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As part of his material control system, a Manufacturer This PMIP may be applied to metals during the supply,
may determine that a situation warrants positive material fabrication, and erection of these materials. This practice
identification for a specific material or item. This may is not intended for PMI of material already in service,
include material used by the Manufacturer for pressure although many of the procedures and concepts are equally
retaining boiler parts and their associated support materials applicable.
and may also include components covered by PG-11 or This PMIP covers the procedures and methods to ensure
by ASME standards listed in Table A-360. This Nonman- that the nominal chemical content of specific key elements
datory Appendix is provided as a guide for use by the in metallic alloys is in accordance with purchase specifica-
Manufacturer in developing a Positive Material Identifica- tions, and that such materials are properly analyzed and
tion Practice (PMIP) that may be applied to address the identified to indicate the alloy.
material or item of concern. The user is cautioned that this PMIP does not ensure
that the materials have been processed correctly and have
the appropriate mechanical properties for the intended
B-2 DEFINITIONS service.

Some commonly used terms relating to this practice are

defined below. B-4 BASIS
calibration check: a test carried out on a known standard
The primary basis for this PMIP is the application of
alloy to verify the performance of the instrument.
portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The state-of-the-art
certified mill or material test report (CMTR): a docu-
with these instruments is continually improving but XRF
ment that permits each component to be identified
instruments typically are incapable of quantitative mea-
according to the original heat of material from which it
surements for elements with an atomic number lower than
was produced.
22 (titanium). In particular, the XRF method is incapable
inspection lot: with the exception of bolting, an inspec-
of measuring carbon (atomic number 6), which is a critical
tion lot is a group of components from the same heat
element in many of the alloys for which PMI is desired.
number or lot from which a sample is drawn. For bolting,
When the measurement of carbon or other elements with
a lot is a group of similar components in terms of alloy
an atomic number less than 22 is desired, the user may
type and size.
also apply optical emission spectrometers (OES). OES
100% positive material identification: each individual
instruments produce an electrical arc between the instru-
component and weld is tested.
ment and work piece so the examined area shall be selected
OES: optical emission spectroscopy. to minimize damage to critical surfaces.
positive material identification (PMI): a procedure used This PMIP does not provide absolute confirmation of
to ensure that specified metallic alloy materials are all mandatory elements in the materials specification in the
(a) properly identified as to alloy type same sense as the more sophisticated laboratory methods
(b) identified in accordance with the Manufacturer’s such as wet chemistry, optical emission spectroscopy,
written practice energy dispersive spectroscopy, combustion/infrared spec-
(c) installed as intended. troscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, etc. Neverthe-
representative sampling: PMI testing of a sample, which less, when coupled with other documentation such as
consists of one or more pieces (components), selected at certified mill or material test report (CMTR), a Certificate
random from an inspection lot, that will be examined to of Compliance (COC), or material marking, this PMIP can
determine acceptability of the inspection lot. establish a high degree of confidence that the material
XRF: x-ray fluorescence. matches what was intended.

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Materials Identification Elements Materials Identification Elements

Carbon steel C [Note (1)], Si [Note (1)], Alloy 20Cb-3 C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni, Mo, Cb, Cu
Mo, Cu < 0.43, Ni < 0.43,
Cr < 0.34, Mo < O.13,
(V + Cb) < 0.07,
(Cr + Mo) < 0.32,
(Cu + Ni + Cr + Mo) < 1.00
C-1⁄2Mo Mo Brass, admiralty Sn
1 Cr-1⁄2 Mo Cr, Mo Brass, naval Sn
11⁄4 Cr-1⁄2 Mo Cr, Mo Brass, aluminum Zn, AI
21⁄4 Cr-Mo Cr, Mo 90/10 Cu/Ni Cu, Ni
5 Cr-1⁄2 Mo Cr, Mo 70/30 Cu/Ni Cu/Ni
7 Cr-1⁄2 Mo Cr, Mo Alloy 400 Ni, Cu
9 Cr-l Mo Cr, Mo AL-6XN Cr, Ni, Mo
9Cr-1Mo-0.2V Cr, Mo, V Titanium Grades 1 and 2 Ti
12 Cr (Type 405/410SS) C [Note (1)], Cr Grade 12 Ti Ti, Mo [Note (1)], Ni [Note (1)]
12 Cr (Type 410) Cr Grade 16 Ti Ti, Pd [Note (1)]
17 Cr (Type 430) Cr Alloy 182 Ni, Cr
25 Cr (Type 446) Cr Alloy 600 Ni, Cr
304 Cr, Ni Alloy 625 Ni, Cr, Mo, Cb, Ti
304L C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni Alloy 800 Ni, Cr, AI, Ti
304H C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni Alloy 825 Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, Ti
309L C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni AISI 4140 C [Note (1)], Cr
309CbL C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni, Cb AISI 4340 C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni
310 Cr, Ni Alloy 2205 Cr, Ni, Mo
316/317 Cr, Ni, Mo Alloy 2507 Cr, Ni, Mo
316L/317L C [Note (1)], Cr, Ni, Mo 3.5Ni, 5Ni, and 9Ni Ni
321 Cr, Ni, Ti Hastelloy C276 Ni, Cr, Mo, W
347 Cr, Ni, Cb ... ...

GENERAL NOTE: Percentages shall be within the limits specified in the appropriate standards/specifications.
(1) See B-7 for options related to these minor alloying elements.


The materials that are covered in this PMIP include low The practice shall define the type of test to be performed;
alloy steels, high alloy steels, and nickel based alloys for XRF or OES. When using XRF, the practice shall also
which direct elemental measurement of key elements is define whether analysis mode or alloy matching mode shall
possible. be used.
Carbon steel may be confirmed using XRF by direct When identification of minor alloying elements (e.g.,
measurement of manganese plus direct measurement of low carbon in Type 304L SS or Type 410 SS, minor
certain residual elements with confirmed low levels consist- alloying elements in various grades of titanium) is required,
ent with carbon steel. Alternatively, OES may be applied the methods for testing and the acceptance criteria shall
to carbon steels in order to directly measure elements such be identified in the written practice.
as carbon and silicon. Suitable methods for identifying minor elements
include: specialized laboratory instrumentation, suitable
optical emission spectroscopy (field portable or labora-
B-6 WRITTEN PRACTICE tory), traceable mill certificates, or a combination of trace-
able mill certificates and chemical analysis using lower
The PMI program shall be covered in a written practice. measurement sensitivity.
The written practice shall define the method of testing,
acceptance criteria, sampling plan, documentation require-
ments, material identification requirements, instrument to B-8 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
be used, frequency of instrument calibration and instrument B-8.1 The minimum elements to be tested for each
calibration checks, personnel qualification requirements, alloy type are as listed in Table B-1. For alloys not included
and control of rejected material. in Table B-1, the user shall identify elements to be tested.

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B-8.2 When examining with XRF in an analysis mode, (j) heat exchanger and boiler internal supports (tube
the measured value of alloying elements shall be within hangers, tube supports, and tubesheets)
10% of the specified level or range in the applicable materi- (k) all fasteners greater than 2 in. in diameter
als standards. For example, for 5Cr, where the allowable (l) ring joint flange and clamp-type connector flange
range is 4% to 6%, the measured value shall fall within gaskets
the range 3.6% to 6.6%. If any piece from the representative sample is found to
be unacceptable, the extension plan in the written practice
B-8.3 When examining with XRF in an alloy identifi-
shall be followed.
cation or alloy matching mode, the instrument shall confirm
that alloys comply with the specified standard. The instru- B-9.2 Exempt. The following items are typically con-
ment shall provide quantitative, recordable, elemental com- sidered as exempt:
position results for positive identification of the alloy (a) alloy components, where the alloy is installed for
elements present. product purity consideration only. The Manufacturer may
specify PMI requirements if special alloy requirements are
B-8.4 If PMI test results indicate that the component needed for environmental concerns.
is not the specified material, the item shall be rejected. (b) internal instruments parts, including orifice plates
B-8.4.1 When test results using XRF or OES fall (c) non-pressure-containing welds
outside the acceptable range, a quantitative analysis may be (d) stainless steel instrument tubing and copper tubing
performed by a laboratory test. If no method is referenced in with an outside diameter of 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) and less, when
the applicable materials standard, an appropriate method properly identified by paint stencil (exchanger tubing is
of chemical analysis shall be used. Results of this analysis not included in this exemption)
shall govern. (e) all gaskets, except as required by B-9.1
(f) parts that are internal to pressure parts and are not
B-8.4.2 Material rejected by PMI shall be marked
pressure containing
and controlled in accordance with the Manufacturer’s writ-
ten practice.
Records of PMI results shall include the following as a
B-9 SAMPLING PLAN minimum:
Whether 100% PMI or representative sampling is to be B-10.1 For fabricated or assembled equipment, these
applied shall be established in the written practice. When records shall include an itemized list of all components
representative sampling is identified in the written practice, and welds tested.
the written practice shall also identify an extension plan B-10.2 Tabulation of tested items shall be keyed to
to be used when some material in an inspection lot is drawings through the use of reference numbers.
rejected. B-10.3 Positively identified materials shall be traceable
B-9.1 The following metallic-alloy-material items to any required material documentation, such as mill test
should be considered as candidates for Positive Material reports.
Identification (PMI): B-10.4 The Manufacturer’s records of alloy verification
(a) weld caps and root passes for all pressure-con- shall be available for review upon completion of the
taining welds equipment.
(b) all pressure-containing tubing and piping compo-
nents (includes thermowells, instrument manifolds, etc.) B-11 IDENTIFICATION
(c) plate material used as pressure-containing compo- Each component (or weld) tested shall be identified after
nents PMI inspection and acceptance. This identification shall
(d) external valve components (body, flanges, bonnet, be in addition to markings required by this Section or by
plugs and vents, and associated welds) the standards listed in Table A-360.
(e) expansion joints and bellows in pressure-containing Each component or weld analyzed and accepted shall
service be identified in accordance with the Manufacturer’s written
(f) air-cooled heat exchanger tubes (air fin tubes) practice. This identification may include color coding, low
(g) materials with no alloy type identification (i.e., per- stress stamping, or documentation showing the PMI loca-
manent markings) tion and test results.
(h) internal metallic lining/cladding and weld overlay When material is cut after PMI testing and identification,
used for protection against corrosive environments each piece of material shall be identified in accordance
(i) load bearing attachments with the Manufacturer’s written practice.


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