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RMO 2016: Solutions

Maharashtra and Goa Region

Problem 1

Find distinct positive integers n1 < n2 < · · · < n7 with the least possible sum,
such that their product n1 × n2 × · · · × n7 is divisible by 2016.

Solution 1

We will represent the 7 numbers n1 , n2 , · · · , n7 in that order by an ordered 7-


tuple. Consider the following 7-tuple of numbers A = (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8). We can
see that the product of the numbers in the this 7-tuple is 2016 · 4, and hence is
divisible by 2016. The sum of numbers in A is 31.

Let us consider all possible 7-tuples such that

1. All the numbers of the 7-tuple are distinct.

2. The numbers in the 7-tuple are arranged in increasing order.

3. The sum of numbers in the 7-tuple is < 31.

From the first condition, we see that all numbers are distinct, and we are given
that all the numbers are to be positive integers. Hence the least seven, distinct
positive integers we can get are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Putting them in a 7-tuple, we
see that the minimum sum obtainable is 28. Also, there is not other 7-tuple
satifying the above conditions with sum of elements 28. Similarly, we see that
the only 7-tuple satisfying the above conditions and having sum of elements 29
is (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8). Also, the only 7-tuples satisfying the above conditions are
having sum of elements 30 are (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9) and (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8). We see that
these are the only 7-tuples satisfying all three conditions mentioned above.

We can see that for each of the four 7-tuples mentioned above, 2016 does not
divide the product of all numbers in the 7-tuple. Clearly,

20166 | 5040 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7

20166 | 5760 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 8

1
20166 | 6480 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 9
20166 | 6720 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 7 × 8

Hence we see that no 7-tuple with a sum smaller than 31 and satisfying the given
conditions exists. So, the solution is (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8).

Solution 2

We claim that (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8) is the required solution; having sum 31. We check
that the product of these 7 numbers is divisible by 2016.
Now we need to show that there is no other case having lesser sum than 31, which
satisfies the given requirement.

If n7 ≥ 11; then the minimum possible sum possible is (1 + 2 + · · · + 6) + 11 = 32,


which is already greater than 31.
So we only need to consider the cases of n7 ≤ 10:

If n7 = 7; the only possibility is (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) which is not divisible by 2016,


since it lacks a factor of 2.

If n7 = 8; we need to exclude a number from 1 to 7. Since we want the sum of


numbers to be the smallest, we will try to remove the numbers from the largest
to the smallest, one at a time:
We cannot remove 7 since 2016 contains a factor of 7.
Similarly, we cannot remove 6 since 2016 contains 2 factors of 3 and removal of
6 will mean that the product is not divisible by 9.
However, we can remove 5 because it is coprime to 2016. Hence, we can remove
5 and insert 8 to get 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 as the seven numbers. We do verify that the
product is indeed divisible by 2016.

If n7 = 9, then we cannot remove 7. If we remove 6, we have to include 8, to satisfy


the required power of 2. So the minimum sum possible is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 + 9
which is more than 31.

If n7 = 10, then we cannot remove 7. If we remove 6, we have to include 9, to


satisfy the required power of 3. So the minimum sum possible is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +
7 + 9 + 10 which is more than 31.

Hence all other cases have been eliminated; so we get (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8) as the
desired solution.

2
Problem 2

At an international event, there are 100 countries participating, each with its own
distinct flag. There are 10 distinct flagpoles at the stadium, labelled #1, #2, · · · , #10
in a row. In how many ways can all the 100 flags be hoisted on these 10 flagpoles,
such that for each i from 1 to 10, the flagpole #i has at least i flags? (Note that
the vertical order of flags on each flagpole is important.)

Solution 1

Consider the following procedure to solve the problem:

1. First we decide how many flags have to be hoisted onto each flagpole.
Let us say that the number of flags on the poles #1 to #10 is given by
x1 , x2 , · · · , x10 respectively.
So we have to find the number of integer solutions for the equation:
x1 + x2 + · · · + x10 = 100; such that: x1 ≥ 1, x2 ≥ 2, etc. upto x10 ≥ 10; as
per the given conditions.
Let us define y1 = x1 − 1, y2 = x2 − 2, · · · , y10 = x10 − 10. Then the above
can be rephrased as:
y1 + y2 + · · · + y10 = 45; with the constraint that yi ≥ 0 for i = 1 to 10.
This is a well-known standard problem, it is equivalent to choosing 45 ob-
jects from 10 categories, with repetitions allowed; or equivalent to arranging
45 identical  objects and 9 identical ‘separators’ in a straight line. The same
45+9
has 9 solutions.

2. Now, we arrange all our 100 flags in a straight row. This can be done in
100! ways.
Then we distribute the flags onto the flagpoles as follows: take the left-most
x1 flags from the row, and put them on flagpole #1, starting at the top.
Then we take the next x2 flags from this row, and put them on flagpole
#2, without changing their order, starting from the top.
We continue with the above procedure: For each i from 1 to 10, we take the
next xi flags from the row and put them on flagpole #i, without changing
their order, starting from the top.

We note that for each unique solution for xi ’s in part 1, each of the 100! permu-
tations in part 2 will yield a different unique solution. Hence by Multiplication
Principle, the total number of ways is 100! · 54

9
.

3
Solution 2

Let us first choose and place flags onto the poles such that the condition of pole
#i having at least i flags is satisfied for all poles. Once again, we shall fill each
pole from top to bottom, ie, each new flag will only be placed under the lowermost
flag on each pole. Note that this procedure of filling flagpoles from the top shall
only be followed for the first part of this algorithm. We will place exactly i flags
on pole #i. For this, we first select 1 + 2 + · · · + 10 = 55 flags from the 100 and
permute them. This can be done in 100 55
· 55! ways.

For the second part, establish an order on the remaining 45 flags. Note that this
order can be arbitrary, but once fixed, has to be used for the entire process. We
will process the rest of the flags one at a time in this order. All the flags put onto
the flagpoles in this second step will always be inserted below the flags placed on
the flagpoles during the first step.

The first flag can be placed on any of the 10 poles, and hence has 10 choices. The
next flag to be placed has 11 choices, since not only can it placed on any of the
10 poles, but also has 2 choices if placed on the same pole on which the first flag
of step 2 was placed, above it, or below it. Each flag placed during the second
step increases the number of possible places where the next flag can be placed
by 1. Hence, the third flag has 12 choices, and in general, the j th flag has j + 9
choices. Multiplying all these numbers gives us that the rest of the flags can be
placed on the flagpoles in 10 × 11 × · · · × 54 ways.

Multiplying the numbers obtained in both steps, we get that the total number of
ways of arranging the flags is 100
55
· 55! · 10 × 11 × · · · × 54.

4
Problem 3

Find all integers k such that all the roots of the following polynomial are also
integers:
f (x) = x3 − (k − 3)x2 − 11x + (4k − 8)

Solution 1

Suppose that for some value of k, all the roots of f (x) are integers. We observe
that the coefficient of k in the expression of the polynomial is (−x2 + 4); meaning
that for x = 2 and x = −2, the value of the polynomial does not depend on k.
We get: f (−2) = 18 which is positive; and f (2) = −10 which is negative. So at
least one root lies between −2 and 2.

Case 1: One of the roots is −1. This implies f (−1) = 3k + 5 = 0; so k = − 53 ,


which is not an integer.

Case 2: One of the roots is 0. This implies f (0) = 4k − 8 = 0; implying k = 2.


In this case, the polynomial is: f (x) = x3 + x2 − 11x = x(x2 + x − 11). But the
quadratic expression inside the bracket does not have integer roots.

Case 3: One of the roots is 1. This implies f (1) = 3k − 15 = 0; implying k = 5.


In this case, the polynomial is f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = (x − 1)(x2 − x − 12) =
(x − 1)(x − 4)(x + 3). So the roots of the polynomial are 1, 4, −3 which are all
integers, as required.

Hence, the only solution is k = 5; giving f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 with roots
1, 4 and −3.

Solution 2

Consider the polynomial g(x) = f (x + 2)


If the roots of f (x) are p, q, r, then the roots of g(x) are p − 2, q − 2, r − 2.
Also, we note that the constant term of g(x) is equal to g(0) = f (2) = −10; and
its leading coefficient is still 1.
Hence the product of the roots of g(x) is (p − 2)(q − 2)(r − 2) = 10 ..(1)
Since p, q, r are all integers, so are (p − 2), (q − 2), (r − 2). For each possible
factorization of (1), we will only check if p, q, r satisfy the correct relationship
with the coefficient of x in f (x), or in other words, whether pq + qr + rp = −11
Accordingly, we get the following cases:

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(p − 2, q − 2, r − 2) pq + qr + rp
(1, 1, 10) 81
(1, −1, −10) −29
(−1, −1, 10) 25
(1, 2, 5) 61
(1, −2, −5) −9
(−1, 2, −5) −11
(−1, −2, 5) 7

We see that only the case of (−1, 2, −5) satisfies the requirement of pq +qr +rp =
−11. It corresponds to the values of p, q, r as −3, 1, 4, and f (x) = x3 − 2x2 −
11x + 12.
Importantly, there exists a value of k, namely k = 5, that yields this polynomial.
Thus k = 5 is the only solution.

Solution 3

Similar to solution 2; consider the polynomial h(x) = f (x − 2)


If the roots of f (x) are p, q, r, then the roots of h(x) are p + 2, q + 2, r + 2.
Also, we note that the constant term of h(x) is equal to h(0) = f (−2) = 18; and
its leading coefficient is still 1.
Hence the product of the roots of h(x) is (p + 2)(q + 2)(r + 2) = −18 ..(1)
Since p, q, r are all integers, so are (p + 2), (q + 2), (r + 2). For each possible
factorization of (1), we will only check if p, q, r satisfy the correct relationship
with the coefficient of x in f (x), or in other words, whether pq + qr + rp = −11
Accordingly, we get the following cases:

(p + 2, q + 2, r + 2) pq + qr + rp
(1, 1, −18) 41
(1, −1, 18) −61
(−1, −1, −18) 129
(1, 2, −9) 11
(1, −2, 9) −31
(−1, 2, 9) 33
(−1, −2, −9) 89
(1, 3, −6) −1
(1, −3, 6) −19
(−1, 3, 6) −11
(−1, −3, −6) 79
(2, −3, 3) −5
(−2, 3, 3) −7
(−2, −3, −3) 65

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We see that only the case of (−1, 3, 6) satisfies the requirement of pq + qr + rp =
−11.
It corresponds to the values of p, q, r as 1, 4, −3, and the polynomial f (x) =
x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12.
Importantly, there exists a value of k, namely k = 5, that yields this polynomial.
Hence k = 5 is the only solution.

Solution 4

Let p be a root of the polynomial, for some value of k. Then:


p3 − (k − 3)p2 − 11p + (4k − 8) = 0; which can be written as:
k = p + 3 + −7p+4
p2 −4
..(1)
2
This means that p − 4| − 7p + 4.
Since p − 2|p2 − 4, so we get p − 2| − 7p + 14 − 14 + 4 implying p − 2| − 10
Similarly, p + 2|p2 − 4, so we get p + 2| − 7p − 14 + 14 + 4 implying p + 2|18
This yields the following possible values of p, along with the corresponding value
of k, obtained from equation (1).
(p-2) p k
10 12 14.4285
5 7 9
2 4 5
1 3 2.6
-1 1 5
-2 0 2
-5 -3 5
-10 -8 -4

From this, we see that the only possible solution is k = 5 with roots 4, 1, −3;
since the other values of k are not yielding three integer roots.

Alternately, we can also use the fact that p+2|p2 −4, so we get p+2|−7p−14+14+4
implying p + 2|18. That results in the following cases to be checked:

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(p+2) p k
18 16 18.57
9 7 9
6 4 5
3 1 5
2 0 2
1 -1 -1.666
-1 -3 5
-2 -4 1.666
-3 -5 -0.142
-6 -8 -4
-9 -11 -7.30
-18 -20 -16.63

From this, we see that the only possible solution is k = 5 with roots 4, 1, −3;
since the other values of k are not yielding three integer roots.

Solution 5

Let p, q, r be the integer roots of the given polynomial, for some value of k
Then we know the following relations:
p+q+r =k−3 ..(1)
pq + qr + rp = −11 ..(2)
pqr = −(4k − 8) = −4(k − 2) ..(3)
From (2), (3), we see that exactly one of the three roots is divisible by 4, and the
other two are odd.
WLOG, let p = 4p1 for some p1 ∈ Z; and q, r be odd.
Eliminating k from (1),(3) we get:
4p1 + q + r + p1 qr = −1 ..(4)
Eliminating p1 from (2),(4), we get:
−(4 + qr)(11 + qr) + 4(q + r)2 = −4(q + r)
Let u = q + r and v = qr. Then the above equation becomes:
4u2 + 4u = v 2 + 15v + 44
Multiplying this equation by 4; and completing the squares on both sides; we
get: (2v + 15)2 − (4u + 2)2 = 45
Hence (2v + 15 + 4u + 2)(2v + 15 − 4u − 2) = 45
Let d1 = 2v+15+4u+2 and d2 = 2v+15−4u−2. So the above equation becomes
d1 d2 = 45. We will try all divisor pairs of 45; and in each case, determine u, v
using the following formulae, which are derived by solving from the definitions of
d1 , d2 : u = d1 −d82 −4 and v = d1 +d42 −30
Since q, r are odd, we expect v to also be odd. Also, we note that since (−u) and

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v can be seen as the coefficients of a quadratic equation whose roots are q and r;
the discriminant ∆ = u2 − 4v should be a perfect square.
We get the following cases:

d1 d2 u v ∆
1 45 -6 4 20
3 15 -2 -3 16
5 9 -1 -4 17
9 5 0 -4 16
15 3 1 -3 13
45 1 5 4 9
-1 -45 5 -19 101
-3 -15 1 -12 49
-5 -9 0 -11 44
-9 -5 -1 -11 45
-15 -3 -2 -12 52
-45 -1 -6 -19 112

We see that the highlighted case is the only one where v is odd, and ∆ is a perfect
square. This yields the roots q, r to be 1, −3.
Since 1 is a root of f , we get f (1) = 0. Solving, we get the value of k as 5; which
corresponds to f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12; having roots 4, 1, −3. This is the only
solution.

Solution 6

Let k + a, where a is an integer, be a root of f (x) = 0. Then

k 3 + 3k 2 a + 3ka2 + a3 − k 3 − 2k 2 a − ka2
+ 3k 2 + 6ka + 3a2 − 11k − 11a + 4k − 8 = 0, (1)
i.e. (a + 3)k 2 + (2a2 + 6a − 7)k + a3 + 3a2 − 11a − 8 = 0. (2)

The discriminant of the quadratic (1) in k is

∆ = (2a2 + 6a − 7)2 − 4(a + 3)(a3 + 3a2 − 11a − 8) = 16a2 + 80a + 145.

So (1) has rational roots exactly when ∆ is a square, say t2 . Now 4(4a2 + 20a) +
145 = t2 can be written as 4(2a + 5)2 + 45 = t2 or t2 − r2 = 45 with r = 4a + 10.
This leads to the following possible cases:

9
t+r t−r r a
1 45 -22 -8
3 15 -6 -4
5 9 -2 -3
9 5 2 -2
15 3 6 -1
45 1 22 3

Note that we have not checked the negative product pairs; because they will
lead to the same values of r which are already covered in the above table. (For
example, (t + r, t − r) = (−1, −45) gives r = 22).
In each case, we have computed a = r−10 4
. We now substitute each possible value
of a in equation (2); and check if the resulting quadratic in the variable k has an
integer root; as well as the corresponding polynomial f (x) has all integer roots.
For example:
(i) For a = −1, (1) is 2k 2 − 11k + 5 = 0 so that k = 5, 1/2. For k = 5, f (x) = 0
is x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = 0 with one root k + a = 4. The other roots are 1, −3.

(ii) For a = −2, (1) is k 2 − 11k + 118 = 0 so that k = 9, 2. For k = 9, f (x)


√ = 0 is
3 2
x −6x −11x+28 = 0 with one root k +a = 7. The other roots are (−1± 17)/2.
= 0 is x3 + 2x2 − 11x = 0 with one root k + a = 0. The other
For k = 2, f (x) √
roots are (−1 ± 45)/2.

(iii) For a = −4, (1) is −k 2 + k + 20 = 0 so that k = 5, −4. For k = −4, f (x) = 0


is x3 √+ 7x2 − 11x − 24 = 0 with one root k + a = −8. The other roots are
(1 ± 12)/2.

(iv) For a = −3, (1) is −7k + 25 = 0 so that k = 25/7.

Checking all the cases in this way; we find that a = −1 and k = 5 is the case for
which all roots of f (x) = 0 are integers.

10
Problem 4

Let 4ABC be scalene, with BC as the largest side. Let D be the foot of the
altitude from A onto side BC. Let points K and L be chosen on the lines AB,
AC respectively, such that D is the midpoint of segment KL. Prove that the
points B, K, C, L are concyclic if and only if ∠BAC = 90°.

We note that the segments BC and KL cannot coincide, because the same would
imply that AD is a perpendicular bisector of seg BC, and that ∆ABC is isosceles,
contradicting the given information that the triangle is scalene.
So without loss of generality, let A − B − K and A − L − C.
We will separately prove the two parts of this problem:

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Part 1: If m∠BAC = 90◦ , then B, K, C, L are concyclic
Proof:

In 4AKL, D is the midpoint of hypotenuse KL; so D is in fact the circumcenter


of ∆AKL.
Hence ∆ADK is isosceles; so we get:
m∠LKB = m∠DKA = ∠DAK = m∠DAB
= 90◦ − m∠ABD = 90◦ − m∠ABC = m∠ACB = m∠LCB.
Therefore m∠LKB = m∠LCB; implying that the points B, K, L, C are con-
cyclic.

Part 2: If B, K, C, L are concyclic, then m∠BAC = 90◦


Solution 1: Angle-chasing for the circumcenter
Let m∠ALK = x. Then m∠KBC = m∠KLC = (180◦ − x).
So m∠ABD = 180◦ − m∠KBC = x.
Hence m∠DAK = m∠DAB = 90◦ − m∠ABD = 90◦ − x. · · · (1)

Now, let O be the circumcenter of ∆AKL.


Then in ∆OAK, the central angle is m∠AOK = 2(m∠ALK) = 2x; and m∠OAK =
90◦ − x · · · (2)

From (1) and (2), we see that ∠DAK = ∠OAK; meaning that O lies on line
AD.
Also, O lies on the perpendicular bisector of seg KL which passes through D.
Hence O and D coincide; meaning that seg KL is in fact a diameter of the
circumcircle of ∆AKL.
Hence ∠KAL is inscribed in a semicircle, and equals 90◦ , as required.

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Solution 2: Reflection in BC

Let E be the reflection of point A in side BC.


D is the midpoint of segments AE as well as KL; so AKEL is a parallelogram.
So by using the concyclic points B, K, C, L as well as the above reflection, we
get:
∠EKD = ∠EKL = ∠KLA = ∠CBA = ∠EBD
Hence B, K, E, D are concyclic; implying that ∠EKB = ∠EDB = 90◦
Hence AKEL is in fact, a rectangle; implying that ∠BAC = 90◦ , as required.

Solution 3: Reflection in the angle bisector of A

Let points K 0 , D0 , L0 be the images of K, D, L respectively, under reflection in the


internal angle bisector of angle A.
So ∆AL0 K 0 ∼ ∆ALK; and from the angles due to given concyclic points, we

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know that ∆ABC ∼ ∆ALK.
Hence we get ∆AL0 K 0 ∼ ∆ABC; and L0 K 0 ||BC.
Now, since AD is the median in ∆ALK; its reflection AD0 is the median of tri-
angle AL0 K 0 ; and the same line extended to point F will be the median of ∆ABC
as well, as shown in the diagram.
Also, since AD is the altitude in ∆ABC, it is a standard property that its reflec-
tion AD0 passes through the circumcenter of ∆ABC. Since the same circumcenter
also lies on the perpendicular bisector of side BC, which passes through F ; so
the circumcenter must be at point F itself.
Hence BC is a diameter of the circumcircle, so ∠A is right angled.

Solution 4: Inversion with center A


Let E be a point on ray AD such that AD × AE = AB × AK (which is the same
as AC × AL, due to the given concyclicity).
Effectively,
√ E is the image of point D under an inversion with center A and radius
AB × AK.
Due to the above power expression, the points B, K, E, D are concyclic; similarly,
points C, L, D, E are also concyclic.
Hence ∠EKB = ∠EDB = 90◦ .
Similarly ∠ELC = ∠EDC = 90◦ .
Therefore A, K, E, L lie on the same circle, with AE as a diameter. So the center
of this circle lies on AE, which passes through D.
In addition, we note that the same center also lies on the perpendicular bisector
of seg KL, which also passes through D.
Hence, the center is located at D itself; implying that KL is a diameter of this
circle.
Therefore ∠KAL = 90◦ , as required.

Solution 5: Using the symmedian ratio


Due to the same reflection as in Solution 4, we see that AD is a symmedian of
ABC.
2
Hence BD
DC
= cb2 ; which is a standard property of symmedians.
2 2
This is equivalent to: BD − DC = c b−b 2 × DC ...(1)
Also, using Pythagoras theorem in triangles ABD and ACD, we get: c −BD2 =
2

b2 − DC 2 .
This is equivalent to: c2 − b2 = (BD − DC)(BD + DC) = a(BD − DC) ...(2)
Using (1),(2); and also using the fact that c 6= b, we get: b2 = aCD.
Or in other words, CD CA
CA
= CB ; which by the S-A-S test of similarity, implies
∆CDA ∼ ∆CAB.
Hence ∠CAB = ∠CDA = 90◦ ; as required.

14
Solution 6: Using Power of D
Let H be the circumcenter of ∆ABC. Then we know that DH ×DA = DB×DC.
By the given concyclicity, we also know that DB × DC = DK × DL = DK 2
Hence we get DK 2 = DH × DA; which by S-A-S test implies that ∆KDA ∼
∆HDK.
Hence we get ∠KHD = ∠AKD = C. However, we know from our standard
configuration that ∠BHD = C.
So this implies ∠KHD = ∠BHD, which forces the lines BH and KH to coincide.
Or in other words, H lies on line KB
Hence H lies at A, so the triangle is right-angled at vertex A, as required.

Solution 7: Using sine rule


Firstly, ∠ALD = B and ∠AKD = C, due to the given concyclic property.
Also, ∠KAD = 90◦ − B and ∠LAD = 90◦ − C.
So applying sine rule in ∆AKD and ∆ADL; we get:
KD sin KAD
AD
= sin AKD
= cos B
sin C
; and
LD sin LAD cos C
AD
= sin ALD = sin B .
Using KD = LD; we combine the above to get:
cos B sin B = cos C sin C
Hence
sin(2B) = sin(2C)
The above equation implies either 2B = 2C or 2B + 2C = 180◦ .
However, since the triangle is scalene; we know that B 6= C; which forces 2B +
2C = 180◦ .
Hence B + C = 90◦ ; implying that the triangle is right angled; as required.

Solution 8: Using Cotangent rule on ∆AKL


Applying cotangent rule in ∆AKL, we get:
KD cot KAD = DL cot DAL = (KD + DL) cot ADL
Using the fact that KD = DL as well as ∠KAD = 90◦ − B; ∠DAL = 90◦ − C;
and ∠ADL = 90◦ − B + C, we can simplify the above equation as:
tan B−tan C
tan B − tan C = 2 tan(B − C) = 2 1+tan B tan C
Since B 6= C; tan B − tan C is non-zero and can be cancelled from both sides.
After simplification, we get: tan B tan C = 1; implying that B and C are com-
plementary angles.
Hence B + C = 90◦ ; and A = 90◦ ; as required.

15
Q5

Let x, y, z be non-negative real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that:


(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ 27

Solution 1

We see that the since each of the numbers is non-negative and their product is
1, none of x, y, z can be 0. Hence we get that the numbers x, y, z are strictly
positive. Splitting the term 2y as y + y and applying the AM-GM inequality to
each bracket, we get p
x3 + y + y ≥ 3 3 x3 y 2
p
y3 + z + z ≥ 3 3 y3z2

3
z 3 + x + x ≥ 3 z 3 x2
Multiplying the above inequalities together, and using the fact that xyz = 1, we
get that p
(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ 27 3 x5 y 5 z 5 = 27

Solution 2

Expanding the left hand side, we get the expression


x3 y 3 z 3 + 2x4 y 3 + 2y 4 z 3 + 2z 4 x3 + 4xy 4 + 4yz 4 + 4zx4 + 8xyz = A
Considering each term separately, and applying the AM-GM inequality for 27
terms, and using that xyz = 1, we get that
p
A ≥ 27 27 x45 y 45 z 45 = 27

Solution 3

We have the generalisation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for non-negative real


numbers
(a31 + a32 )(b31 + b32 )(c31 + c32 ) ≥ (a1 b1 c1 + a2 b2 c2 )3 , ai , bi , ci ∈ R+ ∪ {0}, i ∈ N2
Applying the above inequality, and using the fact that xyz = 1, we get that

(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ (xyz + 2 3 xyz)3 = 27

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Q6

ABC is an equilateral triangle with side length 11 units. As shown in the figure,
points P1 , P2 , · · · , P10 are taken on side BC in that order; dividing the side into
11 segments of unit distance each. Similarly, points Q1 to Q10 are taken on side
CA, and points R1 to R10 are taken on side AB. Find the number of triangles
Pi Qj Rk such that their centroid coincides with the centroid of ∆ABC. (Each of
the indices i, j, k is chosen from {1, 2, · · · , 10}, and need not be distinct.)

Solution 1:

Let us setup a coordinate system in the plane, with B as the origin, and BC as
the positive X-axis. Hence the coordinates
√ of the vertices are:
11 11 3
B ≡ (0, 0); C ≡ (11, 0); A ≡ ( 2 , 2 ); and the centroid of ∆ABC is at G ≡
( 11 , 11
√ ).
2 2 3

Let Pi , Qj , Rk be some points chosen on the sides of the triangle. By applying


section formulae, or by using the 30-60-90 triangles as shown in the above dia-
gram, we obtain the coordinates

of these points √along with their centroid G0 as:
Pi ≡ (i, 0); Qj ≡ (11− 2j , j 2 3 ); Rk ≡ ( 11−k
2
, (11−k)
2
3
); and G0 ≡ ( 11
2
+ 2i−j−k
6
, 211
√ +
3
j−k
√ ).
2 3
Comparing the coordinates of G and G0 , we see that they will coincide if and
only if 2i − j − k = 0 and j − k = 0; which is true if and only if i = j = k.

Hence we have exactly 10 triangles, namely:


∆P1 Q1 R1 , ∆P2 Q2 R2 , · · · , ∆P10 Q10 R10 , which satisfy the given condition.

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Solution 2: Let P, Q, R be any points on seg BC, CA and AB respectively. We
claim that the centroid of ∆P QR is the same as the centroid of ∆ABC if and
only if BP = CQ = AR.

For the first part, let us assume that ∆ABC and ∆P QR have a common centroid
G.

Construction: Let D and S be the midpoints of seg BC and QR respectively.


Extend AS to meet seg BC at point T .
Now, G divides the medians AD and P S in the ratio 2 : 1. Hence ∆DGS is
similar to ∆AGP , and half its size. Therefore seg DS is parallel to and half the
length of seg AP .
Hence, ∆T DS is similar to ∆T P A and half its size; so T S = 12 T A.
In other words, S is the midpoint of seg AT . But S is also the midpoint of QR.
So this means ART Q is a parallelogram; hence AR = T Q · · · (1)
Also, AR||T Q implies ∠CT Q = ∠CBA = ∠CAB = ∠T CQ.
So ∆T QC is isosceles, and T Q = CQ · · · (2)
From (1) and (2), we get AR = CQ. By symmetry, we can prove that BP =
CQ = AR, as required.

Conversely, let us assume that BP = CQ = AR; and let G be the centroid of


∆P QR. We need to show that G is the centroid of ∆ABC.

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Since ABC is equilateral, we also get CP = AQ = BR.
By SAS test, we see that triangles AQR, BRP and CP Q are congruent; so QR =
RP = P Q; meaning ∆P QR is equilateral.
So G is not only the centroid but also circumcenter of P QR; so ∠QGR = 120◦ =
180◦ − ∠QAR.
Hence ARGQ is cyclic; with QG and GR being chords of equal length.
So their inscribed angles, namely ∠QAG and ∠GAR are equal; implying AG
that is an internal angle bisector for ∆ABC, which is the same as a median, for
an equilateral triangle.
By symmetry, BG and CG are also medians; implying that G is the centroid of
∆ABC, as required.

So, in our given problem, if ∆Pi Qj Rk has the same centroid as ∆ABC, then this
is equivalent to BPi = CQj = ARk ; which is equivalent to i = j = k.
Hence we have exactly 10 such triangles, namely:
∆P1 Q1 R1 , ∆P2 Q2 R2 , · · · , ∆P10 Q10 R10 .

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Solution 3: Using vectors
Let the centroid G of ∆ABC be taken as the origin; and let GA be the direction
of the positive Y-axis.
Let a, b, c be the complex coordinates of points A, B, C respectively.
Using section formula, we can write the complex coordinates of Pi , Qj , Rk as
follows: pi = ic+(11−i)b
11
qj = ja+(11−j)c
11
kb+(11−k)a
rk = 11
Hence, the coordinate of the centroid G0 of ∆Pi Qj Rk is given by:
p +q +r
g 0 = i 3j k
Equating this to the coordinate of G which is zero, we get the necessary and
sufficient condition for them to coincide as:
(i − j)c + (j − k)a + (k − i)b = 0
If possible, let i, j, k not be equal; say k is the largest of them. This means that
the complex numbers (j − k)a and (k − i)b, if non-zero, have an argument of 270◦
and 210◦ respectively (as measured in the usual way, counter-clockwise relative
to the positive X-axis)
The third term (i − j)c if non-zero, would have an argument of 150◦ or 330◦ ,
depending on the relative magnitudes between i and j. In either case, this means
that all the three terms are in the half-plane of all complex numbers with an
argument of 150 to 330 degrees (or in other words, treating them as vectors, this
is the set {z : z · b ≥ 0}).
So the only way that they would add up to zero, is if all three terms were zero,
thus forcing i = j = k, as required.

Solution 4: Using moments of inertia around centroid


Let P, Q, R be points on the sides BC, CA, AB respectively; such that ∆P QR
and ∆ABC coincide.
Let a denote the length of side BC. Also, let BP, CQ, AR, P C, QA, RB be
denoted by the variables i, j, k, u, v, w respectively.
We want to show that i = j = k.

Writing the well-known formula for the distances of A, B, C from the centroid G
of ∆P QR, we get:
AP 2 + AQ2 + AR2 = 3AG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2
BP 2 + BQ2 + BR2 = 3BG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2
CP 2 + CQ2 + CR2 = 3CG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2
We note that G is also the centroid of equilateral ∆ABC, so AG = BG = CG;
thus all the RHS of the above three equations are identical.
Consider just the first two of those equations; equating their LHS and using the
previously defined notation, we get:
k 2 + v 2 + AP 2 = i2 + w2 + BQ2 ..(1)

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To determine AP 2 we apply cosine rule in ∆ABP , where B = 60◦ , to get:
AP 2 = a2 + i2 − ai.
Similarly obtaining BP 2 from ∆BCQ and substituting in (1), we get:
w2 − k 2 + j 2 − v 2 = aj − ai; which after simplification becomes i + w = k + v,
Since w = 11 − k, and v = 11 − j, the above equation simplifies to i + j = 2k.

Repeating similar steps for other sides, we will get j + k = 2i


Eliminating j from the above two equations, we get i = k. By a similar method
for the other terms, we will get i = j = k, as required.

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