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KAJIAN JURNAL PENDIDIKAN

JURNAL 1 :

“Total Quality Management Implementation in Higher Education; Concerns and


Challenges Faced by the Faculty”

JURNAL 2 :

“ A Study on Total Quality Management in Higher Education Industry in Malaysia”

JURNAL 3 :

“The Relationship between Level of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Level of
Culture of Teaching and Learning (COTL) in School”

JURNAL 4 :

“The Determinants of Competiveness in Quality : A Study among the Malaysian Private


Higher Education Institutions”

Disediakan Oleh :

ZAHARYL FAIZAL BIN ZAINAL

NO. MATRIKS : 823143

M.SC (EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT)

AWANG HAD SALLEH GRADUATE SCHOOL

UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA, SINTOK, KEDAH

PENGHARGAAN
Sekalung budi dan terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada pensyarah Dr. Zulfikri bin Ab

Talib bagi subjek “ Pengurusan Kualiti” (SGDU 6033) yang membimbing saya untuk

menyiapkan rumusan kritikan jurnal. Tidak lupa juga ibu bapa dan rakan-rakan sekursus dalam

menyiapkan tugasan ini. Segala bimbingan dan tunjuk ajar amatlah saya dihargai dan didahului

dengan ucapan jutaan terima kasih yang tidak terhingga. Semoga Allah membalas jasa kalian

hendakNya. InsyaAllah.

Yang benar,

(ZAHARYL FAIZAL BIN ZAINAL)

780928-08-5647

No. Matriks : 823143


ISI KANDUNGAN

M/surat

2.1 Objektif Jurnal 1 ……………………………………………………………… 1

Perbandingan Objektif Antara 3 Jurnal

2.1.1 Objektif Jurnal 2……………………………………………………………. 1

2.1.2 Objektif Jurnal 3……………………………………………………………. 2

2.1.3 Objektif Jurnal 4……………………………………………………………. 2

2.2 Metodologi Jurnal 1 ……………………………………………………………… 2

Perbandingan Metodologi Antara 3 Jurnal

2.2.1 Metodologi Jurnal 2……………………………………………………………. 2

2.2.2 Metodologi Jurnal 3……………………………………………………………. 3

2.2.3 Metodologi Jurnal 4……………………………………………………………. 3

2.3 Instrumen Jurnal 1 ……………………………………………………………… 3

Perbandingan Instrumen Antara 3 Jurnal

2.3.1 Instrumen Jurnal 2……………………………………………………………. 4

2.3.2 Instrumen Jurnal 3……………………………………………………………. 4

2.3.3 Instrumen Jurnal 4……………………………………………………………. 4


Jurnal 1 (Bahasa Melayu)

Title : “Total Quality Management Implementation in Higher Education; Concerns and


Challenges Faced by the Faculty”

Researcher : Dr. Mohd Shoki Md Ariff, Norzaidahwati Zaidin, Norzarina Sulong.

2.1 Objektif Jurnal 1

Saya dapati pengkaji menerangkan kepentingan pengajaran dan pembelajaran adalah signifikan

bagi keperluan bahan-bahan material dan sumber manusia, skop globalisasi dan pengurusan serta

isu polisi. Kekangan sumber akan sentiasa ada dan berkurangan dalam pendidikan tinggi bagi

setiap fakulti terlibat. Dari segi konteks global, model perniagaan pendidikan memberikan modal

insan di setiap negara membangun lebih fleksible untuk mengelakkan tenaga pakar bagi bidang

tertentu berhijrah ke organisasi lain atau ke negara maju (brain drain). Semua faktor ini amat

penting bagi melaksanakan TQM di instirusi pengajian tinggi. Akan tetapi pengkaji tersebut

tidak membuat kajian menyeluruh dan hanya mengambil sample tertentu sahaja bagi 5 fakuti

yang terlibat sahaja dan hanya sekadar rawak.

PERBANDINGAN OBJEKTIF ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.1.1 Jurnal 2- Kajian ini lebih fokus kepada TQM iaitu bagaimana TQM di sektor industri

diadapatasikan kepada sektor pendidikan. Ia menerangkan juga pensyarah-pensyarah

universiti melaksanakan proses TQM dan konsep dalam bilik kuliah dan menyatakan

hubungan antara faktor-faktor tersebut.

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2.1.2 Jurnal 3- Kajian ini lebih fokus kepada mengenalpasti paras TQM dan paras budaya

pengajaran dan pembelajaran (COTL). Ia juga bermatlamatkan untuk mengkaji

hubungan TQM dan COTL di sekolah-sekolah menengah di Iran.

2.1.3 Jurnal 4- Kajian ini lebih focus kepada pengaruh factor-faktor penentu yang boleh

meningkatkan kualiti persaingan institusi pengajian swasta dalam era globalisasi yang

sengit.

2.2. Metodologi Jurnal 1

Saya dapati kajian ini berbentuk kualitatif dan menggunakan kaedah tinjauan dan teknik analisa

berpusat. Borang QA (penilaian jaminan kualiti) digunakan sepenuhnya di setiap fakuti tertentu

untuk mencapai TQM dalam program pengajian pemasaran di Fakulti Pengurusan Sumber

Manusia sebagai contoh. Hanya 3 program ijazah diuji iaitu Ijazah Pengurusan Teknologi,

Ijazah Pemasaran dan Ijazah Sumber Manusia. Penilaian dalaman dilakukan pada November

2005 dan penilaian luaran pada Febuari 2006. Bagi kes ini, saya merasakan kaedah yang

digunakan agak lengkap dimana setiap langkah dan proses ditunjukan dengan begitu teliti untuk

mencapai objektif yang diperlukan.

PERBANDINGAN METODOLOGI ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.2. 1 Jurnal 2 –Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah sampel rawak mudah bagi pensyarah universiti

seramai 112 orang daripada 200 orang keseluruhan populasi daripada 5 universiti awam.

Hanya 3 universiti dipilih daripada senarai responden daripada pelbagai latarbelakang

kewarganegaraan untuk memperoleh keputusan yang baik.

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2.2.2 Jurnal 3- Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah deskriptif di mana ia menggunakan Kolerasi

Pearson untuk mengkaji tahap hubungan paras TQM dan COTL. Populasi sasaran

adalah pengetua dan guru seramai 1354 guru dan 206 pengetua. Sampel diambil

seramai 280 orang dan 40 orang pengetua. Kaedah rawak berkelompok digunakan.

2.2.3 Jurnal 4- Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan sampel dan pengumpulan data. Populasi

institusi pengajian tinggi swasta di Malaysia adalah 28 universiti swasta, 21 kolej

universiti dan 403 kolej swasta. Disebabkan populasi terlalu bersar maka sekurang-

kurangnya saiz minimum 60 sampel diperlukan bagi nisbah 10 :1 responden. Kajian ini

juga berpendapat saiz sampel yang kecil berkemungkinan akan memperoleh kadar

maklumbalas yang tinggi melalui tinjauan mel. (Sekearan, 2006)

2.3 Instrumen Kajian Jurnal 1

Semua data yang dikumpulkan melalui penilaian QA dan tinjauan bagi sekumpulan task force

menggunakan dokumen QA. Ia melalui 3 peringkat yang dikendalikan oleh 2 jawatankuasa iaitu

kumpulan task force dan kumpulan audit dalaman. Terdapat 8 isu yang diketengahkan yang agak

serius dan perlu diberi perhatian oleh badan berkuasa untuk membangunkan sistem QA yang

lebih padu. Kaedah penilaian mestilah seimbang antara formatif dan sumatif untuk dijawab oleh

pelajar. Bagi ke sebegini, saya merasakan instrument yang digunakan agak sesuai yang mana ada

2 bentuk penilaian untuk dijawab oleh pelajar dan pelajar boleh memberi pendapat dan cadangan

kepada pihak universiti untuk mempertingkatkan mutu serta masalah yang dihadapi oleh mereka.

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PERBANDINGAN KAJIAN INSTRUMEN ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.3. 1 Jurnal 2- Kajian ini menggunakan instrumen set soalan yang mengandungi pelbagai

pilihan jawapan. Data-data dikumpul dari semua responden untuk mengkaji

bagaimana fakulti melaksanakan proses TQM dan konsep dalam pengajaran dan

pembelajaran.

2.3.2 Jurnal 3-Kajian ini juga menggunakan instrument set soalan yang disediakan bagi

pengumpulan data kepada 3 bahagian utama iaitu data sosio-demografi, COTL dan

TQM. Ia mengandungi 30 item yang perlu dijawab oleh guru dan pengetua. Soalan

ini lebih kepada skala Likert dan lebih menekankan kepada COTL dan TQM.

2.3.3 Jurnal 4- Kajian ini terdiri daripada set soalan yang dipaket dan dipos kepada dekan setiap

institusi. Selama 3 minggu diperuntukan untuk melengkapkan jawapan dan didapati 138

set soalan berjaya dikumpulkan semula dalam masa 2 bulan.

2.4 Analisa Data Jurnal 1

Semua data dikumpulkan dan dianalisa bersifat kualitatif menggunakan skala Likert melalui visi,

misi, matlamat dan objektif pembelajaran termasuk formula keberkesanan bagi setiap pendidikan

tinggi. Kriteria seperti autonomi akademik dengan hasil objektif program akan dinilai secara

terperinci. Keduanya, program yang dibentuk termasuk kaedah aktiviti luardan kaedah

pengajaran, kaedah saintifik dan kandungan kurikulum. Ketiganya, penilaian pelajar yang

mengandungi kaedah penilaian hubungan pengurusan dan pelajar seperti pendaftaran, polisi

kemasukan dan rekod dan pengambilan pelajar bagi setiap semester serta kaunseling. Keempat,

staf akademik dan fakulti termasuk polisi pengambilan pensyarah dan staf.

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Kelima, sumber perolehan pendidikan yang mengandungi penilaian, pemantauan dan

pembangunan manusia.

Akhir sekali adalah kepimpinan dan polisi yang digunakan untuk peningkatan berterusan.

Penentu prestasi adalah berdasarkan kepada pengkhususan program, proses, kualiti servis dan

kualiti graduan. Bagi pendapat saya, data yang diambil agak tidak sesuai dan berkesan dalam

menghasilkan keputusan yang tepat kerana kajian ini tidak menggunakan kolerasi Pearson dan

hanyak menunjukkan indeks prestasi semata-mata yang boleh berubah semasa ke semasa.

PERBANDINGAN ANALISA DATA ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.4. 1 Jurnal 2- Ujian kolerasi Pearson digunakan bagi 6 faktor penentu pembolehubah tetap

seperti Dana, Latihan, Ganjaran, Komitmen Kerja, Kerjasama Kumpulan dan

Penglibatan Tugas diuji bagi pelaksanaan TQM.

2.4.2 Jurnal 3- Skala Likert (1-2-3-4-5) digunakan bagi mengenalpasti yang betul dan setuju

yang menghubungkaitkan berkenaan dengan sekolah mereka. Soalan ini mempunyai

minimum skor sebanyak 30 dan maksimum 120 dan dimensi julat antara 1 hingga 4.

SPSS digunakan untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan soalan.

2.4.3 Jurnal 4- Pembolehubah bebas menghubungkaitkan 5 faktor penentu iaitu seperti sokongan

pengurusan tertinggi, sokongan kerajaan, pengurusan fakulti dan pematuhan peraturan

yang diadaptasikan daripada pelbagai sumber. Persaingan diukur melalui 5 item

menggunakan 5 point skla Likert. Ia diuji menggunakan perisian Partial Least Square

(PLS). Model kajian ini menggunakan 2 model iaitu model pengukuran dan model

pengstrukturan.

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2.5 Dapatan Kajian atau Keputusan Jurnal 1

Keputusan menunjukkan Jadual 5 (Graduate on time) adalah 80% ke atas. Ia menunjukkan

kualiti graduan sangat tinggi yang kebanyakan daripada mereka tidak mengulang subjek atau

gagal. Kebolehpasaran setiap sesi akademik 2003-2005 meningkat dari 40.3% hingga 70%.

TQM ini lebih dipercayai dan kaedah pelaksaanaan berkesan. Kajian lain menyatakan,

keberkesanan TQM dalam sektor pengeluaran memberi momentum kepada institusi pengajian

tinggi untuk mengadaptasi konsep dan praktis dalam domain sendiri [Kanji et.al,1999]. TQM

adalah konsep yang sesuai dan dapat memenuhi keperluan untuk merevolusikan Pendidikan

Tinggi. Inisiatif TQM dalam KPT termasuk dalam pelaksanaan ISO 9001:2000 dan jaminan

kualiti (QA) sebagai dasar keberkesanan budaya TQM bagi universiti-universiti. [Kanji,1998 in

Kanji,1999]. Melalui keputusan tersebut, saya dapati TQM adalah selari dan mempunyai

hubungan signifikan dan boleh dipercayai.

PERBANDINGAN DAPATAN KAJIAN ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.5. 1 Jurnal 2- Daripada ujian kolerasi Pearson, keputusan ANOVA menunjukkan di mana sig

adalah kurang daripada 0.05. Ia membuktikan bahawa satu atau dua daripada 6 faktor

penentu pembolehubah boleh digunakan untuk TQM dalam model institusi pengajian

tinggi dan menunjukkan signifikan antara pembolehubah komitmen kerja dan

penglibatan tugas. Pembolehubah-pembolehubah penentu yang lain tidak berubah.

2.5.2 Jurnal 3-Berdasarkan ujian kolerasi Pearson, ia menunjukkan hubungan signifikan yang

kuat antara paras TQM bersamaan 1 dan COTL bersamaan 0.73 bagi pengetua

manakala paras TQM bersamaan 1 dan COTL bersamaan 0.47 bagi guru bagi kolerasi

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signifikan 0.01. Nilai alpha Cronbach adalah sebanyak 0.86 dan kebolehpercayaan

soalan adalah tinggi.

2.5.3 Jurnal 4- Keputusan kolerasi menunjukkan sokongan pengurusan tertinggi (u = 0.301, p <

0.01), sokongan daripada kerajaan (ȕ = 0.284, p < 0.01), sokongan pengurusan fakulti

(ȕ = 0.199, p < 0.01), pematuhan peraturan (ȕ = 0.142, p < 0.05), dan tekanan pihak

berkepentingan (ȕ = 0.138, p < 0.05) adalah positif kepada mutu persaingan institusi

pengajian tinggi swasta (PHEI). Maka semua hipotesis , H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5

dapat disokong dan relevan.

2.6 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan Jurnal 1

Saya dapati kajian ini mengetengahkan pengalaman ahli jawatankuasa dalam isu serta cabaran

semasa mempraktikkan QA. Antara 8 cabaran utama dan bagaimana fakulti bertindakbalas

kepada cabaran telah dibincangkan. Semua ini memerlukan perhatian segera bagi memastikan

amalan QA. Pelbagai usaha akan memastikan pertolongan kepada pihak fakulti sebagaimana

fakulti-fakulti di universiti awam untuk mencapai kualiti menyeluruh dalam pengajian tinggi.

PERBANDINGAN PERBINCANGAN & KESIMPULAN ANTARA 3 JURNAL LAIN :

2.6.1 Jurnal 2- Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa semua pensyarah adalah komited

menggunakan konsep TQM untuk meningkatkan kualiti dalam proses dalam

pengajaran dan pembelajaran mereka. Keputusan menunjukkan kerjasama kumpulan

dan komitmen yang tinggi dalam membuat keputusan dan perkongsian idea adalah 2

kunci utama elemen dalam universiti di Malaysia yang dapat memberikan banyak

kelebihan. Kebanyakan daripada mereka tidak mempunyai latihan asas dalam TQM.

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2.6.2 Jurnal 3- Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa hubungan yang signifikan anatara TQM dan

COTL. Jika TQM tinggi maka COTL juga tinggi begitu juga sebaliknya. Ini

menunjukkan pelaksanaan TQM memberi impak positif kepada COTL iaitu budaya

pengajaran dan pembelajaran di kalangan guru dan pengetua.

2.6.3 Jurnal 4- Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa sumber-sumber dan penentu-penentu seperti

sokongan pengurusan tertinggi, sokongan pihak kerajaan, pengurusan fakulti dan

pematuhan peraturan yang diadaptasikan daripada pelbagai sumber memberikan

pengaruh positif terhadap mutu dan kualiti persaingan pengurusan TQM dalam institusi

pengajian tinggi swasta.

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3.0 KESIMPULAN KESELURUHAN

Berdasarkan pengamatan saya terhadap keempat-empat jurnal ini, maka saya dapat rumuskan

seperti berikut. Saya mendapati Jurnal 1 mempunyai banyak langkah dan proses yang baik dalam

mengapplikasikan TQM tetapi agak tidak relevan menggunakan kaedah kualititatif ini. Kaedah

yang digunakan banyak menggunakan carta alir dan tidak menunjukkan data kolerasi yang

sebenar dan tidak menyatakan sebarang hubungan signifikan. Rekabentuk dicipta bagi

menghasilkan TQM yang lancar dan mengikut piawai tetapi tidak menampakkan keberkesanan

dari segi implikasi sebaliknya kepada output seperti kualiti servis dan kualiti graduan semata-

mata. Akhirnya TQM ini hanya memberi impak yang positif dari segi pelaksanaan tersebut.

Jurnal 2 pula skopnya lebih luas di mana TQM ini cuba diadaptasikan di semua pengajian

tinggi swasta dan setiap pensyarah cuba menggapplikasikan pelaksanaan TQM ini dan

menampakkkan hubungan dan hasil yang positif. Ia menunjukkan hubungan signifikan terhadap

6 faktor penentu tersebut yang mana komitmen dan penglibatan tugas amat berkaitrapat dengan

TQM dalam meningkatkan kualiti perkhidmatan. Latihan TQM agak kurang menyebabkan

ramai pensyarah tidak tahu prosedur yang betul dan fungsi sesuatu. Manakala faktor dana juga

mestilah mencukupi dalam melatih staf dan pensyarah ini dalam merelalisasikan TQM yang

lebih efektif pada masa hadapan. Statistik data kolerasinya juga lebih jelas berbanding Jurnal 1.

Jurnal 3 pula hanya menekankan hubungan pembelajaran dan pembelajaran dengan TQM

di sekolah menengah sahaja. Ia tidak meliputi sekolah rendah dan melibatkan sekolah-sekolah

menengah di Iran. Walaupun begitu, didapati hubungan TQM dan budaya pengajaran dan

pembelajaran adalah positif di mana jika seseorang guru atau pengetua yang mempunyai

kelayakan akademik yang tinggi maka budaya pengajarannya amat berkesan sekali. Jika

kelayakan akademik yang rendah maka kualiti pengajaran juga akan lemah dan

berkemungkinan akan menghasilkan keputusan peperiksaan yang lemah juga.

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Walaubagaimanapun hubungan kedua-duanya amat signifikan dan data statistiknya lebih jelas

daripada Jurnal 1.

Jurnal 4 pula lebih menekan peranan yang dimanakan industri pendidikan tinggi swasta.

Mereka terpaksa bersaing sesama sendiri untuk memberikan perkhidmatan yang berkesan dalam

TQM dan ini sekaligus memberi impak yang positif terhadap pengambilan pelajar, fasiliti,

prasarana, sokongan pihak kerajaan dan dana yang disediakan dalam dunia yang agak

kompetitif antara universiti terbabit dalam mempromosi perhidmatan terbaik . Setiap indikator

diukur dengan tepat berdasarkan dua model yang disediakan. Data statistik juga boleh dilihat

dengan jelas dan terperinci berbanding Jurnal 1.

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Jurnal 2

Title : “A study on Total Quality Management in Higher Education Industry in Malaysia”

Researcher : Hani Samimi Sabet, Zeinab Sayed Saliki, Benoush Roumi, Amin Dezfoulian

2.1 Objektif

This paper highlight how total quality management (TQM) operates in the industrial field and
clarifies how the philosophy of TQM may be translated into the educational field. It also explains
how lecturers of universities implement total quality management (TQM) processes and concepts
in their classrooms and also highlights the relationship between these factors.

2.2. Metodologi

The researchers had selected 200 random lecturers from five universities in Malaysia and these
lecturers were from Multimedia University, University Putra Malaysia, Limkokwing University,
University of Malaya and UCSI University. The university lecturers are the target population in
this study. In the study were selected from 112 male and female lecturers from 30 to 70 years
old. These participants were lecturers of three universities of Malaysia and these lecturers were
selected from so many different nationalities because of the obtaining a good result. Simple
random sampling is the method.

2.3 Instrumen Kajian

The questionnaire consists of multiple choice questions .The data collected from all participants
in this study explores how faculty implements total quality management processes and concepts
in their classroom.
2.4 Analisa Data

Table 1: Pearson Correlations

After Pearson correlation test, multiple regression was applied to measure the impacts of i

Independent variable on TQM. From the result of ANOVA where sig is 0.000 and this sig is less
than 0.05. It represents at least one or two of the six predictor variables can be used to TQM in
higher education institution model.
Table 2: coefficient (multiple Regression)

The significance level is more than 0.05 for funding and training and so they should not be
included in the multiple regression equation.

TQM implementation in higher education institutions = 0.002+ 0.241 (Rewards and


Recognition) + 0.504 (Commitment) + 0.124 (Teamwork) + 0 .161 (Involvement)
2.5 Dapatan Kajian

The result of data through Pearson Colleration and Coeffient shows that as follows:

For every unit increase in Rewards, TQM implementation will be implemented by .0241 units,
so there is no change for other variables.

For every unit increase in Commitment, TQM implementation will be implemented by .504
units, so there is no change for other variables.

For every unit increase in Teamwork, TQM implementation will be implemented by .0124
units, so there is no change for other variables.

For every unit increase in Involvement, TQM implementation will be implemented by .0161
units, so there is no change for other variables.

The results of reliability test by Cronbach’s Alpha indicated all value are greater than 0.782 that
asserts all have acceptable or good internal consistency. Besides the results of Pearson
correlation is as follow that shows all variable have significant and positive relationship with
TQM:
2.6 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan

It can be concluded from the findings of this study that all lecturers were committed to use
concepts of total quality management and processes in their classrooms as a way to quality
improvement. This leads to better understanding of students about the material and ultimately it
is a vital key in educational field. The results showed that the high role of Commitment and
Teamwork in TQM implementation and it represents sharing ideas and decision making are two
key elements in Malaysian universities that can lead to so many advantages. So many lecturers
mentioned that there is a relationship between rewards and recognition and motivation and high
performance and it shows with a suitable teamwork universities can improve their creativity,
satisfaction, skills, and speed and finally support. The method of implementation is really
important because so many lecturers had obtained knowledge about TQM from workshops but
unfortunately they were not taught how to teach these processes and concepts in their classrooms
.The study has shown lecturers that participated in this research did not have any special training
but honestly they wanted to continuously improve their knowledge , skills and teaching method
that is why TQM processes and concepts were used as a method of achieving these goals.
Jurnal 3

Title : “The Relationship between Level of TQM and the Level of Culture of Teaching and
Learning (COTL) in School”

Researcher : Masoumeh Pourrajab, Dr Ramli Basri, Dr. Shafie Mohd Daud, Dr. Shoib Asimiran.

2.1 Objektif

The research is to identify the level of Total Quality Management (TQM), and the level of
Culture of Teaching and Learning (COTL). Additionally, the paper aims to investigate the
relationship between TQM and COTL in Iranian secondary schools.

2.2. Metodologi

The researchers used descriptive method to determine the level of TQM and level of COTL and
applied Pearson Correlation method to investigate the relationship between level and TQM and
level of COTL This research was carried out in secondary schools located Lorestan Provinces of
Iran. The target population of this study was principals and teachers of public schools, which
included 1354 teachers and 206 principals. The sample comprised of 280 teachers and 40
principals. The respondents of the study were selected using random and cluster sampling
method. First, all secondary schools were divided into two geographical regions (east, and west)
and two cities were selected randomly in each region (four cities as whole). For each city 20
schools were selected randomly. For each school seven teachers were selected randomly and
every principal of these schools are selected as respondents. So in total the respondents include
280 teachers and 40 principals.

2.3 Instrumen Kajian

The research instrument was a set questionnaire prepared by Rampa [26] for data collection in
his research. The questionnaire was divided into three sections; SocioDemographic data, COTL,
and TQM. This questionnaire consists of 30 items which were completed by teachers and
principals. They were asked to complete the descriptive items as much as they are true for their
schools based on the Likert Scale. This scale involved a minimum score of 30 and a maximum
score of 120 and a subsidiary dimension with a range of 1 to 4. SPSS software was used to
determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.86 and this
showed that the questionnaire has a quite satisfactory reliability [27].
2.4 Analisa Data

Table 5. Result of Pearson Correlation based on Principals view.

TQM COTL
Pearson Correlation 1 0.73
Sig (2-tailed) 0.00
N 40 40
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Table 5. Result of Pearson Correlation based on Teachers view.

TQM COTL
Pearson Correlation 1 0.47
Sig (2-tailed) 0.00
N 280 280
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

2.5 Dapatan Kajian (Findings)

The collected data shows that out of 320 participants in this study, 280 respondents (87.5%) were
teachers, and 40 respondents (21.5%) were principals. The majority of respondents, i.e. 168
(52.5%) were female and 152 (47.5%) were male. This study considers the experiences of
educators from 1 year to 30 years. The data shows only one principal (2.5%) had less than 10
years of experience, 28 principals (70%) between 11-20 years experience, and 11 principals
(27.5%) more than 21 years of experience (M=19.73; SD=3.85). Another hand, 62 teachers
(22.1%) had less than 10 years of experience, 152 teachers (54.3%) between 11-20 years
experience, and 60 teachers (23.6%) more than 21 years of experience (M=16.29; SD=6.31).

As it can be seen from Table 6, from 280 teachers participated in this study, there was a
significant, positive, and moderately strong [28] relationship between COTL level and TQM
with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.47 which was significant at the 0.01 level (p=0.00).
Therefore, it can be argued that with high TQM level and high COTL level, they both have
significant effect in promoting a positive quality culture.
2.6 Perbincangan dan kesimpulan

This research paper tries to answer key questions on what the level of TQM and COTL, as well
as, specifically what the relationship is between level of TQM and COTL among principals, and
teachers in province of Lorestan, Iran. Based on findings, the level of TQM for both groups,
principals and teachers was high. Additionally, the level of COTL according to principals and
teachers view was also high. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between level of
TQM and level of COTL. We conclude that by increasing the level of TQM, the level of COTL
will be increased. The findings of this study concord with the finding of pervious research on
application of TQM in education. The present research confirms research finding by Rampa [26],
which showed that implementation TQM for improving COTL, and also with Heyward and Stey
[29] which claimed that by implementation TQM will improvement some area of COTL and
T&L process. The finding by the present research that by increasing the level of TQM, the level
of COTL will increase can be explained and justified much better based on the research finding
in Grahamstowm [30], that application of the TQM principles has had the power to transform
school in to better level of T&L with focus on satisfy students, teachers, and principals.
Jurnal 4

Title : “The determinants of competitiveness in quality: A study among the Malaysian private
higher education institutions. (PHEI)”

Researcher : Cheng Ling Tan, Yen Nee Goh, Hong Seng Chan (Malaysia)

2.1 Objektif

To examine the influence of the determinants that could enhance the private higher education
institution (PHEI) competitiveness in quality to gain competitive edge due to stiff competition
and pressure to face the globalization.

2.2. Metodologi

This research method using samples and data collection. The unit of analysis in this study is the
Private Higher Education institutions (PHEIs) in Malaysia. The list of institutions was obtained
from Ministry of Higher Education (MOE) web portal. There are a total of 452 PHEIs across
Malaysia among which there are 28 universities, 21 college universities and 403 colleges. Based
on Hair, Black, Babin & Anderson (2010), the minimum number of respondents or sample size is
ten-to-one, means a minimum of 60 sample size is required in this study. However, given the
small sampling frame available for this study and the possibility of obtaining ow response rate
from mailed survey (Sekearan, 2006), the census method for collecting data was used in this
study.

2.3 Instrumen Kajian

Questionnaire packets were mailed to the deans of the institutions. Three weeks were given to
return their completed questionnaires to us in a sealed envelope. After following up for several
times, we managed to collect a total of 138 questionnaires within a period of 2 months. All these
completed surveys were found to be useable. Therefore they were subsequently analyzed.
2.4 Analisa Data

The independent variables relating to five determinants (top management support, government
support, stakeholder pressure, faculty support, and regulation compliance) were adapted from
various sources. Top management support comprises of 3 items adapted from Leowand Zailani
(2012); government support consists of 4 items adapted from Lin (2008); stakeholders’ pressure
contains of 6 items adapted from Shriberg (2002); faculty support comprises of 3 items are self-
constructed; and regulation compliance consists of 3 items adapted from El Tayeb (2010).
Meanwhile, competitiveness in quality was measured using 5 items procured from Li, Nathan,
Nathanb and Rao (2006). Respondents answered back to the items using a 5-point Likert-type
scale with “1” = “strongly disagree” to “5” = “strongly agree”. Our five hypotheses were tested
with Partial Least Squares (PLS) software developed by Ringle, Wende & Will (2005). In PLS
software, the research model should be assessed in two steps, namely, the measurement model
and the structural model (Henseler, Ringle & Sinkovics, 2009). The measurement model
examines the relations between the observed variables and latent variables using algorithm
approach. On the other hand, the structural model examines the relationship between latent
variables using the bootstrapping approach. The measurement model is assessed on its reliability
(item reliability and internal consistency) and validity (convergent validity and discriminant
validity), and the structural model is assessed based on the significance of the path coefficients
and R2 measures.

2.5 Dapatan Kajian


Figure 2 illustrates the results of the direct effect hypothesized in this study. The R2 value of
competitiveness in quality is 0.672 suggesting that 67.2% of the variance in competitiveness in
quality can be explained by faculty support, top management support, stakeholders’ pressure,
government support, and regulation compliance.

Standard
Hypothesis Relationship Beta error T-value Decision

Top_Management_Support ->
H1 0.301 0.093 3.240** Supported

Competitiveness_Quality
Government_Support -
H2 >Competitiveness_Quality 0.284 0.092 3.095** Supported

Stakeholder_Pressure -
H3 >Competitiveness_Quality 0.138 0.073 1.894* Supported

Faculty_Support -
H4 >Competitiveness_Quality 0.199 0.077 2.588** Supported

Regulations_Compliance -
H5 >Competitiveness_Quality 0.142 0.074 1.919* Supported

The results show that top management support ( = 0.301, p < 0.01), government support (ȕ =
0.284, p < 0.01), faculty support (ȕ = 0.199, p < 0.01), regulation compliance (ȕ = 0.142, p <
0.05), and stakeholders’ pressure (ȕ = 0.138, p < 0.05) were positively related to competitiveness
in quality. Therefore, all five hypotheses, H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5 are supported.
2.6 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan

The statistical results provide support for all our hypothesized relationships. Top
management support in quality improvement activities could increase the institution’s overall
total quality management system and program quality. Consequently, the improvement of the
program quality and service delivery increases the institution’s competitiveness in quality. Our
finding concurs with previous studies conducted by Fotopoulos and Psomas (2009), Islam and
Ahmed (2005), and Talib, Rahman and Qureshi (2010). Government support has beenfound to
have a strong influence on the competitiveness in quality. Government support in terms of
resources, developing professional expertise, and facilitating cooperation between
commercializing firms is vital to facilitate the commercialization of institutions to provide
quality education services. Our finding is consistent with the findings obtained by Maassen
(2008). Stakeholders’ pressure has a similar influence on the competitiveness in quality.
Stakeholders exert pressure on the top management of the institution to engage in competitive
strategies that can lead to customers’ satisfaction, high organizational performance, and
increased competitiveness among rival businesses. Our result is consistent with the results from
Murasiranwa, Nield and Ball (2010), and Zeshen (2010). Besides, faculty support has shown a
significant and positive influence on the institution’s competitiveness. Active faculty
participation and effort is viewed as a critical factor in the development of high quality academic
program. Institution that is reputable with its high quality program will be able to remain
competitive in the market. Our finding is congruent with the findings by Leem and Lim (2007),
and Jung (2011). Regulation compliance has been found to have a significant and positive
influence on the institution’s competitiveness in quality. Institution that complies with the
regulations, in particular the accreditation standard for the academic program could continually
innovate and deliver differentiated offerings, search for new markets, and improve its operational
efficiencies. This, in turn, will increase its competitiveness among its rivalry. Our results are in
convergence with the previous study by Sharma and Loh (2009).
The study was mainly aimed to examine the relationship between the determinants and
competitiveness in quality within the context of the PHEIs in Malaysia. This study revealed that
top management support, government support, stake-holders’ pressure, faculty support and
regulation compliance significantly influence the institution’s competitiveness in quality. Thus, it
can be concluded that these five determinants are vital to influence the competitiveness in quality
of PHEIs in Malaysia.
M/surat

2.4 Analisa Data Jurnal 1 ……………………………………………………………… 4

Perbandingan Analisa Data Antara 3 Jurnal

2.4.1 Analisa Data Jurnal 2……………………………………………………………. 5

2.4.2 Analisa Data Jurnal 3……………………………………………………………. 5

2.4.3 Analisa Data Jurnal 4……………………………………………………………. 5

2.5 Dapatan Kajian Jurnal 1 ………………………………………………………… 6

Perbandingan Dapatan Kajian Antara 3 Jurnal

2.5.1 Dapatan Kajian Jurnal 2……………………………………………………………. 6

2.5.2 Dapatan Kajian Jurnal 3……………………………………………………………. 6

2.5.3 Dapatan Kajian Jurnal 4……………………………………………………………. 7

2.6 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan Jurnal 1 ………………………… ……………… 7

Perbandingan Perbincangan Antara 3 Jurnal

2.6.1 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan Jurnal 2………………………………………. 7

2.6.2 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan Jurnal 3………………………………………… 8

2.6.3 Perbincangan dan Kesimpulan Jurnal 4…………………………………………. 8

3.0 KESIMPULAN DAN RUMUSAN KESELURUHAN…………………………………9