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# Voltage Regulators

Engr.Tehseen Ahsan
Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department
EE-307 Electronic Systems Design
HITEC University Taxila Cantt, Pakistan
17 Introduction
 A voltage regulator provides a constant dc output voltage that
is essentially independent of the input voltage, output load
current and temperature.
 The voltage regulator is one part of a power supply. Its input
voltage comes from the filtered output of a rectifier derived
from an ac voltage.
 Most voltage regulators fall into two broad categories:
 Linear Regulators- In the linear regulator category, two general
types are the series regulator and the shunt regulator.
 Switching Regulators- In the switching regulator category, three
general configurations are step-down , step-up and inverting.

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators
 There are two basic types of linear regulator. One is the
series regulator and the other is a shunt regulator.
 A simple representation of a series type of linear regulator
is shown in figure 17-4 (a) next slide and the basic
components are shown in the block diagram in figure 17-4
(b) next slide.
 The control element is a pass transistor in series with the
load between the input and output.
 The output sample circuit senses a change in the output
voltage.
 The error detector (op-amp) compares the sample voltage
(feedback voltage) with a reference voltage and causes the control
element to compensate in order to maintain a constant output
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voltage.
17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 A basic op-amp series regulator is shown in figure 17-5 given
below:

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Regulating Action
 The operation of the series regulator is illustrated in figure 17-6
next slide and is as follows. The resistive divider formed by R2
and R3 senses any change in the output voltage.
 When the output voltage tries to decrease (because of a
decrease in VIN or increase in IL caused by decrease in RL), as
indicated in figure 17-6 (a) next slide, a proportional voltage
decrease is applied to the op-amp’s inverting input by the
voltage divider.
 Since the zener diode (D1) holds non-inverting op-amp input at
a nearly constant reference voltage, VREF, a small difference
voltage (error voltage) is developed across the op-amp’s inputs.

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Regulating Action

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Regulating Action
 This difference voltage is amplified, and the op-amp’s output
voltage VB increases. This increase is applied to the base of Q1,
causing the emitter voltage VOUT to increase until the voltage to
the inverting input again equals the reference (zener) voltage.
This action offsets the attempted decrease in output voltage,
thus keeping it nearly constant.

##  The power transistor, Q1 is usually used with heat sink because it

must handle all of the load current. (Remember Q1 and RL are in
series, i.e. IQ1 = IL)

##  The opposite action occurs when the output tries to increase as

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indicated in figure 17-6 (b) previous slide.
17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Regulating Action
 The op-amp in the series regulator is actually connected as a
non-inverting amplifier where the reference voltage VREF is the
input at the non-inverting terminal and the R2/R3 voltage
divider forms the negative feedback circuit. The closed-loop
voltage gain is

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17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Ideal Design Considerations:
 Consider VREF=VFB , We assume that initially minimum base voltage,
VB = 0.6 V exists at the OP-AMP (error detector) output to keep the
series-pass transistor, Q1 ACTIVE( ON) for regulated output voltage.
 Practical Design Considerations:
 We assume that initially minimum base voltage, VB = 0.6 V exists at the OP-
AMP (error detector) output to keep the series-pass transistor, Q1 ACTIVE(
ON) for regulated output voltage.
 The reference voltage VREF on the non-inverting input is made greater than
feedback voltage VFB so the amplifier’s output is always positive and is
proportionate to VREF -VFB.
 If VOUT decreases, VFB decreases and the amplifier output,VB increases.
 If VOUT increases, VFB increases and the amplifier output, VB decreases.

Remember VOUT and thus VFB increases or decreases with in certain limits
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to keep the amplifier’s output always positive.
17-2 Basic Series Regulators Continue…
 Regulating Action

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators
 The second basic type of linear voltage regulator is the shunt
regulator. As we have seen the control element in the series
regulator is the pass transistor in series with the load. In the
shunt regulator, the control element is a transistor in parallel
 A simple representation of a shunt type of linear regulator is
shown in figure 17-12 (a) next slide and the basic
components are shown in the block diagram in part (b).

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…
 In the basic shunt regulator, the control element is a
transistor Q1, in parallel with the load as shown in figure 17-
13 next slide.
 A resistor R1 is in series with the load.
 The operation of the circuit is similar to that of the series
regulator, except that regulation is achieved by controlling
the current through the parallel transistor Q1.
 When the output voltage tries to decrease (because of a
decrease in VIN or increase in IL caused by decrease in RL ) as
shown in figure 17-14 (a) next slide, the attempted decrease
is sensed by R3 and R4 and applied to the op-amp’s non-
inverting input.
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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…
 The resulting difference voltage reduces the op-amp’s output
(VB), driving Q1 less, thus reducing its collector current
(shunt current), and increasing its effective collector-to-
emitter resistance which results in increasing collector
voltage (VC). Thus the original decrease in voltage is
compensated for by this increase, keeping the output nearly
constant.
 The opposite action occurs when the output tries to increase,
as indicated in figure 17-14 (b) previous slide.
 With IL and VOUT constant, a change in the input voltage
produces a change in shunt current(IS) as follows

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…
 Ideal Design Considerations:
 Same as series regulator

##  Practical Design Considerations:

 We assume that initially minimum base voltage, VB = 0.6 V exists at
the OP-AMP (error detector) output to keep the parallel-pass
transistor, Q1 ACTIVE( ON) for regulated output voltage.
 The reference voltage VREF on the inverting input is made less than
feedback voltage VFB so the amplifier’s output is always positive and is
proportionate to VFB –VREF.

## Remember VOUT and thus VFB increases or decreases with in

certain limits to keep the amplifier’s output always positive.

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…

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17-3 Basic Shunt Regulators Continue…

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators
 The two types of linear regulators, series and shunt, have control
elements (transistors) that are conducting all the time, with the
amount of conduction varied as demanded by changes in the output
voltage or current.
 The switching regulator is different because the control element
operates as a switch (ON and OFF switch).
 A greater efficiency can be realized with a switching type of voltage
regulator than with the linear types because the transistor is not
always conducting.
 Therefore switching regulators can provide greater load currents at
low voltage than linear regulators
 The control transistor doesn’t dissipate much power in switching
regulators.
 Three basic configurations of switching regulators are step-down,
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step-up and inverting.
17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration
 In the step down configuration, the output voltage is always less
than the input voltage.

##  A simplified equivalent circuit is shown in figure 17-16 (a) next

slide and the basic step-down switching regulator is shown in
part (b).

##  Transistor Q1 is used as a switch to increase or decrease VOUT

(compensating action) when VOUT is decreased or increased
respectively.

##  The LC filter is then used to smooth the ripples of the switched

22 voltage.
17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration

## (b) Basic step-down switching regulator

23 Figure 17-16
17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration
 The on and off intervals of Q 1 are shown in the waveform of
figure 17-17 (a) next slide. The capacitor charges during the on-
time (ton ) and discharges during the off-time (toff).
 When the on-time is increased relative to the off-time, the
capacitor charges more, thus increasing the output voltage as
indicated in figure 17-17 (b) next slide.
 When the on-time is decreased relative to the off-time, the
capacitor discharges more, thus decreasing the output voltage as
shown in figure 17-7 (c) next slide.
 The inductor further smooths the fluctuations of the output
voltage caused by the charging and discharging action.

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration

25 Figure 17-17
17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Down Configuration

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Up Configuration
 A basic step-up type of switching regulator (sometimes called
Boost Converter) is shown in figure 17-20 given below, where Q 1
operates as a switch to ground.

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Up Configuration
 The switching action is illustrated in figure 17-21 and 17-22
next slide(s).
 When Q 1 turns on, a voltage equal to approximately VIN is
induced across the inductor with a polarity as indicated in figure
17-21.
 During the on-time (ton) of Q 1, the inductor voltage , VL
decreases from its initial maximum and diode D1 is reverse-
biased.
 The longer Q 1 is on, the smaller VL becomes ( smaller output
voltage) and the shorter Q 1 is on, the greater VL becomes (
greater output voltage).
 During the on-time, the capacitor only discharges an extremely small
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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Up Configuration

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Up Configuration
 When Q1 turns off, as indicated in figure 17-22 next slide, the
inductor voltage suddenly reverses polarity and adds to VIN,
forward-biasing Diode D1 and allowing the capacitor to charge.
 The output voltage is equal to the capacitor voltage and can be
larger than VIN because the capacitor is charged to VIN plus the
voltage induced across the inductor during off-time of
Q1.(VC=VIN+VL and VOUT =VC).
 When VOUT tries to decrease, transistors on-time decreases
thereby offsetting attempted decrease in VOUT.
 When VOUT tries to increase, transistor on-time increases and
attempted increase in VOUT is offset.

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17-4 Basic Switching Regulators Continue…
 Step-Up Configuration

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