ,,
G) /
~I ,
,,
/
/
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,/
I
,
/
'
j
/
''
'' Base of
 '' \
'' ' standard Base of
/
/
/
,/ '
'' size box. smallest box
,
'' / in the set.
''
/
/ '
'' / '
''
®
/
/
''
/
/
'
'
/
)\ /
• •
,)\ ®
/ '
'
'
'
50 ThreeDimensional Objects
..
•
Nesting Boxes
\
•
A B
If you use the same size of paper for all the boxes in the set, If you use differentsized papers, the result
and if you reduce the distance between the base lines by the will be as in photo B.
'
width of a match's head (step 3), you will get the results
shown in photo A.
How about a game in which you mix the two sets of boxes (A and B) and then try
to reassemble them in the correct order?
Lid
Fold ''
' . , Box
inwards,
following
•'
''
,,
i ,
',  ® The simple box without
lid is done.
, '
, ' ,
the existing ..  .. '_, ,
'
mountain , ,, ''
'' '
and valley '' '' •
'
folds.
'
''
'

' '' ®
..
Nesting Boxes 51
The Cube and Some Variations
You can make a simple cube by putting together two
boxes that aren't quite finished (see figures 1 to 1 O). If
you then fold one corner (or several) to the inside like
an inverted pyramid (see figures 11 to 14), you can
create new geometric shapes.
       ·•    
, ,,
,
/
/
,,
/
/
/
/
,,
/
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/
,/
/
Mark.
,,
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,
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,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
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/
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;··,
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' I ,• • ...... J
I
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f'.
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,, '' ,,
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CD \
 
..
You will need 6
pieces of paper to
/ ®
•          t,.     make the cube. J J
•
, / I
' /
.  . . '
/
/
.. /
papers of the same color.
\_ T
54 Regular Polyhedrons
The Five Platonic Solids (Regular Polyhedrons)
.
•.
•
... .. . . . ' .
..
Make 2 of these
.' modules in each
of three different
·® colors to make
the cube above.
Cube Made of
Comer Modules
G) '' /
/ Fold 8 corner
'
'' ,/
/
modules from
'
X,~ ,
,,
,,
, ''
four sheets of
paper.
, '
J
/
, ''
,,
/
''
'' A cube has eight corners, and it really only takes
' '
'' '' these eight modules to form a cube. However, for
'' '
the solution pictured on these pages, six linking
modules also are essential. In total, you will need
seven squares of paper to construct this cube.
''

,/ '
'
''
/
,'
' ,
'
' '
'' /
.
'
' '
,,
' ,/
/ '
    ' 
~.
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I
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Corner
® Insert the two
module;
make 8.
corners as
Fold the back shown.
righthand
corner over to
the left and the
/
, two front left
'' , hand corners Make 6.
over to the right. '
, '
, '
,, '
'
' ,,· 0
'
,, Make the linking modules from 3
.....
''
,.'.
,
.. ··
,
,, '
' squares of paper.
,, ''
, '
' , '
goo goo •
45°
45° goo goo
Theory. 45°
Cube modules are
shown.
(Hexahedron)
\
  Assembly (3 hidden
modules at the back
of the cube are not
shown).
.' ,.
/
•
Inside reverse '
® fold. '
30°
60°
60° 60°
Theory
Icosahedron
30 modules,
Octahedron 1 0 of each color
12 modules,
4 of each color
Tetrahedron
These three Platonic solids are assembled
6 modules,
from 30° modules. I suggest that you make
2 of each color
L ® modules of 3 different colors.
,,
•..
J
J / ®
..
When assembling the r.· .
\ .
..
I ..
'' .
' •
no longer needed. (~ ' . ..
'
'
•
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'
··~)
, }
.
~, . 
Dodecahedron from 54° Modules
54°..t"
54°
CD 108°
) 108° 108° \
)
108°
          _ .....        54°
\
I
Theory
• ·
' '
•
'
' '
'
' '· You can make three 54° modules from one square
J
'
' ' ' of paper. For this model, you will need 4 sheets of
' '
•
' paper per color, and three different colors of paper.
<::»
Editor's comment: It is possible to get 4 strips from
one paper square; in that case, 3 sheets of paper per
color will be enough.
© ,
!\
,,
    rl. '
. • • .
. I . I· .
•
•
~  ~~r1~r~13 .,
®
•
\, .
® ·'
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•
•
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®
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60 Dodecahedron
The Platonic Solids:
Five Good Friends
... "" ,. .. , ... ,. .."~"···
Now they are sitting before you: the five Platonic of unified appearance exists only in origami. It
solids, including the cube made of edge modules wouldn't be wrong to call our solids good friends,
and cubes of other modules. You only needed three something you wil not find in any math textbook.
different modules to make all of them: the 45° And we can certainly continue in this sympathetic
module, the 30° module, and the 54° module. All style and extend the circle of friends. You will find a
five solids were assembled in the same manner, and few examples on the following pages.
all five are composed of three colors each. This kind
~
'
.
• .
~
' . ~~'
,,... ..... ;
I
.
I
'' . '' '
• '
I
I
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I I
'
. ,...
.
I
' . . . .•
/ ...
® ~;.  • 2. ~ '
,.
@) . ~
/ . ~ ....
For models B and E, I recommend that you apply Inside reverse fold.
some glue to the connecting flap prior to assembly. '
'. 1
'
'
'
,. '
'
' ®
B
_ ... ______
''
· .
2
~
1 I J
_______ ., _____ 'Px
•'

" 
2
~
' ®
\ G)
\
Fold in the order indicated.
·
The Octahedron: Five Variations
c E The fini,shed E
module. Make 12.
,
( 1
Although the same size of paper was used • G)
    ' ..
to fold all the modules, the finished octa c
hedrons are different in size (see photos). E ..      ..
,~ '' The J
•
;::;;::::~ ~. , finished C
~:::: II
'module. ®    .
. ' Make 12.
.
The
finished D
c
    ~.
G) .x . ®
. I
..
' .. ' . From this step, fold as
' •
. ' . described for model B .
I
' ,,
' ..
c <:»
• '
'
 r •
.      )· ... . . . .
~
' ' •
.. .
 ... 
·) . .  r   ..
,..
r I
I
I
..
'
I
I
'
D D
Use the
lower
part.
With this book, I wanted to introduce you to the beauty and fascination
of geometry and mathematics. To show you that there are numerous,
almost unlimited possibilities for continuing this exciting journey, I would
like to end with a little experiment Pick up your completed five regular
solids, one after the other, and turn each slowly. Observe how the shape regular hexagon
of its outline changes. Take the cube, for instance: depending on how
you turn it, you can see its outline as a square, a regular hexagon and
finally a rectangle. You can make the same observations for the octa
hedron. What happens for the other three solids? Exploring the relation
ships between these five solids alone is very intriguing and leads you
deep into the world of geometry.
square
lndex
American Method (pentagon) 2829 golden section, 31, 32 Row, T. Sundara, 10, 48
angles: dividing in thirds, 1620; halving, Grass, 15 Row's Tanqrarn, 48
1415 Haga's Theorem, 9 segments, dividing into 3 parts, 22, 24
areas, dividing, 913, 4446, 49 halving a square (tangrams), 4446, 49 7sided polygon (heptagon), 32
boxes, 5051 halving angles, 1415 7sided pyramid, 37
Cherry Blossom (cut paper), 29 heptadecagon (17sided polygon), 8, 40 17sided polygon (heptadecagon), 8, 40
compass folding, 3437 heptagon (7sided polygon), 32 16sided polygon, 40
Crow, 15 heptagonal (7sided) pyramid, 37 Shooting Star, 2425
cube, 5258; of corner modules, 5657; of hexagon, 1819, 36, 39 silhouettes of solids, 13
edge modules, 58; of face modules, 5455 hexahedron. See cube 60° angles, 16, 17
decagon (10sided polygon), 39 Huzita, Humiak, 43 spiral shape, 11
dividing areas in half, 1012, 4446, 49 icosahedron, 55 square, 35, 4446, 49
dividing segments into 3 parts, 22, 24, 24 Japanese Method (pentagon), 2829 Star of David, 16
division by iteration, 2223 Maekawa, Jun, 12, 25 Super Tangram, 4449
dodecagon (12sided polygon), 20, 39 modules, 5455, 58, 59, 60 Swan (tangram), 4 7
dodecahedron, 55, 6061 Monkiri, 29 symbols used in book, 8
edge modules, 58, 59, 60, 62 nesting boxes, 51 tangrams, 4449
18sided polygon, 41 9sided polygon (enneagon), 32 10sided polygon (decagon), 39
64 Afterword/lndex
3046183949 Malmo Stadsbibliotek
ISBN 0806958219
9 0 0 0 O>