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9/13/2012

2. Modeling of Rigid Body

Mechanical Systems

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

- Particle: a mass of negligible dimensions. A body is to be a
particle if its dimensions are irrelevant for specifying its position
and the forces acting on it
- Newton’s Second Law
𝑑𝒗
𝑚𝒂 = 𝑚 =𝑭
𝑑𝑡
𝑚: mass of particle
𝒂: acceleration of particle
𝒗: velocity of particle
𝑭: force acting on particle
- If the mass is constrained to move in only 𝑥 direction, then the
equation of motion is the scalar equation
𝑑𝑥
𝑚𝑥 = 𝑚 =𝑓
𝑑𝑡
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§1. Translational Motion

1.Mechanical Energy
- Kinetic Energy: the work needed to accelerate a body of a
given mass from rest to its stated velocity
𝑑𝑣
𝑚𝑣 = 𝑚 = 𝑓(𝑥)
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑣
⟹ 𝑣𝑚 = 𝑣𝑓(𝑥)
𝑑𝑡
⟹ 𝑚𝑣𝑑𝑣 = 𝑣𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
1
⟹ 𝑚𝑣𝑑𝑣 = 𝑚𝑣 2 = 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝐶
2
Work is force times displacement, so the integral on the right
represents the total work done on the mass by the force 𝑓(𝑥)
1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2
2
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

- Potential Energy: the energy of an object or a system due to
the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of
the system
- Potential Energy Function 𝑉 𝑥
If the work done by a conservatie force 𝑓(𝑥) (independent of
the path taken, depends only on the end points), then the
force 𝑓(𝑥) is derivable from a function 𝑉(𝑥) as
𝑑𝑉(𝑥)
𝑓 𝑥 =−
𝑑𝑥
⟹𝑉 𝑥 = 𝑑𝑉 𝑥 = − 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥

1
⟹ 𝑚𝑣 2 + 𝑉 𝑥 = 𝐶
2
Sum of the kinetic and potential energies must be constant
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§1. Translational Motion

- Gravity force: the gravity force is conservative because the
work done lifting an object depends only on the change in
height and not on the path taken
𝑓 𝑥 = −𝑚𝑔 𝑥
𝑥: vertical displacement
Potential energy function
𝑉 𝑥 = 𝑚𝑔𝑥
The sum of energy
1
𝑚𝑣 2 + 𝑚𝑔𝑥 = 𝐶
2
1
⟹ 𝑚(𝑣 2 − 𝑣02 ) + 𝑚𝑔(𝑥 − 𝑥0 ) = 0
2

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

- Example 2.1.1 Speed of a Falling Object
An object with a mass of 𝑚 = 2𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔𝑠 drops from a height of
30𝑓𝑡 above the ground. Determine its speed after it drops to
10𝑓𝑡 above the ground. 𝑔 = 32.2𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐 2
Solution
From the energy conservation law
1
𝑚 𝑣 2 − 𝑣02 + 𝑚𝑔 𝑥 − 𝑥0 = 0
2
⟹𝑣= 2𝑔(𝑥0 − 𝑥) + 𝑣02

= 2 × 32.2 30 − 10 + 02
𝑣 = 35.89𝑓𝑡/𝑠𝑒𝑐

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§1. Translational Motion

- Constant Force Case
Energy conservation law
1 1
𝑚𝑣 2 + 𝑉 𝑥 = 𝑚𝑣02 + 𝑉 𝑥0 = 𝐶
2 2
For the point mass model, 𝑓 = 𝑚𝑎
If 𝑓 is a constant
1 1
𝑚𝑣 2 = 𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑥0 + 𝑚𝑣02
2 2
𝑓 𝑥 − 𝑥0 : the work done by the force 𝑓

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

- Dry Friction Force

Dry friction is non-conservative force

𝐹 = 𝜇𝑁
Dry friction cannot be derived from a potential energy
function ⟹ the conservation of mechanical energy principle
does not apply

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§1. Translational Motion

- Example 2.1.2 Equation of Motion with Friction
Apply a force 𝑓1 to the mass 𝑚, derive the equation of motion
(a) for the block of mass 𝑚 on an horizontal plane

(b) for the mass 𝑚 on an incline plane

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

Solution
(a) The block of mass 𝑚 on an horizontal plane
Dry friction force 𝐹 = 𝜇𝑚𝑔
𝑣>0
𝑚𝑣 = 𝑓1 − 𝜇𝑚𝑔

𝑣<0
𝑚𝑣 = 𝑓1 + 𝜇𝑚𝑔

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§1. Translational Motion

(b) The mass 𝑚 on an incline plane

𝑣>0
𝑚𝑣 = 𝑓1 − 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙 − 𝜇𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙

𝑣<0
𝑚𝑣 = 𝑓1 − 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙 + 𝜇𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§1. Translational Motion

- Example 2.1.3 Motion with Friction on an Inclined Plane
For the mass 𝑚 = 2𝑘𝑔, 𝜙 = 300 , 𝑣(0) = 3𝑚/𝑠, and 𝜇 = 0.5.
Determine whether the mass comes to rest if (a) 𝑓1 = 50𝑁
and (b) 𝑓1 = 5𝑁

Solution
𝑣0 > 0: 𝑚𝑣 = 𝑓1 − 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙 − 𝜇𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙
⟹ 2𝑣 = 𝑓1 − (𝑠𝑖𝑛300 + 0.5𝑐𝑜𝑠300 )(2 × 9.81) = 𝑓1 − 18.3
50−18.3
a. 𝑣 = = 15.85 > 0 ⟹ the mass never comes to rest
2
5−18.3
b. 𝑣 = = −6.65 < 0 ⟹ the mass will comes to rest
2
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Newton’s Second Law
𝐼𝜔 = 𝑀
𝜔: the angular velocity of the mass
𝐼: the mass moment of inertia of the body
𝑀: the sum of the moments applied to the body

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

1.Calculating Inertia

𝐼= 𝑟 2 𝑑𝑚

𝐼: mass moment of inertia about a specified reference axis

𝑟: distance from the reference axis
𝑑𝑚: the mass element
Parallel-axis theorem
𝐼 = 𝐼𝑠 + 𝑚𝑑2

𝐼𝑠 : the inertia about the symmetry axis

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Mass moments of inertia of common elements
Sphere Hollow cylinder

2
𝐼𝐺 = 5 𝑚𝑅 2
1
𝐼𝑥 = 𝑚(𝑅 2 + 𝑟 2 )
2
1
𝐼𝑦 = 𝐼𝑧 = 12 𝑚(3𝑅 2 + 3𝑟 2 + 𝐿2 )
Mass rotating about 𝑂 Rectangular prism

𝐼𝑂 = 𝑚𝑅 2
1
𝐼𝑥 = 𝑚(𝑏 2 + 𝑐 2 )
12
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Example 2.2.1 A Rod-and-Bob Pendulum

The pendulum consists of a concentrated mass 𝑚𝐶 a

distance 𝐿𝐶 from point 𝑂, attached to a rod of length 𝐿𝑅 and
inertia 𝐼𝑅𝐺 about its mass center
(a) Obtain its equation of motion
(b) Discuss the case where the rod’s mass 𝑚𝐺 is small
compared to the concentrated mass
(c) Determine the equation of motion for small angles 𝜃
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

Solution
(a) Obtain its equation of motion
The rod’s inertia about point 𝑂
𝐿𝑅 2
𝐼𝑅𝑂 = 𝐼𝑅𝐺 + 𝑚𝑅
2
Pendulum’s inertia about point 𝑂
2
𝐿𝑅 2
𝐼𝑂 = 𝐼𝑅𝑂 + 𝑚𝐶 𝐿𝐶 = 𝐼𝑅𝐺 + 𝑚𝐺 + 𝑚𝐶 𝐿2𝐶
2
Taking moments about point 𝑂 to get the length 𝐿
𝐿
𝐿𝑅 𝑚𝐶 𝐿𝐶 + 𝑚𝑅 2𝑅
𝑚𝑔𝐿 = 𝑚𝐶 𝑔𝐿𝐶 + 𝑚𝑅 𝑔 ⟹𝐿=
2 𝑚𝐶 + 𝑚𝑅
The desired equation of motion
𝐼𝑂 𝜃 = −𝑚𝑔𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

(b) Discuss the case where the rod’s mass 𝑚𝐺 is small
compared to the concentrated mass
If neglect the rod’s mass 𝑚𝑅 compared to the
concentrated mass 𝑚𝐶
𝑚𝑅 = 0; 𝐼𝑅𝐺 = 0; 𝑚 = 𝑚𝐶 ; 𝐿 = 𝐿𝐶 ; 𝐼𝑂 = 𝑚𝐿2
The equation of motion
𝐿𝜃 + 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 0
This is a model for a
Pendulum whose mass is concen-
trated at a distance 𝐿 form the pivot point
This equation of motion is independent of the value of 𝑚
(c) For small angles, sin𝜃 ≈ 𝜃
𝐿𝜃 + 𝑔𝜃 = 0
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

2.Energy and Rotational Motion
Work done by a moment 𝑀 causing a rotation through an angle 𝜃
𝜃
𝑊= 𝑀𝑑𝜃
0
Multiply both sides of 𝐼𝜔 = 𝑀
⟹ 𝐼𝑑𝜔 = 𝑀𝑑𝑡 ⟹ 𝐼𝜔𝑑𝜔 = 𝑀𝜔𝑑𝑡 = 𝑀𝑑𝜃
Integrating both sides
𝜔 𝜃
1 2
𝐼𝜔𝑑𝜔 = 𝐼𝜔 = 𝑀𝑑𝜃
0 2 0
𝑀 produces the kinetic energy of rotation
1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝐼𝜔2
2

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

3.Pulley Dynamics
- Pulleys can be used to change the direction
of an applied force or to amplify forces

𝐼: moment of inertia of the pulley

𝑇𝑖 : the tension forces acting on belt

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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9/13/2012

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Example 2.2.2 Energy Analysis of a Pulley System
Consider the pulley system used to raise the
mass 𝑚2 by hanging a mass 𝑚1 on the other
side of the pulley. If pulley inertia is negligible
then it is obvious that 𝑚1 will lift 𝑚2 if 𝑚1 > 𝑚2
- How does a non-negligible pulley inertia 𝐼
change this result?
- Investigate the effect of the pulley inertia on
the speed of the masses

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

Solution Define the coordinates 𝑥 and 𝑦 such that
𝑥 = 𝑦 = 0 at the start of the motion
Pulley cable is inextensible 𝑥 = 𝑦, 𝑥 = 𝑦
Cable does not slip 𝜃 = 𝑥/𝑅
1 1 1
Kinetic energy 𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚 𝑥2 + 2 𝑚2 𝑦 2 + 2 𝐼𝜃 2
2 1
Potential energy 𝑃𝐸 = 𝑚2 𝑔𝑦 − 𝑚1 𝑔𝑥
Energy conservation law
𝐾𝐸 + 𝑃𝐸 = 0
1 𝐼
⟹ 𝑚1 + 𝑚2 + 2 𝑥 2 + 𝑚2 − 𝑚1 𝑔𝑥 = 0
2 𝑅
2 𝑚2 − 𝑚1
⟹𝑥=
𝑚1 + 𝑚2 + 𝐼/𝑅 2

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Example 2.2.3 Equation of Motion of a Pulley System
Consider the pulley system. Obtain the
equation of motion in terms of 𝑥 and obtain an
expression for the tension forces in the cable

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

Solution
Newton’s law for masses 𝑚1 and 𝑚2 gives
𝑚1 𝑥 = 𝑚1 𝑔 − 𝑇1 𝑇 = 𝑚1 𝑔 − 𝑚1 𝑥
⟹ 1
𝑚2 𝑥 = 𝑚2 𝑔 − 𝑇2 𝑇2 = 𝑚2 𝑦 + 𝑚1 𝑔
Newton’s law for the pulley
𝐼𝜃 = 𝑅𝑇1 − 𝑅𝑇2
Because 𝑥 = 𝑅𝜃, 𝑥 𝑅𝜃
𝑥
𝐼 = 𝑚1 − 𝑚2 𝑔𝑅 − 𝑚1 + 𝑚2 𝑅𝑥
𝑅
𝑚1 − 𝑚2 𝑔𝑅 2
⟹𝑥=
𝑚1 + 𝑚2 𝑅 2 + 𝐼

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

4.Pulley-Cable Kinematics
- Determine the relation between the
velocities of mass 𝑚𝐴 and mass 𝑚𝐵
• Define 𝑥 and 𝑦 as shown from a common
reference line attached to a fixed part of
the system
• Noting that the cable lengths wrapped
around the pulleys are constant
𝑥 + 3𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
⟹ 𝑥 + 3𝑦 = 0
(the speed of point 𝐴 is three times the speed of point 𝐵, and in
the opposite direction)

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

- Example 2.2.4 Lifting a Mast
A mast weighing 500𝑙𝑏 is
hinged at its bottom to a
fixed support at point 𝑂. The
mast is 70𝑓𝑡 long and its
center of mass is 35𝑓𝑡 from
𝑂. The winch applies a force
𝑓 = 380𝑙𝑏 to the cable. The mast is supported initially at the
300 angle, and the cable at 𝐴 is initially horizontal. Assume
that the pulley inertias are negligible and that the pulley
diameter 𝑑 is very small compared to the other dimensions
Derive the equation of motion of the mast

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

Solution The law of sines
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙 sin⁡(𝜋 − 𝜇 − 𝜃)
=
𝑃 𝑄
sin⁡(𝜇 + 𝜃)
=
𝑄
The law of cosines
geometry of 𝑄= 𝑃2 + 𝐿2 − 2𝑃𝐿𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜋 − 𝜇 − 𝜃)
the mast 𝜃
= 𝑃2 + 𝐿2 − 2𝑃𝐿𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜇 + 𝜃)
𝐻 = 20𝑓𝑡
𝑊 = 5𝑓𝑡
𝑃= 𝐻 2 + 𝑊 2 = 20.6𝑓𝑡
𝐻 10
𝜇 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 = 1.33
𝑊 5
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§2. Rotation about Fixed Axis

The moment eq. about 𝑂
𝑓𝑙𝑃
𝐼𝑂 𝜃 = −𝑚𝑔𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 + sin⁡(𝜇 + 𝜃)
𝑄
The moment of inertia
1 1 500
𝐼𝑂 = 𝑚(70)2 = (70)2
3 3 32.2
= 25,400𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 − 𝑓𝑡 2
geometry of
the mast 𝜃 Force at 𝐴
𝑓 = 2 × 380 = 760𝑙𝑏
The equation of motion
25,400𝜃 = −17,500𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
626,000
+ sin⁡(1.33 + 𝜃)
𝑄
𝑄 = 2020 + 1650cos⁡(1.33 + 𝜃)
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

- Some systems composed of translating and rotating parts
whose motions are directly coupled can be modeled as a purely
translational system or as a purely rotational system, by using
the concepts of equivalent mass and equivalent inertia. These
models can be derived using kinetic energy equivalence
- Example 2.3.1 A Vehicle on an Incline: Energy Analysis
A tractor pulls a cart up a slope,
starting from rest and accelerating to
20𝑚/𝑠. The force in the cable is 𝑓,
and the body of the cart has a mass
𝑚. The cart has two identical wheels,
with radius 𝑅, mass 𝑚𝑤 , and inertia 𝐼𝑤 . The two wheels are
coupled with an axle whose mass is negligible. Assume that
the wheels do not slip or bounce. Derive an expression for
the force 𝑓 using kinetic energy equivalence
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

Solution
Kinetic energy of the system
1 1 1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑣 2 + 2𝐼𝑤 𝜔2
2 2 2
1 𝐼𝑤 2
= 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 + 2 2 𝑣
2 𝑅
Equivalent kinetic energy
1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑒 𝑣 2
2
Equivalent mass
𝐼𝑤
𝑚𝑒 = 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 + 2 2
𝑅

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

Consider the free body diagram
The potential energy of the system
𝑃𝐸 = 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
The motion equation
𝑚𝑒 𝑣 = 𝑓 − 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
The acceleration
20 4
𝑎=𝑣= = 𝑚/𝑠 2
15 3
The force required to provide the
specified acceleration
4
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑒 + 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
3

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

1.Mechanical Drivers
Gears, belts, levers, and pulleys transform an input motion, force,
or torque into another motion, force, or torque at the output
- Example 2.3.2 Equivalent Inertia of Spur Gears
Consider the spur gears. Derive the expression for the
equivalent inertia 𝐼𝑒 felt on the input shaft
Solution
1 1 1 1 𝜔1 2
𝐾𝐸 = 𝐼1 𝜔12 + 𝐼2 𝜔22 = 𝐼1 𝜔12 + 𝐼2
2 2 2 2 𝑁
1 1
= 𝐼 + 𝐼 𝜔2
2 1 𝑁2 2 1
Equivalent inertia felt on the input shaft
1
𝐼𝑒 = 𝐼1 + 2 𝐼2
𝑁
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

- Example 2.3.3 Equivalent Inertia of a Rack-and-Pinion

A rack-and-pinion is used to convert

rotation into translation. The input
shaft rotates through the angle 𝜃 as a
result of the torque 𝑇 produced by a
motor. The pinion rotates and causes
the rack to translate.
Derive the expression for the equivalent inertia 𝐼𝑒 felt on the
input shaft. The mass of the rack is 𝑚, the inertia of the
pinion is 𝐼, and its mean radius is 𝑅

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

Solution
Kinetic energy of the system
1 1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑥 2 + 𝐼𝜃 2
2 2
1 1
= 𝑚(𝑅𝜃)2 + 𝐼𝜃 2
2 2
1
= (𝑚𝑅 2 + 𝐼)𝜃 2
2
The equivalent inertia felt on the shaft
𝐼𝑒 = 𝑚𝑅 2 + 𝐼
The model of the system dynamics
𝐼𝑒 𝜃 = 𝑇
or can be expressed in term of 𝑥
𝐼𝑒 𝑥 = 𝑅𝑇
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

- Example 2.3.4 Equivalent Inertia of a Belt Drive
Belt drives and chain drives have similar
characteristics and can be analyzed in a
similar way. The input shaft (shaft 1) is
connected to a device that produces a
torque 𝑇1 at a speed 𝜔1, and drives the
output shaft (shaft 2). The mean sprocket
radii are 𝑟1 and 𝑟2 , and their inertias are 𝐼1 and 𝐼2 . The belt
mass is 𝑚.
Derive the expression for the equivalent inertia 𝐼𝑒 felt on the
input shaft

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

Solution
Kinetic energy of the system
1 1 1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝐼1 𝜔12 + 𝐼2 𝜔22 + 𝑚𝑣 2
2 2 2
If the belt does not stretch, the
translational speed of the belt
𝑣 = 𝑟1 𝜔1 = 𝑟2 𝜔2
Kinetic energy

The dynamics of the system

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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

- Example 2.3.4 A Robot-Arm Link
A single link of a robot arm has
mass 𝑚 and its center of mass is
located a distance 𝐿 from the
joint, which is driven by a motor
torque 𝑇𝑚 through a pair of spur
gears. 𝑚 and 𝐿 depend on the
payload being carried in the hand
and thus can be different for each application. The gear ratio
is 𝑁 = 2. The given values for the motor, shaft, and gear
inertias are
𝐼𝑚 = 0.05𝑘𝑔𝑚2 , 𝐼𝐺1 = 0.025𝑘𝑔𝑚2 ,
𝐼𝑆1 = 0.01𝑘𝑔𝑚2 , 𝐼𝐺2 = 0.1𝑘𝑔𝑚2 , 𝐼𝑆2 = 0.02𝑘𝑔𝑚2
Obtain this equation in terms of the angle 𝜃
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

Solution

Kinetic energy of the system

1 1 1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝐼𝑚 + 𝐼𝑆1 + 𝐼𝐺1 𝜔12 + 𝐼𝑆2 + 𝐼𝐺2 𝜔22 + 𝑚 𝐿𝜔2 2
2 2 2
with 𝜔2 = 𝜔1 /𝑁 = 𝜔1 /2
1 1
𝐾𝐸 = 𝐼𝑚 + 𝐼𝑆1 + 𝐼𝐺1 + 2 𝐼𝑆2 + 𝐼𝐺2 + 𝑚𝐿2 𝜔12
2 2
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§3. Equivalent Mass and Inertia

Equivalent inertia referenced to the motor shaft
1
𝐼𝑒 = 𝐼𝑚 + 𝐼𝑆1 + 𝐼𝐺1 + 2 𝐼𝑆2 + 𝐼𝐺2 + 𝑚𝐿2
2
2
= 0.115 + 0.25𝑚𝐿
Equation of motion for this equivalent inertia
1
𝐼𝑒 𝜔1 = 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑚𝑔𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑁
with 𝜔1 = 𝑁𝜔2 = 𝑁𝜃
1
𝐼𝑒 𝑁𝜃 = 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑚𝑔𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑁
9.8
⟹ 2 0.115 + 0.25𝑚𝐿2 𝜃 = 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑚𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
2
The equation of motion
0.23 + 0.5𝑚𝐿2 𝜃 = 𝑇𝑚 − 4.9𝑚𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

1.Force Equations
Two force equations describe the
translational motion
𝑓𝑥 = 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥
𝑓𝑦 = 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑦
𝑓𝑥 , 𝑓𝑦 : net forces acting on the mass
𝑚: mass
𝑎𝐺𝑥 , 𝑎𝐺𝑦 : accelerations of the mass center
in the 𝑥, 𝑦 directions

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§4. General Planar Motion

2.Moment Equations
𝐼𝑂 𝛼 = 𝑀𝑂
𝐼𝑂 : the mass moment of inertia of the
body about the point 𝑂
𝛼: the angular acceleration of the mass
𝑀𝑂 : the sum of the moments applied to the
body about the point
𝑀𝐺 = 𝐼𝐺 𝛼
𝑀𝐺 : net moment acting on the body about
an axis that passes through the mass
center 𝐺 and is perpendicular to the
plane of the slab
𝐼𝐺 : the mass moment of inertia of the body about this axis
𝛼: the angular acceleration of the mass
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

- Moment equation applies for an accelerating point 𝑃
𝑀𝑃 = 𝐼𝐺 𝛼 + 𝑚𝑎𝐺 𝑑
𝑀𝑃 : net moment acting on the body about
an axis that passes through 𝑃 and is
perpendicular to the plane of the slab
𝐼𝑃 : the mass moment of inertia of the
𝛼: the angular acceleration of the mass
𝑚: mass
𝑎𝐺 : the magnitude of the acceleration
vector 𝒂𝐺
𝑑: the distance between 𝒂𝐺 and a
parallel line through point 𝑃

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

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§4. General Planar Motion

- An alternative form
𝑀𝑃 = 𝐼𝑃 𝛼 + 𝑚𝑟𝑥 𝑎𝑃𝑦 − 𝑚𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑃𝑥
𝑟𝑥 , 𝑟𝑦 : the 𝑥 , 𝑦 components of the
location 𝐺 relative to 𝑃
𝑎𝑃𝑥 , 𝑎𝑃𝑦 : the 𝑥 , 𝑦 components of the
acceleration of point 𝑃

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

3.Sliding versus Rolling Motion
- Wheels are common examples of systems
undergoing general plane motion with both
translation and rotation
- Three possible motion types
Pure rolling motion: no slipping between the
wheel and the surface
𝑣 = 𝑅𝜔
Pure sliding motion: the wheel is prevented from rotating
𝜔 = 0, 𝑣 ≠ 𝑅𝜔
Sliding and rolling motion: slipping occurs in this case
𝜔 ≠ 0, 𝑣 ≠ 𝑅𝜔

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§4. General Planar Motion

- Example 2.4.1 A Vehicle on an Incline: Force Analysis
Consider a tractor pulls a cart up a
slope. The force in the cable is 𝑓, and
the body of the cart has a mass 𝑚.
The cart has two identical wheels,
each with radius 𝑅, mass 𝑚𝑅 , inertia
𝐼𝑤 about the wheel center. Assumed that the wheels do not
slip. Develop a model that can be used to examine this
assumption and also to compute the forces on the axle.
Apply Newton’s laws to develop a model of the system
(a) Assume no slip and no bounce, show that the model
gives the same result as of Example 2.3.1
(b) Use the model to discuss the no-slip assumption

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

Solution

a)
Apply the Newton’s second law to the cart
𝑚𝑥 = 𝑅𝑥 − 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 + 𝑓
𝑚𝑦 = 𝑅𝑦 − 𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
Apply the Newton’s second law to the wheel-axle subsystem
2𝑚𝑤 𝑥 = −𝑅𝑥 − 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 𝑓𝑡
2𝑚𝑤 𝑦 = 𝑁 − 𝑅𝑦 − 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
Moment equation of the wheel-axle subsystem
2𝐼𝑤 2𝐼𝑤 𝑣 2𝐼𝑤
2𝐼𝑤 𝜔 = 𝑅𝑓𝑡 ⟹ 𝑓𝑡 = 𝜔= = 2 𝑥
𝑅 𝑅 𝑅 𝑅
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§4. General Planar Motion

Solve for 𝑅𝑥
2𝐼𝑤
𝑅𝑥 = − 2𝑚𝑤 + 𝑥 − 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑅2
and
2𝐼𝑤
𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 + 𝑥 = 𝑓 − 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑅2
which the same as equation of Example 2.3.1 since 𝑥 = 𝑣

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

b)
The assumption of no bounce ⟹ 𝑦 = 0
𝑁 = 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
No slip if 𝑓𝑡 ≤ 𝜇𝑠 𝑁 (the maximum static friction force)
2𝐼𝑤 2𝐼𝑤 𝑓 − 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑓𝑡 = 2 𝑥 = 2
𝑅 𝑅 2𝐼
𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 + 𝑤
𝑅2
≤ 𝜇𝑠 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
𝑓 − 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
⟹ 𝜇𝑠 𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 ≥ 2𝐼𝑤
(𝑚 + 2𝑚𝑤 )𝑅 2 + 2𝐼𝑤
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§4. General Planar Motion

- Example 2.4.2 A Rolling Cylinder
A solid cylinder of mass 𝑚 and radius 𝑟 starts
from rest and rolls down the incline at an angle 𝜃.
The static friction coefficient is 𝜇𝑠 . Determine the
acceleration of the center of mass 𝑎𝐺𝑥 and the
angular acceleration 𝛼. Assume that the cylinder
rolls without bouncing, so that 𝑎𝐺𝑦 = 0
Assume also that the cylinder rolls without slipping. Use two
approaches to solve the problem
(a) Use the moment equation about 𝐺, and
(b) Use the moment equation about 𝑃
(c) Obtain the frictional condition required for the cylinder to
roll without slipping

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

Solution Force equations
𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 = 𝑓𝑥 = 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 𝐹
𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑦 = 𝑓𝑦 = 𝑁 − 𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
Cylinder does not bounce
𝑎𝐺𝑦 = 0 ⟹ 𝑁 = 𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
a.
Moment equation about the center of mass 𝐼𝐺 𝛼 = 𝑀𝐺 = 𝐹𝑟
𝐼𝐺 𝛼
𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 = 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 −
𝑟
The cylinder does not slip 𝑎𝐺𝑥 = 𝑟𝛼
𝐼𝐺 𝑎𝐺 𝑚𝑔𝑟 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 = 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 − 2 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑎𝐺𝑥 =
𝑟 𝑚𝑟 2 + 𝐼𝐺
2
For a solid cylinder, 𝐼𝐺 = 𝑚𝑟 2 /2 ⟹ 𝑎𝐺𝑥 = 3 𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
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§4. General Planar Motion

b.
Moment equation about the the
point 𝑃
𝑀𝑃 = 𝐼𝐺 𝛼 + 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 𝑑
𝑑 = 𝑟, 𝑀𝑃 = 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑟
𝑎𝐺
𝑚𝑔𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝐼𝐺 𝑥 + 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 𝑟
𝑟
2
𝑚𝑔𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
⟹ 𝑎𝐺𝑥 =
𝑚𝑟 2 + 𝐼𝐺

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

c.
The maximum possible force
𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜇𝑠 𝑚𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
𝐼𝐺 𝛼 𝐼𝐺 𝑎𝐺𝑥 𝐼𝐺 𝑚𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝐹= = 2 =
𝑟 𝑟 𝐼𝐺 + 𝑚𝑟 2
If 𝐹𝑚𝑎𝑥 > 𝐹, the cylinder will not
slip
The condition of no slip
𝐼𝐺 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝜇𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 >
𝐼𝐺 + 𝑚𝑟 2
For a solid cylinder, this reduces to
1
𝜇𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 > 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
3

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§4. General Planar Motion

- Example 2.4.3 Maximum Vehicle Acceleration
Determine the maximum accelera-
tion of the rear-wheel drive vehicle
as a function of the friction
coefficient 𝜇𝑠
The vehicle mass is 1800𝑘𝑔 , and its dimensions are
𝐿𝐴 = 1.3𝑚, 𝐿𝐵 = 1𝑚, and 𝐻 = 0.5𝑚.

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

Solution Maximum traction force (maximum
acceleration) is obtained when the
driving tires are just on the verge of
slipping relative to the road surface
Apply Newton’s law
𝑓𝑥 = 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥 ⟹ 𝜇𝑠 𝑁𝐵 = 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑥
𝑓𝑦 = 𝑚𝑎𝐺𝑦 ⟹ 𝑁𝐴 + 𝑁𝐵 − 𝑚𝑔 = 0
The moment equation about the mass center 𝐺
𝑀𝐺 = 𝐼𝐺 𝛼 ⟹ 𝑁𝐵 𝐿𝐵 − 𝜇𝑠 𝑁𝐵 𝐻 − 𝑁𝐴 𝐿𝐴 = 0
𝑚𝑔𝐿𝐴 9.8 × 1.3𝑚 25.5
⟹ 𝑁𝐵 = = = 𝑚
𝐿𝐴 + 𝐿𝐵 − 𝜇𝑠 𝐻 1.3 + 1 − 0.5𝜇𝑠 4.6 − 𝜇𝑠
The maximum acceleration
𝜇𝑠 𝑁𝐵 25.5𝜇𝑠
𝑎𝐺𝑥 = =
𝑚 4.6 − 𝜇𝑠
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§4. General Planar Motion

4.Dymamics of a Personal Transporter
- The transporter’s motors drive the
wheels to balance the vehicle with the
help of a computer-control system
using tilt sensors and gyroscopes
- The dynamics of a personal transporter
are similar to a classic control problem
called the inverted pendulum

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

§4. General Planar Motion

- Example 2.4.4 Transporter Equations of Motion

Model the transporter as a cart of mass 𝑀

and an inverted pendulum attached to the
cart by a pivot at point 𝑃. The pendulum
mass is 𝑚 and its center of mass 𝐺 is a
distance 𝐿 from 𝑃 . The inertia of the
pendulum about 𝐺 is 𝐼𝐺

For generality we include an applied torque 𝑇 about the pivot,

which is due to a motor at the pivot in some applications.
Derive the equations of motion with 𝑓 and 𝑇 as the inputs,
and 𝑥 and 𝜙 as the outputs

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Solution

Consider the pendulum

𝑑2
𝑚 2 𝑥 − 𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙 = 𝐻
𝑑𝑡
The moment equation about the pendulum’s pivot point 𝑃
𝐼𝐺 + 𝑚𝐿2 𝜙 − 𝑚𝐿𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙 = 𝑇 + 𝑚𝑔𝐿𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙
𝐼𝐺 + 𝑚𝐿2 : pendulum’s moment of inertia
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department Nguyen Tan Tien

Consider the base

𝑑
𝑀𝑥 − 𝑚𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙𝜙 = 𝑚𝑥 − 𝑚𝐿(−𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙𝜙 2 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙𝜙) = 𝐻
𝑑𝑡
𝐻 = −𝑓 − 𝑀𝑥
The equation of motion of inverted pendulum
𝑚 + 𝑀 𝑥 − 𝑚𝐿 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜙𝜙 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜙𝜙 2 = −𝑓
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