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Problem 1

Find distinct positive integers n1 < n2 < · · · < n7 with the least possible sum,

such that their product n1 × n2 × · · · × n7 is divisible by 2016.

Solution 1

tuple. Consider the following 7-tuple of numbers A = (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8). We can

see that the product of the numbers in the this 7-tuple is 2016 · 4, and hence is

divisible by 2016. The sum of numbers in A is 31.

From the first condition, we see that all numbers are distinct, and we are given

that all the numbers are to be positive integers. Hence the least seven, distinct

positive integers we can get are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Putting them in a 7-tuple, we

see that the minimum sum obtainable is 28. Also, there is not other 7-tuple

satifying the above conditions with sum of elements 28. Similarly, we see that

the only 7-tuple satisfying the above conditions and having sum of elements 29

is (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8). Also, the only 7-tuples satisfying the above conditions are

having sum of elements 30 are (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9) and (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8). We see that

these are the only 7-tuples satisfying all three conditions mentioned above.

We can see that for each of the four 7-tuples mentioned above, 2016 does not

divide the product of all numbers in the 7-tuple. Clearly,

20166 | 5040 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7

20166 | 5760 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 8

1

20166 | 6480 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 9

20166 | 6720 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 7 × 8

Hence we see that no 7-tuple with a sum smaller than 31 and satisfying the given

conditions exists. So, the solution is (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8).

Solution 2

We claim that (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8) is the required solution; having sum 31. We check

that the product of these 7 numbers is divisible by 2016.

Now we need to show that there is no other case having lesser sum than 31, which

satisfies the given requirement.

which is already greater than 31.

So we only need to consider the cases of n7 ≤ 10:

since it lacks a factor of 2.

numbers to be the smallest, we will try to remove the numbers from the largest

to the smallest, one at a time:

We cannot remove 7 since 2016 contains a factor of 7.

Similarly, we cannot remove 6 since 2016 contains 2 factors of 3 and removal of

6 will mean that the product is not divisible by 9.

However, we can remove 5 because it is coprime to 2016. Hence, we can remove

5 and insert 8 to get 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 as the seven numbers. We do verify that the

product is indeed divisible by 2016.

the required power of 2. So the minimum sum possible is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 + 9

which is more than 31.

satisfy the required power of 3. So the minimum sum possible is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +

7 + 9 + 10 which is more than 31.

Hence all other cases have been eliminated; so we get (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8) as the

desired solution.

2

Problem 2

At an international event, there are 100 countries participating, each with its own

distinct flag. There are 10 distinct flagpoles at the stadium, labelled #1, #2, · · · , #10

in a row. In how many ways can all the 100 flags be hoisted on these 10 flagpoles,

such that for each i from 1 to 10, the flagpole #i has at least i flags? (Note that

the vertical order of flags on each flagpole is important.)

Solution 1

1. First we decide how many flags have to be hoisted onto each flagpole.

Let us say that the number of flags on the poles #1 to #10 is given by

x1 , x2 , · · · , x10 respectively.

So we have to find the number of integer solutions for the equation:

x1 + x2 + · · · + x10 = 100; such that: x1 ≥ 1, x2 ≥ 2, etc. upto x10 ≥ 10; as

per the given conditions.

Let us define y1 = x1 − 1, y2 = x2 − 2, · · · , y10 = x10 − 10. Then the above

can be rephrased as:

y1 + y2 + · · · + y10 = 45; with the constraint that yi ≥ 0 for i = 1 to 10.

This is a well-known standard problem, it is equivalent to choosing 45 ob-

jects from 10 categories, with repetitions allowed; or equivalent to arranging

45 identical objects and 9 identical ‘separators’ in a straight line. The same

45+9

has 9 solutions.

2. Now, we arrange all our 100 flags in a straight row. This can be done in

100! ways.

Then we distribute the flags onto the flagpoles as follows: take the left-most

x1 flags from the row, and put them on flagpole #1, starting at the top.

Then we take the next x2 flags from this row, and put them on flagpole

#2, without changing their order, starting from the top.

We continue with the above procedure: For each i from 1 to 10, we take the

next xi flags from the row and put them on flagpole #i, without changing

their order, starting from the top.

We note that for each unique solution for xi ’s in part 1, each of the 100! permu-

tations in part 2 will yield a different unique solution. Hence by Multiplication

Principle, the total number of ways is 100! · 54

9

.

3

Solution 2

Let us first choose and place flags onto the poles such that the condition of pole

#i having at least i flags is satisfied for all poles. Once again, we shall fill each

pole from top to bottom, ie, each new flag will only be placed under the lowermost

flag on each pole. Note that this procedure of filling flagpoles from the top shall

only be followed for the first part of this algorithm. We will place exactly i flags

on pole #i. For this, we first select 1 + 2 + · · · + 10 = 55 flags from the 100 and

permute them. This can be done in 100 55

· 55! ways.

For the second part, establish an order on the remaining 45 flags. Note that this

order can be arbitrary, but once fixed, has to be used for the entire process. We

will process the rest of the flags one at a time in this order. All the flags put onto

the flagpoles in this second step will always be inserted below the flags placed on

the flagpoles during the first step.

The first flag can be placed on any of the 10 poles, and hence has 10 choices. The

next flag to be placed has 11 choices, since not only can it placed on any of the

10 poles, but also has 2 choices if placed on the same pole on which the first flag

of step 2 was placed, above it, or below it. Each flag placed during the second

step increases the number of possible places where the next flag can be placed

by 1. Hence, the third flag has 12 choices, and in general, the j th flag has j + 9

choices. Multiplying all these numbers gives us that the rest of the flags can be

placed on the flagpoles in 10 × 11 × · · · × 54 ways.

Multiplying the numbers obtained in both steps, we get that the total number of

ways of arranging the flags is 100

55

· 55! · 10 × 11 × · · · × 54.

4

Problem 3

Find all integers k such that all the roots of the following polynomial are also

integers:

f (x) = x3 − (k − 3)x2 − 11x + (4k − 8)

Solution 1

Suppose that for some value of k, all the roots of f (x) are integers. We observe

that the coefficient of k in the expression of the polynomial is (−x2 + 4); meaning

that for x = 2 and x = −2, the value of the polynomial does not depend on k.

We get: f (−2) = 18 which is positive; and f (2) = −10 which is negative. So at

least one root lies between −2 and 2.

which is not an integer.

In this case, the polynomial is: f (x) = x3 + x2 − 11x = x(x2 + x − 11). But the

quadratic expression inside the bracket does not have integer roots.

In this case, the polynomial is f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = (x − 1)(x2 − x − 12) =

(x − 1)(x − 4)(x + 3). So the roots of the polynomial are 1, 4, −3 which are all

integers, as required.

Hence, the only solution is k = 5; giving f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 with roots

1, 4 and −3.

Solution 2

If the roots of f (x) are p, q, r, then the roots of g(x) are p − 2, q − 2, r − 2.

Also, we note that the constant term of g(x) is equal to g(0) = f (2) = −10; and

its leading coefficient is still 1.

Hence the product of the roots of g(x) is (p − 2)(q − 2)(r − 2) = 10 ..(1)

Since p, q, r are all integers, so are (p − 2), (q − 2), (r − 2). For each possible

factorization of (1), we will only check if p, q, r satisfy the correct relationship

with the coefficient of x in f (x), or in other words, whether pq + qr + rp = −11

Accordingly, we get the following cases:

5

(p − 2, q − 2, r − 2) pq + qr + rp

(1, 1, 10) 81

(1, −1, −10) −29

(−1, −1, 10) 25

(1, 2, 5) 61

(1, −2, −5) −9

(−1, 2, −5) −11

(−1, −2, 5) 7

We see that only the case of (−1, 2, −5) satisfies the requirement of pq +qr +rp =

−11. It corresponds to the values of p, q, r as −3, 1, 4, and f (x) = x3 − 2x2 −

11x + 12.

Importantly, there exists a value of k, namely k = 5, that yields this polynomial.

Thus k = 5 is the only solution.

Solution 3

If the roots of f (x) are p, q, r, then the roots of h(x) are p + 2, q + 2, r + 2.

Also, we note that the constant term of h(x) is equal to h(0) = f (−2) = 18; and

its leading coefficient is still 1.

Hence the product of the roots of h(x) is (p + 2)(q + 2)(r + 2) = −18 ..(1)

Since p, q, r are all integers, so are (p + 2), (q + 2), (r + 2). For each possible

factorization of (1), we will only check if p, q, r satisfy the correct relationship

with the coefficient of x in f (x), or in other words, whether pq + qr + rp = −11

Accordingly, we get the following cases:

(p + 2, q + 2, r + 2) pq + qr + rp

(1, 1, −18) 41

(1, −1, 18) −61

(−1, −1, −18) 129

(1, 2, −9) 11

(1, −2, 9) −31

(−1, 2, 9) 33

(−1, −2, −9) 89

(1, 3, −6) −1

(1, −3, 6) −19

(−1, 3, 6) −11

(−1, −3, −6) 79

(2, −3, 3) −5

(−2, 3, 3) −7

(−2, −3, −3) 65

6

We see that only the case of (−1, 3, 6) satisfies the requirement of pq + qr + rp =

−11.

It corresponds to the values of p, q, r as 1, 4, −3, and the polynomial f (x) =

x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12.

Importantly, there exists a value of k, namely k = 5, that yields this polynomial.

Hence k = 5 is the only solution.

Solution 4

p3 − (k − 3)p2 − 11p + (4k − 8) = 0; which can be written as:

k = p + 3 + −7p+4

p2 −4

..(1)

2

This means that p − 4| − 7p + 4.

Since p − 2|p2 − 4, so we get p − 2| − 7p + 14 − 14 + 4 implying p − 2| − 10

Similarly, p + 2|p2 − 4, so we get p + 2| − 7p − 14 + 14 + 4 implying p + 2|18

This yields the following possible values of p, along with the corresponding value

of k, obtained from equation (1).

(p-2) p k

10 12 14.4285

5 7 9

2 4 5

1 3 2.6

-1 1 5

-2 0 2

-5 -3 5

-10 -8 -4

From this, we see that the only possible solution is k = 5 with roots 4, 1, −3;

since the other values of k are not yielding three integer roots.

Alternately, we can also use the fact that p+2|p2 −4, so we get p+2|−7p−14+14+4

implying p + 2|18. That results in the following cases to be checked:

7

(p+2) p k

18 16 18.57

9 7 9

6 4 5

3 1 5

2 0 2

1 -1 -1.666

-1 -3 5

-2 -4 1.666

-3 -5 -0.142

-6 -8 -4

-9 -11 -7.30

-18 -20 -16.63

From this, we see that the only possible solution is k = 5 with roots 4, 1, −3;

since the other values of k are not yielding three integer roots.

Solution 5

Let p, q, r be the integer roots of the given polynomial, for some value of k

Then we know the following relations:

p+q+r =k−3 ..(1)

pq + qr + rp = −11 ..(2)

pqr = −(4k − 8) = −4(k − 2) ..(3)

From (2), (3), we see that exactly one of the three roots is divisible by 4, and the

other two are odd.

WLOG, let p = 4p1 for some p1 ∈ Z; and q, r be odd.

Eliminating k from (1),(3) we get:

4p1 + q + r + p1 qr = −1 ..(4)

Eliminating p1 from (2),(4), we get:

−(4 + qr)(11 + qr) + 4(q + r)2 = −4(q + r)

Let u = q + r and v = qr. Then the above equation becomes:

4u2 + 4u = v 2 + 15v + 44

Multiplying this equation by 4; and completing the squares on both sides; we

get: (2v + 15)2 − (4u + 2)2 = 45

Hence (2v + 15 + 4u + 2)(2v + 15 − 4u − 2) = 45

Let d1 = 2v+15+4u+2 and d2 = 2v+15−4u−2. So the above equation becomes

d1 d2 = 45. We will try all divisor pairs of 45; and in each case, determine u, v

using the following formulae, which are derived by solving from the definitions of

d1 , d2 : u = d1 −d82 −4 and v = d1 +d42 −30

Since q, r are odd, we expect v to also be odd. Also, we note that since (−u) and

8

v can be seen as the coefficients of a quadratic equation whose roots are q and r;

the discriminant ∆ = u2 − 4v should be a perfect square.

We get the following cases:

d1 d2 u v ∆

1 45 -6 4 20

3 15 -2 -3 16

5 9 -1 -4 17

9 5 0 -4 16

15 3 1 -3 13

45 1 5 4 9

-1 -45 5 -19 101

-3 -15 1 -12 49

-5 -9 0 -11 44

-9 -5 -1 -11 45

-15 -3 -2 -12 52

-45 -1 -6 -19 112

We see that the highlighted case is the only one where v is odd, and ∆ is a perfect

square. This yields the roots q, r to be 1, −3.

Since 1 is a root of f , we get f (1) = 0. Solving, we get the value of k as 5; which

corresponds to f (x) = x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12; having roots 4, 1, −3. This is the only

solution.

Solution 6

k 3 + 3k 2 a + 3ka2 + a3 − k 3 − 2k 2 a − ka2

+ 3k 2 + 6ka + 3a2 − 11k − 11a + 4k − 8 = 0, (1)

i.e. (a + 3)k 2 + (2a2 + 6a − 7)k + a3 + 3a2 − 11a − 8 = 0. (2)

So (1) has rational roots exactly when ∆ is a square, say t2 . Now 4(4a2 + 20a) +

145 = t2 can be written as 4(2a + 5)2 + 45 = t2 or t2 − r2 = 45 with r = 4a + 10.

This leads to the following possible cases:

9

t+r t−r r a

1 45 -22 -8

3 15 -6 -4

5 9 -2 -3

9 5 2 -2

15 3 6 -1

45 1 22 3

Note that we have not checked the negative product pairs; because they will

lead to the same values of r which are already covered in the above table. (For

example, (t + r, t − r) = (−1, −45) gives r = 22).

In each case, we have computed a = r−10 4

. We now substitute each possible value

of a in equation (2); and check if the resulting quadratic in the variable k has an

integer root; as well as the corresponding polynomial f (x) has all integer roots.

For example:

(i) For a = −1, (1) is 2k 2 − 11k + 5 = 0 so that k = 5, 1/2. For k = 5, f (x) = 0

is x3 − 2x2 − 11x + 12 = 0 with one root k + a = 4. The other roots are 1, −3.

√ = 0 is

3 2

x −6x −11x+28 = 0 with one root k +a = 7. The other roots are (−1± 17)/2.

= 0 is x3 + 2x2 − 11x = 0 with one root k + a = 0. The other

For k = 2, f (x) √

roots are (−1 ± 45)/2.

is x3 √+ 7x2 − 11x − 24 = 0 with one root k + a = −8. The other roots are

(1 ± 12)/2.

Checking all the cases in this way; we find that a = −1 and k = 5 is the case for

which all roots of f (x) = 0 are integers.

10

Problem 4

Let 4ABC be scalene, with BC as the largest side. Let D be the foot of the

altitude from A onto side BC. Let points K and L be chosen on the lines AB,

AC respectively, such that D is the midpoint of segment KL. Prove that the

points B, K, C, L are concyclic if and only if ∠BAC = 90°.

We note that the segments BC and KL cannot coincide, because the same would

imply that AD is a perpendicular bisector of seg BC, and that ∆ABC is isosceles,

contradicting the given information that the triangle is scalene.

So without loss of generality, let A − B − K and A − L − C.

We will separately prove the two parts of this problem:

11

Part 1: If m∠BAC = 90◦ , then B, K, C, L are concyclic

Proof:

of ∆AKL.

Hence ∆ADK is isosceles; so we get:

m∠LKB = m∠DKA = ∠DAK = m∠DAB

= 90◦ − m∠ABD = 90◦ − m∠ABC = m∠ACB = m∠LCB.

Therefore m∠LKB = m∠LCB; implying that the points B, K, L, C are con-

cyclic.

Solution 1: Angle-chasing for the circumcenter

Let m∠ALK = x. Then m∠KBC = m∠KLC = (180◦ − x).

So m∠ABD = 180◦ − m∠KBC = x.

Hence m∠DAK = m∠DAB = 90◦ − m∠ABD = 90◦ − x. · · · (1)

Then in ∆OAK, the central angle is m∠AOK = 2(m∠ALK) = 2x; and m∠OAK =

90◦ − x · · · (2)

From (1) and (2), we see that ∠DAK = ∠OAK; meaning that O lies on line

AD.

Also, O lies on the perpendicular bisector of seg KL which passes through D.

Hence O and D coincide; meaning that seg KL is in fact a diameter of the

circumcircle of ∆AKL.

Hence ∠KAL is inscribed in a semicircle, and equals 90◦ , as required.

12

Solution 2: Reflection in BC

D is the midpoint of segments AE as well as KL; so AKEL is a parallelogram.

So by using the concyclic points B, K, C, L as well as the above reflection, we

get:

∠EKD = ∠EKL = ∠KLA = ∠CBA = ∠EBD

Hence B, K, E, D are concyclic; implying that ∠EKB = ∠EDB = 90◦

Hence AKEL is in fact, a rectangle; implying that ∠BAC = 90◦ , as required.

internal angle bisector of angle A.

So ∆AL0 K 0 ∼ ∆ALK; and from the angles due to given concyclic points, we

13

know that ∆ABC ∼ ∆ALK.

Hence we get ∆AL0 K 0 ∼ ∆ABC; and L0 K 0 ||BC.

Now, since AD is the median in ∆ALK; its reflection AD0 is the median of tri-

angle AL0 K 0 ; and the same line extended to point F will be the median of ∆ABC

as well, as shown in the diagram.

Also, since AD is the altitude in ∆ABC, it is a standard property that its reflec-

tion AD0 passes through the circumcenter of ∆ABC. Since the same circumcenter

also lies on the perpendicular bisector of side BC, which passes through F ; so

the circumcenter must be at point F itself.

Hence BC is a diameter of the circumcircle, so ∠A is right angled.

Let E be a point on ray AD such that AD × AE = AB × AK (which is the same

as AC × AL, due to the given concyclicity).

Effectively,

√ E is the image of point D under an inversion with center A and radius

AB × AK.

Due to the above power expression, the points B, K, E, D are concyclic; similarly,

points C, L, D, E are also concyclic.

Hence ∠EKB = ∠EDB = 90◦ .

Similarly ∠ELC = ∠EDC = 90◦ .

Therefore A, K, E, L lie on the same circle, with AE as a diameter. So the center

of this circle lies on AE, which passes through D.

In addition, we note that the same center also lies on the perpendicular bisector

of seg KL, which also passes through D.

Hence, the center is located at D itself; implying that KL is a diameter of this

circle.

Therefore ∠KAL = 90◦ , as required.

Due to the same reflection as in Solution 4, we see that AD is a symmedian of

ABC.

2

Hence BD

DC

= cb2 ; which is a standard property of symmedians.

2 2

This is equivalent to: BD − DC = c b−b 2 × DC ...(1)

Also, using Pythagoras theorem in triangles ABD and ACD, we get: c −BD2 =

2

b2 − DC 2 .

This is equivalent to: c2 − b2 = (BD − DC)(BD + DC) = a(BD − DC) ...(2)

Using (1),(2); and also using the fact that c 6= b, we get: b2 = aCD.

Or in other words, CD CA

CA

= CB ; which by the S-A-S test of similarity, implies

∆CDA ∼ ∆CAB.

Hence ∠CAB = ∠CDA = 90◦ ; as required.

14

Solution 6: Using Power of D

Let H be the circumcenter of ∆ABC. Then we know that DH ×DA = DB×DC.

By the given concyclicity, we also know that DB × DC = DK × DL = DK 2

Hence we get DK 2 = DH × DA; which by S-A-S test implies that ∆KDA ∼

∆HDK.

Hence we get ∠KHD = ∠AKD = C. However, we know from our standard

configuration that ∠BHD = C.

So this implies ∠KHD = ∠BHD, which forces the lines BH and KH to coincide.

Or in other words, H lies on line KB

Hence H lies at A, so the triangle is right-angled at vertex A, as required.

Firstly, ∠ALD = B and ∠AKD = C, due to the given concyclic property.

Also, ∠KAD = 90◦ − B and ∠LAD = 90◦ − C.

So applying sine rule in ∆AKD and ∆ADL; we get:

KD sin KAD

AD

= sin AKD

= cos B

sin C

; and

LD sin LAD cos C

AD

= sin ALD = sin B .

Using KD = LD; we combine the above to get:

cos B sin B = cos C sin C

Hence

sin(2B) = sin(2C)

The above equation implies either 2B = 2C or 2B + 2C = 180◦ .

However, since the triangle is scalene; we know that B 6= C; which forces 2B +

2C = 180◦ .

Hence B + C = 90◦ ; implying that the triangle is right angled; as required.

Applying cotangent rule in ∆AKL, we get:

KD cot KAD = DL cot DAL = (KD + DL) cot ADL

Using the fact that KD = DL as well as ∠KAD = 90◦ − B; ∠DAL = 90◦ − C;

and ∠ADL = 90◦ − B + C, we can simplify the above equation as:

tan B−tan C

tan B − tan C = 2 tan(B − C) = 2 1+tan B tan C

Since B 6= C; tan B − tan C is non-zero and can be cancelled from both sides.

After simplification, we get: tan B tan C = 1; implying that B and C are com-

plementary angles.

Hence B + C = 90◦ ; and A = 90◦ ; as required.

15

Q5

(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ 27

Solution 1

We see that the since each of the numbers is non-negative and their product is

1, none of x, y, z can be 0. Hence we get that the numbers x, y, z are strictly

positive. Splitting the term 2y as y + y and applying the AM-GM inequality to

each bracket, we get p

x3 + y + y ≥ 3 3 x3 y 2

p

y3 + z + z ≥ 3 3 y3z2

√

3

z 3 + x + x ≥ 3 z 3 x2

Multiplying the above inequalities together, and using the fact that xyz = 1, we

get that p

(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ 27 3 x5 y 5 z 5 = 27

Solution 2

x3 y 3 z 3 + 2x4 y 3 + 2y 4 z 3 + 2z 4 x3 + 4xy 4 + 4yz 4 + 4zx4 + 8xyz = A

Considering each term separately, and applying the AM-GM inequality for 27

terms, and using that xyz = 1, we get that

p

A ≥ 27 27 x45 y 45 z 45 = 27

Solution 3

numbers

(a31 + a32 )(b31 + b32 )(c31 + c32 ) ≥ (a1 b1 c1 + a2 b2 c2 )3 , ai , bi , ci ∈ R+ ∪ {0}, i ∈ N2

Applying the above inequality, and using the fact that xyz = 1, we get that

√

(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) ≥ (xyz + 2 3 xyz)3 = 27

16

Q6

ABC is an equilateral triangle with side length 11 units. As shown in the figure,

points P1 , P2 , · · · , P10 are taken on side BC in that order; dividing the side into

11 segments of unit distance each. Similarly, points Q1 to Q10 are taken on side

CA, and points R1 to R10 are taken on side AB. Find the number of triangles

Pi Qj Rk such that their centroid coincides with the centroid of ∆ABC. (Each of

the indices i, j, k is chosen from {1, 2, · · · , 10}, and need not be distinct.)

Solution 1:

Let us setup a coordinate system in the plane, with B as the origin, and BC as

the positive X-axis. Hence the coordinates

√ of the vertices are:

11 11 3

B ≡ (0, 0); C ≡ (11, 0); A ≡ ( 2 , 2 ); and the centroid of ∆ABC is at G ≡

( 11 , 11

√ ).

2 2 3

section formulae, or by using the 30-60-90 triangles as shown in the above dia-

gram, we obtain the coordinates

√

of these points √along with their centroid G0 as:

Pi ≡ (i, 0); Qj ≡ (11− 2j , j 2 3 ); Rk ≡ ( 11−k

2

, (11−k)

2

3

); and G0 ≡ ( 11

2

+ 2i−j−k

6

, 211

√ +

3

j−k

√ ).

2 3

Comparing the coordinates of G and G0 , we see that they will coincide if and

only if 2i − j − k = 0 and j − k = 0; which is true if and only if i = j = k.

∆P1 Q1 R1 , ∆P2 Q2 R2 , · · · , ∆P10 Q10 R10 , which satisfy the given condition.

17

Solution 2: Let P, Q, R be any points on seg BC, CA and AB respectively. We

claim that the centroid of ∆P QR is the same as the centroid of ∆ABC if and

only if BP = CQ = AR.

For the first part, let us assume that ∆ABC and ∆P QR have a common centroid

G.

Extend AS to meet seg BC at point T .

Now, G divides the medians AD and P S in the ratio 2 : 1. Hence ∆DGS is

similar to ∆AGP , and half its size. Therefore seg DS is parallel to and half the

length of seg AP .

Hence, ∆T DS is similar to ∆T P A and half its size; so T S = 12 T A.

In other words, S is the midpoint of seg AT . But S is also the midpoint of QR.

So this means ART Q is a parallelogram; hence AR = T Q · · · (1)

Also, AR||T Q implies ∠CT Q = ∠CBA = ∠CAB = ∠T CQ.

So ∆T QC is isosceles, and T Q = CQ · · · (2)

From (1) and (2), we get AR = CQ. By symmetry, we can prove that BP =

CQ = AR, as required.

∆P QR. We need to show that G is the centroid of ∆ABC.

18

Since ABC is equilateral, we also get CP = AQ = BR.

By SAS test, we see that triangles AQR, BRP and CP Q are congruent; so QR =

RP = P Q; meaning ∆P QR is equilateral.

So G is not only the centroid but also circumcenter of P QR; so ∠QGR = 120◦ =

180◦ − ∠QAR.

Hence ARGQ is cyclic; with QG and GR being chords of equal length.

So their inscribed angles, namely ∠QAG and ∠GAR are equal; implying AG

that is an internal angle bisector for ∆ABC, which is the same as a median, for

an equilateral triangle.

By symmetry, BG and CG are also medians; implying that G is the centroid of

∆ABC, as required.

So, in our given problem, if ∆Pi Qj Rk has the same centroid as ∆ABC, then this

is equivalent to BPi = CQj = ARk ; which is equivalent to i = j = k.

Hence we have exactly 10 such triangles, namely:

∆P1 Q1 R1 , ∆P2 Q2 R2 , · · · , ∆P10 Q10 R10 .

19

Solution 3: Using vectors

Let the centroid G of ∆ABC be taken as the origin; and let GA be the direction

of the positive Y-axis.

Let a, b, c be the complex coordinates of points A, B, C respectively.

Using section formula, we can write the complex coordinates of Pi , Qj , Rk as

follows: pi = ic+(11−i)b

11

qj = ja+(11−j)c

11

kb+(11−k)a

rk = 11

Hence, the coordinate of the centroid G0 of ∆Pi Qj Rk is given by:

p +q +r

g 0 = i 3j k

Equating this to the coordinate of G which is zero, we get the necessary and

sufficient condition for them to coincide as:

(i − j)c + (j − k)a + (k − i)b = 0

If possible, let i, j, k not be equal; say k is the largest of them. This means that

the complex numbers (j − k)a and (k − i)b, if non-zero, have an argument of 270◦

and 210◦ respectively (as measured in the usual way, counter-clockwise relative

to the positive X-axis)

The third term (i − j)c if non-zero, would have an argument of 150◦ or 330◦ ,

depending on the relative magnitudes between i and j. In either case, this means

that all the three terms are in the half-plane of all complex numbers with an

argument of 150 to 330 degrees (or in other words, treating them as vectors, this

is the set {z : z · b ≥ 0}).

So the only way that they would add up to zero, is if all three terms were zero,

thus forcing i = j = k, as required.

Let P, Q, R be points on the sides BC, CA, AB respectively; such that ∆P QR

and ∆ABC coincide.

Let a denote the length of side BC. Also, let BP, CQ, AR, P C, QA, RB be

denoted by the variables i, j, k, u, v, w respectively.

We want to show that i = j = k.

Writing the well-known formula for the distances of A, B, C from the centroid G

of ∆P QR, we get:

AP 2 + AQ2 + AR2 = 3AG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2

BP 2 + BQ2 + BR2 = 3BG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2

CP 2 + CQ2 + CR2 = 3CG2 + GP 2 + GQ2 + GR2

We note that G is also the centroid of equilateral ∆ABC, so AG = BG = CG;

thus all the RHS of the above three equations are identical.

Consider just the first two of those equations; equating their LHS and using the

previously defined notation, we get:

k 2 + v 2 + AP 2 = i2 + w2 + BQ2 ..(1)

20

To determine AP 2 we apply cosine rule in ∆ABP , where B = 60◦ , to get:

AP 2 = a2 + i2 − ai.

Similarly obtaining BP 2 from ∆BCQ and substituting in (1), we get:

w2 − k 2 + j 2 − v 2 = aj − ai; which after simplification becomes i + w = k + v,

Since w = 11 − k, and v = 11 − j, the above equation simplifies to i + j = 2k.

Eliminating j from the above two equations, we get i = k. By a similar method

for the other terms, we will get i = j = k, as required.

21

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