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Goals of the Propaganda Movement

Members of the Propaganda Movement were called propagandists or reformists. They worked inside and outside the Philippines. Their objectives were to seek:

  • - Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain

  • - Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards

  • - Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes

  • - Secularization of Philippine parishes.

  • - Recognition of human rights

The Propaganda Movement never asked for Philippine independence because its members believed that once Spain realized

the pitiful state of the country, the Spaniards would implement the changes the Filipinos were seeking.

Gomburza

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

the pitiful state of the country, the Spaniards would implement the changes the Filipinos were seeking.navigation , search Fathers Mariano Gómez, José Burgos and Fray Jacinto Zamora " id="pdf-obj-1-13" src="pdf-obj-1-13.jpg">

Fathers Mariano Gómez, José Burgos and Fray Jacinto Zamora

Gomburza marker at Luneta Park Gomburza or GOMBURZA is an <a href=acronym denoting the surnames of the priests Mariano Góm ez , José Apolonio Bur gos , and Jacinto Za mora , three Filipino priests who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Bagumbayan in Manila , Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny . Their execution left a profound effect on many Filipinos; José Rizal , the national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory. The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretex t needed by the authorities to redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, José Burgos, who threatened the established order. Contents [ hide ]1 Background2 The Cavite Mutiny3 Recovery of remains4 See also5 Further reading6 Footnotes [ edit ] Background " id="pdf-obj-2-2" src="pdf-obj-2-2.jpg">

Gomburza marker at Luneta Park

Gomburza or GOMBURZA is an acronym denoting the surnames of the priests Mariano Góm ez, José Apolonio Bur gos, and Jacinto Za mora, three Filipino priests who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Bagumbayan in Manila, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. Their execution left a profound effect on many Filipinos; José Rizal, the national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory. [1]

The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretext [2][3] needed by the authorities to

redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, José Burgos, who threatened the established order.

Contents

During the Spanish colonial period, four social class distinctions were observed in the islands. These were 1.) Spaniards who were born in Spain— peninsulares, 2.) Spaniards born in the colonies of Spain (Latin America or The Philippines)—insulares or Criollo 3.) Spanish mestizos, Chinese mestizos or 'Indios' (natives) dwelling within or nearby the urban city (or town) and the church, and, finally, 4.) Chinese or Sangley and rural Indios. [4]

Father Burgos was a criollo, a Doctor of Philosophy [citation needed] whose prominence extended even to Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos Maria de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and who was a peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal governor De la Torre was not welcomed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects and Franciscans) and their allies in civil government, but embraced by the secular priests, majority of whom were mestizos and indios assigned to parishes and far-flung communities, who believed the reforms and the equality they sought with peninsular Spaniards were at hand. In less than two years, De la Torre was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo who turned out to be a pliant tool of the friars.

[edit] The Cavite Mutiny

Main article: 1872 Cavite mutiny

The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal of the naval shipyard over pay reduction owing to increased taxation produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by garrote on February 17, 1872. The bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in the Paco Cemetery, in keeping with the practice of burying enemies of the state. [2] Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions. [citation needed] Gregorio Meliton Martinez, then the Archbishop of Manila, refused to defrock the priests, citing they did not break any canon law. He ordered the bells of every church to be rung in honor of the executed priests. The aftermath of the investigation produced scores of suspects most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas. Except for a few who managed to escape to other ports like Hong Kong, most died there.

[edit] Recovery of remains

During the Spanish colonial period, four social class distinctions were observed in the islands. These were Father Burgos was a criollo , a Doctor of Philosophy whose prominence extended even to Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos Maria de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and who was a peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal governor De la Torre was not welcomed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order ( Dominicans , Augustinians , Recollects and Franciscans ) and their allies in civil government, but embraced by the secular priests, majority of whom were mestizos and indios assigned to parishes and far-flung communities, who believed the reforms and the equality they sought with peninsular Spaniards were at hand. In less than two years, De la Torre was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo who turned out to be a pliant tool of the friars. [ edit ] The Cavite Mutiny Main article: 1872 Cavite mutiny The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal of the naval shipyard over pay reduction owing to increased taxation produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by garrote on February 17, 1872. The bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in the Paco Cemetery , in keeping with the practice of burying enemies of the state. Significantly, in the archives of Spain , there is no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions. Gregorio Meliton Martinez, then the Archbishop of Manila, refused to defrock the priests, citing they did not break any canon law. He ordered the bells of every church to be rung in honor of the executed priests. The aftermath of the investigation produced scores of suspects most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas . Except for a few who managed to escape to other ports like Hong Kong , most died there. [ edit ] Recovery of remains " id="pdf-obj-3-91" src="pdf-obj-3-91.jpg">

The gates of Paco Park

Early in 1998, bones believed to belong to one of the three executed priests were discovered at the Paco Park Cemetery by the Manila City Engineers Office. [5]

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.

[edit] Footnotes

Between 1872 and 1892, a national consciousness was growing among the Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. In the freer atmosphere of Europe, these émigrés-- liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending European universities--formed the Propaganda Movement. Organized for literary and cultural purposes more than for political ends, the Propagandists, who included upper-class Filipinos from all the lowland Christian areas, strove to "awaken the sleeping intellect of the Spaniard to the needs of our country" and to create a closer, more equal association of the islands and the motherland. Among their specific goals were representation of the Philippines in the Cortes, or Spanish parliament; secularization of the clergy; legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality; creation of a public school system independent of the friars; abolition of the polo (labor

service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government); guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association; and equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service.

The most outstanding Propagandist was José Rizal, a physician, scholar, scientist, and writer. Born in 1861 into a prosperous Chinese mestizo family in Laguna Province, he displayed great intelligence at an early age. After several years of medical study at the University of Santo Tomás, he went to Spain in 1882 to finish his studies at the University of Madrid. During the decade that followed, Rizal's career spanned two worlds: Among small communities of Filipino students in Madrid and other European cities, he became a leader and eloquent spokesman, and in the wider world of European science and scholarship--particularly in Germany--he formed close relationships with prominent natural and social scientists. The new discipline of anthropology was of special interest to him; he was committed to refuting the friars' stereotypes of Filipino racial inferiority with scientific arguments. His greatest impact on the development of a Filipino national consciousness, however, was his publication of two novels--Noli Me Tangere (Touch me not) in 1886 and El Filibusterismo (The reign of greed) in 1891. Rizal drew on his personal experiences and depicted the conditions of Spanish rule in the islands, particularly the abuses of the friars. Although the friars had Rizal's books banned, they were smuggled into the Philippines and rapidly gained a wide readership.

Other important Propagandists included Graciano Lopez Jaena, a noted orator and pamphleteer who had left the islands for Spain in 1880 after the publication of his satirical short novel, Fray Botod (Brother Fatso), an unflattering portrait of a provincial friar. In 1889 he established a biweekly newspaper in Barcelona, La Solidaridad (Solidarity), which became the principal organ of the Propaganda Movement, having audiences both in Spain and in the islands. Its contributors included Rizal; Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austrian geographer and ethnologist whom Rizal had met in Germany; and Marcelo del Pilar, a reformminded lawyer. Del Pilar was active in the antifriar movement in the islands until obliged to flee to Spain in 1888, where he became editor of La Solidaridad and assumed leadership of the Filipino community in Spain.

In 1887 Rizal returned briefly to the islands, but because of the furor surrounding the appearance of Noli Me Tangere the previous year, he was advised by the governor to leave. He returned to Europe by way of Japan and North America to complete his second novel and an edition of Antonio de Morga's seventeenth-century work, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (History of the Philippine Islands). The latter project stemmed from an ethnological interest in the cultural connections between the peoples of the pre-Spanish Philippines and those of the larger Malay region (including modern Malaysia and Indonesia) and the closely related political objective of encouraging national pride. De Morga provided positive information about the islands' early inhabitants, and reliable accounts of pre-Christian religion and social customs.

After a stay in Europe and Hong Kong, Rizal returned to the Philippines in June 1892, partly because the Dominicans had evicted his father and sisters from the land they leased

from the friars' estate at Calamba, in Laguna Province. He also was convinced that the struggle for reform could no longer be conducted effectively from overseas. In July he established the Liga Filipina (Philippine League), designed to be a truly national, nonviolent organization. It was dissolved, however, following his arrest and exile to the remote town of Dapitan in northwestern Mindanao.

The Propaganda Movement languished after Rizal's arrest and the collapse of the Liga Filipina. La Solidaridad went out of business in November 1895, and in 1896 both del Pilar and Lopez Jaena died in Barcelona, worn down by poverty and disappointment. An attempt was made to reestablish the Liga Filipina, but the national movement had become split between ilustrado advocates of reform and peaceful evolution (the compromisarios, or compromisers) and a plebeian constituency that wanted revolution and national independence. Because the Spanish refused to allow genuine reform, the initiative quickly passed from the former group to the latter.

Philippine Revolution

From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

(Redirected from Philippine revolution) Jump to: navigation, search This article is about a late 19th-century revolution. For a late 20th-century event, also referred to as Philippine Revolution, see EDSA Revolution of 1986.

 

Philippine Revolution

Date

1896–98

Location

Result

Eventual expulsion of the Spanish authorities in the Philippine Islands excluding Manila, Start of Spanish- American War, Establishment of the First Philippine Republic.</br>

 

Belligerents

 

Commanders

Strength

80,000 soldiers

unknown

Casualties and losses

unknown

unknown

The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain.

Contents

  1 History 2 Propaganda Movement 2.1 La Liga Filipina 3 Katipunan 3.1 Cry of
1 History
2 Propaganda Movement
2.1 La Liga Filipina
3 Katipunan
3.1 Cry of Pugadlawin
3.2 Death of Rizal
3.3 Cavite
3.4 Tejeros Convention
3.5 Death of Bonifacio
3.6 Biak-na-Bato
3.7 The Revolution Continues
3.8 American Intervention
3.9 Denouement
4 Declaration of Independence
5 Aftermath
6 Legacy
7 Notes
8 See also
9 External links
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 <a href=10 Original Source [ edit ] History The Roman Catholic Church was a very powerful institution during Spanish rule When the Revolution began, Spain had been colonizing the Philippines for over 300 years . Power was centered around the colonial government in Manila and the Church , although in reality it was a frailocracia , --the Dominican friars exercising more power than the civilian government due to the stringent control of the Church over the populace. Because of the imposition of excessive taxes and forced labor on the indios (as the Filipinos were called), several revolts occurred in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, all without success. The Spaniards implemented the age-old strategy of divide et impera - divide and rule . The government would conscript Filipino troops from the Tagalog provinces to suppress a revolt in the Ilocos , and would quell a Visayan uprising largely with the help of troops recruited from Pampanga province. This caused hatred and discord among the indios who were never to unite until the late 19th century. What caused the revolution was a combination of external and internal factors. The archipelago was opened to foreign trade during the mid-19th century, aided by the launching of the Suez Canal in 1869. Along with the import of goods came an inflow of western thought, such as the pursuit of liberty and independence. Schools, organizations, literature and other means fostering these ideals were considered subversive and banned by the colonial administration and the entrenched frailocracia . The filipinos who were influenced by these liberal concepts were the same people who benefited from foreign trade--the ilustrados , members of the prosperous merchant class who sent their sons to study at universities in Spain and elsewhere in Europe . Many of these students, chief among them Jose Rizal and Graciano Lopez-Jaena , would organize a reform organization, called the Propaganda Movement . The internal factor was the execution of three Filipino priests. During the mid-19th century, a campaign was initiated by Father Pedro Pelaez calling for the "naturalization" of Filipino parishes--the turnover of churches to native-born Filipinos. After Pelaez's death in an earthquake, the crusade was led by Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora . The frailocracia was adamantly opposed to reforms and looked for pretext to arrest the trio. They had their opportunity when a mutiny in the fort in Cavite was aborted. Although the rebellion was led by a disaffected military officer and did not involve the priests, the civil government and church hierarchy nonetheless accused them of conspiracy. After a swift trial, the " id="pdf-obj-8-13" src="pdf-obj-8-13.jpg">

The Roman Catholic Church was a very powerful institution during Spanish rule

When the Revolution began, Spain had been colonizing the Philippines for over 300 years. Power was centered around the colonial government in Manila and the Church, although in reality it was a frailocracia, [1] --the Dominican friars exercising more power than the civilian government due to the stringent control of the Church over the populace. Because of the imposition of excessive taxes and forced labor on the indios (as the Filipinos were called), several revolts occurred in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, all without success. The Spaniards implemented the age-old strategy of divide et impera - divide and rule. The government would conscript Filipino troops from the Tagalog provinces to suppress a revolt in the Ilocos, and would quell a Visayan uprising largely with the help of troops recruited from Pampanga province. This caused hatred and discord among the indios who were never to unite until the late 19th century.

What caused the revolution was a combination of external and internal factors. The archipelago was opened to foreign trade during the mid-19th century, aided by the launching of the Suez Canal in 1869. Along with the import of goods came an inflow of western thought, such as the pursuit of liberty and independence. Schools, organizations, literature and other means fostering these ideals were considered subversive and banned by the colonial administration and the entrenched frailocracia. The filipinos who were influenced by these liberal concepts were the same people who benefited from foreign trade--the ilustrados, members of the prosperous merchant class who sent their sons to study at universities in Spain and elsewhere in Europe. Many of these students, chief among them Jose Rizal and Graciano Lopez-Jaena, would organize a reform organization, called the Propaganda Movement.

The internal factor was the execution of three Filipino priests. During the mid-19th century, a campaign was initiated by Father Pedro Pelaez calling for the "naturalization" of Filipino parishes--the turnover of churches to native-born Filipinos. After Pelaez's death in an earthquake, the crusade was led by Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora.

The frailocracia was adamantly opposed to reforms and looked for pretext to arrest the trio. They had their opportunity when a mutiny in the fort in Cavite was aborted. Although the rebellion was led by a disaffected military officer and did not involve the priests, the civil government and church hierarchy nonetheless accused them of conspiracy. After a swift trial, the

priests--known collectively and posthumously by the acronym Gomburza--were executed by garrote in February 17, 1872 at Bagumbayan in Manila. The sympathetic archbishop of Manila refused the order that they be defrocked and instead directed the pealing of church bells as a sign of mourning.

The execution enraged many Filipinos, and years later, an ilustrado by the name of Jose Rizal would later acknowledge this as the one event that changed his life.

[edit] Propaganda Movement

priests--known collectively and posthumously by the acronym Gomburza --were executed by <a href=garrote in February 17, 1872 at Bagumbayan in Manila. The sympathetic archbishop of Manila refused the order that they be defrocked and instead directed the pealing of church bells as a sign of mourning. The execution enraged many Filipinos, and years later, an ilustrado by the name of Jose Rizal would later acknowledge this as the one event that changed his life. [ edit ] Propaganda Movement Members of the Propaganda Movement. Left to right : Rizal, del Pilar, Ponce. A group of Filipino ilustrados in Madrid, shocked by what they saw as the disparity between Spain and her colony, organized the "Propaganda Movement". Among its members were Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, the political exile Marcelo del Pilar , Mariano Ponce , and the Luna brothers- - Juan and Antonio . They published a fortnightly newspaper in Spanish called La Solidaridad . Its aim was to expose corruption and atrocities in the Philippine colony. The publication lasted from 1889 to 1895. Copies of it were smuggled into the Philippines and were read surreptitiously behind closed doors. In its later years, because of differences in opinion, the movement suffered a division. One faction supported del Pilar as its leader, while the other supported Rizal. To resolve the dispute, Rizal volunteered to pack his bags and leave Barcelona, where the group was by now based. Rizal's departure would signal its slow and steady downfall. With the subsequent demise of both Lopez-Jaena and del Pilar the group failed to witness the fruition of their dream for internal reform in the colony as well as their hopes for representation in the Spanish Cortes . However, through the La Solidaridad , they not only voiced out their outrage to their readers in Spain and the rest of the western world, but conveyed their protests to their countrymen which gave rise to greater dissent and discontent. [ edit ] La Liga Filipina Rizal returned to his native land in 1892 and established La Liga Filipina . The progressive organization continued Rizal's aim of implementing reforms inside the colony. Despite its " id="pdf-obj-9-19" src="pdf-obj-9-19.jpg">

Members of the Propaganda Movement. Left to right: Rizal, del Pilar, Ponce.

A group of Filipino ilustrados in Madrid, shocked by what they saw as the disparity between Spain and her colony, organized the "Propaganda Movement". Among its members were Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, the political exile Marcelo del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, and the Luna brothers--Juan and Antonio. They published a fortnightly newspaper in Spanish called La Solidaridad. Its aim was to expose corruption and atrocities in the Philippine colony. The publication lasted from 1889 to 1895. Copies of it were smuggled into the Philippines and were read surreptitiously behind closed doors.

In its later years, because of differences in opinion, the movement suffered a division. One faction supported del Pilar as its leader, while the other supported Rizal. To resolve the dispute, Rizal volunteered to pack his bags and leave Barcelona, where the group was by now based. Rizal's departure would signal its slow and steady downfall. With the subsequent demise of both Lopez-Jaena and del Pilar the group failed to witness the fruition of their dream for internal reform in the colony as well as their hopes for representation in the Spanish Cortes. However, through the La Solidaridad, they not only voiced out their outrage to their readers in Spain and the rest of the western world, but conveyed their protests to their countrymen which gave rise to greater dissent and discontent.

[edit] La Liga Filipina

Rizal returned to his native land in 1892 and established La Liga Filipina. The progressive organization continued Rizal's aim of implementing reforms inside the colony. Despite its

avowed aims for peaceful reforms, the government felt threatened by its existence and had it disbanded. They were especially disturbed by one clause in its Declaration calling for "defence against all violence and injustice" and arrested Rizal on July 6.

The coalition subsequently splintered into two factions with differing agenda. The moderate wing reorganized itself as Cuerpo de Compromisarios with the purpose of providing funds for La Solidaridad. The radical wing, led by a warehouse clerk named Andres Bonifacio, became the Katipunan whose goal was complete independence from Spain through all means, including a bloody confrontation.

[edit] Katipunan

Main article: Katipunan

avowed aims for peaceful reforms, the government felt threatened by its existence and had it disbanded.Andres Bonifacio , became the Katipunan whose goal was complete independence from Spain through all means, including a bloody confrontation. [ edit ] Katipunan Main article: Katipunan The first flag of the Katipunan. On the night of July 7, 1892, members of the defunct Liga , Ladislao Diwa , Teodoro Plata , Valentin Diaz , and Deodato Arellano , joined Bonifacio to found the Katipunan in a house on Calle Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue). Bonifacio was hailed as the Supremo (supreme leader). With the nation's total liberation as its ultimate purpose, the secret society's immediate goal was to institute a government to be installed upon the overthrow of the Spanish administration. They raised funds to purchase weapons and sought the help of a Japanese ship docked in Manila as middleman, but failed in the attempt. Eventually, the men got hold of a small number of smuggled and stolen firearms; however, the majority of the militants were only armed with bolos or itak , locally-made machete-like knives. To spread their revolutionary ideas, they published the newspaper Kalayaan (Freedom). It was edited by Emilio Jacinto and printed (along with other Katipunan documents) on a printing press purchased with proceeds from the lottery winnings of Francisco del Castillo and Candido Iban, who would later found the Katipunan in Panay . To mislead the Spanish authorities, it carried a false masthead declaring Marcelo del Pilar the editor and Yokohama the site of the printing press. The newspaper was published only once, before the katipuneros , having been alerted of the organization's discovery by the Spaniards, destroyed their printing press. They then moved their operations to the offices of Diario de Manila where one other edition of the paper was printed in secrecy. It did not take long before Katipunan membership swelled in numbers, its aims and ideals spreading to other provinces. By March 1896, councils were being organized in the towns of San Juan del Monte, San Felipe Neri, Pasig , Pateros, Marikina , Caloocan, Malabon and surrounding areas. It later dispersed to the provinces of Bulacan , Batangas, Cavite , Nueva Ecija, Laguna and " id="pdf-obj-10-23" src="pdf-obj-10-23.jpg">

The first flag of the Katipunan.

On the night of July 7, 1892, members of the defunct Liga, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Valentin Diaz, and Deodato Arellano, joined Bonifacio to found the Katipunan in a house on Calle Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue). Bonifacio was hailed as the Supremo (supreme leader). With the nation's total liberation as its ultimate purpose, the secret society's immediate goal was to institute a government to be installed upon the overthrow of the Spanish administration. They raised funds to purchase weapons and sought the help of a Japanese ship docked in Manila as middleman, but failed in the attempt. Eventually, the men got hold of a small number of smuggled and stolen firearms; however, the majority of the militants were only armed with bolos or itak, locally-made machete-like knives.

To spread their revolutionary ideas, they published the newspaper Kalayaan (Freedom). It was edited by Emilio Jacinto and printed (along with other Katipunan documents) on a printing press purchased with proceeds from the lottery winnings of Francisco del Castillo and Candido Iban, who would later found the Katipunan in Panay. To mislead the Spanish authorities, it carried a false masthead declaring Marcelo del Pilar the editor and Yokohama the site of the printing press. The newspaper was published only once, before the katipuneros, having been alerted of the organization's discovery by the Spaniards, destroyed their printing press. They then moved their operations to the offices of Diario de Manila where one other edition of the paper was printed in secrecy.

It did not take long before Katipunan membership swelled in numbers, its aims and ideals spreading to other provinces. By March 1896, councils were being organized in the towns of San Juan del Monte, San Felipe Neri, Pasig, Pateros, Marikina, Caloocan, Malabon and surrounding areas. It later dispersed to the provinces of Bulacan, Batangas, Cavite, Nueva Ecija, Laguna and

Pampanga. It also included women among its ranks, with the first female inductee in 1893. From a measly 300, the Katipunan grew to an army of more than 30,000 which made Bonifacio confident that liberation of the Katagalugan (as he called the Philippines) was imminent.

[edit] Cry of Pugadlawin

Pampanga. It also included women among its ranks, with the first female inductee in 1893. From[ edit ] Cry of Pugadlawin The Supremo' s battle standard. Two katipuneros , Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio dela Cruz, were engaged in a bitter personal dispute. The former, Patiño, deciding to seek revenge, exposed the secrets of the Katipunan to his sister who was a nun, who in turn revealed it to a Spanish priest, Father Mariano Gil. The priest was led to the printing press of Diario de Manila and found a lithographic stone used to print the secret society's receipts. A locker was seized containing a dagger and secret documents. Several arrests ensued which included some of the wealthiest ilustrados . Despite their denial, many of them were executed. It was speculated that Bonifacio intended for the events leading to their arrest to happen in order to coerce the wealthy into joining the Katipunan. The news immediately reached the top leadership of the organization. Panic-stricken, they immediately called a meeting of the remaining members, first in Kangkong and then in the house of katipunero Juan Ramos in Pugadlawin in Balintawak. The first meeting yielded nothing. On the second meeting, Bonifacio, fed up with the seemingly-endless squabbling, tore up his cedula (residence certificate) and cried Mabuhay ang Katagalugan! (Long live Katagalugan!). It was a cry to arms and was echoed by the majority of the men in attendance. The Revolution had begun. The first armed encounter between the Spanish colonists and a small group of the Katipunan took place in Pasong Tamo in Caloocan and signaled a small victory for the revolutionaries. The first battle of note occurred in San Juan del Monte in Manila. The katipuneros were winning initially, but were subsequently defeated by reinforcements summoned by Governor-General Ramon Blanco. Bonifacio then ordered his men to retreat to Mandaluyong . [ edit ] Death of Rizal Main article: Jose Rizal " id="pdf-obj-11-13" src="pdf-obj-11-13.jpg">

The Supremo's battle standard.

Two katipuneros, Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio dela Cruz, were engaged in a bitter personal dispute. The former, Patiño, deciding to seek revenge, exposed the secrets of the Katipunan to his sister who was a nun, who in turn revealed it to a Spanish priest, Father Mariano Gil. The priest was led to the printing press of Diario de Manila and found a lithographic stone used to print the secret society's receipts. A locker was seized containing a dagger and secret documents.

Several arrests ensued which included some of the wealthiest ilustrados. Despite their denial, many of them were executed. It was speculated that Bonifacio intended for the events leading to their arrest to happen in order to coerce the wealthy into joining the Katipunan.

The news immediately reached the top leadership of the organization. Panic-stricken, they immediately called a meeting of the remaining members, first in Kangkong and then in the house of katipunero Juan Ramos in Pugadlawin in Balintawak. The first meeting yielded nothing. On the second meeting, Bonifacio, fed up with the seemingly-endless squabbling, tore up his cedula (residence certificate) and cried Mabuhay ang Katagalugan! (Long live Katagalugan!). It was a cry to arms and was echoed by the majority of the men in attendance. The Revolution had begun.

The first armed encounter between the Spanish colonists and a small group of the Katipunan took place in Pasong Tamo in Caloocan and signaled a small victory for the revolutionaries. The first battle of note occurred in San Juan del Monte in Manila. The katipuneros were winning initially, but were subsequently defeated by reinforcements summoned by Governor-General Ramon Blanco. Bonifacio then ordered his men to retreat to Mandaluyong.

[edit] Death of Rizal

Main article: Jose Rizal

Moments before the execution of convicted Filipino rebel leaders at Bagumbayan field (now Luneta). Not longManila , Bulacan , Cavite , Pampanga , Tarlac , Laguna , Batangas , and Nueva Ecija . They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag . Arrests and interrogations were intensified and many Filipinos died from torture. When the revolution broke out, Jose Rizal was living as a political exile in Dapitan and had just volunteered to serve as a doctor in Cuba, where a similar revolution was taking place. Instead of taking him to Barcelona from where he would be sent to Cuba, his ship, acting upon orders from Manila, took him instead to the capital where he was imprisoned in Fortaleza (Fort) Santiago. There he wrote his famous valedictory poem and awaited his execution which came on December 30, 1896 after a military trial. Although Rizal opposed the Katipunan from the beginning, he became a hero of the revolution through his martyred death and his incendiary writings critical of Spanish rule. His execution fanned the Filipinos' anger and ensured that the revolution would stay. [ edit ] Cavite Gen. Emilio "Miong" Aguinaldo. " id="pdf-obj-12-2" src="pdf-obj-12-2.jpg">

Moments before the execution of convicted Filipino rebel leaders at Bagumbayan field (now Luneta).

Not long after their disastrous defeat in San Juan (the site is now known as Pinaglabanan, Tagalog for "battleground"), several uprisings occurred in nearby provinces. Governor-General Blanco was obliged to place eight provinces under martial law. These were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija. They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag. Arrests and interrogations were intensified and many Filipinos died from torture.

When the revolution broke out, Jose Rizal was living as a political exile in Dapitan and had just volunteered to serve as a doctor in Cuba, where a similar revolution was taking place. Instead of taking him to Barcelona from where he would be sent to Cuba, his ship, acting upon orders from Manila, took him instead to the capital where he was imprisoned in Fortaleza (Fort) Santiago. There he wrote his famous valedictory poem and awaited his execution which came on December 30, 1896 after a military trial. Although Rizal opposed the Katipunan from the beginning, he became a hero of the revolution through his martyred death and his incendiary writings critical of Spanish rule. His execution fanned the Filipinos' anger and ensured that the revolution would stay.

[edit] Cavite

Moments before the execution of convicted Filipino rebel leaders at Bagumbayan field (now Luneta). Not longManila , Bulacan , Cavite , Pampanga , Tarlac , Laguna , Batangas , and Nueva Ecija . They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag . Arrests and interrogations were intensified and many Filipinos died from torture. When the revolution broke out, Jose Rizal was living as a political exile in Dapitan and had just volunteered to serve as a doctor in Cuba, where a similar revolution was taking place. Instead of taking him to Barcelona from where he would be sent to Cuba, his ship, acting upon orders from Manila, took him instead to the capital where he was imprisoned in Fortaleza (Fort) Santiago. There he wrote his famous valedictory poem and awaited his execution which came on December 30, 1896 after a military trial. Although Rizal opposed the Katipunan from the beginning, he became a hero of the revolution through his martyred death and his incendiary writings critical of Spanish rule. His execution fanned the Filipinos' anger and ensured that the revolution would stay. [ edit ] Cavite Gen. Emilio "Miong" Aguinaldo. " id="pdf-obj-12-40" src="pdf-obj-12-40.jpg">

Gen. Emilio "Miong" Aguinaldo.

The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the hotbed for the uprising. The revolutionary group led by young General Emilio Aguinaldo, had a string of victories starting with the Battle of Imus in 1 September 1896 with the aid of Jose Tagle. Bonifacio meanwhile had had a succession of defeats and was forced to resort to guerilla "hit and run" tactics (though he did serve as overall commander and tactician in the Morong area). It was not long before the issue of leadership was debated. The Magdiwang faction, led by Bonifacio's uncle Mariano Alvarez, recognized Bonifacio as supreme leader, being the founder. The Magdalo faction, led by Emilio's cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, agitated for "Heneral Miong" (Emilio's nickname) to be the organization's head because of his successes in the battrlefield. The friction between the two factions intensified when they refused to cooperate and aid each other in battle. As a result, the Spanish forces, now under the command of Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja, steadily gained ground.

[edit] Tejeros Convention

In order to unite the Katipunan in Cavite, the Magdiwang invited Bonifacio, who was fighting in Morong (now Rizal) province, to come to Cavite, Aguinaldo's home ground. The Supremo reluctantly obliged. On December 31, an assembly was convened in Imus to settle the leadership issue once and for all. The Magdalo insisted on the establishment of a pamahalaang mapanghimagsik (revolutionary government) to replace the Katipunan and continue the struggle. On the other hand, the Magdiwang favored the Katipunan's retention, arguing that it was a government in itself. The assembly dispersed without a consensus.

On March 22, 1897, another meeting was held in Tejeros. It called for the election of officers for the pamahalaang mapanghimagsik. Bonifacio, again reluctantly, chaired the election. This convention ended in further conflict and led to the Katipunan's demise.

Bonifacio, apparently confident that he would be elected president, called for the election results to be respected. When the voting ended, Bonifacio lost the race--and the leadership of the revolution--to Aguinaldo, who was away fighting in Pasong Santol. According to historian Ambeth Ocampo, Bonifacio lost through dagdag-bawas. Instead, he was elected to a much inferior position, director of the interior, and even then his qualifications to serve were questioned by a Magdalo, Daniel Tirona. Bonifacio, though literate, was not an ilustrado and only had an elementary-school education. Humiliated, Bonifacio drew his pistol and was about to shoot him had not Artemio Ricarte intervened. Bonifacio declared the election null and void and stomped out in anger. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as president the next day in Santa Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza) in Cavite, as did the rest of the officers, except for Bonifacio.

[edit] Death of Bonifacio

Bonifacio lost his life in the hands of ilustrado revolutionaries. In Naic, Bonifacio and his officers[ edit ] Biak-na-Bato The flag used by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Augmented by new recruits from Spain , government troops recaptured several towns in Cavite. The succession of defeats for the Katipunan could also be attributed to conflict within the organization that resulted from Bonifacio's assassination, with those loyal to him refusing to " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

Bonifacio lost his life in the hands of ilustrado revolutionaries.

In Naic, Bonifacio and his officers created the Naic Military Agreement, establishing a rival government to Aguinaldo's. It rejected the election at Tejeros and restored Bonifacio as the "true" Supremo. When Aguinaldo learned of the document, he ordered the arrest of Bonifacio and his men. Colonel Agapito Benzon chanced upon Bonifacio in Limbon. In the subsequent battle, Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were wounded, while their brother Ciriaco was killed. They were taken to Naic to stand trial.

The Consejo de Guerra (War Council) sentenced Andres and Procopio Bonifacio to death for sedition and treason. Aguinaldo commuted the punishment to deportation, but withdrew his decision following pressure from other officers.

On May 10, Colonel Lazaro Makapagal, upon orders from ex-Bonifacio supporter General Mariano Noriel, executed the Bonifacio brothers on Mt. Buntis. Andres Bonifacio and his brother were buried in a shallow grave marked only with twigs.

[edit] Biak-na-Bato

Bonifacio lost his life in the hands of ilustrado revolutionaries. In Naic, Bonifacio and his officers[ edit ] Biak-na-Bato The flag used by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Augmented by new recruits from Spain , government troops recaptured several towns in Cavite. The succession of defeats for the Katipunan could also be attributed to conflict within the organization that resulted from Bonifacio's assassination, with those loyal to him refusing to " id="pdf-obj-14-23" src="pdf-obj-14-23.jpg">

The flag used by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.

Augmented by new recruits from Spain, government troops recaptured several towns in Cavite. The succession of defeats for the Katipunan could also be attributed to conflict within the organization that resulted from Bonifacio's assassination, with those loyal to him refusing to

subject themselves to the command of Aguinaldo. It did not, however, deter Aguinaldo and his men to keep on fighting. They moved northward, from one town to the next, until they finally settled in Biak-na-Bato, in the town of San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan. Here they established what became known as the Republic of Biak-na-Bato, with a constitution drafted by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer and based on the first Cuban Constitution.

With the new Spanish Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera declaring, "I can take Biak- na-Bato. Any army can capture it. But I cannot end the rebellion," he proffered the olive branch of peace to the revolutionaries. Lawyer Pedro Paterno volunteered as negotiator between the two sides. For four months, he traveled between Manila and Biak-na-Bato. His hard work finally bore fruit when, on December 14-15, 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed. Made up of three documents, it called for the following agenda:

The surrender of Aguinaldo and the rest of the revolutionary corps.

Amnesty for those who participated in the revolution ..

Exile to Hong Kong for the revolutionary leadership.

Payment by the Spanish government to the revolutionaries in three installments: 400,000 pesos upon leaving the country, 200,000 pesos upon the surrender of at least 700 firearms, and another 200,000 pesos upon the declaration of general amnesty.

In accordance with the first clause, Aguinaldo and twenty five other top officials of the revolution were banished to Hong Kong with 400,000 pesos in their pockets. The rest of the men got 200,000 pesos and the third installment was never received. General amnesty was never declared because sporadic skirmishes continued.

[edit] The Revolution Continues

Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the treaty. One, General Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines. The Spaniards, on the other hand, continued the arrest and torture of those suspected of "banditry".

The Pact of Biak-na-Bato did not signal an end to the war. Aguinaldo and his men were convinced that the Spaniards would never give the rest of the money as a condition of surrender. Furthermore, they believed that Spain reneged on her promise of amnesty. The exiles renewed their commitment for complete independence and ouster of the colonialists. They purchased more arms and ammunitions to ready themselves for another siege.

The Spaniards and their once-loyal subjects now had conflicting goals, and both were determined to achieve theirs, by any means necessary.

[edit] American Intervention

The Battle of Manila Bay. The United States emerged a world power after decisive victories duringSpanish-American War . The Philippine revolution could not have happened at a more opportune time. Not only were the Spaniards waging war against the Filipinos, they were also engaged in a much more costly war against an emerging world power . After the "destruction" of the USS Maine , United States President William McKinley declared war against Spain . America was concerned over the situation in Cuba in particular, where there was an ongoing revolution. Newspapers were publishing stories that portrayed the Spanish authorities as "merciless, barbaric evil-doers". In particular, the governor-general in Cuba, Valeriano Weyler (who also served as Governor- General of the Philippines ) was nicknamed "The Butcher". The angry American people quickly called for war against Spain, which was realized when the Congress of the United States voted in favor of direct intervention in Cuba. Commodore George Dewey , acting upon orders, sailed to Manila Bay on April 25, 1898. He encountered a fleet of twelve old rusty ships commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo. The resulting battle lasted only a few hours, with all of Montojo's fleet subdued. Because he did not have enough troops to capture Manila, Dewey had to call for armed reinforcements and while waiting, contented himself with merely acting as a blockade for Manila Bay . Meanwhile, United States consuls E. Spencer Pratt and Rounceville Wildman paid Aguinaldo a visit while in Hong Kong. The two persuaded Aguinaldo to again take up the mantle of leadership in the revolution. After some discussion with his Hong Kong junta , he agreed to return to the country with Commodore Dewey. When Aguinaldo returned to Hong Kong after a brief spell in Singapore (where he had met Pratt), Dewey had already gone back to Manila. The commodore, however, left instructions for the arrangement of Heneral Miong' s return to the country. Aguinaldo left aboard the ship McCulloch on May 15, 1898, and arrived in Cavite two days later. " id="pdf-obj-16-2" src="pdf-obj-16-2.jpg">

The Battle of Manila Bay. The United States emerged a world power after decisive victories during the Spanish-American War. The Philippine revolution could not have happened at a more opportune time. Not only were the Spaniards waging war against the Filipinos, they were also engaged in a much more costly war against an emerging world power. After the "destruction" of the USS Maine, United States President William McKinley declared war against Spain. America was concerned over the situation in Cuba in particular, where there was an ongoing revolution. Newspapers were publishing stories that portrayed the Spanish authorities as "merciless, barbaric evil-doers". In particular, the governor-general in Cuba, Valeriano Weyler (who also served as Governor- General of the Philippines) was nicknamed "The Butcher". The angry American people quickly called for war against Spain, which was realized when the Congress of the United States voted in favor of direct intervention in Cuba.

Commodore George Dewey, acting upon orders, sailed to Manila Bay on April 25, 1898. He encountered a fleet of twelve old rusty ships commanded by Admiral Patricio Montojo. The resulting battle lasted only a few hours, with all of Montojo's fleet subdued. Because he did not have enough troops to capture Manila, Dewey had to call for armed reinforcements and while waiting, contented himself with merely acting as a blockade for Manila Bay [2] .

Meanwhile, United States consuls E. Spencer Pratt and Rounceville Wildman paid Aguinaldo a visit while in Hong Kong. The two persuaded Aguinaldo to again take up the mantle of leadership in the revolution. After some discussion with his Hong Kong junta, he agreed to return to the country with Commodore Dewey.

When Aguinaldo returned to Hong Kong after a brief spell in Singapore (where he had met Pratt), Dewey had already gone back to Manila. The commodore, however, left instructions for the arrangement of Heneral Miong's return to the country. Aguinaldo left aboard the ship McCulloch on May 15, 1898, and arrived in Cavite two days later.

Public jubilance marked the general's return. Several revolutionaries, as well as Filipino soldiers employed by the Spaniards, submitted themselves to Aguinaldo's command. Soon after, Imus and Bacoor in Cavite, Parañaque and Las Piñas in Morong, Macabebe and San Fernando in Pampanga, as well as Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tayabas (now Quezon), and the Camarines provinces, were liberated by the Filipinos. They were also able to secure the port of Dalahican in Cavite. The revolution was gaining ground.

[edit] Denouement

The Spanish colonial government, now under Governor-General Basilio Augustín y Dávila, in order to win over the Filipinos from Aguinaldo and the Americans, established the Volunteer Militia and Consultative Assembly. Both groups were made up of Filipino recruits. However, most of them remained loyal to the revolution. The Volunteer Militia literally joined its supposed enemy, while the Assembly, chaired by Paterno, never had the chance to accomplish their goals.

[edit] Declaration of Independence

Public jubilance marked the general's return. Several revolutionaries, as well as Filipino soldiers employed by theBacoor in Cavite, Parañaque and Las Piñas in Morong , Macabebe and San Fernando in Pampanga, as well as Laguna , Batangas, Bulacan , Nueva Ecija, Bataan , Tayabas (now Quezon), and the Camarines provinces, were liberated by the Filipinos. They were also able to secure the port of Dalahican in Cavite. The revolution was gaining ground. [ edit ] Denouement The Spanish colonial government, now under Governor-General Basilio Augustín y Dávila , in order to win over the Filipinos from Aguinaldo and the Americans, established the Volunteer Militia and Consultative Assembly. Both groups were made up of Filipino recruits. However, most of them remained loyal to the revolution. The Volunteer Militia literally joined its supposed enemy, while the Assembly, chaired by Paterno, never had the chance to accomplish their goals. [ edit ] Declaration of Independence Main article: Phili pp ine Declaration of Independence The declaration of Filipino independence, as portrayed at the back of the now-defunct 5-peso bill. By June, the island of Luzon, except for Manila and the port of Cavite, was under Filipino control. The revolutionaries were laying siege to Manila and cutting off its food and water supply. With most of the archipelago under his control, Aguinaldo decided it was time to establish a Philippine government. When Aguinaldo arrived from Hong Kong, he brought with him a copy of a plan drawn by Mariano Ponce , calling for the establishment of a revolutionary government. Upon the advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, however, an autocratic regime was established instead on May 24, with Aguinaldo as dictator. It was under this dictatorship that independence was finally proclaimed on June 12 , 1898 in Aguinaldo's house in Kawit , Cavite . The first Filipino flag was unfurled and the national anthem was played for the first time. Apolinario Mabini , Aguinaldo's closest adviser, was opposed to Aguinaldo's decision towards a dictatorial rule. He instead urged for the reformation of a government that could prove its stability and competency as prerequisite. Aguinaldo refused to do so; however, Mabini was able to convince him to turn his autocratic administration into a revolutionary one. Aguinaldo declared a revolutionary government on July 23. " id="pdf-obj-17-43" src="pdf-obj-17-43.jpg">

The declaration of Filipino independence, as portrayed at the back of the now-defunct 5-peso bill.

By June, the island of Luzon, except for Manila and the port of Cavite, was under Filipino control. The revolutionaries were laying siege to Manila and cutting off its food and water supply. With most of the archipelago under his control, Aguinaldo decided it was time to establish a Philippine government.

When Aguinaldo arrived from Hong Kong, he brought with him a copy of a plan drawn by Mariano Ponce, calling for the establishment of a revolutionary government. Upon the advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, however, an autocratic regime was established instead on May 24, with Aguinaldo as dictator.

It was under this dictatorship that independence was finally proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Aguinaldo's house in Kawit, Cavite. The first Filipino flag was unfurled and the national anthem was played for the first time.

Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's closest adviser, was opposed to Aguinaldo's decision towards a dictatorial rule. He instead urged for the reformation of a government that could prove its stability and competency as prerequisite. Aguinaldo refused to do so; however, Mabini was able to convince him to turn his autocratic administration into a revolutionary one. Aguinaldo declared a revolutionary government on July 23.

[edit] Aftermath

<a href=[ edit ] Aftermath The Revolutionary Congress in Malolos. General Aguinaldo (first row, center) with several members of the Congress. The Revolution did not end with the June 12th declaration. The Filipinos were not able to liberate Spanish-controlled Philippines until December, and Manila did not fall into Americans' hands until August of the following year. The United States would not grant complete autonomy for the Philippines until 1946. Upon the recommendations of the decree that established the revolutionary government, a Congreso Revolucionario was assembled at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. All of the delegates to the congress were from the ilustrado class, signaling a distinct change from the proletarian leadership of Tejeros. Mabini objected to the call for a constitutional assembly; when he did not succeed, he drafted a constitution of his own, and this too failed. A draft by ilustrado lawyer Felipe G. Calderón was instead laid on the table and this became the framework upon which the assembly drafted the first constitution. On November 29, the assembly, now popularly-called Malolos Congress , finished the draft. However, Aguinaldo, who always placed Mabini in high esteem and heeded most of his advice, refused to sign it when the latter objected. In January 21, 1899, after a few modifications were made to suit Mabini's arguments, the constituton was finally approved by the congreso and signed by Aguinaldo. " id="pdf-obj-18-7" src="pdf-obj-18-7.jpg">

The Revolutionary Congress in Malolos.

<a href=[ edit ] Aftermath The Revolutionary Congress in Malolos. General Aguinaldo (first row, center) with several members of the Congress. The Revolution did not end with the June 12th declaration. The Filipinos were not able to liberate Spanish-controlled Philippines until December, and Manila did not fall into Americans' hands until August of the following year. The United States would not grant complete autonomy for the Philippines until 1946. Upon the recommendations of the decree that established the revolutionary government, a Congreso Revolucionario was assembled at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. All of the delegates to the congress were from the ilustrado class, signaling a distinct change from the proletarian leadership of Tejeros. Mabini objected to the call for a constitutional assembly; when he did not succeed, he drafted a constitution of his own, and this too failed. A draft by ilustrado lawyer Felipe G. Calderón was instead laid on the table and this became the framework upon which the assembly drafted the first constitution. On November 29, the assembly, now popularly-called Malolos Congress , finished the draft. However, Aguinaldo, who always placed Mabini in high esteem and heeded most of his advice, refused to sign it when the latter objected. In January 21, 1899, after a few modifications were made to suit Mabini's arguments, the constituton was finally approved by the congreso and signed by Aguinaldo. " id="pdf-obj-18-11" src="pdf-obj-18-11.jpg">

General Aguinaldo (first row, center) with several members of the Congress.

The Revolution did not end with the June 12th declaration. The Filipinos were not able to liberate Spanish-controlled Philippines until December, and Manila did not fall into Americans' hands until August of the following year. The United States would not grant complete autonomy for the Philippines until 1946.

Upon the recommendations of the decree that established the revolutionary government, a Congreso Revolucionario was assembled at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. All of the delegates to the congress were from the ilustrado class, signaling a distinct change from the proletarian leadership of Tejeros. Mabini objected to the call for a constitutional assembly; when he did not succeed, he drafted a constitution of his own, and this too failed. A draft by ilustrado lawyer Felipe G. Calderón was instead laid on the table and this became the framework upon which the assembly drafted the first constitution.

On November 29, the assembly, now popularly-called Malolos Congress, finished the draft. However, Aguinaldo, who always placed Mabini in high esteem and heeded most of his advice, refused to sign it when the latter objected. In January 21, 1899, after a few modifications were made to suit Mabini's arguments, the constituton was finally approved by the congreso and signed by Aguinaldo.

Two days later, the Filipino Republic (also called the First Republic and Malolos Republic) was inaugurated in Malolos with Aguinaldo as president.

[edit] Legacy

Two days later, the Filipino Republic (also called the First Republic and <a href=Malolos Republic ) was inaugurated in Malolos with Aguinaldo as president. [ edit ] Legacy A monument to the Supremo in Kalookan . The Philippine Revolution was, and still is, important in many aspects. " id="pdf-obj-19-12" src="pdf-obj-19-12.jpg">

A monument to the Supremo in Kalookan.

The Philippine Revolution was, and still is, important in many aspects.

First, it was the first nationalistic revolution of its kind in Asia. Subsequent revolutions in the region--the Indonesian National Revolution, the revolution in Vietnam, and the Chinese Revolution--follow, or improved on, the Philippine paradigm.

Second, the Revolution led to the establishment of the first non-western independent republic. Although unrecognized by most nations, the Philippines' First Republic was important because it represented the aspirations and struggle of a brown, Asian people to be independent of control by a white world power.

 First, it was the first <a href=nationalistic revolution of its kind in Asia. Subsequent revolutions in the region--the Indonesian National Revolution , the revolution in Vietnam, and the Chinese Revolution - -follow, or improved on, the Philippine paradigm.  Second, the Revolution led to the establishment of the first non-western independent republic . Although unrecognized by most nations, the Philippines' First Republic was important because it represented the aspirations and struggle of a brown, Asian people to be independent of control by a white world power. Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit , where Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence  Third, it showed how disunity and discord can affect a revolution. The internal struggle  between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo was one reason why the revolution faltered in its crucial stage. Subsequently, the refusal of several revolutionaries (many of them pro- Bonifacio) to fight with Aguinaldo was a major reason the revolution failed to achieve immediate and complete independence for the nation. And fourth, the Revolution united the Filipinos for the first time. Before and during Spanish colonization, there was no such thing as a Filipino people . The nation was segregated into ethnic and regional groups speaking 77 different languages, and allegiances were confined to one's language or territorial affiliation resulting in a lack of national sentiment. With the Revolution, the people no longer saw themselves primarily as Cebuanos, Tagalogs, Ilokanos, Kapampangans, etc., but as "Filipinos", first and foremost. [ edit ] Notes 1. ^ As the word frailocracia cannot be found in most Spanish dictionaries nor the word "frailocracy" in the English, the term must have been coined by succeeding Filipino writers to refer to this 'unique' system of government 2. ^ Gathering at the Golden Gate: Mobilizing for War in the Philippines, 1898. Stephen D. Coats " id="pdf-obj-20-25" src="pdf-obj-20-25.jpg">

Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, where Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence

Third, it showed how disunity and discord can affect a revolution. The internal struggle

between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo was one reason why the revolution faltered in its crucial stage. Subsequently, the refusal of several revolutionaries (many of them pro- Bonifacio) to fight with Aguinaldo was a major reason the revolution failed to achieve immediate and complete independence for the nation. And fourth, the Revolution united the Filipinos for the first time. Before and during Spanish colonization, there was no such thing as a Filipino people. The nation was segregated into ethnic and regional groups speaking 77 different languages, and allegiances were confined to one's language or territorial affiliation resulting in a lack of national sentiment. With the Revolution, the people no longer saw themselves primarily as Cebuanos, Tagalogs, Ilokanos, Kapampangans, etc., but as "Filipinos", first and foremost.

[edit] Notes

  • 1. ^ As the word frailocracia cannot be found in most Spanish dictionaries nor the word "frailocracy" in the English, the term must have been coined by succeeding Filipino writers to refer to this 'unique' system of government

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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Objects:

Notable

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Gomburza

From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

This article does not cite any <a href=references or sources . " id="pdf-obj-21-192" src="pdf-obj-21-192.jpg">

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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. (help, get involved!) Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. This article has been tagged since February 2007.

Gomburza is an acronym for Fathers Mariano Gómez, José Apolonio Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, three Filipino priests who were executed on February 17, 1872 by Spanish colonial authorities on trumped-up charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. Their unjust execution enraged and left a profound and bitter effect on many Filipinos, especially José Rizal, the national hero, who, himself, was to suffer a mock trial leading to his execution.

The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretext needed by the authorities to redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, Father Jose Burgos, a rising star who, by dint of intellectual gifts and scholastic achievement, threatened the established order.

During the Spanish colonial period, rigid class dinstinctions were effectively observed between Peninsular Spaniards, those born in Spain or 'Peninsulares,' those born in the colony of Peninsular parents, or 'Insulares,' those born in the Philippines of mixed Spanish blood or Spanish Mestizos, Chinese and Chinese Mestizos, and, finally, Indios (Natives). Father Burgos was Spanish Mestizo, a Doctor of Philosophy whose prominence extended even in Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos Maria de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Father Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and who, as expected, was a Peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal governor de la Torre was not welcomed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects, Franciscans) and their minions in civil government, but mistakenly embraced by the secular priests, majority of these Mestizos and natives or Indios assigned to parishes and far- flung communities, who believed the reforms and the equality they sought with Peninsular Spaniards were at hand. In less than two years de la Torre was replaced by Izquierdo who turned out to be a pliant tool of the friars.

The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal in the naval shipyard over pay reduction owing to increased taxation produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by 'garrote.' Father Gómez, the oldest, went to his death heroically. Father Zamora, the youngest, guileless and totally befuddled, died with a whimper. Father Burgos, hoping for a reprieve which never came and scanning the distance till the very last moment, met his death soaked in his own tears. Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions. The aftermath of the witchhunt produced scores of suspects most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas, who, except a few who managed to escape to other ports like Hong Kong, died there in penury. It was a period when a pall of hopelessness enveloped the country, steeling the resolve and patriotism of a sentient minority, giving rise to a new generation of heroes of whom the Rizal family was to become the standard bearer.

La Solidaridad

From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

Jump to: <a href=navigation , search Staff of La Solidaridad La Solidaridad was the name of the all-Filipino organization established by the illustrados of Barcelona on December 13, 1888, which sought to create Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes . It was also the name of the official publication of the organization. Contents [ hide ]1 The Organization2 The Publication3 References4 External Links5 Citation [ edit ] The Organization Galicano Apacible was the first president of the La Solidaridad . With him were Graciano Lopez-Jaena as vice-president, Mariano Ponce as treasurer, and Jose Rizal , who was then in London, as Honorary President. Apacible did not remain long enough as president since could not hold the bickering reformists together anymore. What the organization needed were people like Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar who could reunite the sentiments of the Filipinos in Spain. La Solidaridad was viewed as a rival organization for Miguel Morayta's Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry. Later, the two organizations collaborated in their petition to the Minister of Colonies. Their petition were as follows:  to have representation in the Spanish Cortes  to abolish the censorship of the press " id="pdf-obj-23-7" src="pdf-obj-23-7.jpg">

Staff of La Solidaridad

La Solidaridad was the name of the all-Filipino organization established by the illustrados of Barcelona on December 13, 1888, which sought to create Filipino representation in the Spanish

Cortes. It was also the name of the official publication of the organization.

Contents

Galicano Apacible was the first president of the La Solidaridad. With him were Graciano Lopez-Jaena as vice-president, Mariano Ponce as treasurer, and Jose Rizal, who was then in London, as Honorary President. Apacible did not remain long enough as president since could not hold the bickering reformists together anymore. What the organization needed were people like Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar who could reunite the sentiments of the Filipinos in Spain.

La Solidaridad was viewed as a rival organization for Miguel Morayta's Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry. Later, the two organizations collaborated in their petition to the Minister of Colonies. Their petition were as follows:

to have representation in the Spanish Cortes

to abolish the censorship of the press

to prohibit the practice of deportation of citizens through administrative orders

[edit] The Publication

 to prohibit the practice of deportation of citizens through administrative orders <a href=[ edit ] The Publication La Solidaridad publication Soon enough, on February 15, 1889, through Jaena , the La Solidaridad newspaper was created. It served as the principal organ of the Propaganda Movement for over five years, with its last issue released on November 15, 1895. To quote the editorial in the the first issue of La Solidaridad: Our aspirations are modest, very modest. Our program, aside from being simple, is clear: to combat reaction, to stop all retrogressive steps, to extol and adopt liberal ideas, to defend progress; in a word, to be a propagandist, above all, of democratic ideas in order to make these supreme in all nations here and across the seas. The aims, therefore, of La Solidaridad are described as to collect, to gather, libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry. We shall also discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner. ” The Solidaridad became successful through the contributions of Filipino writers in Barcelona, namely: 1. Marcelo H. del Pilar (pseudonym: Plaridel ) 2. Jose Rizal (pseudonym: Laong Laan ) 3. Mariano Ponce (pseudonym: Naning, Kalipulako, Tikbalang ) 4. Antonio Luna (pseudonym: Taga-Ilog ) 5. Jose Ma. Panganiban (pseudonym: Jomapa) " id="pdf-obj-24-11" src="pdf-obj-24-11.jpg">

La Solidaridad publication

Soon enough, on February 15, 1889, through Jaena, the La Solidaridad newspaper was created. It served as the principal organ of the Propaganda Movement for over five years, with its last issue

released on November 15, 1895. To quote the editorial in the the first issue of La Solidaridad:

Our aspirations are modest, very modest. Our program, aside from being simple, is clear: to combat reaction, to stop all retrogressive steps, to extol and adopt liberal ideas, to defend progress; in a word, to be a propagandist, above all, of democratic ideas in order to make these supreme in all nations here and across the seas.

The aims, therefore, of La Solidaridad are described as to collect, to gather, libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry.

We shall also discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner. [1]

The Solidaridad became successful through the contributions of Filipino writers in Barcelona, namely:

[edit] References

  • 1. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Malaya Books,
    1969.

Sentenaryo '98: La Solidaridad. (accessed on 14 February 2008).

Constantino, Renato. A Past Revisited. Quezon City: Tala Publications, 1975.

Zaide, Sonia M. and Gregorio F. Zaide. The Philippines: A unique Nation. Manila: All- Nations Publishing, 1999.

[edit] External Links

López Jaena, Graciano. "La Solidaridad: Our purposes." In Graciano López Jaena:

Speeches, articles and letters. Translated and annotated by Encarnación Alzona. Manila, Philippines: National Historical Institute, 1994. Pp. 220-22. Lopez Jaena, Graciano. "Fray Botod: A sketch." In Graciano Lopez Jaena: Speeches, articles and letters. Translated and annotated by Encarnacion Alzona. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1994. pp. 195-219.

La Liga Filipina

From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

The cover page of the constitution of La Liga Filipina. La Liga Filipina was a civicJose Rizal in 1892 while the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule. Its aims were to unite the country, to protect and assist all its members, to fight violence and injustice, to support education and to study and implement reforms. [ edit ] History A civic society called La Propaganda was established, composed mostly of middle class Filipinos. These members contributed money to pay for the expenses of Filipino reformers in Spain who were working to obtain political reforms in the Philippines. However, the funds of the organization were not properly handled, resulting in the dissolution of the society. When this happened, Rizal stepped into the picture and proposed the establishment of another civic society which he called La Liga Filipina . Rizal established and inaugurated the society at a house in Tondo in 1892. Rizal wrote the constitution of the organization with the help of Jose Maria Basa . It used the motto Unus Instar Omnium or "One Like Another" in English. The league was supposed to be an organization for Filipinos where they can be an aid to everyone by giving scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and putting up cooperatives. Members were each to pay ten centavos as monthly dues. Each of the members was given the liberty to choose a name to symbolize himself. Among its members were Deodato Arellano , Andres Bonifacio and Apolinario Mabini . This vision was innocent and did not veer to any form of revolt, but the Spanish were alarmed and ordered to arrest Rizal four days after the Liga was organized. When Rizal was exiled to Dapitan the Liga became inactive, but through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio it was reorganized, and Apolinario Mabini became the secretary of the Supreme Council. Mabini then suggested to declare support for the La Solidaridad and its advocacies. The Liga was active at first but a few months later found that most of the councils organized by Bonifacio were no longer sending funds to propagandists in Madrid because they had become " id="pdf-obj-26-2" src="pdf-obj-26-2.jpg">

The cover page of the constitution of La Liga Filipina.

La Liga Filipina was a civic organization established by Jose Rizal in 1892 while the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule. Its aims were to unite the country, to protect and assist all its members, to fight violence and injustice, to support education and to study and implement reforms.

[edit] History

A civic society called La Propaganda was established, composed mostly of middle class Filipinos. These members contributed money to pay for the expenses of Filipino reformers in Spain who were working to obtain political reforms in the Philippines. However, the funds of the organization were not properly handled, resulting in the dissolution of the society.

When this happened, Rizal stepped into the picture and proposed the establishment of another civic society which he called La Liga Filipina. Rizal established and inaugurated the society at a house in Tondo in 1892. Rizal wrote the constitution of the organization with the help of Jose Maria Basa. It used the motto Unus Instar Omnium or "One Like Another" in English. The league was supposed to be an organization for Filipinos where they can be an aid to everyone by giving scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and putting up cooperatives. Members were each to pay ten centavos as monthly dues. Each of the members was given the liberty to choose a name to symbolize himself. Among its members were Deodato Arellano, Andres Bonifacio and Apolinario Mabini. This vision was innocent and did not veer to any form of revolt, but the Spanish were alarmed and ordered to arrest Rizal four days after the Liga was organized.

When Rizal was exiled to Dapitan the Liga became inactive, but through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio it was reorganized, and Apolinario Mabini became the secretary of the Supreme Council. Mabini then suggested to declare support for the La Solidaridad and its advocacies.

The Liga was active at first but a few months later found that most of the councils organized by Bonifacio were no longer sending funds to propagandists in Madrid because they had become

convinced that peaceful agitation for reforms would not bring them to freedom. They were afraid that the members might be captured and, not wanting to involve themselves in something that would eventually bring them to the knowledge of the Spaniards, the leaders of the organization decided to dissolve. They were separated into two groups: the Cuerpo de Compromisarios, which was composed of the conservatives who pledged to continue their support for the La Solidaridad and aim for a silent revolt, and the group of radicals led by Bonifacio who devoted themselves to the Katipunan.

The movement asked for reforms from the government of Spain but to no avail. Many of the reformists showed their patriotism although they still failed to maintain unity in their pursuit to fight against the colonizers. This may be attributed to the fact that most of these reformists were from the middle class and needed to be cautious to safeguard their wealth and interests. Apart from lack of funds, personal differences hindered the success of the movement.

[edit] Reference

La Liga Filipina (Accessed on 26 June 2009)

La Solidaridad (Accessed on 26 June 2009)

La Liga Filipina (Accessed on 29 June 2009)

Tejeros Convention

From WikiPilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

<a href=Philippines This article is p art of the series: Politics and government of the Philippines Government " id="pdf-obj-27-49" src="pdf-obj-27-49.jpg">

This article is part of the series:

The Tejeros Convention (also referred to as Tejeros Congress or Tejeros Assembly), held at Tejeros (now General Trias) in Cavite on 22 March 1897, was the meeting that brought together the members of both the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions of the Katipunan. This is considered as the first Presidential and Vice Presidential election in the history of the Philippines.

Contents

<a href=Provinces Barangays Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries · Atlas Politics Portal view talk edit < /div> The Tejeros Convention (also referred to as Tejeros Congress or Tejeros Assembly ), held at Tejeros (now General Trias ) in Cavite on 22 March 1897, was the meeting that brought together the members of both the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions of the Katipunan . This is considered as the first Presidential and Vice Presidential election in the history of the Philippines . Contents [ hide ]1 Purpose2 Election and conclusion3 References4 Citation [ edit ] Purpose In pursuit of forming a revolutionary government, the revolutionaries, headed by Jacinto Lumbreras , assembled themselves in a friar hacienda . Originally, the assembly was called upon to bridge the increasing gap between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions and to discuss matters concerning the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards. According to Lumbreras, a Magdiwang, the subjects were not discussed; instead, the assembly turned out to be an election of leaders for the revolution. This “call” unceremoniously discarded the Supreme Council of the Katipunan. [ edit ] Election and conclusion Reluctantly, Andres Bonifacio , the Supremo of the Katipunan , presided over the election. To quote Bonifacio : I am taking the chair in this meeting to give you fullest opportunity to voice your views and then to vote what shall be done. But one restriction do I impose upon the freedom of your deliberations. It is that whatever the majority shall decide, that all present will loyally accept and steadfastly abide by ” " id="pdf-obj-29-86" src="pdf-obj-29-86.jpg">

[edit] Purpose

In pursuit of forming a revolutionary government, the revolutionaries, headed by Jacinto Lumbreras, assembled themselves in a friar hacienda. Originally, the assembly was called upon to bridge the increasing gap between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions and to discuss matters concerning the defense of Cavite against the Spaniards. According to Lumbreras, a Magdiwang, the subjects were not discussed; instead, the assembly turned out to be an election of leaders for the revolution. This “call” unceremoniously discarded the Supreme Council of the Katipunan.

[edit] Election and conclusion

Reluctantly, Andres Bonifacio, the Supremo of the Katipunan, presided over the election. To quote Bonifacio [1] :

I am taking the chair in this meeting to give you fullest opportunity to voice your views and then to vote what shall be done. But one restriction do I impose upon the freedom of your deliberations. It is that whatever the majority shall decide, that all present will loyally accept and steadfastly abide by

The result of the election was as followed:

The result of the election was as followed: Painting depicting a scene between Tirona and BonifacioEmilio Aguinaldo Vice-President Mariano Trias Captain-General Artemio Ricarte Director of War Emiliano Riego de Dios Director of the Interior Andres Bonifacio There was no doubt that Aguinaldo, who was then busy on the military front in Pasong Santol , won in the said election. The majority of the voters were Caviteños and were on the general's side. Bonifacio, defeated as President, was elected Director of the Interior which obviously maneuvered him out of power. It must have been an insult to the Supremo to lose in the election especially since even the Magdiwang, who were supposed to be his supporters, did not vote for him for the two highest positions. Many Caviteño elite were doubtful of his qualification – Bonifacio was neither educated nor a Caviteño himself. Daniel Tirona protested that Bonifacio's position, Director of Interior, should be occupied by a person with a lawyer's diploma; thus, he proposed a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario , for the position. Bonifacio's pride was affronted ego and he walked out of the assembly, after proclaiming the result of the convention null and invalid by virtue of his authority as Supremo. This started the rivalry between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo, and the decline of the Katipunan as an organization. [ edit ] References " id="pdf-obj-30-4" src="pdf-obj-30-4.jpg">

Painting depicting a scene between Tirona and Bonifacio in the Tejeros Convention.

Position

Name

President

Vice-President

Captain-General

Director of War

Director of the Interior

There was no doubt that Aguinaldo, who was then busy on the military front in Pasong Santol, won in the said election. The majority of the voters were Caviteños and were on the general's side. Bonifacio, defeated as President, was elected Director of the Interior which obviously maneuvered him out of power. It must have been an insult to the Supremo to lose in the election especially since even the Magdiwang, who were supposed to be his supporters, did not vote for him for the two highest positions.

Many Caviteño elite were doubtful of his qualification – Bonifacio was neither educated nor a Caviteño himself. Daniel Tirona protested that Bonifacio's position, Director of Interior, should be occupied by a person with a lawyer's diploma; thus, he proposed a Caviteño lawyer, Jose del Rosario, for the position. Bonifacio's pride was affronted ego and he walked out of the assembly, after proclaiming the result of the convention null and invalid by virtue of his authority as Supremo. This started the rivalry between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo, and the decline of the Katipunan as an organization.

[edit] References

1.

Constantino, Renato A. The Philippines: A Past Revisited.Quezon City:Tala Pub. Services, 1975.

Guerrero, Amado. Philippine Society and revolution. 5th Edition. Aklat ng Bayan, 2006.

Ileto, Reynaldo C. Filipinos and their Revolution: Event, Discourse and Historiography.

Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998. Ileto, Reynaldo C. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840-

1910. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003. Kalaw, Maximo M. The Development of Philippine Politics (1872-1920).

Kalaw, Teodoro M. Ang Himagsikang Pilipino. Translated from English by Virgilio

Almario. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1989. Mabini, Apolinario. The Philippine Revolution Volume II. Translated from the original Spanish. Manila: NHI, 1969.

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