Anda di halaman 1dari 12

635,1*%$&.

&21752/)25'3
65$,/'(6,*1 $33/,&$7,21

0DL+XDQJ-RQ%URXZHU
1, USA R&D Center, Arcelor Mittal Steel
2, Riviera Tool Company

www.autosteel.org

$GYDQFHG+LJK6WUHQJWK6WHHO

(''6

+6:
'3

Better formability More springback

www.autosteel.org

1
6KDSH'HYLDWLRQ 6SULQJEDFN

Shape Deviation: Springback + Twist + Geometry Constraint


Systematic study: Break problem down into basic elements

www.autosteel.org

6SULQJEDFN0RGHV

Pure
Springback springback

Curl

Springback Mode Tooling Deformation


Angular Springback Punch Bending + T
Sidewall Curl Die Bending & Unbending + T
Flange Curl & angle Drawbead Bending & Reverse bending + T

www.autosteel.org

2
&KDUDFWHUL]DWLRQ&XUYHV

T
T
'
N
FD 
EJ
LQU
S6 O Angular Springback
UD HH HO

OX 6W 6WH
JQ
$
5W 

U 


H
U
WX
6WHHO
D
Y
U
X
&
O 6WHHO
Sidewall Curvature O
D
Z
H
G
L
6

5W 

www.autosteel.org

([SHULPHQW5HVXOWV

Comparison of Springback Angle (1.60mm)


30.0

EDDS
HS440
HSLA350
DP600
Springback (degree)

DP980

Angular Springback
0.0

0.0 20.0
R/t
Comparison of Sidewall Curl(1.60mm)
10.0
x 0.001

EDDS
HS440
HSLA350
Curvature of Sidewall Curl

DP600
DP980

Sidewall Curvature
0.0 20.0
-5.0

R/t

www.autosteel.org

3
6XPPDU\

• Results of Springback Characterizations


(Within testing range of tooling radius: 1~23mm)
• Springback angle
– Increased almost linearly with R/t (concurred with Gardiner’s
results)
– Greater rate for higher strength steel
– Convergence at small R/t
• Sidewall curl
– Increased rapidly for different steels
– Reached the maximum at R/t=3~5
(in regular working range)
– Decreased with similar slopes for different steels
– Convergence at small R/t

www.autosteel.org

'UDZ'LH3URFHVV

Rd Reff •Rd – tooling radius


Sidewall Curvature (1/r)

Pad
Die •Reff – effective part radius

Reff/t

Clamp Sample
R/t
Punch
Draw Die Process
• Control of sidewall curl in draw die processes
– Use minimum permissible die radii (Rd & Rp)
– Use maximum allowable blank holder force
– For Rd/t < 3: use minimum tool gap to reduce sidewall curl
– For Rd/t > 3: use maximum allowable tool gap to reduce sidewall curl
– The effective radius on part (Reff) remains constant
www.autosteel.org

4
$SSOLFDWLRQ'365DLO

• Primary Concerns:
– Springback & Curl, Wrinkling
• Springback Control Strategy:
– Use of small tool radii with “post
stretch” provided by stake beads
• Wrinkling Control Strategy:
– Application of upper pad and lower
binder

www.autosteel.org

3URFHVV:ULQNOLQJ&RQWURO

Upper pad Binder

• Center upper pressure pad (3 ton force)


• Lower binder supported by the Nitrogen cylinders (72 ton
force) with a standoff of 0.005”

www.autosteel.org

5
3URFHVV6SULQJEDFN&RQWURO

Small radii Draw beads

• Small tool radii, R/t ~ 1


• Two draw beads enter the blank 15mm from the bottom of the
punch stroke to provide stretch needed for springback and curl
control

www.autosteel.org

6SULQJEDFN0HDVXUHPHQW

6HF 6HF
6HF
6HF 6HF

Angles & gaps measured at 5 sections for both sides

6HF
Measuring Measuring
angle gap
µ

www.autosteel.org

6
3UHVV7ULDO5HVXOWV

Springback Angle of DP590 S-Rail


Mechanical properties 5.0
(2.0mm, Lubed)

Gauge 0.2 % YS UTS UE TE 4.0

Springback Angle (degree)


Steel Coating
(mm) (MPa) (MPa) (%) (%) 3.0

DP590 GA 2.07 400.1 642.0 14.0 20.9 5LJKW


5LJKW
2.0

Sec. 1 Sec. 5 1.0

0.0
/HIW
/HIW
-1.0

-2.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

Maximum Gap of The Sidewall of DP590 S-Rail


• The springback angle is less (2.0mm, Lubed)
1.2

than 1.5o except sec. 5 (end) 1.0

Maximum Gap (mm)


where “post stretch” was not 0.8
/HIW
/HIW

presented 0.6

0.4

• The maximum gap due to 0.2


5LJKW
5LJKW

sidewall curl is about 1.0mm 0.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

www.autosteel.org

%LQGHU)RUFH(IIHFW

Springback Angle of DP590 S-Rail


(2.0mm, Lubed)
5.0
75 ton binder force
4.0
Springback Angle (degree)

‡ Forming process is robust


32 ton binder force
3.0
5LJKW
5LJKW
2.0

enough to condone the 1.0

binder force variations 0.0


/HIW
/HIW
-1.0

‡ The largest increase in -2.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section
springback angle was about
Maximum Gap of The Sidewall of DP590 S-Rail
2 degrees on the left side 1.2
(2.0mm, Lubed)

‡ Lower binder force actually


75 ton binder force
1.0
32 ton binder force
Maximum Gap (mm)

improved the sidewall curl 0.8

0.6

slightly 0.4
/HIW
/HIW

5LJKW
5LJKW
0.2

0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

www.autosteel.org

7
/XEULFDQW(IIHFW

Springback Angle of DP590 S-Rail


(2.0mm, 75 ton Binder Force)
5.0
Lubed
4.0

Springback Angle (degree)


As is
3.0
5LJKW
5LKW

‡ Forming process is
2.0

1.0

insensitive to the changes -1.0


0.0
/HIW
/HIW

of lubrication -2.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

‡ Springback angle variations


Section

Maximum Gap of The Sidewall of DP590 S-Rail

are about 1 degree 1.2


(2.0mm, 75ton Binder Force)

‡ Sidewall curl were slightly


Lubed
1.0
As is
5LJKW

Maximum Gap (mm)


0.8
improved 0.6
/HIW

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

www.autosteel.org

7KLFNQHVV(IIHFW

Springback Angle of DP590 S-Rail


Mechanical properties 8.0
(2.0mm, Lubed, 75 ton Binder Force)

Gauge: 2.0 mm
Gauge 0.2 % YS UTS UE TE
Springback Angle (degree)

Steel Coating 6.0 Gauge: 1.80 mm


(mm) (MPa) (MPa) (%) (%) 5LJKW
5LKW
DP590 CR 1.85 405.6 675.7 14.2 21.9 4.0

DP590 GA 2.07 400.1 642.0 14.0 20.9


2.0

/HIW
/HIW
‡ The forming results are stable
0.0

-2.0
for thicknesses variation except 0 1 2 3

Section
4 5 6

at section 5 Maximum Gap of The Sidewall of DP590 S-Rail

‡ Increase in springback angle


(2.0mm, Lubed, 75ton Binder Force)
3.5
Gauge: 2.0 mm
(2~3 degrees) was found for 3.0
Gauge: 1.80 mm 5LJKW
5LJKW
Maximum Gap (mm)

2.5
thinner material at section 5 2.0

‡ Increase in sidewall curl 1.5

1.0
(2.5mm) was also found for 0.5
/HIW
/HIW

thinner material at section 5 0.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

www.autosteel.org

8
0DWHULDO6WUHQJWK(IIHFW

Mechanical properties Springback Angle of DP590 S-Rail


(2.0mm, Lubed, 75 ton Binder Force)
8.0

Gauge 0.2 % YS UTS UE TE Gauge: 2.0 mm


Steel Coating

Springback Angle (degree)


(mm) (MPa) (MPa) (%) (%) 6.0 Gauge: 1.80 mm
5LJKW
5LKW
DP590 CR 1.85 405.6 675.7 14.2 21.9
4.0
DP590 GA 2.07 400.1 642.0 14.0 20.9
2.0

‡ The forming results are stable 0.0


/HIW
/HIW

for thicknesses variation -2.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section
except at section 5
Maximum Gap of The Sidewall of DP590 S-Rail
‡ Increase in springback angle 3.5
(2.0mm, Lubed, 75ton Binder Force)

(2~3 degrees) was found for 3.0


Gauge: 2.0 mm
Gauge: 1.80 mm 5LJKW
5LJKW

Maximum Gap (mm)


thinner material at section 5 2.5

2.0

‡ Increase in sidewall curl 1.5

1.0

(2.5mm) was also found for 0.5


/HIW
/HIW

thinner material at section 5 0.0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Section

www.autosteel.org

)RUPLQJ7HPSHUDWXUH

Laser Guided Demo of


Temperature Temperature
Gauge Measurement

2
4 3 1

Locations of Temperature Measurements


www.autosteel.org

9
)RUPLQJ7HPSHUDWXUH(IIHFW

Comparisons of Temperature
240
(Binder Force = 75 ton)
HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - Mill Oil
HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - Lubed
DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - Mill Oil
200
DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - Lubed
DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - Mill Oil
DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - Lubed

Temperature ( F)
160

O
DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - Mill Oil
DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - Lubed
120

80

40

0
1 2 3 4
Locations of Temperature Measured

7KHKLJKHVWWHPSPHDVXUHGWKURXJKRXWHQWLUHWUDLOLVR)
• The temperature increase was caused by the friction of part with tooling
• The temperature varies with the material-tooling contact force and area, which
change with the steel strengths and gauges
• Part temperature decreased rapidly through heat dissipation
• Part temperature did not elevate the tooling temperature significantly
• Lubrication did not show much improvement on part temperature
• Coating could reduced the tooling contact force and part temperature

www.autosteel.org

3UHVV7RQQDJH0RQLWRULQJ

Stamping Press /HIWEDFN 5LJKWEDFN

7RWDO
/HIWIURQW 5LJKWIURQW

/HIW 5LJKW
EDFN EDFN Tonnage meter

/HIW 5LJKW
IURQW IURQW

Locations of Stamping Force Measurements

www.autosteel.org

10
6WDPSLQJ)RUFH(IIHFW

Comparisons of Press Tonnage Comparisons of Press Tonnage


(Binder Force = 72 ton) (Binder Force = 33 ton)
700 700
HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - as isl HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - as is
600 HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - lubed 600 HSLA350 (1.9mm, GI) - lubed
DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - as is DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - as is
500 DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - lubed 500 DP590 (1.8mm, CR) - lubed
Tonnage (ton)

DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - as is

Tonnage (ton)
DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - as is
400 DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - lubed 400 DP590 (2.0mm, GA) - lubed
DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - as is DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - as is
300 DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - lubed 300 DP780 (1.9mm, CR) - lubed

200 200

100 100

0 0
Back Front Back Front Total Back Front Back Front Total
Left Left Right Right Left Left Right Right
Locations of Tonnage Measured Locations of Tonnage Measured

‡ No significant changes of press tonnage were found for different steel

www.autosteel.org

6XPPDU\

• A guideline for springback control was established on the basis


of experiment results by Mittal Steel
• The forming process designed based on the general guideline is
robust and capable to deal with different material and process
variations
• The tooling temperature in stamping remained the same with
ambient temperature though the part temperature was higher
• The press tonnage change due to different material and process
variations was less than 40 ton (<6.3% of total tonnage)
• Design of the forming process is the key to success!

www.autosteel.org

11
4 $

Thank You!

www.autosteel.org

12