Anda di halaman 1dari 50

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/322749736

Fungsi Analisis dalam Sistem Informasi Geografis

Presentation · January 2018


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33684.40323

CITATIONS READS

0 203

1 author:

Nindyo Cahyo Kresnanto


Universitas Janabadra
46 PUBLICATIONS   3 CITATIONS   

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Perencanaan Geometrik Jalan View project

TRANSPORTATION MODELLING View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Nindyo Cahyo Kresnanto on 28 January 2018.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


FUNGSI ANALISIS GIS
GIS Analysis Functions
 4 Katagori Umum
◦ Retrieval/Klasifikasi/Pengukuran
◦ Overlay (tumpang susun)
◦ Neighborhood (Kedekatan)
◦ Connectivity (Konektivitas)
RETRIEVAL
/KLASIFIKASI
/PENGUKURAN
Retrieval, Klasifikasi, & Fungsi
Pengukuran
 Retrieval
◦ Pencarian selektif (Selective Search)
 Klasifikasi/Classification (Overlays,
combine)
◦ Mengidentifikasi satu set obyek yang
merupakan bagian dari grup obyek yang sama
◦ Mendefinisikan sebuah pola
 Pengukuran/Measurement
◦ Jarak, panjang, luasan/area, dsb
Retrieval: Pencarian selektif
(Selective Search)

 Sebuah alamat terpilih karena berada dalam lingkaran


Reklasifikasi (Vector)
 Dissolving untuk agregasi polygons
Reklasifikasi berdasarkan Luasan

Bekerja dengan luas > 80 ha


Reklasifikasi berdasarkan hubugan
(Contiguity)

Bekerja dengan obyek individu, bukan


dengan klas obyek secara keseluruhan
Reklasifikasi Nilai

Bekerja dengan elevasi


antara 20 and 40 m

Ubah feet ke meters


Operasi Jarak Vektor:
Buffers & Setbacks

Gambar sederhana dari operasi buffers dan setback.


NOTE: buffers go outward from lines or areas; setbacks run inside of areas (not
lines).

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 154. fig. 6-1 .
Buffer: Illustrasi

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 60. fig. 6-3 .
OVERLAY
(TUMPANG SUSUN)
2. Fungsi Overlay (Tumpang Susun)
 Aritmatika
◦ penambahan, pengurangan, pembagian, perkalian
 Logika
◦ menemukan di mana kondisi tertentu terjadi (and,
or, >, <, etc.)
 Perbedaan metode Raster & Vector
◦ Vektor baik untuk data yang tidak terlalu
komplek/jarang
◦ Raste mudah dalam kalkulasinya
 Overlay (demo – addition)
Overlay untuk Vector
 3 tipe utama vector overlay
◦ point-in-polygon
◦ line-in-polygon
◦ polygon-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh point-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh line-on-polygon
Vector based overlay

Contoh polygon-in-polygon
Overlay Dasar Raster:
Penjumlahan sederhana (Simple Addition)

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 144. fig. 5-12 .
Raster Overlay:
Kombinasi Boolean

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 125. fig. 5-3 .
Fungsi Neighborhood membentuk keluaran nilai dari setiap
sel lokasi sesuai dengan kedekatan dengan yang lainnya.

NEIGHBORHOOD
(LINGK-SEKITAR)
3. Fungsi Neighborhood
 Fungsi Dasar
◦ Rata-rata, perbedaan, mayoritas,
minimum/maksimum, dan total
 Parameter yang dicari:
◦ Lokasi Target
◦ Spesifikasi dari lingkungan sekitar
◦ Fungsi untuk melaksanakan dalm neighborhood
element
3. Neighborhood Function (cont)
 Operasi pencarian
◦ most common neighborhood operation
 Contoh
◦ Menghitung jumlah dari pelanggan yang
berjarak 2 km dari sebuah toko.
3. Neighborhood Functions (cont)
 Point atau Line dalam Operasi Poligon
◦ Fungsi pencarian spesifik
 Buffers (demo - point, line, polygon)
 Thiessen Polygons Operation
◦ defines the individual area of influence around
a point
◦ used to predict values at surrounding points
from a single point observation
Example: Neighborhood Function

Thiessen Polygons
Fungsi Neighborhood:
Contoh

Tema Zona: Watersheds (DAS)


Nilai tema: Elevasi
Statistic type: Mean

Output:
Rata-rata elevasi dari tiap
watershed
Fungsi Neighborhood:
10x10 filter rata-rata dalam DEM
CONNECTIVITY
4. Fungsi Connectivity
 Digunakan untuk akumulasi nilai di atas
sebuah area yang di analisis
 Parameter yang dicari:
◦ Spesifikasi bagaimana cara element2 spasial
terkoneksi
◦ Aturan yang secara spesifik membolehkan
pergerakan antar koneksi
◦ Unit ukuran
4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
 Operasi Proximity
◦ Pengukuran jarak antara dua obyek
◦ Tidak terbatas pada jarak saja; bisa noise, time,
pollution, etc.
 Parameter yang dicari:
◦ Lokasi target
◦ Unit dari pengukuran
◦ Fungsi untuk menghitung proximity
(distance/time/noise)
◦ Area yang akan di analisis
Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Proximity Operation: Road Buffer


Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Proximity Operation: Buffer Generation


Example: Connectivity (Vector)

Points Lines Polygons

Proximity Operation: Buffer Types


Example: Connectivity (Vector)
Proximity Operation - Buffers & Setbacks

Diagram of simple buffers and a setback.


NOTE: buffers go outward from lines or areas; setbacks run inside of areas (not lines).

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 154. fig. 6-1.
4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
 Operasi Contiguity
◦ spatial units are connected - defines
“unbroken area”
 Contiguity measures:
◦ size of neighboring area(s)
◦ shortest/longest straight line distance across
adjacent area(s)
◦ specific shape of neighboring area(s)
Contiguity Functions

Combines adjacent units together when they share a common attribute


4. Fungsi Connectivity (cont).
 Operasi Jaringan (Network Operations)
◦ set of interconnected lines that represent a
set of features through which resources flow
 Fungsi jaringan umum (Common network functions)
◦ Permasalahan shortest path
◦ location-allocation modeling (resource
allocation)
◦ traveling salesperson problem (route
optimization)
◦ route tracing (prediction of network loading)
4. Connectivity Functions (cont).
 Operasi Analisis Visibiliti
◦ identification of areas of terrain that can be
seen from a particular point on the surface
 Viewshed Operation
◦ uses digital elevation model data (DEMs) or.....
◦ digital terrain model data (DTMs) or......
◦ triangulated irregular network data (TINs)?
Connectivity Function Example:
Viewshed Analysis

Image Source: Chrisman, Nicholas.(2002). 2nd Ed. Exploring Geographic Information Systems. p 198. fig. 8-14 .
Viewshed aka Intervisibility
Environmental Impact Analysis

3D landscape model impact on natural beauty


Another term: Surface Analysis
 Surface functions
◦ density, contour, interpolation functions
◦ aspect, slope, hillshade, etc.
◦ watershed analysis and modeling (flow
direction, flow accumulation, flow length,
watershed delineation, stream ordering)
◦ visibility modeling/mapping
 determine the area that can be "seen" from the
target location
The 3rd Dimension: Height Analysis

 Contours
 Hill shading
 Spot height symbols
 Cliff & slope symbols
 Viewpoint symbols
Analysis: Summation
 GIS does not always provide exact
answers to problems, but by identifying
trends based on geography, GIS can reveal
patterns that can help us make informed
decisions.
 A GIS can improve decision-making; it
cannot make decisions for us.
Flood Risk

3D height data changing water levels-danger areas


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Numerical Values Color Representation


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Aerial Imagery Digitized Buildings


Derived Mapping: Data from images

Satellite Imagery Derived Area Map

This is a goal: Not there yet!


Retail: Site Selection

Existing stores, 15 min. drive time, demograhics


Airport Noise Pollution

noise complaints mapped by address location

View publication stats