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GUIDELINES FORTHEDESIGN OF
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
(Fourth Revision)

Published by:
INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
Kama Koti Marg,
Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022
April 2017
Price : `

(Plus Packing & Postage)

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First Published : September, 1970


Reprinted : December, 1976
First Revision : December, 1984
Reprinted : October, 1990 (Incorporates Amendment No. 1, September 1988
Reprinted : April, 1995
Second Revision : July, 2001
Reprinted : March, 2002
Reprinted : July, 2004
Reprinted : April, 2005
Reprinted : June, 2006
Reprinted : June, 2007
Reprinted : December, 2007
Reprinted : September, 2008
Reprinted : October, 2009
Reprinted : July, 2011
Third Revision : July, 2012
Fourth Revision 2017

(All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication shall be reproduced, translated or transmitted in
any form or by any means without the permission of the Indian Roads Congress)

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CONTENTS
Page No.
Personnel of Highways Specifications and Standards Committee (i)
1. Introduction
2. Scope of Guidelines
3. General
4. Traffic
4.1 General
4.2 Traffic growth rate
4.3 Design life
4.4 Vehicle damage factor
4.5 Distribution of Commercial traffic over the carriageway
4.6 Computation of design traffic
5. Sub-grade
5.1 Requirements of CBR for Sub-grade
5.2 Effective CBR
5.3 Determination of resilient modulus
6. Principles of Pavement Design
6.1 Pavement Model
6.2 Fatigue in bottom layer of bituminous pavement
6.3 Rutting in Pavement
6.4 Top-down cracking in bituminous layer
6.5 Cementitious Sub-base and base
7. Pavement Composition
7.1 General
7.2 Sub-base layer
7.3 Base layer
7.4 Bituminous layer
8. Perpetual Pavement
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9. Pavement Design Procedure


9.1 Using IITPAVE
9.2 Using Design Catalogue
9.3 Material Properties
10. Pavement Design Catalogues
10.1 Granular base and granular Sub-base
10.2 Cemented base and cemented sub-base with crack relief interlayer of
aggregate
10.3 Cemented base and cemented sub-base with SAMI at the interface of
cemented base and the bituminous layer
10.4 Foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion treated RAP
10.5 Cemented base and granular sub-base with crack relief layer of
aggregate interlayer
10.6 Other pavement composition
11. Internal Drainage in Pavement
12. Design in Frost Affected Areas
13. Summary of Design Procedure and use of IITPAVE software
Annex-I: Consideration in Design of Bituminous Pavement
Annex-II: Worked out Examples Illustrating the Design Method
Annex-III: Equivalence of thickness of bituminous mixes of different moduli

Annex-IV: Preparation of Laboratory Test Specimens for CBR Test and


Selection of Sub-grade CBR
Annex-V: Drainage layer
Annex-VI: Recommendation for Bituminous Wearing Courses for
Flexible Pavement
Annex-VII: Selection of Grade of Binders and Mixes for Bituminous Courses
Annex-VIII: Resilient Modulus of Granular Materials
Annex-IX: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Mix Design
Annex-X: Pavement Layers with Chemical Stabilized Materials
Annex-XI : Properties of Cementitious base and Sub-base

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PERSONNELOF THE HIGHWAYS SPECIFICATIONS AND


STANDARDS COMMITTEE

ABBREVIATIONS
All symbols are explained where they occur first. Some of the symbols are,

AAAT - Average Annual Air Temperature


AAPT - Average Annual Pavement Temperature
AMAT - Average Monthly Air Temperature
AMPT - Average Monthly Pavement Temperature
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials
ASTM - American Society of Testing and Materials
AUSTROADS - Association of Australian and New Zealand Road
Transport and Traffic Authorities.
BC - Bituminous Concrete
BIS - Bureau of Indian Standards
BM - Bituminous Macadam
Cs - Spacing of Transverse Cracks
CBR - California Bearing Ratio
CFD - Cumulative Fatigue Damage
CTB/CT - Cement Treated Base-includes all type of Cement
Chemical stabilized bases
DBM - Dense Bituminous Macadam
E - Elastic Modulus of Cementitious Layer
GB - Granular Base
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
GSB - Granular Sub-base
Ic - Crack Infiltration Rate per Unit Length
IRC - Indian Roads Congress
Kp - Infiltration Rate Per Unit Area of Un-Cracked Pavement
Surface
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MR - Resilient Modulus
MRUP - Modulus of Rupture
MEPDG - Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide

msa - Million Standard Axles


MORTH - Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
MSS - Mixed Seal Surfacing
Nc - No. of Longitudinal Cracks
Nf - Cumulative No. of Repetitions for Fatigue Failure

NR - Cumulative No .of Repetitions for Rutting Failure


PC - Premix Carpet

qi - Water Infiltration Rate Per Unit Area


SAMI - Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer
RAP - Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
RF - Reliability Factor
SDBC - Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete
SD - Surface Dressing
SDP - State Domestic Product

UCS - Unconfined Compressive Strength


Va - Volume of Air Voids
Vb - Volume of Bitumen
VDF - Vehicle Damage Factor
VG - Viscosity Grade
Wp - Width of Pavement Subjected to Infiltration
Wc - Length of Transverse Cracks
WBM - Water Bound Macadam

WMM - Wet Mix Macadam


εt - Horizontal Tensile Strain
εv - Vertical Subgrade Strain
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µ - Poisson’s Ratio
µε - Micro Strain

GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1The first guidelines on design of flexible pavement published in 1970 were based on (i) California
Bearing Ratio of subgrade and (ii) traffic in terms of number of commercial vehicles more than 3
tonnes laden weight. These guidelines were revised in 1984 in which design traffic was considered in
terms of cumulative number of equivalent standard axle load of 80 kN and design charts were
provided for traffic up to 30 msa using an empirical approach.

1.2The second revision was carried out in 2001 when pavements were required to be designed for
traffic up to150msa because of faster growth of commercial vehicles. The revised guidelines used a
semi-mechanistic approach based on the results of the MORTH’s research scheme R-56 implemented
at IIT Kharagpur. The software, FPAVE was developed for the analysis and design of flexible
pavements. Multilayer elastic theory was adopted for stress analysis of the layered elastic system. A
large number of data collected from different parts of India under various research schemes of
MORTH were used for the development of fatigue and rutting criteria from field performance data
and laboratory tests.

1.3 The third revision was carried out in 2012 to include new development around the world from
sustainability considerations. The volume of tandem, tridem and multi-axle vehicles had increased
manifold and heavier axle loads have increased considerably due to better network of roads.
Attention was focused on fatigue resistant bituminous mixes with high viscosity binders for heavy
traffic with a view to construct high performance long life bituminous pavements.

1.4 The fourth revision is done to include the feedback from the professionals on the performance
bituminous pavements for the heavily trafficked highways. The experience on the use of new form of
construction and materials such as stone matrix asphalt, Gap Graded Rubberised bitumen mix,
modified bitumen, foamed bitumen, bitumen emulsion, warm mix asphalt, cementitious bases and
sub-bases were utilized in improving the guidelines. The current version fine tunes the third revision
to address frequent early failure of bituminous concrete and Dense Bituminous Macadam which is of
great concern to all involved with highway projects. Guidelines include check for minimum thickness
of cement treated bases and granular subbases for structural safety against the construction traffic.
High modulus bituminous bases has also been included in the guidelines since this is being
commonly being used in Europe, and now being practiced in South Africa, Australia and some states
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in USA. Conventional construction material like aggregates is becoming progressively scarce on


account of environmental concerns as well as legal restrictions on quarrying while the construction
activity has expanded phenomenally. This has shifted focus from large scale use of conventional
aggregates to use of local, reclaimed asphalt pavement materials, recycled concrete and engineered
marginal aggregates in construction.

Accordingly, refinement has been carried out in the current revision of IRC 37 on use of new and
alternate materials in the current design practices. A designer can use his/her sound engineering
judgment consistent with local environment using a semi-mechanistic approach for design of
pavements.

Sinha,A.V. - Convenor
Bose, Dr. Sunil - Co-Convenor
Nirmal, S.K. - Member-Secretary

Members

Basu, Chandan Katare, P.K.


Bhanwala, Col. R.S. Krishna, Prabhat
Bongirwar, P.L. Lal, Chaman
Das, Dr.Animesh Nigam, Dr. S.K.
Dushaka, Vanlal Pachauri, D.K.
Gajria, Maj. Gen. K.T. Pandey, R.K.
Jain, Dr. M.C. Sarma, Dr. Sivaram B.
Jain, R.K. Sharma, S.C.
Jain, Rajesh Kumar Tyagi, B.R.
Jain, Dr. S.S. Wasson,Ashok
Kandhal, Prof. Prithvi Singh Yadav,Dr.V.K.(Rep.ofDGBR)

Corresponding Members

Bhattacharya, C.C. Justo, Dr. C.E.G.


Dongre, Dr. Raj Sharma, S.K.

Ex-Officio Members

President, IRC (Yadav, Dr. V.K., VSM)


Director General (RD) & SS, MORTH
Secretary General, IRC (Indoria, R.P.)

1.6 The draft was prepared by Prof. B.B.Pandey of IIT Kharagpur after a feedback during an open
house discussion of IRC: 37-2012 at NHAI headquarters on 9th April 2016, four years after the
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publications of the guidelines. Experts from different organization presented their views on various
clauses and some concerns about a few clauses were shared. The revised document considering the
comments and experience of the users is presented before the Flexible Pavement Committee (H-2)

1.7 The finalized document was submitted to the Highways Specifications and Standards Committee
(HSS) of IRC for their consideration. The document was approved by the Highways Specifications
and Standards Committe (HSS) in its meeting held on 23.9.2011. The Executive Committee in its
meeting held on 7.10.2011approved the document for Placing before Council. The document was
approved by the IRC Council in its meeting held on 3.11.2011 at Lucknow. The DG (RD) & SS
authorized the Convenor of the Flexible Pavement Committee (H-2) to incorporate the comments
offered by the Council members. The comments have been incorporated and the document has been
finalized for printing as one of the revised Publications of IRC.

2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES


2.1 The Guide lines shall apply to the design of new flexible pavements for Expressways, National
Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads and other categories of roads predominantly
carrying motorized vehicles. These guidelines do not form a rigid standard and users should use
their skill, experience and engineering judgment considering the local environment and past
pavement performance in the respective regions while selecting a pavement composition. IRC is
not responsible for any consequence arising from the use of the guidelines

2.2There can be many equally good compositions for a strong flexible pavement with bituminous
surfacing of which a few given in the following are discussed in detail.
:
(i) Granular base and sub-base
(ii) Cementitious bases and sub-bases with a crack relief layer of aggregate interlayer below the
bituminous surfacing
(iii) Cementitious bases and sub-bases with SAMI in-between bituminous surfacing and the
cementitious base layer for retarding the reflection cracks in to the bituminous layer
(iv) Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement(RAP) base treated with foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion
There can be other combinations such as Cementitious subbase, WMM base and bituminous
surfacing. Cost and availability of materials will determine choice of different layers
Use of deep strength long life bituminous pavement is also included in the guidelines in the light of
wide international experience. Many illustrations on thickness design with different compositions are
included

2.3 These guidelines shall not be straight way applied to overlay design for which Falling Weight
Deflectometer (IRC: 115-2014) or IRC:81-1997 should be used (32,33).

2.4 The guidelines may require revision from time to time in the light of future development and
experience in the field. Towards this end, it is suggested that all the organizations intending to use the
guidelines should keep a detailed record of the year of construction,
subbgrade CBR, soil characteristics including resilient modulus, pavement composition and
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specifications, traffic, pavement performance, overlay history, climatic conditions etc. and provide
feedback to the Indian Roads Congress for further revision.

3 GENERAL
3.1 The Mechanistic-Empirical approach adopted in IRC:37-2001 and IRC:37-2012 was retained in
the current guidelines also. For a design life up to 20 msa, a reliability of 80% is recommended for
the determination of pavement thickness. It implies that the pavement reaches the end of the design
life when 20% of the surface area may have develop about 20% fatigue cracking or have a rutting of
20mm in the design period whichever occurs earlier. For design traffic exceeding 20 million standard
axles, the cracking and rutting have been restricted to 10 percent of the area. The cracking and rutting
models are based on the data of the research schemes of the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways,
Government of India, under which pavement performance data were collected from all over India by
academic institutions and Central Road Research Institute (56,59,60) to evolve the fatigue and rutting
criteria for pavement design using a semi-analytical approach. In the absence of any further research
in the field to modify or refine these models, the same models are considered applicable to these
guidelines as well. These revised guidelines retain the scope of pavement design of the last version
which included alternate materials like cementitious and reclaimed asphalt materials for
sustainability, and subjecting them to a rigorous stress analysis using the software IITPAVE in view
of good performance of alternate materials such as cement treated bases and recycled Asphalt
pavement stabilized with foamed bitumen. The material properties of these alternate materials, such
as Resilient/Elastic Modulus, were extensively tested in laboratories in the country, especially IIT,
Kharagpur. Conservative values of material properties are suggested in these Guidelines because of
variation in test results on materials from different sources. The basic approach from National
Standards of Australia, South Africa and MEPDG of the USA as well as those adopted in some of the
satisfactorily performing pavements constructed in the country using cementitious and RAP bases
was also considered. The material properties, that affect the design greatly however should be tested
in laboratory as per the standard test procedures.

3.2 The experience on a number of high volume highways constructed during the last fifteen years
using the guidelines of IRC: 37-2001and IRC: 37-2012 shows that the common mode of distress has
been flushing, and rutting in the bituminous layer (51, 53 and 63). Surface cracking of the bituminous
layer (i.e. top down cracking) within a year or two of traffic loading followed by pothole formation
during the monsoon are also reported from different parts of India (39, 53 63,74,74). Published
literatures on fatigue and rutting of different types of bituminous mixes have helped in better
understanding of these problems (22, 26, 28, 40, 44, 45, 49 and 53). The present guidelines strongly
recommend that these problems need serious consideration. Bituminous mix design needs to be
considered an integral part of pavement design exercise with a view to provide (i) fatigue and
moisture resistant mixes in the bottom bituminous layer (ii) rut and moisture resistant bituminous
mix for the intermediate layer and (iii) rut, moisture, crack and age resistant wearing course.

3.3 Bituminous pavements with cementitious bases and cementitious subbases recommended in the
2012 version of the guidelines have given good performance in different parts of India. The low
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strength cementitious materials are cost effective when marginal aggregates are used.. They would display
only fine and traffic induced cracks after the construction and the long term effective layer moduli
would be lower than those determined in the laboratory by unconfined compression test commonly
used for cement concrete. Elastic Moduli of such layers are to be judiciously selected to ensure a
good long term performance as a structural layer. Their fatigue fracture behavior of the cementitious
base is analyzed on the same principles that are applied to concrete pavements. Only low strength
cementitious bases are recommended since high strength rigid bases may develop wide shrinkage
cracks which may reflect to the bituminous surface. Due to lower strength requirement of the
cemented sub-bases and bases, the required compressive strength can be easily achieved even by
stabilizing local and marginal materials. While their strength may be low, it is essential to ensure a
reasonable level of durability by ‘wetting’ and ‘drying’ test for the cementitious bases. The thickness
of cement bound base must be sufficient to carry the construction traffic.

3.4 The Guidelines recommend that the following aspects should be given consideration while
designing better performing pavements:
(i) Incorporation of design period of more than fifteen years.
(ii) Computation of effective CBR of subgrade for pavement design.
(iii) Use of rut resistant surface and binder layer.
(iv) Use of fatigue and moisture resistant bottom bituminous layer.
(v) Selection of surface layer to prevent top down cracking.
(vi) Use of bitumen emulsion/foamed bitumen treated Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements in base
course.
(vii) Consideration of stabilized sub-base and base with locally available soil and aggregates.
(viii) Design of drainage layer.
(ix) Computation of equivalent single axle load considering (a) single axle with
single wheels (b) single axle with dual wheels (c) tandem axle and (d) tridem
axles.
(x) Design of long life pavements with deep strength bituminous layer.
Each of the items listed above has been discussed in these guide lines at
appropriate places.

3.5 Load associated failure is considered as the mode of failure in these guidelines as environmental
effects on bituminous layers are built-in in the calibration of rutting and fatigue equations from
pavement performance.

4 TRAFFIC
4.1 General
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4.1.1 The pavement design method considers design traffic in terms of the cumulative number of
standard axles (80kN) to be carried by the pavement during the design life. Axle load spectrum data are
required where cementitious bases are used for evaluating the fatigue damage of such bases for heavy
traffic. Following information is needed for estimating design traffic:
(i) Initial traffic after construction in terms of number of Commercial Vehicles per
Day (CVPD).
(ii) Traffic growth rate during the design life in percentage.
(iii) Design life in number of years.
(iv) Spectrum of axle loads.
(v) Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF).
(vi) Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriageway.

4.1.2 Only the number of commercial vehicles having gross vehicle weight of 30 kN or more and
their axle loads are considered for the purpose of design of pavement.

4.1.3Assessmentof the present day average traffic should be based on seven-day-24-hour count made
in accordance with IRC: 9-1972 (72).

4.2 Traffic Growth Rate

4.2.1 The present day traffic has to be projected for the end of design life at growth rates (‘r’)
estimated by studying and analyzing the following data:
(i) The past trends of traffic growth; and
(ii) Demand elasticity of traffic with respect to macro-economic parameters (like GDP or SDP)
and expected demand due to specific developments and land use changes likely to take place
during design life.

4.2.2 If the data for the annual growth rate of commercial vehicles is not available or if it is less than
5 per cent, a minimum growth rate of 5 per cent should be used (IRC:SP:84-2014).

4.3 Design Life


4.3.1 The design life is defined in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles in msa that can
be carried before a major strengthening, rehabilitation or capacity augmentation of the pavement is
necessary.

4.3.2 It is recommended that pavements for National Highways and State Highways should be
designed for a minimum design life of 15 years. Expressways and Urban Roads may be designed for
a life of 20 years or higher using innovative design adopting high fatigue and rut resistant bituminous
mixes. In the light of experience in India and abroad, very high volume roads with design traffic
greater than 300 msa and long life pavements can also be designed using the principles stated in the
guidelines. For other categories of roads, a design life of 10 to 15 years may be adopted.
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4.3.3 Stage construction for major highways shall be adopted in exceptional conditions only when the
traffic projection is very uncertain. In such cases, thickness of granular layer should be provided for
the full design period. The bituminous layer of a pavement designed for ,say, ten year’s life will get
cracked after the design period and any bituminous overlay will need raising of levels of shoulder and
the median curb. The overlay over a cracked and damaged bituminous layer will have shorter life due
to reflection cracks under heavy traffic condition. Major strengthening of pavements after a short
design period in the stage construction may lead to high life cycle cost due to higher cost of
rehabilitation at an early stage. In case of cemented bases and sub-bases, stage construction may lead
to early failure because of high flexural stresses in the cemented layer.
4.4 Vehicle Damage Factor
4.4.1 The guidelines use Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) in estimation of cumulative repetitions of
standard axles load for thickness design of pavements. In case of cemented bases, cumulative fatigue
damage principle, applicable to rigid pavement, is used for determining fatigue life of cementitious
bases for heavy axle load repetitions using the data for the spectrum of axle loads.
4.4.2 The Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) is a multiplier to convert the number of commercial
vehicles of different axle loads and axle configuration into the number of repetitions of standard axle
load of magnitude 80 kN. It is defined as equivalent number of standard axles per commercial
vehicle. The VDF varies with the vehicle axle configuration and axle loading.

4.4.3 The equations for computing equivalent single axle load factors for single, tandem and tridem
axles given below should be used for converting different axle load repetitions into equivalent
standard axle load repetitions. Since the VDF values in the AASHO Road Test for flexible and rigid
pavement are not much different, for heavy duty pavements, the computed VDF values are assumed
to be same for bituminous pavements with cemented and granular bases.

𝐴𝑥𝑙𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝐾𝑁 4
Single axle with single wheel on either side ˭ ( 65
) ---------------4.1

𝐴𝑥𝑙𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝐾𝑁 4
Single axle with dual wheel on either side ˭ ( 80
) -------------- 4.2 .

𝐴𝑥𝑙𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝐾𝑁 4
Tandem axle with dual wheel on either side ˭ ( 148
) -------------- 4.3

𝐴𝑥𝑙𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝐾𝑁 4
Tridem axle with dual wheel on either side ˭ ( 224
) ------------- 4.4
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4.4.4 VDF should be arrived at carefully by carrying out specific axle load surveys on the existing roads.
Minimum sample size for survey is given in Table 4.1. Axle load survey should be carried out without any
bias for loaded or unloaded vehicles. On some sections, there may be significant difference in axle loading
in two directions of traffic. In such situations, the VDF should be evaluated direction wise. Each direction
can have different pavement thickness for divided highways depending upon the future axle load pattern.

Table 4.1 Sample Size for Axle Load Survey

Total number of Minimum percentage of


Commercial Commercial Traffic to be
Vehicles per day surveyed
<3000 20 per cent
3000 to 6000 15 per cent
>6000 10 per cent

4.4.5 Axle load spectrum


The spectrum of axle load in terms of axle weights of single, tandem, tridem and multi-axle should be
determined and compiled under various classes with class intervals of 10kN,such as 10 kN, 20 kN and 30
kN for single, tandem and tridem axles respectively.

4.4.6 Where sufficient information on axle loads is not available and the small size of the project does not
warrant an axle load survey, the default values of vehicle damage factor as given in Table 4.2 may be used.

Table 4.2 Indicative VDF Values

Initial traffic volume in terms of Terrain


commercial vehicles per day Rolling/Plain Hilly
0-150 1.5 0.5
150-1500 3.5 1.5
More than 1500 4.5 2.5

4.5 Distribution of Commercial Traffic over the Carriageway


4.5.1 Distribution of commercial traffic in each direction and in each lane is required for determining the
total equivalent standard axle load applications to be considered in the design. In the absence of adequate
and conclusive data, the following distribution may be assumed until more reliable data on placement of
commercial vehicles on the carriageway lanes are available:

(i) Single-lane roads


Traffic tends to be more channelized on single-lane roads than two-lane roads and to allow for this
concentration of wheel load repetitions, the design should be based on total number of commercial vehicles
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in both directions.
(ii) Two-lane single carriageway roads
The design should be based on 50 per cent of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions. If
vehicle damage factor in one direction is higher, the traffic in the direction of higher VDF is recommended
for design.
(iii) Four-lane single carriageway roads
The design should be based on 40 per cent of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.
(iv) Dual carriageway roads
The design of dual two-lane carriageway roads should be based on 75 per cent of the number of commercial
vehicles in each direction. For dual three-lane carriageway and dual four-lane carriageway, the distribution
factor will be 60 percent and 45 percent respectively.
4.5.2 Where there is no significant difference between traffic in each of the two directions, the design traffic
for each direction may be assumed as half of the sum of traffic in both directions. Where significant
difference between the two streams exists, pavement thickness in each direction can be different and
designed accordingly.

For two way two lane roads, pavement thickness shall be the same for both the lanes even if VDF values are
different in different directions, and designed for higher VDF. For divided carriageways, each direction may
have different thickness of pavements if the axle load patterns are significantly different but the possibility
of future traffic growth with enhanced economy should also be considered.

4.6 Computation of Design Traffic

4.6.1 The design traffic in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles to be carried during the design
life of the road should be computed using the following equation:

365×[(1+𝑟)𝑛 −1]
𝑁= ×𝐴×𝐷×𝐹 ------- 4.5
𝑟
Where,
N= Cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in terms of msa.

A=Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of the number of Commercial
Vehicles Per Day (CVPD).
D=Lane distribution factor (as explained in para 4.5.1).
F = Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF).

n = Design life in years.

r=Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles in decimal (e.g., for 5 percent annual growth rate, r =0.05
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The traffic in the year of completion is estimated using the following formula:

A= P(1 + r)x 4.6

Where,

P= Number of commercial vehicles per day as per last count.

x=Number of years between the last count and the year of completion of construction.

5 SUBGRADE

5.1 Requirements of CBR for Subgrade

The top 500 mm of the subgrade immediately below the bottom of the pavement can be made up of in-situ
material, select soil, or stabilized soil forming the foundation of a pavement. It should be well compacted to
limit the rutting in pavement due to additional densification during the service life. It shall be compacted to a
minimum of 97 per cent of laboratory dry density achieved with heavy compaction as per IS: 2720 (Part 8)
for Expressways, National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads and other heavily trafficked
roads. IRC: 36 “Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth Embankments for Road Works” should
be followed for guidance during planning and execution of work. The select oil forming the subgrade should
have a minimum CBR of 8 percent for roads having traffic of 450 commercial vehicles per day or higher. The
guidelines for preparation of samples, testing and acceptance criteria are given in sub-paras given below. The
in-situ CBR of the subgrade soil can also be determined from the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (60°cone)
from the following relation (ASTM-D6951-09) (11).

Log10CBR = 2.465 – 1.12 log10N 5.1

Where N = mm/blow

5.1.1 Selection of dry density and moisture content for test specimen

5.1.1.1 The laboratory test conditions should represent the field conditions as closely as possible.
Compaction in the field is done at a minimum of 97 per cent of the laboratory density at moisture content
corresponding to the optimum moisture content. In field, the subgrade undergoes moisture variation
depending upon local environmental factors, such as, the water table, precipitation, soil permeability,
drainage conditions and the extent to which the pavement is impermeable to moisture, which affect the
strength of the subgrade in terms of CBR. In high rainfall areas, lateral infiltration through unpaved
shoulder, median, porous wearing surfaces or through cracks may have significant effect on the subgrade
moisture condition.
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As a general practice, the worst field moisture is simulated by soaking the specimens in water for
four days so that the subgrade CBR is not underestimated..

5.1.1.2 Number of tests, design value and tolerance limit.

Where different types of soils are used in subgrade, a minimum of six to eight average CBR values
(average of three tests) for each soil type along the alignment will be required for determination of
th
design CBR. The CBR value corresponding to 90 percentile should be adopted as the design CBR.
90 percent of the CBR values are equal or greater than the design value for high volume roads such
as Expressways, National Highways and State Highways. For other categories of roads, design can be
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based on 80 percentile of laboratory CBR values. Method of computation of 90 percentile CBR is
given in AnnexIV. Pavement thickness on new roads may be modified at intervals as dictated by the
changes in soil profile but generally it will be found inexpedient to do so frequently from practical
considerations.

The maximum permissible variation within the CBR values of the three specimens should be as
indicated in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1 Permissible Variation in CBR Value

CBR ( per cent) Maximum variation in CBR value


5 ±1
5-10 ±2
11-30 ±3
31 and above ±5

Where variation is more than the above, the average CBR should be the average of test results from
at least six samples and not three.

5.2 Effective CBR


5.2.1 Where there is significant difference between the CBRs of the top 500mm of the select
subgrade and embankment soils, the design should be based on effective CBR. The effective CBR of
the subgrade can be determined from Fig.5.1. If the embankment soil itself has a CBR greater than
seven, no borrow soil is needed. For other compacted thickness of subgrade, ref 4 may be consulted
for guidance.
20

CBR of soil below 500mm of subgrade

CBR OF COMPACTED BORROW MATERIAL 500 mm THICK

Fig. 5.1 Effective CBR of Subgrade


In case the borrow material is placed over rocky foundation, the effective CBR may be larger than the
CBR of the borrow material. Use of the CBR of the borrow material may be adopted for pavement
design with proper safeguards against development of pore water pressure between the foundation
and the borrow material.
5.2. Effective CBR/ effective Resilient Modulus of the Subgrade Soil can also be determined from
basic approach as follows
(i) Using IITPAVE, determine the maximum deflection due to a single wheel load of 20000 N and
a tyre pressure of 0.56 MPa for a two layer elastic system for a given thickness of the select soil
and the embankment soil considering a poison’s ratio from 0.35 to 0.50. (ii) Find the resilient
modulus of a single layer elastic system which gives the same deflection as the two layer elastic
system as per the following equation
2(1−𝜇 2 )𝑝𝑎
Mr = …….. 5.2
𝛿
Where MR= the effective resilient modulus of the subgrade for pavement design,p = pressure over
circular area of radius= a , δ= surface deflection at the centre of the loaded area of a single wheel
over 500mm or any other thickness of the select subgrade and the embankment soil. Poisson’s ratio
has little effect.
21

Effective CBR= (Mr/17.6)^(1/0.64) for CBR>5


An example for computation of effective resilient modulus is given in Annexure=II.

5.3 Determination of Resilient Modulus of the subgrade


The behaviour of the subgrade is essentially elastic under the fast moving traffic loading with
negligible permanent deformation in a single pass. Resilient modulus is the measure of its elastic
behaviour determined from recoverable deformation in the laboratory tests. It is an important
parameter for design and the performance of a pavement. This can be determined in the laboratory by
conducting repeated tri-axial tests as per procedure specified in AASHTO T307-99 (2003)(1).Since
such a facility is not widely available and is very expensive, the default resilient modulus can be
estimated from generally acceptable correlations given as:
The relation between resilient modulus and the effective CBR is given as:
MR(MPa) = 10 * CBR for CBR 5
… 5.3
= 17.6 * (CBR)0.64 for CBR > 5
MR= Resilient modulus of subgrade soil.

The CBR of the subgrade should be determined as per IS: 2720 (Part 16) (38) at the most critical
moisture conditions likely to occur at the site. The test should be performed on remoulded samples of
soils in the laboratory. The pavement thickness should be based on 4-day soaked CBR value of the
soil, remoulded at placement density and moisture content ascertained from the compaction curve. In
areas with rainfall less than 1000 mm, four day soaking is too severe a condition for well protected
subgrade with thick bituminous layer and the strength of the subgrade soil may be underestimated. If
data is available for moisture variation in the existing in-service pavements of a region in different
seasons, moulding moisture content for the CBR test can be based on field data. Wherever possible
the test specimens should be prepared by static compaction. Alternatively dynamic compaction may
also be used. Both procedures are described in brief in Annex-IV.

6 PRINCIPLES OF PAVEMENT DESIGN


(Users of these guidelines are advised to read this section in conjunction with Annexs I to XI for a
better appreciation of the context and the requirements of pavement design)

6.1 Pavement Model: A flexible pavement displays a near elastic behavior under a fast moving
traffic and it is, therefore, is modeled as an elastic multilayer structure. Stresses and strains at critical
locations (Fig.6.1) are computed using a linear layered elastic model. The Stress analysis software
IITPAVE can be used for the computation of stresses and strains in flexible pavements. Tensile strain,
Єt, at the bottom of the bituminous layer and the vertical subgrade strain, Єv, on the top of the
subgrade are conventionally considered as critical parameters for pavement design to limit cracking
and rutting in the bituminous and non-bituminous layers respectively. The computation also indicates
that tensile strain near the surface close to the edge of a wheel can be sufficiently large due to heavy
wheel loads to initiate longitudinal surface cracking followed by transverse cracking much before the
22

flexural cracking of the bottom layer if the mix tensile strength is not adequate. This is due to (i)
deficiency of the binder in the mix and (ii) brittleness of the mix because of faster ageing caused
oxidation at higher temperatures prevalent in plains of India. It is therefore necessary that the top
layer should be both rut and age resistant so that resurfacing intervals can be longer.

Fig. 6.1: Different Layers of a Flexible Pavement

6.2 Fatigue in Bottom Layer of Bituminous Pavement and Fatigue Life


6.2.1 With load repetitions, the tensile strain induced at the bottom of the bituminous layer develops
micro cracks, which go on widening and expanding till the load repetitions are large enough for the
cracks to propagate to the surface over an area that is unacceptable from the point of view of long
term serviceability of the pavement. The phenomenon is called fatigue fracture of the bituminous
layer and the number of load repetitions in terms of standard axles that cause fatigue failure denotes
the fatigue life of the pavement. In these guidelines, cracking in 20 per cent area has been considered
for traffic up to 20 msa and 10 per cent for traffic beyond that.

6.2.2 Fatigue model was calibrated in the R-56(56) studies using the pavement performance data
collected during the R-6 (59) and R-19 (60) studies sponsored by MORTH. Two fatigue equations
having 80 and 90 percent reliabilities were fitted and two equations for the conventional bituminous
mixes designed by Marshall method are given below:

Nf= 2.21 * 10-04x [1/εt]3.89* [1/MR]0.854(80 per cent reliability) 6.1

Nf= 0.71 * 10-04x [1/εt]3.89* [1/MR]0.854(90 per cent reliability) 6.2

Where,
23

Nf= fatigue life in number of cumulative standard axles,


εt= Maximum Tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer, and
MR= resilient modulus of the bituminous layer.

As per the then prevailing practice, the mixes used in the pavements under study sections were
generally designed for 4.5 per cent air voids and bitumen content of 4.5 to 5.0 per cent by weight of
the mix (which in terms of volume would come to about 11.5 per cent). Mechanistic design(3,62)
recommend a factor ‘C’ to be introduced in fatigue models to take into account the effect of air voids
(Va) and volume of bitumen (Vb), which is given by the following relationships
𝑉𝑏
C = 10M, and 𝑀 = 4.84 ( − 0.69)
𝑉𝑎+𝑉𝑏

Corresponding to the values of Va and Vb as stated above, introduction of ‘C’ in Equations 6.1 and
6.2 leads to Equations 6.3 and 6.4 below.

Nf= 1.6064 * C * 10–04x [1/εt] 3.89* [1/MR]0.854 For 80% reliability 6.3

Nf= 0.5161 * C * 10–04x [1/εt] 3.89* [1/MR]0.854 For 90% reliability 6.4

6.2.3 Well-known fatigue models also (3, 8 and 62) include the above approach to take into account
the effect of volume of bitumen and air voids in the bituminous mix. Equations 6.3 and 6.4 show that
changes in volume air voids (Va) and volume of bitumen (Vb) have an impact on the fatigue life. Vb
can vary from 10% for DBM I mix to 14% for mixes with 14mm and 19mm maximum nominal size
aggregates used in European countries and California (76). For example, If bitumen content i s
i n c r e a s e d above the optimum bitumen content to have an air void of 3% and if the volume of
bitumen is 13 per cent, the fatigue life would be increased by about three times (Fig I-2). Higher
fatigue life due to increased bitumen content was verified from laboratory tests at IIT Kharagpur (40)
as shown in Fig.I-1 in Annexure-I. The recommendation in these guidelines is to target low air voids
and higher bitumen constant for the lower bituminous layer to obtain a fatigue and moisture resistant
mix. Since DBM mixes consisting of larger size of aggregates are used in India in base and binder
courses as opposed to much smaller aggregate size used in European and Californian practice
(76,77,78), the volume of binder cannot be increased beyond 11.5% and 12.5% for DBM I and DBM
II mixes respectively for 3% air void. The mix with modified bitumen has vastly improved fatigue
life than the neat bitumen (Fig.I-1 in annexure I) and increasing the binder content will improve the
fatigue life and moisture resistance of the mixes considerably. Extreme care should be taken to
eliminate segregation of DBM-1 and DBM-2 during the construction due to presence of large size
aggregates since their modulus values are much higher due to good interlocking of larger size
aggregates. Users should consider these factors while designing a pavement.

Equation Eq.6.3 is recommended for use for traffic up to 20 msa where bituminous mixes with VG
30 or VG40 bitumen can be used depending upon the climate. Equation 6.4 is recommended for use
24

for traffic greater than 20 msa where bituminous mixes with VG40 binder or a modified binder should
be used on plains of India. Choice of a binder will depend upon the pavement temperature as well the
traffic as discussed in the Annexure-VII. Local experience, however, should determine choice of
binder. Volume of stiffer bitumen in the DBM layer can be increased by adjustment of grading of
aggregates during the mix design process so that volume of voids in mineral aggregate is greater to
accommodate more binder for durability. The guidelines recommend that the designer should
consider these aspects with a view to obtain a higher fatigue life of bituminous mixes. If DBM is laid
in two layers, it is recommended that the lower DBM mix be designed for 2.5% air void and
compacted to an air void of less than 4% (MS2,2014). In such cases, an air void of 3% with the
actual volume of effective binder may be considered for the pavement design. If DBM is laid in a
single layer, the mix shall be designed for 3% air void and the mix shall be compacted to an air void
of less than 4.5% and the pavement shall be designed for an effective air void of 3.5% and effective
volume of bitumen in the bottom rich DBM compacted mix. In such cases, the restriction of Vfb 0f
75% shall not apply. Bottom rich layer is necessary to eliminate block cracking in DBM, so
common in four laning projects, when the DBM is exposed to traffic during the construction when
the laying of DBM goes on the other side. VG30 shall not be used in bottom rich DBM in flexible
pavements carrying traffic higher than 10msa in regions where the maximum air temperature may
exceed 350C. Some design examples of pavements for different air voids and effective volumes of
bitumen are given in the Annexure II. Mix design issue is presented in Annexure-VII. A discussion
on the effect of modulus of mixes, air voids and volume of bitumen on fatigue behaviour of
bituminous mixes is also presented in Annexure-I. The current worldwide trend is to design a
bituminous layer with greater amount of harder bitumen to limit rutting, fatigue cracking and
moisture damage even in a colder climate.

6.2.3 Cumulative Fatigue Damage for Bituminous Mixes


A flexible pavement is subjected to spectrum of axle loads applied through single, tandem and
tridem axles and their magnitudes can be much higher than the legal axle load limits. Fatigue damage
is large due to heavier axles compared to those with lower loads. Axle load equivalency factor for
converting all axles of different magnitudes into repetitions of equivalent standard single axle load of
magnitude 80 kN is not strictly valid. It is necessary to use principle of cumulative damage to used
for rigid pavements evaluate safety of structure from fatigue consideration.
The fatigue damage principle may be stated as

𝑛𝑖
Cumulative fatigue damage = ∑𝑘1 𝑁𝑖 6.5

Where ni = number of expected axle load repetitions of load level i


Ni= Fatigue life at load level i
k = number of temperature levels in different seasons. Fatigue damage is to be computed at
different temperature intervals
The above approach has to be calibrated from field performance for 10% and 20% cracking along
the wheel path. Development of fatigue cracking takes place when the temperature is lower in winter
25

which is short in India. Bituminous mix is flexible at higher temperatures during the long summer
during which rutting phenomenon is more predominant. Researchers and users may use the above
approach for future revision of the guidelines.
6.3 Rutting in Pavement
6.3.1 Rutting is the permanent deformation in pavement occurring longitudinally along the wheel
path. It may partly be caused by deformation in the subgrade and other non-bituminous layers which
would reflect to the overlying bituminous layers to take a deformed shape. The bituminous mixes
also may undergo equal amount of rutting due to secondary compaction and shear deformation
under heavy traffic load and higher temperature. Excessive rutting greatly reduces the serviceability
of the pavement and therefore, it has to be limited to a certain value to maintain a good riding quality.
In these guidelines the limiting rutting of 20mm is recommended in 20 percent of the length for
design traffic up to 20 msa and 10 percent of the length for the design traffic beyond that.

6.3.2 Rutting model


Like the fatigue model, rutting model also was developed in the R-56(56) project using the pavement
performance data collected during the R-6(59) and R-19(60) studies at 80 per cent and 90 per cent
reliability levels. The two equations are given below:

N = 4.1656 x 10-08[1/εv]4.5337 … 6.6

N = 1.41x 10-8x[1/εv]4.5337 … 6.7


Where,

N = Number of cumulative standard axles, and

εv= Vertical strain in the subgrade

As can be seen, the model considers the vertical strain in subgrade as the only variable for rutting,
which is a measure of bearing capacity of the subgrade. The rutting in granular layer also is lower
when the vertical subgrade elastic strains are limited to those given by Equations 6.4 and 6.5. A
granular layer founded on a strong subgrade has a high resilient modulus and resists rutting. Rutting
in the bituminous layers also occurs due to the shear deformation and secondary compaction and its
magnitude can be as high as the total of the rutting in non-bituminous layer including the subgrade.
This needs to be addressed by providing rut resistant bituminous mixes using higher viscosity grade
bitumen or modified bitumen.

6.3.3 Computation of Rutting from Mechanistic Approach

The bituminous, granular and the subgrade layers undergo rutting due to the repeated axle loads. The rutting
is more in the bituminous layer during the summer while in wet season, it is large in the subgrade and the
granular layer. For estimating the rutting, each of the layers are sub-layered, stresses due to spectrum of axle
loads are computed in different layers in different seasons and permanent deformations are determined in each
sublayer from their stress –strain relations . The rutting in each layer is computed by adding the permanent
deformations in each sub-layer. Sum of all the permanent deformations in subgrade, granular subbase and
26

granular base and bituminous layers is the total rutting. Material properties are to be evaluated for each layer
before the development of the rutting models. This is to be calibrated from field data in different states having
different climate (3). Researchers and consultants may consider the above approach to evolve a performance
based pavement design for different regions.

6.4 Top Down Cracking in Bituminous Layer

While fatigue cracking is conventionally considered as a ‘bottom-up cracking’ phenomenon, ‘top-


down cracking’ followed by raveling and pothole formation during the rains have frequently been
observed within two to three years of construction on high volume roads because of (i) ageing
of the wearing course (ii) deficiency in the binder and (ii) surface cracking due to high tensile
stresses close to tyre edge by heavy axle loads. These guidelines recommend moisture, age and
fatigue resistant gap graded (GG) rubberized bitumen mix ( IRC:SP:107) or Stone Matrix Asphalt
(IRC:SP:79) with PMB40 for high volume pavements with design traffic exceeding 20 msa to
eliminate frequent maintenance, a practice widely adopted at the international level. Intervals of
overlays also are expected to be much larger as experienced in other countries. Both GG graded
bitumen-rubber mixes and SMA have given good performance on National Highways in India. For
traffic exceeding 10 msa and less than 20 msa also, BC with modified binder is recommended.
Traffic projection for the selection of the binder for the DBM and the wearing course shall be done
on the basis 15 years of traffic as discussed in Annexure VII. Users should exercise their knowledge
and experience in selecting the wearing course notwithstanding the above recommendations.

6.5 Cementitious Sub-base and Base

6.5.1 Cementitious materials normally crack due to shrinkage and temperature changes even without
pavement being loaded. Such materials having low cement content develop fine cracks and have to be
preferred to high cement content mixes producing wider cracks. While making a judgment on the
strength values for design, the reduction in strength due to the cracked condition caused by shrinkage
and the construction traffic needs to be fully recognized. The elastic modulus (E) recommended for
design is much lower than their laboratory values obtained from unconfined compression test. The
extent of reductions proposed has generally been in agreement with practices followed in the national
standards of other countries like Australia, South Africa, MEPDG of the USA etc. A number of
pavements with cementitious bases have been constructed in different parts of the country
using the recommendations of IRC:37-2012 and the performance is reported to be good. The
structural evaluation of bituminous pavements with cementitious base and subbase in Madhya
Pradesh and West Bengal was done with FWD and the pavement was found to be strong. New
pavements constructed with these materials need to be closely monitored by Falling Weight
Deflectometer (FWD) for the extended period of fifteen years for the evaluation of material properties
for future guidance. These guidelines strongly recommend construction with cementitious materials in
the interest of saving the environment and using the local and marginal materials after stabilization.
Validated results of cemented pavement layers from India and other countries and use of a sound
analytical tool can result in good performing pavements at an affordable cost consistent with
environmental requirement.
27

6.5.2 Fatigue cracking in cementitious bases

The analysis of fatigue cracking of cement treated layers is recommended at two levels because of
very heavy axle loads on highways. Preliminary thickness of the cemented layer is firstly evaluated
from fatigue consideration in terms of cumulative standard axles. At the second level, the cumulative
fatigue damage due to individual axles is calculated based on a model which uses ‘stress ratio’ (the
ratio of actual stresses developed due to a class of wheel load and the flexural strength of the
material) as the parameter. The computation of stresses due to spectrum of axle loads is done by the
IITPAVE program. An excel sheet can be used to calculate the fatigue damage of each class of wheel
loads and summed up for the entire axle load spectrum to obtain the cumulative fatigue damage. The
cumulative fatigue damage of wheel loads should be less than one during the design life of a
pavement. If it is greater than one, the section has to be changed and iteration done again. The first
model in terms of cumulative standard axle load repetitions adopted from the Australian experience
which may not always work for very heavy axle loads operating in India, while the second one
provides a very scientific approach for fatigue analysis of cementitious base in which fatigue damage
is computed for axle loads of different magnitudes. First level gives the initial cross section in a few
trials only. The second level analysis alone may be used for thickness design without considering the
forst level but it may take a few more trials. Thickness may increase by 40 to 50 mm in many caes
when second level analysis is done. The two fatigue equations are given below:

A. Fatigue life in terms of standard axles for first level analysis

113000 12
( 0.804 +191)
𝑁= 𝑅𝐹 ⌊ 𝐸 𝜀 ⌋ --- 6.8
𝑡

Where, RF= Reliability factor for cementitious materials for failure against fatigue.

=1 for Expressways, National Highways and other heavy volume roads.

= 2 for others carrying less than 10 msa.

N = Fatigue life of the cementitious material.

E = Elastic modulus of cementitious material.

€t= tensile strain in the cementitious layer, microstrain.


B. Fatigue Equation for second level analysis

The spectrum of axle loads has to be compiled under various axle load classes for fatigue analysis of
cementitious bases. One pass of tandem and tridem axles respectively may be taken as equivalent to
two and three passes of single axles respectively because axles located at distances of 1.30 m and
higher don’t cause any significant overlapping of stresses. For example, if a tridem axle carries a load
of 45 tons, this is equivalent to three passes of single axles of weight 15 tons each. The fatigue life is
28

given by the following equation

0.972−(𝜎𝑡/𝑀𝑅𝑢𝑝 )
𝐿𝑜𝑔𝑁𝑓𝑖= 6.9
0.0825

Nfi= Fatigue life at axle load of class i. Logarithm has a base 10.

σt= tensile stress under cementitious base layer.

MRup= 28 day flexural strength of the cementitious base.

The fatigue criterion is considered satisfied if Σ(ni/Nfi) is less than 1,where ni is the expected number
of axles of axle load level ‘i’ in the design period. In cemented bases proposed in the guidelines,
neither vertical subgrade strain nor tensile strain in the bituminous layer is critical in most cases.
6.5.3: Checking the thickness of cementitious base for the construction traffic: While low
strength cementitious subbase may crack and form interlocking blocks due to construction traffic
needed laying of other layers, the cementitious base (CTB) shall be allowed to crack due to
construction traffic. For example, after the construction of the CTB, WMM is brought to the site on a
dumper and loaded to the paver. It should be checked that the flexural stress caused by the dumper is
less than seven day flexural strength of the CTB. Minimum thickness of CTB may also be governed
by construction traffic.
7 PAVEMENT COMPOSITION
7.1 General
A flexible pavement covered in these guidelines consists of different layers as shown in Fig. 7.11.

Bituminous layer

Aggregate interlayer/SAMI for cementitious base

Cement bound/ granular/Foamed bitumen/ bitumen emulsion


treated aggregates/RAP

base base
Granular/
Figure 7.11cementitious subbase
Different Layers of Bituminous pavements

Figure 7.11 Layered Bituminous Pavements

The sub-base and the base layers can be granular (unbound) or chemical stabilized with stabilizers
such as cement, lime, flyash and other cementitious stabilizers. In case of pavements with
29

cementitious base, a crack relief layer provided between the bituminous layer and the cementitious
base delays the reflection crack in the bituminous layer. This may consist of graded crushed
aggregates of thickness 100 mm to 150mm of WMM conforming to IRC/MORTH specifications or
the Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI) of elastomeric modified binder at the rate of
about 2 litre/m2 covered with light application of 10 mm aggregates to prevent picking up of the
binder by construction traffic (16). WMM must be compacted to over 100% of the modified dry
density to act as a strong crack relief layer (67)

The unbound base layer of Wet Mix Macadam (64) to serves as a strong support for the compaction
of bituminous Concrete and Dense Bituminous Macadam. The base layer may also consist of
reclaimed asphalt pavement/granular materials treated with cement, bitumen emulsion of SS2 grade
or foamed bitumen. Reclaimed asphalt pavement materials when treated with foamed bitumen or
bitumen emulsion with or without fresh aggregates are required to have the required minimum
indirect tensile strength to be considered as a base layer. Industrial waste such as steel slag aggregates
can also be used as a granular or cement stabilized layer if its expansive properties have been arrested
by proper curing.

The sub-base layer serves three functions (i) provides a strong support for the compaction of
WMM/WBM layer (ii) protects the subgrade from overstressing and (iii) serves as drainage and filter
layer. The thickness of sub-base, whether bound or unbound, should meet these functional
requirements.

7.2 Sub-base layer

7.2.1 Unbound sub-base layer

7.2.1.1 Sub-base materials may consist of natural sand, moorum, gravel, laterite, kankar, brick metal,
and crushed stone, crushed slag and reclaimed crushed concrete/reclaimed asphalt pavement or
combinations thereof meeting the prescribed grading and physical requirements. When the sub-base
material consists of combination of materials, mixing should be done mechanically either using a
suitable mixer or adopting mix-in-place method. The sub-base should have sufficient strength and
thickness to serve the construction traffic as illustrated in Annexure II.

7.2.1.2 Specifications of granular sub-base (GSB) materials conforming to MORTH Specifications


for Road and Bridge Works (64) are recommended for use. These specifications and the specified
grain size distribution of the sub-base material should be strictly enforced in order to meet strength,
filter and drainage requirements of the granular sub-base layer. When the sub-base is used as a
drainage layer, Los Angeles abrasion value should be less than 40 to prevent excessive crushing
during the rolling and the required permeability is retained and fines passing 0.075 mm should be less
than 2 per cent.

7.2.1.3 The sub-base should generally be composed of two layers, the lower layer forms the
separation/ filter layer ( subase grading I,II,Vand VI of Morth,64) to prevent intrusion of subgrade
soil into the pavement and the upper GSB forms the drainage layer( GSB grading III and IV of
30

MORTH) to drain away any water that may enter through surface cracks particularly in high rainfall
area.. Filter and drainage layers can be designed as per IRC: SP: 42-2014 (35), IRC: SP: 50-2013(36)
and other information given in Annex-V. A synthetic geo-composite having adequate horizontal
permeability may also be used as a separation and drainage layer in locations where aggregates are
not available but its strengthening effect should not be considered. Grid lock geocell filled with
aggregates can also be used as a drainage layer. Minimum thickness of GSB shall be 200mm.
7.2.1.4 Strength parameter
The design parameter for granular sub-base is resilient modulus (MR), which is given by the
following equation:
MRgsb= 0.2h0.45* MRsubgrade …7.1
Where h = thickness of sub-base layer in mm
MR value of the sub-base is dependent upon the MR value of the subgrade since weaker subgrade doesn’t
permit higher modulus of the upper layer because of deformation under loads.

7.2.2 Bound sub-base layer

7.2.2.1 The material for bound subbase may consist of soil, aggregate or soil aggregate mixture
modified with chemical stabilizers such as cement, lime, lime-flyash, commercially available
stabilizers1 etc. The drainage layer of the subbase may consist of coarse/open graded aggregates
bound with about 2 percent cement/ bitumen emulsion for stability during the construction. If soil
stabilised with cementitious material is used as a sub-base and granular material is not easily
available, commercially available geo-composites possessing the necessary horizontal permeability
can be used to serve both as a drainage and filter/separation layer. Drainage and separation layers are
essential when water is likely to enter into pavements from the shoulder, median or through the
cracks in surface layer. There is little chance of moisture entering from the pavement surface when
bituminous layer of thickness of 100mm or greater is provided
7.2.2.2 Strength Parameter

The relevant design parameter for bound sub-bases is the elastic modulus E, which can be determined
from the unconfined compressive strength of the material. The cementitious granular sub-base in the
must have minimum 7-day UCS of 1.5 to 3 MPa. The elastic moduls of the bound sub-base, E , (12)
is given by the following equations:
Ecgsb= 1000 * UCS …7.2
Where UCS = 28 day strength of the cementitious granular material. It should be ensured that
minimum UCS is attained in the field and laboratory strength values must be higher than the field
strength due to variability in the construction. MORTH(64) recommends laboratory strength values
which is 1.5 times higher than the required strength in the field .
Equation 7.2 gives a value in the range of 2000 to 4000 MPa. Since the sub-base acts as a platform
31

for the construction traffic, low strength cemented sub-base is expected to crack during the
construction and a design value of 600 MPa is recommended for the stress analysis. Poisson’s ratio
may be taken as 0.25. The cemented subbase shall be cured for a minimum of three days before the
construction of the upper layer.
If the stabilized soil sub-bases have 7-day UCS values in the range 0.75 to 1.5 MPa, the
recommended E value for design is 400 MPa with Poisson’s ratio of 0.25.

7.3 Base Layer

7.3.1 Unbound base layer

The base layer may consist of wet mix macadam, water bound macadam, crusher run macadam,
reclaimed concrete etc. Relevant specifications of IRC/MORTH are to be adopted for the
construction.

When both sub-base and the base layers are made up of unbound granular layers, the composite
resilient modulus of the granular sub-base and the base is given as:
MR_granular=0.2* h0.45MRsubgrade … 7.3
Where h = thickness of granular sub-base and base, mm
Poisson’s ratio of granular bases and sub-bases may be taken as 0.35.

7.3.2 Cementitious bases

7.3.2.1 Flexural strength of a cementitious base is critical to the satisfactory performance of a


bituminous pavement. Unconfined compressive test is usually carried out in mix design for quick
evaluation of strength parameters. Cemented base layers may consist of aggregates or soil-aggregate
mixture stabilized with chemical stabilizers such as cement, lime, lime-flyash or other commercially
available stabilizers which are required to give a minimum strength of 4.5 to 7 MPa in 7/28 days.
While the conventional cement stabilized material should attain the above strength in seven days
(IRC:SP-89-2010(30)), granular materials and soil-aggregate mixturel stabilized with lime, pozzolanic
stabilizers, lime-flyash etc. should meet the above strength requirement in 28 days since strength gain
in such materials is a slow process. MORH(64) recommends the laboratory strength to be 1.5 times
the desired strength in the pavement to account for the variability. Even Reclaimed Asphalt materials
of damaged pavements are being stabilized in-place with cement for rehabilitation. Though the initial
modulus of the cementitious bases may be in the range 10000 to 15000 MPa, the long term modulus of
the cemented layer may be taken as fifty per cent of the initial modulus due to shrinkage cracks and
construction traffic (67,68). Australian guidelines (16) recommend use of Equation 7.2 for the
cemented layer. Curing of cemented bases shall be done for a minimum of seven days before the
commencement of the construction of the upper layer for achieving the required strength as described
in IRC: SP-89, and curing should start immediately by spraying bitumen emulsion, wet jute mat or
periodical mist spray of water without flooding or other methods. If cementitious base of lower
32

strength is iused, it must meet the durability criterion as laid down in 7.3.2.3. Pavement design is to
be done accordingly.
Note: Where commercially available stabilisers are used, the stabilized materials should meet the additional requirement of
leachability and concentration of heavy metals apart from the usual requirements of strength and durability.

7.3.2.2 Strength parameter

Flexural strength is required for carrying out the fatigue analysis as per fatigue equation and not the
unconfined compressive strength. MEPDG recommends that the modulus of rupture for chemically
stabilized bases can be taken as 20 percent of the 28day unconfined compressive strength on
cylinder. Laboratory tests IIT Kharagpur do confirm that the recommendation is conservative (17,
18). The same is recommended in these guidelines. The following default values of modulus of
rupture corresponding the 28 day UCS of 7 MPa, 5.25 MPa and 3.5 MPa are recommended for
cementitious bases (MEPDG).
Cementitious stabilized aggregates - 1.40 MPa
Lime—flyash-soil - 1.05 MPa
Soil cement - 0.70 MPa
Poisson’s ration of the cemented layers may be taken as 0.25. Relation between UCS, indirect tensile
strength(ITS) and Flexural Strength(FS) should be determined for all stabilized layers for quality
control since ITS is easy to determine on the cores taken from the field. FS is about 1.5 times the ITS.
Such material must be subjected to durability test as mentioned in 7.3.2.4 since stabilized soil is more
susceptible to moisture damage.

7.3.2.3 While minimum size of sample of beam for cement stabilized aggregate for flexure test can
be 100m x 100mmx500mm, the beam size for flexural tests for stabilized soil with hydraulic binders(
cement, lime, lime-flyash and other commercially available cementitious binders) can be from
50mm x50mm x250mm to 75mm x75mm x 375mm, and third point loading shall be applied at a
rate of 1.25mm per minute, same as that of the CBR loading frame.

7.3.2.4 Durability criteria

Even if the minimum UCS criterion is met, the minimum cementitious material in the bound base
layer should be such that in a wetting and drying test (BIS: 4332 (Part IV) - 1968) (19), the loss of
weight of the stabilized material does not exceed 14 percent after 12 cycles of wetting and drying. In
cold and snow bound regions like Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh
etc., durability should also be determined by freezing and thawing test and the loss of weight should
be less than 14 percent after 12 cycles (BIS: 4332 (Part IV) – 1968) (19). The cementitious base
meeting the strength requirements of IRC: SP: 89-2010 is found to meet the criteria of durability
requirement (16).

7.3.2.5 Strength gain with time

The cementitious materials keep on gaining strength over a long time period and a 28 day strength
33

also gives a conservative design. It should be recognized that the cemented materials may possibly
degrade also with time depending upon the loads, temperature and moisture conditions, freeze-thaw
cycles and quantity of chemical stabilizers.

7.3.2.6 Crack relief layer

A SAMI layer using elastomeric modified bitumen provided over the cementitious layer delays the
cracks propagating into the bituminous layer (12). A crack relief layer of wet mix macadam of
thickness 100mm/150 mm sandwiched between the bituminous layer and treated layer is much more
effective in arresting the propagation of cracks from the cementitious base to the bituminous layer
(16, 24, 67 and 66). The sandwiched aggregate layer between two strong layers become stiffer under
heavier loads because of confinement. The WMM layer should be compacted to a minimum of 100%
of dry density higher (67,68).If there is shoving and deformation are expected in the WMM layer due
to unavoidable construction traffic, the granular layer may be treated with 2 to 3 per cent of SS2
bitumen emulsion in the WMM plant during blending of aggregates to avoid reshaping.

7.3.2.7 Modulus of crack relief layer: The resilient modulus of a well graded granular layer such as
Wet Mix Macadam provided between the cementitious and bituminous layers is dependent upon the
confinement pressure under wheel load (3, 16, 27, 67 and 68). The modulus may vary from 250 to
1000 MPa depending upon the gradation and a typical value of 450 MPa (16, 67 and 68) is suggested
for the sandwiched aggregate layer for the analysis of pavements. Strong support from the
cementitious base, results in higher modulus than what is given by Eq. 7.3 when a granular layer rests
on a weak layer. Poisson’s ratio of the aggregate relief layer may be taken as 0.35. A brief description
on strength and resilient modulus of cementitious materials is given in Annex VIII.
7.3.3 Bitumen emulsion/foamed bitumen treated reclaimed asphalt pavement base.

The base may be made up of milled material from reclaimed asphalt pavements treated with foamed
bitumen or bitumen emulsion. The long term value of resilient modulus of the material with bitumen
emulsion(SS2) may be taken as 800 MPa The laboratory values may range from 600 to 1200 MPa (52,
61). For foamed asphalt, VG30 is recommended for the foamed asphalt mix for a better strength2 due
to high temperature in plains of India.
________________________________________________________________________________________
_ 2 California Department of Transportation uses PG64-16 bitumen (closer to VG30 bitumen). In India also, VG30 is being used now
in cold recycling with foamed bitumen.

The above mentioned resilient modulus value can be ensured if the Indirect Tensile Strength (ASTM:
D6931) (14) of the 100 mm diameter Marshall specimen of the Emulsion/Foamed Bitumen treated
material has a minimum value of 100 kPa in wet condition and 225 kPa in dry condition under a rate of
loading of 50 mm/minute (59) at 25°C. Poisson’s ratio is recommended as 0.35.Mix design and test
methods are given in Annexure IX. It is recommended that the modulus test be carried out to confirm
that the pavement is not under designed. Many trial sections mentioned in the same Annexure have
given good results. Bitumen emulsion mix can be laid insitu by a train of equipment in which milling,
34

addition of bitumen emulsion, water, lime or cement, mixing operations and compaction are carried
out continuously. In case of small works, wet mix plant can be used for mix preparation with bitumen
emulsion which can be laid by a paver. RAP mixes with foamed asphalt also are being laid in India by
in-place or in-plant methods on a number of pavement rehabilitation/widening work saving use and
transportation costly and precious aggregates.

7.4 Bituminous layers


7.4.1 The Resilient Modulus (MR) of bituminous mixes is the input for the analysis of stresses in
flexible pavements. Its magnitude depends upon the grade of binder, the temperature,
frequency/loading time, air void, volume of bitumen, texture, gradation of aggregates, maximum size
of aggregates, state of packing of aggregates, orientation of the test sample while testing and
viscosity of the binder. VG40 is most suitable for the hot climate in plains of India. Modified binders
also are suitable both for hot and cold climate. The modulus of mixes with modified binders varies a
great deal depending upon the modifier, duration of blending and the extent of air blowing of
base bitumen. It may vary from a low of about 1600 MPa to a high of 3000 MPa at 35°C, lower
modulus is not a reflection on quality of the modified binder. Though an elastomer modified binder
gives a lower modulus of the bituminous hot mix, its fatigue live, which controls the thickness of the
bituminous layer, is much higher. Lower modulus is due to large recoverable deformation in
elastomer binders. It is to be noted that the modulus values change continuously with a change in
temperature and it can be as high as 5000MPa at lower temperatures at midnight to less 1000 MPa
at 650 C at noon when the bitumen becomes too soft. Indicative values of resilient modulus values
of the bituminous materials at 350Cwith different binders are given in Table 7.1. These are based on
l a b o r a t o r y tests at IIT Kharagpur in Indirect Tensile mode as per ASTM 4123 now revised as
ASTM: D7369-09(12). A loading pulse of 0.1 second followed by a rest period of 0.9 second is
adopted for Indirect Tensile Test. These findings are in agreement with those given in some other
literature as well for similar binders e.g., Monismith et al. (20), AUSTROADS and others. VG30
bitumen may have a viscosity from 2400 poise to 3600 poise at 600C while for VG40, the viscosity
range is 3200 to 4800 poise. Hence modulus values of both VG30 and VG40 may be close to each
other in some cases when viscosity overlaps.
The guidelines, therefore recommend that the modulus values of mixes with normal and modified
binders should be determined from a repeated Indirect Tensile Strength test. Figure 7.2 shows a view
of a schematic diagram of indirect tensile test as per ASTM D4123.Total recoverable horizontal
deformation is measured and the modulus computed by an assumed Poisson’ ratio of 0.35, a value
recommended in the method . The test is simple to carry out as compared to that that prescribed in
ASTM: D7369-09(12). Two LVDTs are mounted on each face of the specimen in ASTM: D7369
method and only the computed Poisson’s ration is used for the computation of modulus. The
equipment similar to ASTM D4123 is in use in Australia,UK and other European countries and it is
commercially available also. Any of the equipment mentioned above can be used for the evaluation
of modulus value.
35

Dynamic Load

LVDT

Marshall
sample
2
1

Figure 7.2 Indirect tensile test

Foot Note: (AUSTROADS recommend 20% to 30% lower modulus for


SBS(6%)/CRMB(25%crumb rubber)) modified mixes than those with neat bitumen. For
EVA modified binder, the modulus is 30% higher) .

Resilient modulus of a Marshall specimen is given as

𝑃(𝜇+0.27)
𝑀𝑟 = 7.4
𝑡𝐻𝑟

Where p= cyclic load(10% of the Indirect tensile strength),


µ= Poison’s ratio ( range 035 to 0.40), Hr= Recoverable horizontal deformation across the diameter
(sum of recoverable deformation of LVDTs 1 and 2 in Figs 7.2) and t=thickness

If the test parameters are Load=1500 N, diameter of specimen(D) 102mm, height(t)= 60.75mm,
Recoverable horizontal deformation (Hr) = 4 micron (0.004mm), assuming µ=0.35 Mr= 3827 MPa.
Higher Poisson’s ration gives higher modulus.
A regression equation (49) given below can be used for the determination of MR value of the
bituminous layer if test facility is not available.
The regression equations for the dense graded bituminous mixes are given as
MR(MPa)=2.6975 x ITS + 724.46 for mixes with neat bitumen -- 7. 5
R² = 0.84
MR(MPa)=1.1991 x ITS + 1170 for mixes with modified bitumen …. 7. 6
2
R = 0.89
36

Where, ITS =Indirect Tensile Strength in kPa, MR= Resilient Modulus in MPa
ITS is to be determined in the Marshall loading frame at a speed of 50mm/minute as explained in
Appendix IX. 10 to 15% variation in the modulus of bituminous mixes has little effect on the
pavement design. A change in modulus of ± 500 MPa may result in thickness variation of about 5
mm per 100mm thickness of the DBM layer having a modulus of 3000 MPa. Examples are solved in
Annexure II to illustrate the effect of modulus on thickness of bituminous layers .An additional
thickness of about 10 mm of the DBM layer is to be provided to take care of undulations in WMM
layer considering that 10mm variation in surface irregularity of the WMM/WBM layer is permitted
in MORTH(80) . Maximum modulus of the DBM layer may be taken as 3000 MPa with VG40
bitumen even if higher modulus is obtained in the laboratory tests, and for VG30 bitumen,
recommended upper limit is 2000 MPa. Moduli determined in the laboratory or from the regression
equations 7.5 and 7.6 can be used for pavement design though the design charts give thickness of
bituminous layers for mixes with modulus of 1700 MPa for VG30 and 3000 MPa for VG40
respectively.

7.4.2 Diameter of Test samples for ITS and Resilient Modulus Test: The DBM mix is the main
structural layer of a flexible pavement with granular bases and sub-bases. Since it forms bulk of the
thickness of a bituminous layer for high volume roads, and unlike wearing course, it ages slowly is
situated at least 40mm below the surface. Its modulus plays an important role in lowering the tensile
strain in its bottom and vertical strain on the top of the subgrade. Since the maximum nominal size of
aggregate in DBM can be 40mm and the largest dimension may be still higher, 150mm diameter test
specimen shall be adopted for the MR test. Higher aggregate size gives higher modulus of the
bituminous mixes because of increased interlocking.

7.4.3 Modified Bitumen for wearing course: The mixes with modified bitumen are known to (i) age
slowly (ii) give improved fatigue lives and higher rut resistance notwithstanding lower resilient
modulus values obtained in the laboratory as reprted in Table 7.1. Even if the modulus of the wearing
course such as SMA/Gap Graded Rubberized bitumen mix with modified bitumen (IRC:SP:79,
IRC:SP:107) is lower, the modulus assigned to the DBM layer may be adopted for the wearing
course also for the stress computation because (i) the wearing course is under direct compression
below the wheels and the dynamic modulus values at a speed of 50 to 60 kmph (corresponding to the
frequency of 10 hz) under the compression will be higher and (ii) the wearing course will age faster
and the modulus will increase. As per the international practice (MS2), only modified binder such as
PMB40 or rubberized bitumen (Equivalent to PG76 or higher as per US practice) are recommended
in Stone Matrix Asphalt In case of gap graded bituminous mixes, the binder containing about at least
20% crumb rubber ( IRC:SP:107) shall be used.

7.4.4 DBM Mixes with Modified Bitumen: The mixes with modified bitumen can have a fatigue
life that can be three to ten times of mixes with neat bitumen as illustrated in Fig. I-1 in Annexure I.
While the wearing courses with PMB/CRMB can be milled and recycled easily since they become
37

brittle due to faster ageing because of exposure to sun, the DBM I and DBM II mixes with modified
bitumen can be used in lower layers if their recyclability can be established from the experience in
India or abroad. Mixes with elastomeric binders may cause problems in milling and recycling them
during pavement rehabilitation. Sustainability issues have to be kept in mind.

7.4.5 High viscosity binder is recommended for the bituminous mixes to limit rutting. Their fatigue
lives depend upon the test method whether the tests are done under constant strain or constant stress
modes. Stiffer mixes have a higher fatigue life under control stress mode and lower fatigue life under
control strain mode. For thin bituminous layer, constant strain mode is applicable while for thicker
mixes, constant stress mode is more appropriate. Stiff bituminous mixes can be obtained either by
using higher viscosity bitumen or by modified bitumen. Mixes with modified bitumen have better
fatigue and rutting behavior compared to mixes with normal bitumen (22, 40, 44 and 71). Fatigue life
of mixes can be further improved by reducing the air voids and increasing the volume of binder. Low
air voids and higher bitumen content may, however, induce bleeding and rutting if softer binders are
used. These guidelines, therefore, recommend that these factors should be taken into account while
designing bituminous mixes.

7.4.5 The Poisson’s ratio of bituminous layer depend upon the pavement temperature and a
value from 0.35 to 0.40 recommended for temperature up to 35°C and value of 0.50 for higher
temperatures. Stress computation is not very sensitive to minor changes in Poisson’s ratio. Fatigue
equation at any pavement temperature from 20°C to 40°C can be evaluated by substituting the
appropriate value of the resilient modulus of the bituminous mix, air void and volume of bitumen.
Catalogue of typical designs has been worked out for a temperature of 35°C. It is noted that the
bituminous mixes harden with time and modulus may increase to higher values due to ageing than
what is given in the Table 7.1. Hence field performance is to be periodically recorded for future
guidance. Annex VII gives various considerations for the selection of binders and mixes in the light
of international experience.

Table 7.1 Typical values of Resilient Modulus and of Bituminous Mixes, MPa*

Mix type Temperature °C


20 25 30 35 40
BC and DBM for VG10 bitumen 2300 2000 1450 1000 800
BC and DBM for VG30 bitumen 3500 3000 2500 1700 1250
BC and DBM for VG40 bitumen 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000

BC and DBM for Modified Bitumen


5700 3800 2400 1650 1300
(IRC: SP: 53-2010) (2000 for
SBS)
38

BM with VG 10 bitumen 500 MPa at 35°C


BM with VG 30 bitumen 700 MPa at 35°C
RAP treated with 3-4 percent bitumen emulsion/ 800 MPa at 35°C
foamed bitumen (2-2.5) percent residual bitumen and 1
percent cementitious material).
*Thickness of bituminous layer is affected by about 5mm per 100mm of the layer for a variation of 15% of modulus
of 3000 MPa

7.4.5 Quality issues in DBM and BC: Though mix design is done in the laboratory before the start
of the bituminous construction, it is to be ensured that right material as per the mix design is being
laid since there is always variability in a large scale construction. In case of two lane paving, at least
two loose samples from locations close to paver from each lane shall be taken during the paving and
a part of the sample shall be compacted in Marshall moulds in the field itself with 75 blows on each
face to form the reference density for the examination of the density of the compacted mass at the
same location from cores. A part of the loose samples may be used for the determination of the
maximum theoretical density and the grading so that remedial measures are taken early. This should
be done at every 250m.
39

8 LONG LIFE PAVEMENTS


8.1 Long Life Pavement: A pavement having a life of fifty years or longer is termed as Long Life
th
Pavement, also known as perpetual pavement. As per Asphalt Institute, MS-4, 7 edition 2007, if the
tensile strain caused by the traffic in the bituminous layer is less than 70 micro strain, the endurance
limit of the material, the bituminous layer never cracks. Similarly if vertical subgrade strain is less
than 200 micro strain, there will be little rutting in subgrade. For the climatic conditions on plains of
India where Average Annual Pavement Temperature may be about 350C, the corresponding limiting
strains may be taken as 81and 200 micro strains respectively due to lower resilient modulus of the
bituminous layer. Design of such a pavement is illustrated in the guideline. Different layers are so
designed and constructed that only the surface layer would need replacement with a new layer from
time to time. There is now enough evidence worldwide that deep strength bituminous pavements
suffer damage only at the top and nowhere else. A design example is given in Annex. II

8.2 Pavement Design for 300 msa: Pavements are commonly designed in India for a design life of
15 years when the total traffic in most cases is about 150 msa or less. Design method presented in the
guidelines can be used for design of pavement for full concession periods when the traffic level may
reach about 300 msa or higher. A design example is given in Annex. II

9 PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURE

9.1 Using IITPAVE

Any combination of traffic and pavement composition can be analyzed using IITPAVE. The designer
can apply his/her judgment and experience in the choice of pavement materials and layer thickness.
The standard wheel load, tyre pressure, number of layers, the layer thickness of individual layers and
the layer properties are the user specified inputs in the Program, which gives strains at critical
locations as outputs. The adequacy of design is checked by the Programme by comparing these
strains with the allowable strains as predicted by the fatigue and rutting models. A satisfactory
pavement design is achieved through iterative process by varying layer thicknesses or, if necessary,
by changing the pavement layer materials. (See section 13 for rocedures for using IITPAVE and
Annex II for worked out examples).

9.2 Design catalogues

Catalogue of pavement compositions illustrated in the guidelines gives the minimum thickness of
different layers for subgrade CBR values of 5 to 15 , design traffic from 5 msa to 150 msa, and
assumed material properties. This is only for illustration. The users are required to carry out the
40

design independently to optimize the thickness for the specific CBR and the computed design traffic
for the selected combinations considering the basic equation for fatigue and rutting as shown in the
examples. If aggregates are too costly at a given location, thickness of bituminous layer can be
increased to minimize aggregate requirement. Where practicable, synthetic Geo-composite
layer may be used for separation/filtration above the subgrade to replace costly granular
subbase at least partially. Cement treated marginal aggregates can also be used to cut down cost.
Reclaimed asphalt pavement materials from the damaged pavements or recycled concrete can be
treated with cement or foamed bitumen/ bitumen emulsion for the construction of bases and subbases.
Modulus values of the bituminous layers should be determined ensure that the mix is safe against
rutting and fatigue cracking. Thus there is a wide choice of materials for optimization of pavement
design. A strong subgrade and a higher modulus subbase will provide a durable pavement.

9.3 Material Properties

Regardless of the design procedure, it is essential that the material properties are adopted after
conducting relevant tests on the materials. Where all test facilities are not available, at least those
tests must be carried out, which can validate the assumed design properties. In Annex XI, the type of
tests for the stabilized materials required as well as the range of values for material properties are
given based on typical test results and experience in other countries. The values as suggested may be
adopted for pavement design as default values but not without validation by subjecting the materials
to such tests which can be easily carried out in any laboratory (e.g. Unconfined Compressive
Strength) to validate the assumed design values.

10 PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES


For the guidance of users, a number of combinations of traffic and material properties are considered
for which pavement composition has been illustrated in the form of design charts presented in Plates1
to 15 for illustration. Users can develop different compositions to suit the local conditions to optimize
the design from the considerations of availability of materials, cost and durability. Thickness of the
bituminous layer has been computed considering an air void of 3% and a volume of bitumen (Vb) of
11.5% for the lower DBM. In actual construction, while a mix can be designed for an air void of 3%,
Vb may be different depending upon the texture and specific gravity of aggregates. The chart gives
thickness of different layers. For traffic exceeding 20 msa, a wearing course with BC mix with PMB,
SMA or Gap graded mixes with rubberized bitumen (GGMRB) should be preferred because of their
41

durability. SMA with PMB and GGRB have much higher life than BC with PMB or CRMB. Each
combination has been supported with illustration to compare the proposed design thickness in the
design catalogue with that given by IITPAVE (Clauses 10.1 to 10.5).. In case of thin bituminous layer
with thickness less than 50mm over granular layers, only vertical subgrade strain is the design
criterion since tensile strain in the bituminous layer is very low. For the cementitious base also,
tensile strain in the bituminous layer is too low. The five combinations are as under: Various plates
give indicative values of thickness of different materials. Users may develop their own design
thickness considering modulus values which can be different from those used in the guidelines.
1. Granular Base and Granular Subbase. (Cl 10.1) (Plate 1 to 3)
2. Cementitious Base and Cementitious Subbase with aggregate interlayer for
crack relief. (Cl 10.2) (Plate 4 to6)
3. Cementitious base and subbase with SAMI at the interface of base and the
bituminous layer. (Cl 10.3) (Plate 7 to 9)
4. Foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion treated RAP over Cementitious subbase
(Cl 10.4) (Plate 10 to 12)
5. Cementitious base and granular subbase with crack relief layer of aggregate
layer above the cementitious base. (Cl 10.5) (Plate 13 to 15)
Note:
These charts are to be used for traffic above 2 msa. For traffic below 2 msa IRC: SP:72-2015
should be referred to. City roads should be designed for a minimum of 2 msa traffic..

10.1 Granular Base and Granular Subbase

Granular base

Critical location for vertical subgrade strain

Fig. 10.1 Bituminous Surfacing with Granular Base and Granular Sub-base.

Fig.10.1 shows the cross section of a bituminous pavement with granular base and subbase. It is
considered as a three layer elastic structure consisting of bituminous surfacing, granular base and
subbase and the subgrade. The granular layers are treated as a single layer. Strain and stresses are
42

required only for three layer elastic system. The critical strain locations are shown in the figure. For
traffic greater than 10 msa and less than 20 msa, VG30 or VG40 can be used. For traffic > 20 msa,
o n l y VG40 bitumen or binder of equivalent stiffness i s r e c o m m e n d e d for DBM for plains in
India. In a two layer DBM, the Lower DBM mix may be designed for 2.5% air void and compacted
to an air void of less than 4% after rolling(MS2 recommends an air void of 2 to 2.5%) . Thickness
design shall be designed for an air void of 3% and actual volume of bitumen. For single layer DBM,
the mix should be designed for an air void of 3% and compacted to an air void of less than 4.5%.
Thickness shall be designed for an air void of 3.5% and actual volume of bitumen (Vb). GSB consists of
a separation/filter in the bottom(gradation I,II,VII of MORTH) and a drainage layer having the
grading III and IV GSB of cl 401.1 of MORTH may be used as drainage layers.

Table:1 Thickness of BC,DBM,WMM/WBM, GSB in mm

Plate 1 CBR 5%
800
50 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

700 40
40 40 160
600 120 140
80 100 BC
40
500 30 70
60 DBM
400 250 220 250 250 250
225 WMM/WBM
225
300
GSB
200
300 300 300 300 300
100 225 250

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa
43

Plate 2 CBR 10%


700

600 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

50
40
40
500 30 40 110 135 BC
75 95
50 50
400 DBM
50
250 250 250 250 250 250 WMM/WBM
300
150
GSB
200

100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Plate 3 CBR 15%


700

600 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

40 50
40 110
500 50 75 85 BC
40
400 50 50 DBM
250 250 250 250
50 WMM/WBM
300 150 150
150 GSB
200

100 225 225 225 225 225 225


150
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Illustration
Traffic=150 msa
Subgrade CBR=10, thickness GSB=200mm,WMM=250, DBM=130mm, BC=50mm
Check the adequacy of design?
44

Esubgrade = 17.6 x CBR0.64= 77 MPa

MR_granular =0.2 x Esubgrade x h0.45, h = thickness of granular layer (GSB + WMM)


MR_granular = 0.2 x 77 x 4500.45= 240 MPa. MR_ bituminous layer= 3000 MPa
For the given composition of Pavement thicknesses, 90% Reliability is adopted i.e., Eq. 6.4 and Eq.
6.7 are used
Allowable Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layeris145x10–6 for VG40 Mixes for Va=3% and
Vb=11.5%
Allowable Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 291x10–6

From PLATE2, BC=50mm, DBM=135mm, WMM=250mm, GSB-200mm. The computed strains


From IITPAVE Software are
I. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 139 x10-6 < 145 x10–6

II. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 228 x 10–6< 291 x 10–6

Hence the Pavement Composition is Safe. If DBM II is the bottom layer with 3% air void, Vb=12.5%
against 11.5% for the bottom rich DBM I. Allowable tensile strain=151x10-6 Consider BT=175 mm
Vertical subgrade strain= 239X10-06 < 291 x 10–6and Tensile strain by IITPAVE= 147X10-06
<151x10-6and hence safe.
It can be seen that less thickness of bottom rich DBM II is required than the DBM I and hence some
economy, however small, can be brought about by judicious design and construction.

10.2 Bituminous Pavements with Cemented Base and Cemented Subbase with Crack
Relief Interlayer of Aggregate

Critical tensile strain location

Fig. 10.2 Bituminous Surfacing, Cement Treated Base and Cement Treated
Sub-Base with Aggregate Interlayer

Fig. 10.2 shows a five layer elastic structure consisting of bituminous surfacing, aggregate interlayer
layer, cemented base, cemented subbase and the subgrade. Material properties such as modulus and
45

poisson’s ratio are the input parameters apart from loads and geometry of the pavement for the
IITPAVE software. For traffic > 20 msa, VG 40 bitumen is used for limiting rutting. DBM has a
design air void of 3% and less than 4.5% after rolling. Cracking of cemented base is taken as the
design life of a pavement. For traffic greater than 30 msa, minimum thickness of bituminous layer
consisting of DBM and BC layers is taken as 100 mm (AASHTO-1993) even though the thickness
requirement may be less from structural consideration. Residual life of the bituminous layer against
fatigue cracking is not considered since it cracks faster after the fracture of the cemented base. In high
rainfall area, upper100 mm of the cemented subbase (D) having the gradation 4,5,6 of the Table V-1 of
Annexure V is porous acting as the drainage layer over lower cemented subbase (F). The gradings III and
IV of Table 400.1 of MORTH with fines less than 2 % containing about 2-3% cement can also be used,
In such cases where CTB is used, it is necessary to carry out fatigue damage analysis for the safety of
CTB against premature fracture by the spectrum of axle loads for design traffic ≥ 10 msa. Thickness
may have to be increased. One can also assume a section considering the constructability and carry
out fatigue damage analysis bypassing the example shown above. This is illustrated in Annexure II.
46

Plate 4 CBR 5%
700

600
Pavement Thickness,mm

50
50 50
500 50
50 50 50
40 50
100
400 100 100 100 BC
40 100 100
75 DBM
300 120 110 120 140
100 100
AIL
100
200 CTB

250 250 250 250 250 250 CT_GSB


100 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Plate 5 CBR 10%


600

50 50
50
500 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

50 50 50
40 50
100 100
400 40 100 100
100 100
BC
75
300 100 100 110 120 DBM
100 100
100 AIL
200
CTB
225 225 250 250 250 250 CT_GSB
100 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa
47

Plate 6 CBR 15%


600

50 50
500 40
Pavement Thickness,mm

50 50
40 40 50
50
400 40 100
100 100 100 100
100 BC
75
300 DBM
100 100 100 110 120
100 100 AIL
200
CTB

100 225 225 225 225 225 CT_GSB


200 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Illustration

Traffic 150 msa


Subgrade CBR = 10percent, MR subgrade = 17.6*CBR0.64 = 77MPa,MR bituminousl layer = 3000 MPa
Consider BC + DBM = 100 mm, Aggregate interlayer = 100 mm (MR = 450 MPa),
Cemented base = 120 mm (E = 5000 MPa), cemented subbase = 250 mm(600 MPa)
(600 MPa)

Equations 6.4, 6.7 and 6.8 are used as design criteria.


I. Allowable Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 145 x 10–6.

II. Allowable Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 291 x 10–6.


III. Allowable Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 64.77x10–6.
From IITPAVE Software the computed strains are

IV. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 131x10-6< 145 x 10–6.


V. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 202 x 10–6 <291 x 10–6

VI. Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 51 x 10–6 <64.77x10–6

Hence the design is safe. The plates above give an approximate thickness quickly. However
cumulative fatigue damage analysis and its safety from the construction traffic are to be examined as
48

explained later in Annex II.3.2 and II.3.6


If bending strength is less than 1.4 MPa( 28 day UCS<7 MPa), the thickness of CTB will be higher.

10.3 Cemented Base and Cemented Subbase with Sami at the Interface of Cemented
Base and the Bituminous Layer

SAMI layer

Critical location for vertical strain

Fig. 10.3 Bituminous Surfacing with Cemented Granular Base and Cemented Granular
Sub-base with Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)

Fig.10.3 shows a four layer pavement consisting of bituminous surfacing, cemented base,
Cemented subbase and the subgrade. For traffic > 20 msa, VG40 bitumen is used. The DBM mix
is designed for air void of 3 percent and compacted to an air void content less than 4.5% after rolling
Cracking of cemented base is taken as the life of pavement. Minimum thickness of bituminous layer
for major highways is recommended as 100 mm as per the AASHTO guidelines. Stress on the
underside of the bituminous layer over un-cracked cemented layer is compressive
In such cases where CTB is used, it is necessary to carry out fatigue damage analysis for the safety of
CTB against premature fracture by the spectrum of axle loads. Thickness may have to be increased.
49

Plate 7 CBR 5%
600
Pavement Thickness,mm

500 50 50
40 50
40 50 50 50 BC
40 50 50
400
170 170 DBM
150 160 150 150 160
300
CTB

200 CT_GSB
250 250 250 250 250 250 250
100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Plate 8 CBR 10%


600
Pavement Thickness,mm

500 50
40 50
50 50 50 BC
400 40 40 50 50
DBM
130 140 140 160 140 150 160
300
CTB

200 CT_GSB
250 250 250 250 250 250 250
100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa
50

Plate 9 CBR 15%


600
Pavement Thickness,mm

500
40 50 50
50
50 50 50 50 BC
400 40 40 50
DBM
120 130 140 140 130 140 150
300
CTB

200 CT_GSB
250 250 250 250 250 250 250
100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Illustration

Traffic 150 msa

Subgrade CBR = 10%, MRsubgrade= 17.6*CBR0.64= 77 MPa, MRbituminous layer= 3000 MPa

E of cemented base = 5000 MPa, E of cemented subbase = 600 MPa

From PLATE 15, BC + DBM =100 mm,Cemented base=160mm,Cemented subbase=


250 mm

SAMI is provided on the top of cemented base.


For the given traffic, 90 % Reliability is adopted i.e., Equations
6.4, 6.7 and 6.8 are used.

I. Allowable Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 145 x 10–6.

II. Allowable Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 291 x 10–6.

III. Allowable Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 64.77 x. 10–6.


From IITPAVE Software the computed strains are

I. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is –4.137 x 10–6 (Compressive).

II. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 191 x 10–6.

III. Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 58 x. 10–6.


Minimum thickness of 100 mm has been adopted for BC and DBM even though there is no tensile
51

stress at the bottom as per AAHSTO 93 Guidelines. The Pavement Composition is safe. The
reduction in thickness of the cemented base increases the bending stresses considerably because it is
inversely proportional to the square of the thickness. It is necessary to carry out fatigue damage
analysis for the safety of CTB against premature fracture by the spectrum of axle loads. Structuarl
safety of the CTB should be examined for the construction traffic as illustrated in Annex II.3.6.

10.4 Foamed Bitumen/Bitumen Emulsion Treated Rap/Aggregates Over Cemented


Subbase

Fig. 10.4 Bituminous Surfacing with RAP and Cemented Sub-base

Fig. 10.4 shows a four layer pavement consisting of bituminous surfacing, recycled layer Reclaimed
asphalt pavement, cemented subbase and the subgrade. VG 40 is used for traffic > 20 msa. Even
bitumen emulsion/foamed bitumen treated fresh aggregates can be used to obtain stronger base of
flexible pavements as per the international practice. DBM has a design air void of 3 percent
compacted to less than 4.5% air void after rolling Fatigue failure of the bituminous layer is the end of
pavement life. Cemented subbase is similar to that in clause 9.3.
52

Plate 10 CBR 5%
600

50
Pavement Thickness,mm

500 50
50 50
50 BC
400 50
40
40 DBM
40 170 200
40 140
300 170 Foamed/Em_bi
130 150
100 t
200 CT_GSB

250 250 250


100 200 200 200 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Plate 11 CBR 10%


600
Pavement Thickness,mm

500 50
50 BC
40 50
400 50
50 DBM
40 40 160
40 40 130
300 100 Foamed/Em_bi
100 100 110 120 t
200 CT_GSB

250 250 250


100 200 200 200 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa
53

Plate 12 CBR 15%


600
Pavement Thickness,mm

500
50 BC
50 50
400 50
50 50 DBM
40 40 40 50 140
300 100 110 Foamed/Em_bi
100 100 100 100 t
200 CT_GSB

250 250 250


100 200 200 200 200

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Illustration

Traffic 150 msa

Subgrade CBR = 10 percent, Esubgrade= 17.6*CBR0.64 = 77 MPa, MR bituminous layer = 3000 MPa

MRof foamed bitumen treated RAP = 800 MPa, E of cemented subbase = 600 MPa

Pavement thicknesses for CBR 10 percent (PLATE 11), BC + DBM = 100 mm, RAP = 160 mm,
cemented subbase = 250 mm

Design traffic = 150 msa 90 percent Reliability is adopted i.e., Equations 6.4 and Equation
6.7 are used.
I. Allowable Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 145 x 10–6.

II. Allowable Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 291 x 10–6.

From IITPAVE Software the computed strains are

I. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 91 x 10–6.

II. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 277 x 10–6.

Minimum thickness of 100 mm for the DBM+ BC has been adopted for traffic greater than 30 msa as
per AAHSTO 93 Guidelines since the wearing course of thickness 40mm to 50mm may have to be
milled and replaced at regular intervals. The Pavement Composition is Safe.. A safe design is
54

necessary for RAP mixes due to variability. Users may optimize the design further.

10.5 Cemented Base and Granular Subbase with Crack Relief Layer of Aggregate Interlayer
Above the Cemented Base

Fig. 9.5 Bituminous Surfacing, Cement Treated Base and Granular Sub-base with Aggregate Interlayer

Some highways may need total rehabilitation due to complete damage of bituminous layers because
repeated overlays do not work. Users may have a choice of bituminous surface, aggregate interlayer,
cemented base while retaining the existing granular subbase. If the problem is due to subgrade
problem, the entire pavement has to be milled and the materials are to be stock piled nearby for reuse
after the appropriate treatment of subgrade with lime or cement. The drainage layer in GSB is
required to be restored in area where rainfall may damage the pavements. It is modeled as a five layer
elastic structure in IITPAVE software. In a two layer construction of bituminous layer consisting of BC
and DBM, the bottom layer should have a design air void of 3 percent and less than 4.5% air void after
the compaction This would also resist stripping due to water percolating from the top to the bottom of
the bituminous layer or rising from below. The aggregate interlayer acting as a crack relief layer
should meet the specifications of Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) and compacted to 100% density to
lower the air void. If the WMM layer is likely to be used by construction traffic for some time. it
may be treated with 2 to 3 percent bitumen emulsion in the wet mix plant itself for stability under
traffic. A reliability of 80 % is used for traffic upto 20 msa and 90 percent for traffic > 20 msa. VG30
or V40 bitumen can be used for traffic up to 20 msa and VG 40 for traffic > 20msa. For colder area,
recommendation of IRC: 111-2009 shall be followed. The different catalogue of thicknesses are given
55

as

Plate 13 CBR 5%
700

50 50
600 50 50
40 50 50
50
Pavement Thickness,mm

40 50
100 100
500 100 100 100 100
100

400 BC
200 210 220 230 200 210 DBM
190
300
AIL
200 CTB

250 250 250 250 250 250 250 GSB


100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Plate 14 CBR 10%


700

600 50 50
50 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

40 40 50 50
50
40 100
500 100 100 100
75 100 100

400 BC
180 190 200 210 180 190 DBM
170
300
AIL
200 CTB

250 250 250 250 250 250 250 GSB


100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa
56

Plate 15 CBR 15%


700

600 50 50
Pavement Thickness,mm

50 40
40 40 50 50
50
500 40 100
100 100 100
75 100 100
400 BC

160 170 180 190 160 170 DBM


150
300
AIL
200 CTB

250 250 250 250 250 250 250 GSB


100

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 10 20 30 50 100 150
Design traffic, msa

Illustration

Traffic 150 msa

Subgrade CBR = 10 percent, MRsubgrade= 17.6*CBR0.64 = 77 MPa, MR of bituminous layer = 3000


MPa

MR of Aggregate crack relief layer = 450 MPa, E of cemented base = 5000 MPa, E of granular
subbase
= 75 x (0.2) x (250)0.45 = 179.955 = 180 MPa
From PLATE 14, Pavement composition BC+DBM = 100 mm, Aggregate interlayer =
100 mm, cemented base = 190 mm, granular subbase = 250 mm

For the given composition of Pavement thicknesses, 90 percent Reliability is adopted i.e., Equation
6.4, Equation 6.7 and Equation 6.8 are used.
57

I. Allowable Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 145 x 10–6.


II. Allowable Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 291 x 10–6.

III. Allowable Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 64.77 x. 10–6.


From IITPAVE Software the computed strains are

I. Horizontal Tensile Strain in Bituminous Layer is 127 x. 10–6.

II. Vertical Compressive Strain on Subgrade is 157 x 10–6.

III. Tensile Strain in Cementitious Layer is 58.12 x 10–6.

Hence the Pavement Composition is Safe.

10.6 Other Pavement Compositions


There can be a number of compositions for a good pavement depending upon the availability of
materials .Method of design of pavements with (i) cementitious subbase, WMM base and Bituminous
surfacing and (ii) High Modulus Bituminous mixes are given in the following
10.6.1 Bituminous pavements with Cementitious subbase: A strong subgrade and a strong
cementitious subbase can provide a good performing pavement. Though PLATES for thickness
combinations are not provided, an example is presented below illustrating how to work out thickness
of pavements composed of cemented subbase, Wet Mix Macadam base and bituminous surfacing.
NH-8 from Ahmedabad to Jodhpur and some others have cemented layer below the Wet Mix
Macadam. Fig. 10.6 shows a combination of bituminous pavements with WMM base and cemented
granular subbase with a 7 day strength from 1.5 MPa to 3.0 MPa. Cement bound granular subbase
Grading IV of IRC: SP- 89 having strength in the range 0.75-1.5 MPa is not recommended for major
highways as per South African practice but it can be used for others if the design traffic less than 10
msa.

Critical location for tensile strain

Bituminous layer

Wet mix macadam

Subgrade

Fig.10.6BituminousSurfacingwithWetMixMacadamBaseandCementedSub-base
58

Illustration
Traffic = 100 msa, Subgrade CBR = 8 percent
Trial Pavement Composition: Bituminous layer= (BC + DBM) = 120 mm, WMM base = 150 mm,
Cemented subbase (1.5-3.0 MPa strength) = 300 mm.

For 8 percent CBR, modulus of subgrade =17.6*80.64 = 66 MPa,


MR bituminous layer =3000 MPa, Ecementedsub-base= 600 MPa.
Mr of the WMM layer is stress dependent and it can be determined from trials as illustrated below
(Annex_VIII ).
𝜃 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 𝐾
𝑀𝑟𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛 = 𝐾1 ( )𝐾2 × [ ] 3 …………. 10.1
𝜌 𝜌

1
𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 = 𝑂𝑐𝑡𝑎ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = √3 √(𝜎2 − 𝜎3 )2 + (𝜎3 − 𝜎1 )2 + (𝜎1 − 𝜎2 )2 in kPa 10.2

𝜃 = Sum of principal stresses, kPa


𝜎1 ,𝜎2 , 𝜎3 are principal stresses in granular layer

𝜌 =atmospheric pressure=100kPa, K1, K2 and K3 are experimental test constants 220, 1.05and
-0.2 respectively (Annex VIII)

As a first trial, assume Mr (WMM) = 350 MPa and carry out stress analysis and compute the
stresses due to a standard axle load of 80000 N at the mid depth of 195mm(120+75) of the WMM
layer at a radial distance of 155mm,
𝜎𝑧 = 0.1186 MPa=118.6 kPa

𝜎𝑡 = 0.0147 Mpa= 14.70 kPa

𝜎𝑟 =0.0369 Mpa =36.90 kPa

σz, σt and σr due to the overburden pressure( depth 195 mm) are to be computed

σz,=195x 2300x9.8/1000=4395.30 Pa=4.395 kPa ( average density=2300kg/m3 assumed)


𝜇
σt=, σr = 𝜎𝑧 =2.366 kPa assuming a Poisson’s ratio of 0.35
1−𝜇

Total of principal stresses are

𝜎𝑧 = 122.995 kPa

𝜎𝑡 = 17.066 kPa
59

𝜎𝑟 =39.266 kPa

𝜃(𝜎𝑧 + 𝜎𝑡 + 𝜎𝑟 )=179.50 kPaa 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 = 78.90 kPa

For above mentioned experimental test constants

MR (WMM) = 426.5 Mpa from Eq.6.1. Mr value is higher than the assumed. Another iteration is
needed. The Mr value after the 2nd iteration is 402 MPa. Additional iterations will give values close
to the above. The Mr value of 350 MPa may be retained for a safer pavement

For 90 per cent reliability,

Allowable Tensile strain on the bottom of Bituminous layer (εt) = 161 * 10-6

Allowable Compressive strain on the top of subgrade (εz) = 318.9 * 10-6

For the above thickness, the strains at the critical locations calculated by IITPAVE software are:

Tensile strain at the bottom of Bituminous Layer (εt )= 158 * 10–6

Compressive strain on the top of subgrade (εz) = 259 * 10–6

Hence design is safe. A little higher thickness of CT subbase or the bituminous layer will give much
lower tensile strain in the bituminous layer.

10.6,2 : High Modulus Bituminous Mixes: High Modulus Bituminous Mixes(HMBM) is an standard
practice in France and many European countries(77,78,79) and numerous trials in South Africa,
Australia and USA have given very good results. It is found to be economical with better performance.
Bitumen of penetration 10-25 is used in the production of mixes. A high Modulus mix made up
Dense Bitumen Macadam using 10-20 bitumen was used in United Kingdom ( 81) and it had a very
similar property to that of the commonly used French High Modulus Mix Such a mix is highly rut
resistant and thickness becomes lower due to high modulus resulting in use of lower thickness of
pavements requiring less amount of aggregates. The modulus of the HMBM at 150C is greater than
14000 MPa at 10 Hz frequency. Nominal Maximum aggregate size used in such mixes is 14 to 18 mm
so that higher amount of binder is introduced. DBM also gace a high modulus like HMBM with 35-50
penetration bitumen in UK with a filler content between 7 and 11% (81) and appropriate compaction.
IIT Kharagpur obtained an unmodified hard asphalt residue from Haldia refinery before it was blended
with lighter distillate for production of viscosity grade of binder. Some other refineries in India also
adopt similar method for the production of conventional bitumen from hard asphalt residue The hard
asphalt had a penetration of about 22 which is within the specifications limits of binder for high
60

modulus mixes (77,78,79). BC and DBM mixes mix were cast with the hard binder from Haldia and a
modulus of 5500 MPa and higher was obtained at 350 C. A commercially available chemical additive
to hot aggregates with VG40 bitumen also resulted in a modulus of over 5500 MPa. Warm mix
additives allows mixing and compaction at lower temperatures. Pavement design using a hard bitumen
is illustrated Annex.II, and a comparison is given with VG40 mix for a traffic of 300 msa.
61

11. INTERNALDRAINAGE IN PAVEMENT


11.1 The performance of a pavement can be seriously affected if water is allowed to enter into the
pavement and there is no e drainage measures to drain out the water. Major highways have paved
shoulders and thick bituminous layers, and there is little chance of entry of water into the pavement
through the impermeable pavement surface made up of BC and DBM. But water enters into the
pavement from the median and it should be taken out through the drainage layer if there is no
alternate arrangement. After the traffic operation and ageing of the bituminous layers with time, the
pavement may get cracked allowing water to enter into its body during the rains. Some of the
measures to guard against poor drainage conditions are maintenance of proper camber so as to
facilitate quick run-off of surface water and provision of appropriate surface and sub-surface drains
where necessary. Drainage measures are especially important when the road is in cutting or built on
low permeability soil or situated in heavy rainfall/snow fall area.

11.2 On new roads, the aim should be to construct the pavement above the water table as
economically practicable. The difference between the bottom of subgrade level and the level of water
table (i) for non-flood zones-should not be less than 0.6 m (ii) for flood zones, it should not be less
than 1.0m and (iii) for water logged zones, it should not be less than 1.5m. In the zone of capillary
saturation, consideration should be given to the installation of suitable capillary cut off as per IRC-34 at
the appropriate level under the pavement.

11.3 When the traditional granular construction is provided on a relatively low permeability subgrade,
the granular sub-base should be extended over the entire formation width in order to drain the
pavement structural section. Care should be exercised to ensure that its exposed ends do not get
covered by the embankment soil when the eroded slope is repaired after the monsoon. The trench
type section without drainage measures should not be adopted in any case as it would lead to the
entrapment of water in the pavement structure.

11.4 If the granular sub-base is of softer variety which may undergo crushing during rolling leading
to denser gradation and low permeability, the top 100 to 150 mm thickness should consist of an open
graded crushed stone layer of Los Angeles abrasion value not exceeding 40 to ensure proper
drainage.

The filter layer must have enough permeability to prevent development of undesirable pore water
pressure and it should rain away any free water that enters into it all be it at much lower rate as
compared to the drainage layer.
The filter/separation layer should satisfy the following criteria:
D15 of filter layer
≥5 … 11.1
D15 of subgrade
D15 of filter
≤5 … 11.2
D85 layer of
subgrade
To prevent entry of soil particles into the drainage layer
62

D50 of filter
And ≤ 25 … 11.3
D50 layer of
subgrade
63

D85 means the size of sieve that allows 85 percent by weight of the material to pass through it. Similar
is the meaning of D50 and D15.
The permeable sub-base when placed on the erodible subgrade soil should be underlain by a layer of
filter material to prevent the intrusion of soil fines into the drainage layer (Fig.11.2). Non-woven geo-
synthetic also can be provided to act as a filter/separation layer. Some typical drainage system is
illustrated in Figs. 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 and 11.4.

11.5 When large in flows are to be taken care of, an adequately designed sub-surface drainage system
consisting of an open graded drainage layer with collection and outlet pipes should be provided. The
system should be designed on a rational basis using seepage principles to estimate the inflow
quantities and the outflow conductivity of the drainage system. It should be ensured that the outflow
capabilities of the system are at least equal to the total inflow so that no free water accumulates in the
pavement structural section. If granular sub-base is not required because of strong subgrade,
commercially available geo-composite can be used for drainage and separation. A design example is
given in Appendix V.

11.6 Very often, water enters the base, sub-base or the subgrade at the junction of the shoulder and
the bituminous surfacing. To counteract the harmful effects of this water, it is recommended that the
shoulders should be well-shaped and if possible, constructed of impermeable material. Major
highways should have paved shoulder to keep away water from the subgrade.For other roads also
with design traffic of 20 msa or less; the base should be constructed 300-450 mm wider than the
required bituminous surfacing so that the run-off water disperses harmlessly well clear off the main
carriageway.

11.7 Shoulders should be accorded special attention during subsequent maintenance operation too.
They should be dressed periodically so that they always conform to the requisite cross-fall and are not
higher than the level of carriageway at any time.

Drainage layer

Carriageway Shoulder
Filter layer Seal
seal
Water flow

Water Table

Drainage material
Water table
Synthetic fabric

Perforated pipe

Fig 11.1 Pavement along a slope


64
Embankment
Geotextile filter if necessary

Flow of water Natural ground

Fill
1:1
Drainage Layer
1.25:1

Outlet drain
Pipes
Fig 11.2 Drainage below fill on a slope

End 0.5m stabilized


with 2.5% emulsion or
Pavement Layers
2%cement
shoulder

Sub grade

Filter layer
Drainage layer

Fig.11.3 pavement with filter and drainage layers


65

Fig. 11.4 Longitudinal Pipe at the Edge of the Drainage Layer with Outlet Pipe

11.8 Drainage Requirement


Heavy axle loads commonly ply on major roads in India and therefore, it should be ensured that the
unbound layers do not undergo unacceptable permanent deformation under repeated loading. The
subgrade and the granular layers with entrapped water would be subjected to large pore water
pressure under heavy loads causing erosion of the unbound layer. It is necessary to provide a drainage
layer to drain away the water entering into the pavement. The grading III and IV of granular sub-
bases in Table 400.1 of MORTH (62) have the necessary permeability of well over 300 m/day (81)
duly verified at IIT Kharagpur. If open graded aggregates are found be a little unstable during rolling
and operation of construction traffic, 2% cement or 2 to 2,5% bitumen emulsion can be used to make
them stable. As far as possible, % passing 0.075mm sieve should be less than 2%. Field test by
Ridgeway in USA indicated that it is the duration of low intensity sustained rainfall rather than high
intensity rainfall that is critical for infiltration of water into the pavement. It was found that the
infiltration rate through the joints/cracks was 0.223m3/day/m and this value can be used for design of
drainage layer in the absence of field data. The infiltration rate per unit area qi in m3/day/m2 can be
expressed as:

𝑁𝑐 𝑊𝑐
𝑞𝑐 = 𝐼𝑐 [ + ] + 𝐾𝑝 10.4
𝑊𝑝 𝐶𝑠 𝑊𝑝

Ic= Crack infiltration rate (0.223 m3/day/m)

Nc= Number of longitudinal cracks (i.e., number of lanes plus one) Wp= Width of pavement
subjected to infiltration
Wc= Length of the transvers cracks or joints (equal to the width of the pavement) Cs= Spacing of
transverse cracks taken as 12 m for bituminous pavement
66

Kp=Rate of infiltration through un cracked area (assumed zero for thick bituminous pavements)

An example for the design of drainage layer is given in Appendix V.

12 DESIGN IN FROSTAFFECTEDAREAS
12.1 In areas susceptible to frost action, the design will have to be related to actual depth of
penetration and severity of the frost. At the subgrade level, fine grained clayey and silty soils are
more susceptible to ice formation, but freezing conditions could also develop within the pavement
structure if water has a chance of ingress from above.

12.2 One remedy against frost attack is to increase the depth of construction to correspond to the
depth of frost penetration, but this may not always be economically practicable. As a general rule, it
would be inadvisable to provide total thickness less than 450 mm even when the CBR value of the
subgrade warrants a smaller thickness .In addition, the materials used for building up the crust should
be frost resistant.

12.3 Another precaution against frost attack is that water should not be allowed to collect at the
subgrade level which may happen on account of infiltration through the pavement surface or verges
or due to capillary rise from a high water table. Whereas capillary rise can be prevented by sub soil
drainage measures and cut-offs, infiltrating water can be checked only by providing a suitable
wearing surface.
67

13. SUMMARYOF PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURE AND USE


OF IITPAVE SOFTWARE
The analysis and design of pavement may be carried out by the following approach:
A. For traffic lower than 2 msa, recommendation of IRC: SP: 72-2015 may be used.
B. In case of higher traffic, IITPAVE software may be used. It is a multilayer elastic layer analysis
program. This software is included along with the Pavement Design Guidelines in a CD. Details
and method of data inputs are self-explanatory. The necessary steps required to use this
software are:
i. Open the folder IRC_37_IITPAVE.
ii. Double-click IITPAVE_EX file in the IRC_37_IITPAVE folder. This is an executable jar file.
A home screen will appear.
iii. From the Home screen, user can manually give input through input window by clicking on
‘Design New Pavement Section’. User can also give input through properly formatted input file
by clicking on ‘Edit Existing File’ option then browsing and opening the input file.
iv. Next an input window will come. All the inputs required have to be given through that input
window.
v. First, number of layers to be selected from drop down menu to fix up input boxes for different
layer inputs.
vi. Next, Elastic modulus (E) values of the various layers in MPa, Poisson’s ratio and thickness of
various layers in mm excluding the subgrade thickness are to be provided.
vii. Single wheel load and the tyre pressure are to be provided (tyre pressure of 0.56 MPa has been
used for calibration of the fatigue equation and the same pressure can be used for stress
analysis. Change of pressure even up to 0.80 MPa has a small effect upon stress values in lower
layers.)
viii. Then the number of points for stress computations is to be given through the drop down menu
for analysis points.
ix. Then corresponding to different points, the values of depth Z in mm and the corresponding
value of radial distance from wheel centre (r) in mm are to be given.
x. Provide whether analysis is for single wheel load or dual wheel load by selecting 1 or 2 from
drop down menu be side “Wheel Set”. Only dual wheel load may be needed in most cases.
xi. The output of the program will provide stresses, strains and deflections at the desired points.
Next check if the computed strains are less than the permissible strain. If not then run the
program with a new thickness combinations till the permissible strain values are achieved. epT,
epR and epZ will be the outputs that will be of interest. For cemented base tensile stress below
the cemented layer SigmaT/SigmaR are needed for cumulative fatigue damage analysis.
xii. In most cases the tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer is higher in the longitudinal
direction (epT) rather than in radial direction (epR). If tensile strain in the bituminous layer is
high, increase the thickness of the bituminous layer.
xiii. Tensile strains in the cementitious bases also are to be computed for design. If the tensile
strain/stress in the cemented layer is higher, increase the thickness of the cemented layer.
68

xiv. Vertical subgrade strain (epZ) should be less than the permissible value for the design traffic. If
the vertical subgrade strain is higher, increase the thickness of sub-base layer.
xv. Stress values can also be easily computed by changing directly the input file which is to be
written in a format as illustrated in the manual and browse the input file by clicking ‘Edit
Existing File’ on home screen of IITPAVE.

The above approach can be used to arrive at the pavement thickness satisfying the limiting strains.
C. Design plates are provided in the text of the guidelines only for illustration. Users are required to
design pavements starting with initial minimum thickness given in different plates and develop an
optimum design that is sustainable. The software can help in finding the thickness for any traffic
other than that given in the design catalogue. The method of arriving at the design catalogue is
illustrated in the plates for each type of pavement combination.

ANNEX-I
Considerations in Design of Bituminous Pavements
I-1 The IITPAVE software computes stresses in a multi-layer elastic system with rough interfaces.
Vertical subgrade strain, Єv, is an index of bearing capacity of the subgrade and it needs to be kept
below a certain value for a given traffic to limit rutting in the subgrade and granular layers of a well-
constructed pavement. Research findings indicate that the plastic vertical strain, Єp, in pavement
materials depends upon the magnitude of elastic vertical strain, Єv, given as
Єp/Єv= K x (N)c … (I-1) Where
Єp and Єv are plastic and elastic strains respectively,
N=number of repetition of axle loads,
K and c are constants
If the computed Єv on the subgrade for a given wheel load is low, the vertical strain in the upper
granular layers also is low. Hence limiting the subgrade strain controls the rutting in the subgrade as
well as in the granular layers. Bituminous layer must have a rut resistant mix.
The elastic tensile strains, Єt, at the bottom and at the top of the bituminous layer should not exceed a
certain limit for a given design traffic to control development of cracks during the design period.
Surface crack may develop on either side of the wheel path as shown in Fig. I-1. Tensile stains near the
edge of the tyres can initiate cracking at the surface when the top layer gets oxidized causing
brittleness and surface cracks may develop much earlier than those at the bottom particularly at higher
temperatures. A number of cases of Top Down Cracking followed by raveling and pothole formation
within a year or two of opening to traffic has been found at many locations (41, 55,74,75) in the BC
layer in India. Bleeding and rutting (51, 53 and 63) on the surface have also been very common
because of secondary compaction owing to the use of softer bitumen for the hot climate and heavy
traffic.
Surface transverse surface cracks may also develop due to horizontal shear stresses applied by wheels
69

of heavy commercial vehicles during acceleration and braking if the mix does not have sufficient
tensile strength. The surface cracks responsible for top down cracking shown in Fig. I-1 can be
eliminated by greatly by using a gap graded wearing course containing higher amount of high
viscosity binder such as polymer/Crumb rubber modified binder. Low temperature transverse
cracking associated with stiffer binders is not a problem in plains of India due to higher temperatures.
Bitumen of lower viscosity controls transverse surface cracking in colder regions as per international
experience. In the light of the above, the approach discussed in the following is recommended for
design of bituminous pavements.

BT

Granular base z

Fig. I-1 Cracks at Bottom (a) and Top (b)

I-2 Rutting in Subgrade and Granular Layer


A large amount of field data for rutting in flexible pavements was collected and analyzed during
several research projects of MORTH ( 56,59,60) and a relationship between limiting surface rutting
of 20mm and the vertical elastic subgrade strain was developed for different repetitions of standard
axle loads and it was subsequently adopted in IRC-37:2001 and IRC-37:2012. The bituminous layers
were not very thick in India in eighties and nineties when rutting data was collected and most of the
rutting took place in the subgrade and the granular layers only. The equations for rutting for 80 per
cent and 90 per cent reliability respectively are given (46, 54) as

N = 4.1656 x 10-08 [1/εv]^4.5337 … (I-2)

N = 1.41x 10-88 x [1/εv]^4.5337 … (I-3)

Equations I-2 and I-3 were used as the rutting criterion in IRC: 37-2012 for controlling rutting in the
Subgrade and granular layers for a reliability levels of 80% and 90% respectively, and the rutting in
the bituminous layer was to be taken care of by selecting binder of appropriate hardness and mix
design.
A more correct approach would be to estimate permanent deformation in different layers by spectrum
of axle loads in different seasons adopted in mechanistic-empirical pavement design method as
recommended In MEPDG (3) but this would require massive coordinated research effort in the
laboratory as well as in the field in different regions of the country so that laboratory equations can be
calibrated and validated from field performance. Data from other countries can not directly be used
due to different types of traffic and climate. Equation I-2 having a reliability of 80 per cent is based
upon a good data base for limiting rutting in granular layers and the subgrade soils. Equation I-3 is
recommended for 90 percent reliability for high volume roads with traffic greater than 20 msa.
Providing large thickness of granular layer does not cause any marked reduction in the thickness of
70

bituminous layer from fatigue considerations. The thickness of the sub-base should be sufficient (i) to
stand the construction traffic (ii) to offer a stiffer support for the compaction of WMM and that of the
granular base also should be thick enough so as not to cause the damage to GSB. These factors were
considered in developing the design charts of IRC: 37-2012. Field performance data of pavements
designed as per IRC: 37-2012 is very encouraging. Due to delay in its implementation and continued
use of softer binder has been causing unacceptable rutting in the bituminous layer rather than in the
granular layer within a year or two of construction of highways (51, 53,74,75 ) because of use of
softer bitumen for the climate, higher temperatures and heavy axle loads. This problem is now re-
emphasized in the guidelines and stiff binder is recommended for the bituminous mix in line with the
European practice.

I-3 Rutting in the Bituminous Layer


Thickness of bituminous layers in India for flexible pavements with granular bases can be close to
200 mm or higher for high volume roads. The rutting in the bituminous layer is to be controlled by
selecting a mix using binder of appropriate viscosity considering the traffic, climate and field
experience. Rut resistant mixes for high volume traffic with pavement temperatures of 60°C and
higher can be obtained by using high viscosity binders. Laboratory rut tests using IITKGP RUT
TESTER on mixes with VG40 bitumen, and some modified binders indicated almost equal
performance at 50°C. VG30 bitumen gave much higher rutting in the rut tester, a phenomenon
observed in the field also though it meets the Superpave specification requirement (5, 40) of 1 kPa
for G*/sinδ at 64°C using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. Analysis by MEPDG model (3) also predicted
50 percent rut depth in mixes with VG40 bitumen as compared to that with VG 30 (52). Even when
modified bitumen is used in the wearing course, the rutting may occur in the DBM layer made with
VG 30 just below the wearing course (53). Hence a higher grade of binder is recommended for the
mix both for the BC and the DBM layer below the wearing course under heavy traffic conditions for
the maximum pavement temperatures of 60ºC and higher, very common on plains of India.
Recommendation of IRC: 111-2009 (29) for use of VG 40 bitumen in BC as well as DBM layer may
be adopted if the pavement carries over 2000 commercial vehicles per lane per day. Wearing courses
with Stone Matrix Asphalt (IRC: SP: 79-2008) (32) and Gap Graded mix with rubberized bitumen(
IRC:SP:107-2015 are known to be rut, age as well as fatigue resistant. Annex-VII gives guidelines for
the selection of binder.
I.4 Fatigue Resistant Bituminous Layer
Laboratory tests and field performance indicate (3, 22, 28, 40 and 42) that fatigue life of a bituminous
layer depends to a great extent on the bitumen content for a given mix. A bituminous layer with
higher modulus develops lower tensile strain by a wheel load at the bottom of the layer. To ensure that
the bottom Dense Bituminous Macadam has a higher fatigue life, it should contain higher bitumen
content. But softer grade bitumen such as VG 30 may give rise to an unstable mix with higher
bitumen content if exposed to construction traffic. For a bituminous layer thickness of 150 mm and
higher, the temperature of the bottom DBM is lower than the top and there is little chance of rutting in
the bottom layer if the air void is close to 2.5 to 3 percent. Higher bitumen content in the bottom layer
makes the mix resistant to stripping as well and it also provides a strong barrier for entry of moisture
71

into the upper bituminous layer (22). Computations further shows that the tensile strain in the wearing
course near the edge of the tyre can be high (3, 52 and 67) and therefore, the wearing course also
must be age and fatigue resistant in addition to being rut resistant. In a single layer DBM, the DBM
mix designed for 3% air void content is compacted to an air void less than 4.5% so that the air void
after the secondary compaction is close to 3 per cent. Mixes with Polymer and Crumb Rubber
Modified binders have fatigue lives which can be three to ten times higher than the mixes with neat
bitumen (40, 46 and 69) depending upon the binder content and designers can utilize this property in
designing high fatigue life bituminous pavements after carrying out laboratory tests both on normal
and modified bituminous mixes for the evaluation of their relative fatigue lives.
1.5 Durable wearing course: Bituminous Concrete wearing course with neat bitumen oxidizes and
becomes brittle fast due to strong sun light and high temperatures, and heavy traffic causes cracking
of the top layer. Raveling and pothole formation follow as soon as monsoon begins. Repair during the
rains is difficult. It is, therefore, recommended that a mix with greater amount of age and rut resistant
modoified binder be used for the wearing course. Both SMA and GG mixes with PMB/rubberized
bitumen have thicker binder coating over the aggregates giving a long life as per many trials in India.
Both the wearing courses are in use in developed countries for heavy traffic conditions.

I.6 Fatigue equations


Fatigue lives of a bituminous mixture at a reliability level of 80 percent and 90 percent (48, 56) are
given as
Nf= 4.1656 * 10-04x [1/εt]3.89* [1/MR]0.854 (I.4)

Nf= 0.711 * 10-04x [1/εt]3.89* [1/MR]0.854 (I-5)


Nf = fatigue life,
εt = Maximum Tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer,
MR= resilient modulus of the bituminous layer.

Equation I-4 is recommended for traffic up to 20 msa while Eq. I-5 for higher traffic. Equation I-5
gives fatigue life which is about one third of that given by Equation I-4 for a given strain and
modulus.. High volume highways demand a reliability level of 90 percent or higher to minimise frequent
interruption for maintenance, a practice adopted in all international guidelines. Mix design is the key
factor to enhance the fatigue life with only marginal increase in thickness

I-7 Mix Design and Fatigue Life


The bitumen content of the DBM mixes used in major highways in India varies generally from a
minimum of 4 percent to a maximum of about 5 percent depending upon the gradation, texture and
the specific gravity of the aggregates; and the recommended air void content range is 3 to 5 per cent
(64) with an average of air void content of about 4.5 per cent. The wearing course of BC is to be
renewed every five years and the DBM is supposed to last for the full design period of 15 or 20
years. It is, therefore, necessary that it must have a long fatigue life. This can be achieved by
increasing its bitumen content so that the cracks do not propagate from the bottom during the design
life of the pavement. Asphalt Institute (8), Shell (62) and MEPDG (3) have given equations for
72

determination of fatigue life of bituminous mixtures for different values of volume of bitumen (Vb)
and the air voids (Va) and same basic approach was used to modify the calibrated fatigue equations to
obtain high fatigue mixes. The fatigue Equations I-4 and I-5 having a reliability of 80 and 90 percent
are modified to include the mix design variables such as air void and volume of bitumen as given
below,

Nf= 1.6064 * C * 10–04x [1/εt] 3.89* [1/MR]0.854 For 80% reliability (I-6)
Nf= 0.5161 * C * 10-04x [1/εt]3.89* [1/MR]0.854 For 90 % reliability … (I-7)

𝑉𝑏
C = 10M, and 𝑀 = 4.84 (𝑉𝑎+𝑉𝑏 − 0.69)

Va= percent volume of air void and


Vb=percent volume of bitumen in a given volume of bituminous mix.
Nf= fatigue life,
єt= maximum tensile strain at the bottom of DBM.
MR= Resilient modulus of bituminous mix.
If Va=4.5 percent and Vb= 11.5 percent (corresponding to bitumen content of approximately
4.5 percent by weight of total mix), Equations I-6 and I-7 is reduced to Equations I-4 and I-5
respectively. Effect of bitumen content can thus be considered to determine the fatigue life of a
bituminous mixture in colder areas at 80 percent reliability using VG30 bitumen or softer bitumen
depending upon the climate as recommended in IRC: 111-2009 (29)

Equations I-6 and I-7 give fatigue lives for 20 percent cracked area of the bituminous layer at a
reliability level of 80 and 90 per cent respectively at the end of the design period. In other words, only
ten percent of the area may have 20 per cent cracks if 90 per cent reliability is used for high volume
highways. To avoid frequent maintenance, a higher reliability is recommended for highways having a
design traffic exceeding 20 msa. Since most places on plains of India have maximum pavement
temperatures approaching 60ºC or higher, VG 40 bitumen is recommended for heavy traffic. The
thickness requirement is less when stiffer binder is used. Mix design and pavement design should be
integrated to get an optimum design. Using the principle outlined above, a pavement can be designed
so that the bottom rich bituminous layer has a long fracture life and only the wearing course is
subjected to distress such as surface cracks, rutting, raveling, pot holes etc due to traffic and ageing
and it would need replacement from time to time.
Fig.I-1 shows (40) the results of beam fatigue tests at 4.7% and 5.2% binder contents on dense
graded mixes. Optimum binder content is close to 4.7%. It can be seen that for all the mixes
VG30,VG40 and PMB40, increasing the binder content increases the fatigue life considerably. A
PMB mix with 5.2 binder content has life whuch is about six times higher than the conventional
VG40 mix with a binder content of 4.7%.
Fig. I-2 illustrates the effect of mix design variables on fatigue life. It can be seen that for a mix
modulus of 3000 MPa, if Va is decreased from 5 percent, to 3 percent and Vb is increased from
10 percent to 13percent, the fatigue life at the tensile strain of 200E-04 increases from 107 to 5x107.
73

Similarly, the fatigue life of the mix with a modulus of 1700 MPa increases from 1.7x107 to 8.0X 107
for identical change of mix variable. Mix design thus plays a very important role in design of
bituminous pavements. It can also be seen that the fatigue life of the softer mix (Mr=1700MPa) is
higher than that of the stiffer mix (Mr=3000MPa) but thickness also will be greater for the less stiff
mix. Designers can develop better thickness combinations than what are given in different PLATES
using innovative design and life cycle cost be optimized considering the response of constructed
pavements in different climate. Higher binder content ensures durability and provides resistance to
ageing.
200000
180000
160000
140000
Binder
content
Fatigue life

120000
100000
5.2 4.7 5.2
80000
60000
40000 5.2 4.7
5.2
20000 4.7
4.7
0
VG30 VG40 PMB40 with SBS
Fig.I-1 Bituminous mixes with different types of binders

Fatigue life
74

Fig. I-2 Effect of Air Void and Volume of Bitumen on Fatigue Life Bituminous Layer

I-8 Flexural Fatigue of Thin Wearing Course

When a thin wearing course of bituminous layer less than 50mm is provided over a granular layer,
there is compressive bending strain at the bottom of the bituminous layer due to a wheel load which
decreases with increasing thickness and becomes tensile with higher thickness as can be seen from
Fig.I-2. Hence fatigue analysis of thin bituminous layer over granular bases is not necessary. Only
when thickness reaches to about 50 mm, there is reduction in tensile strain with further increase in
thickness of the bituminous layer. Mr of the supporting layer affects the value of the tensile strain in
the bituminous layer.

I-2 Tensile Strain in Thin Bituminous Wearing Course

A thin wearing course may suffer from punching failure if the base is not well compacted.

I-9 Resilient Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio of Bituminous Mixes

. Indicative values of Resilient Modulus(Mr) shown in Table7.1 were obtained by in house fabricated
repeated four point beam bending test at IIT Kharagpur on the same principle as ASTM D 7460-10
(13) under constant strain mode at 10 Hz frequency. The Mr values vary greatly because of wide
range of viscosity and the modulus should be determined in the laboratory or estimated from
regression equations.The The modulus values were also were also obtained by Indirect Tensile
strength test method as per ASTM D 4123 with a loading time of 0.1 seconds and a rest period of 0.9
seconds and the values were comparable .These moduli were used in calibration of fatigue equation.
Though ASTM D 4123 was withdrawn and replaced with ASTM D 7369-09 (12), equipment using
both the ASTM methods are commercially available, former being more popular. Poison’s ration of a
dense graded bituminous mix varies to a great deal upon load application. Under tension, it is lower
and the value may exceed even 0.50 under compression indicating increase in volume. Most
commonly used values are from 0.3 to 0.4. A value of 0.35 has been used in the guidelines for the
computation of strains and stresses. Effect of Poisson’s ratio on stresses in pavement is presented in
Annex.II.

I-10 Temperature of Bituminous Surface for Pavement Design


75

Fatigue behavior and resilient modulus of a bituminous material depend upon its temperature and its
variation within it. Hourly temperature data for consecutive three years were collected from Indian
Meteorological Department for Mumbai, Guwahati, Hyderabad, New Delhi, Chennai and Kharagpur
and Average Annual Air Temperatures were computed (54) respectively as 27.10°C, 23.87°C,
26.16°C, 24.53°C, 27.97°C and 28.16°C. A number of correlations have been developed relating
Average Monthly Pavement Temperature (AMPT) and Average Monthly Air Temperature (AMAT)
(69, 19) as well as Average Annual Pavement Temperature (AAPT) and Average Annual Air
Temperature (AAAT) (18).

Equations given by Witczak and Brunton et al. are given as

AMPT (oC)= (1.05 xAMAT(oC))+ 5.0 (Witczak) … I-9

AMPT (oC)= (1.15 xAMAT(oC))+ 3.17 (Brunton et al.) … I-10

In the absence of any coordinated study in India, the AAAT values for different locations in India as
mentioned above are substituted in Equations I-9 and I-10 and Average Annual Pavement
Temperature comes to about 35°C recognizing that the above equations may not be strictly valid for
Indian conditions. Hence resilient modulus of bituminous layer at 35°C has been considered in the
guide lines for pavement analysis. This needs updating through a well-coordinated pavement
performance study in India. High summer temperatures dictate selection of stiffer binders. Similar
approach can be adopted for temperature of the bituminous layer for pavement design in some snow
bound regions in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh.

I-11 Design charts


Based on the fatigue and rutting equations, bituminous pavements can be designed for different
subgrade modulus (CBR values). Design is to be optimized considering different options such as
availability of aggregates, use of foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion/ cement modified reclaimed
asphalt pavements, foamed bitumen, cementitious base and cementitious sub-base. Reclaimed
Asphalt Pavements (RAP) contains best quality aggregates and their use in GSB and WMM amounts
to its under-utilization. The top 40 mm to 50 mm of the bituminous layer would suffer damage due to
traffic and faster ageing and it would require renewal from time to time. Hot recycling can also be an
alternative to conserve the materials. Since every region is unique from the consideration of traffic,
climate, cost and availability of materials, engineers have to develop pavement design to suit the
regions since IRC-37 guide lines do not constitute a rigid standard, and sound engineering
judgment based on local environment and pavement performance in the region is needed in
developing a good design. In case of heavy rainfall area, proper internal drainage also should be
provided to increase the pavement life. Local experience should be made use of while selecting the
pavement layers. A few examples of pavement designs are illustrated for different subgrade modulus
values corresponding to CBR of 5 per cent to 15 per cent and design traffic ranging from 5 msa to
150 msa. The plates give an approximate thickness of the bituminous layer.Examples are also given
for (a) a pavement having a design life of 300 msa and (b) a long life pavement in the light of
international experience. For design traffic less than 2 msa, IRC: SP: 72-2015 (35) would be
76

applicable. City streets should be designed for the minimum design traffic of 2 msa because of
heavily loaded construction traffic from time to time. Beyond the subgrade CBR of 10 per cent,
pavement thickness is affected only marginally. Temperature effect is taken care of by assigning
appropriate value of resilient modulus to the bituminous layer depending upon the AAPT.35°C is the
most appropriate AAPT for plains of India (54).

ANNEX-II

II.1 Analytical Method of Evaluation of Effective CBR of subgrade

Problem: If the CBR of the embankment soil is 8 and CBR of the 500mm of the compacted borrow
material over the embankment is 20, What is the effective CBR for design of a flexible pavement?
Solution
E of the embankment soil = 17.6 *8^0.64 =66.6 MPa
77

E of the select borrow material=17.6*20^0.64=119.7 MPa


Consider a two layer elastic system consisting of 500mm of select borrow soil of modulus 119.7
MPa and the embankment soil of modulus 66.6 MPa as shown in Fig.II(I)
Apply a tyre pressure 0f 0.56 MPa over a radious of 106.5 mm (the load is 20000 N)
Pressure=0.56 MPa, radius of loaded area=106.5 mm

119.6 MPa 500m


Mr=?
m
66.6 MPa

Fig II (1) Fig II (2)

The maximum deflection (𝛿) due to a single wheel applying a pressure of 0.56 MPa over a radius of
106.5mm ( Fig II(1)) as per IITPAVE is 0.963 mm

The effective modulus of the single subgrade layer which gives the same deflection as the two layer is
given as
Mr (effective resilient modulus) = 2(1−𝜇2)p𝑎/ 𝛿 = 2(1-0.352)*0.56*106.5/0.963=108.69 MPa
Where p is tyre pressure, a is radius of loaded area. Only Mr is used in stress stress analysis
Effective CBR= 17.2, maximum allowable CBR=15 If µ=0.5, CBR= 16.8
Hence Poison’s ratio has little effect on the effective CBR

II.2 Minimum thickness of granular subbase


Minimum thickness of the subbase is necessary (i) to limit permanent deformation in the subgrade
due to dumpers and other construction vehicles (ii)to provide a strong platform for the compaction of
Wet Mix Macadam base and (iii) to act as a separation ( minimum compacted thickness 100mm) and
a drainage( minimum compacted thickness 100mm) layers. Minimum thickness of any compacted
granular layer should be at least 2.5 times the maximum nominal size of aggregates.
Example: An embankment soil has a CBR of 2% and the select borrow soil has a CBR of 8%
(minimum acceptable). A 200mm granular subbase is proposed for a pavement. Estimated number of
repetitions of dumpers over GSB is about 200 during the construction. . Examine the adequacy of the
thickness of the GSB so that the subgrade does not suffer excessive permanent deformation.
Solution: Mr of the subgrade= 2x10=20 MPa, Effective subgrade CBR= 5 and its modulus= 50 MPa
and the Mr of the GSB=50x0.2x(200)0.45=108 MPa
Dumpers carry as much as 150 to 200 kN of construction material and the average gross weight can
be as high as 240 kN
Assuming 2:1 load distribution between lower and steering axle
78

VDF= (160/80)4 + (80/65)4=16+2.29=18.29


Total standard axle load repetitions during the construction=200x18.29=3658
Allowable vertical subgrade strain from Eq.6.7 ( Eq. I-3 of Annex.I)=1861x10-6
Computed vertical subgrade strain for 200mm GSB as per IITPAVE=2993x10-6>> 1861x10-6
Hence the thickness of GSB is not sufficient. Consider a thickness of 300mm
Mr of subbase= 130 MPa, Computed vertical subgrade strain= 1650x10-6< 1861xx10-6, hence
300mm of gsb is necessary. The field data about the construction traffic is necessary. If subgrade
CBR is higher, thickness of granular subbase layer also will be less subject to the minimum required
for filter and drainage layer particularly in high rainfall area..
Higher subgrade CBR will give lower thickness of GSB. This is broadly reflected in the various
plates as suggested by experienced members of the H-2 committee . WMM also needs a good support
for its compaction to a higher density.

II.3 Work-out Examples Illustrating the Design Method

Example - l: Design the pavement for construction of a new flexible pavement

Use the following data:DATA


(i) Four lane divided carriageway
(ii) Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction = 5000 CV/day
(Sum of both directions)
(iii) Percentage of Single, Tandem and Tridem axles are 45 percent, 45 percent and 10 percent
Respectively
(iv) Traffic growth rate per annum = 6.0 per cent
(v) Design life = 20 years
(vi) Vehicle damage factor = 5.2
(Based on axle load survey)
(vii) CBR of soil below the 500 mm of the subgrade = 3 per cent
(viii) CBR of the 500 mm of the subgrade from borrow pits = 10 per cent

DESIGN CALCULATIONS
(i) Lane Distribution factor = 0.75
(ii) Initial traffic = 2500 CVPD assuming 50 per cent in each direction.
(iii) Vehicle Damage Factor (VDF) computed for the traffic = 5.2.
(iv) Cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design

2500×365×((1+0.06)20 −1)
N= 0.06
× 0.75 × 5.2
IRC: 37-2012
(v) CBR of the embankment material = 3 %, CBR of 500 mm of subgrade = 10 %,
Effective CBR of the subgrade from Fig. 5.1 =7%
Design resilient modulus of the compacted subgrade = 17.6 (7)0.64= 62 MPa

II.3.1 Bituminous pavements with untreated granular layer:


Consider design (I) with bitumen as well as modified bitumen and (ii) with different
Poisson’s ratio for bituminous mixes
II.3.1.1 Pavement with DBM and BC with VG40 bitumen
Composition of granular layers: WMM = 250 mm, GSB = 230 mm, total thickness= 480mm
Resilient modulus of granular layer = 0.2 x (480)0.45x 62 = 200 Mpa., reliability=90%
Allowable tensile strain in Bituminous layer with VG 40 bitumen with bottom DBM layer having air
void of 3 per cent with Volume of bitumen as 11.5 % =150µ€, Allowable Vertical subgrade
strain=301 µ€
Select a Thickness of BC and DBM I = 190 mm.

Computed tensile and vertical strains are 146µ€<150 µ€ and 231µ€<301 µ€ respectively
If DBM II is provided in the bottom with an air void of 3% in place of DBM I, the Vb=12.5% and the
Allowable tensile strain in the bituminous layer= 156 µ€
Consider a thickness of 180 mm of BC+DBM, tensile strain by IITPAVE= 154 µ€. A 10mm
reduction in thickness of DBM I is possible if DBM II is used as the lower layer.
II.3.1.2 Bituminous mixes with elastomeric PMB for pavement design
PMB mixes may have a fatigue life which may range from three to ten times despite a lower resilient
modulus. It is affected less by moisture and ageing rate also less.
Consider the following: Resilient Modulus of the PMB mix=2000 MPa at 350C , Poisson’s ratio=0.35
The fatigue life is three times of the conventional bituminous mixes i.e. the coefficient of Eq.4 is
multiplied by 3.
Considering WMM and GSB as 250mm and 230mm and the design traffic=131 msa
Allowable tensile strain in the bottom PMB layer=226 µ€
Consider a thickness of DBM and BC both with PMB= 155mm
Computed tensile strain in the bituminous layer= 219 µ€ < 226 µ€ for Vb=12.6%
Computed vertical subgrade strain=316 µ€>301 µ€ due to lower modulus of PMB mix. Redesign is
needed
Increase the thickness of GSB to 260mm
Rule: If subgrade strain is too high, increase GSB thickness, if tensile strain in the bituminous layer is
too high, increase the thickness of the bituminous layer.
GSB=260mm, WMM=250mm,Total thickness of granular layer = 510mm
Modulus of the granular layer= 62x0.2x(510)^0.45=205 MPa
Computed tensile strain in the bituminous layer= 216 µ€ < 226 µ€ for Vb=12.6%
Computed vertical subgrade strain=293 µ€<301 µ€ hence safe
Final section: DBM+BC with PMB=155 mm,WMM=250mm,GSB=260mm
Conventional pavement with VG40 with Vb for lower DBM=11.5%, DBM+BC=190mm,
WMM=250mm, GSB=260mm. Thickness of PMB mix is lower by 35mm and that of GSB is higher by
IRC: 37-2012
30mm. PMB mixes may last much longer due to lower ageing rate but recyclability of PMB mixes
is to be established from sustainability considerations.
II.3.1.3 Effect of variation in Poisson’s Ratio on thickness of bituminous layers
Poisson’s Ratio of a bituminous mix can vary with temperature and higher temperatures give Poisson’s
ratio approaching 0.50
Consider the above design with VG40 for traffic=131 msa
For thickness of DBM+BC=190mm, WMM+GSB=480 mm, µ=0.35, Maximum tensile strain in the
bituminous layer= 146 µ€, Maximum subgrade strain=231 µ€
If µ of the bituminous layer=0.5, the two strains are found as 137 µ€ and 234 µ€
Hence µ=0.35 gives a more conservative design for the bituminous layer even if µ is higher at a higher
temperatures. Effect on subgrade strain is marginal.
II.3.1.4 Effect of different Mr values of bituminous layers on pavement thickness
Viscosity of VG40 bitumen varies from 3200 Poise to 4600 Poise and accordingly, the resilient modulus
of the bituminous mixes also may vary over a range.
Consider modulus of bituminous layer as 2500MPa, 3000MPa and 3500MPa
Design traffic as above =131 msa, Thickness of granular layers as above: WMM=250 mm, GSB = 230
mm
If Modulus of bituminous layer is 2500 MPa
Allowable tensile strain in Bituminous layer with VG 40 bitumen with bottom DBM layer having air
void of 3 per cent with Volume of bitumen as 11.5 % =156µ€, Allowable Vertical subgrade strain=301
µ€
Thickness of BC and DBM over WMM and GSB = 200 mm at reliability of 90 per cent.
Computed strains are 153 µ€< 156 µ€ and 244 µ€< 301 µ€ respectively, hence safe.
.
If Modulus of bituminous layer is 3000 MPa
Allowable tensile strain in Bituminous layer with VG 40 bitumen with bottom DBM layer having air
void of 3 per cent with Volume of bitumen as 11.5 % =150µ€, Vertical subgrade strain=301 µ€
Thickness of BC and DBM over WMM and GSB = 190 mm at reliability of 90 per cent.
Computed strains are 146µ€<150 µ€ and 231<301 µ€ µ€ respectively, hence safe.

If Modulus of bituminous layer is 3500 MPa


Allowable tensile strain in Bituminous layer with VG 40 bitumen with bottom DBM layer having air
void of 3 per cent with Volume of bitumen as 11.5 % =145µ€, Vertical subgrade strain=301 µ€
Thickness of BC and DBM over WMM and GSB = 180 mm at reliability of 90 per cent.
Computed strains are 141 µ€<145 µ€ and 246 µ€<301 µ€ respectively, hence hence safe. It can be
seen that there is variation of 5mm of thickness per 100mm of the bituminous layer for a change of 500
MPa in the Mr value.
Variation of bituminous thickness with modulus for same traffic

Resilient modulus of Thickness of BC


DBM and BC (Mpa) and DBM (mm)
2500 200
3000 190
IRC: 37-2012
3500 180

II.3.1.5 Stage Construction and Economy: In this type of construction, thickness of the WMM
and GSB is provided for the full design period and the thickness of the bituminous is then
determined for a shorter design period. Consider a design period of ten years for the example -1
Design traffic = 46.9 msa for ten years (131 msa for 20 years)
WMM=250mm,GSB=230mm, Trial thicknress of BC+DBM=150mm, considering an air void
of 3.5% and volume of bitumen of 11.5%
Allowable tensile strain in DBM layer=181 µ€
Allowable vertical subgrade strain =377 µ€
Computed tensile strain in DBM =185 µ€> 181 µ€ not safe against fatigue cracking
Computed vertical subgrade strain =298 µ€< 377 µ€
Increase the thickness of the BC+DBM to 160mm
Computed maximum tensile stresses in DBM layer=181 µ€= the allowable stress
If the air void is reduced to 3.0%, the allowable tensile strain in the DBM layer is 195 µ€ and
150mm thickness of BC+ DBM will suffice
After the design period of ten years for the stage construction, the pavement may suffer structural
damage in the form of full depth cracking and overlay may not lead to a durable wearing course and
in most cases, rehabilitation by costly hot or cold recycling may be needed followed by application of
wearing course after ten years. This is avoided if the design is done for the full design period. Thicker
pavements do not suffer damage at the bottom. For a design period of 20 years, about 40mm of
additional thickness of BC+DBM is needed. Life cycle cost may be much lower for pavements
designed for 20 years rather than 10 years for the stage construction. Experience of other countries
can be relied upon for lack of experience in India.

II.3.2 Bituminous pavement with cemented base and cemented sub-base with aggregate
Interlayer of 100 mm
Design traffic as above 131 msa.

Bituminous layer with VG 40 (BC + DBM) = 100 mm. Aggregate interlayer = 100 mm.

= 120 mm ((thickness of the cemented base for CBR 5 and 10 are 130 mm and 100 mm respectively).

Cemented sub-base layer for drainage and separation = 250 mm.

Checking of the safety of cemented base due to spectrum of axle loads resulting in msa of 131.

Since there are plenty of single, tandem and tridem axle loads which are far higher than standard axle
load used for pavement design, thickness of cement layer must be checked for sudden fracture of the
brittle material like cemented base due to higher axle loads using cumulative damage principle. One
tandem axle is taken as two single axles and one tridem axle is taken as three axles carrying equal
weight since the interference of stresses at the cemented base are little due to axle loads being about
1.30 m to 1.40 m apart. All multiple axle vehicles are combination of single, tandem and tridem axles.
IRC: 37-2012
The axle load data can be classified or grouped in such a manner that all tandem and tridem axles can
be converted into single axle repetition for stress analysis the axle load spectrum of the traffic data is as
follows. Other convenient format on axle sheet can be used

SingleAxle Loads TandemAxle Loads TridemAxle Loads


Axle Load Percentage Axle Load Percentage of Axle Load Percentage
Class (kN) ofAxles Class (kN) Axles Class (kN) ofAxles
185-195 0.64 390-410 1.85 585-615 1.4
175-185 0.8 370-390 2.03 555-585 1.6
165-175 0.8 350-370 2.03 525-555 1.60
155-165 2.58 330-350 2.08 495-525 1.80
145-155 2.58 310-330 2.08 465-495 1.80
135-145 5.8 290-310 4.17 435-465 4.4
125-135 5.8 270-290 4.17 405-435 4.4

SingleAxle Loads TandemAxle Loads TridemAxle Loads


Axle Load Percentage Axle Load Percentage of Axle Load Percentage
Class (kN) ofAxles Class (kN) Axles Class (kN) ofAxles
115-125 11.82 250-270 12.67 375-405 13.10
105-115 11.82 230-250 12.67 345-375 13.10
95-105 12.9 210-230 10.45 315-345 10.90
85-95 12.16 190-210 10.45 285-315 10.4
<85 32.3 170-190 7.05 255-285 7.15
<170 28.28 <255 28.33
Total 100 Total 100 Total 100
IRC: 37-2012
Cumulative fatigue damage analysis is computed as follows for Single, Tandem and Tridem
Axle respectively considering flexural strength of cemented base as 1.4 MPa.

Cummulative fatigue damage analysis for SingleAxle

Modulus of Rupture of the cementitious base = 1.4 MPa

Axle Load in Expected Stress in Fatigue Fatigue life


Stress Ratio
kN Repitations MPa Life consumed
190 72504 0.70 0.50 5.37E + 05 0.14

180 90631 0.66 0.47 1.12E + 06 0.08

170 90631 0.63 0.45 2.33E + 06 0.04

160 292283 0.59 0.42 4.85E + 06 0.06

150 292283 0.55 0.39 1.01E + 07 0.03


140 657071 0.52 0.37 2.10E + 07 0.03
130 657071 0.48 0.34 4.38E + 07 0.02

120 1339066 0.44 0.32 9.11E + 07 0.01

110 1339066 0.40 0.29 1.90E + 08 0.01

100 1461417 0.37 0.26 3.95E + 08 0.00

90 1377584 0.33 0.24 8.22E + 08 0.00


85 3659206 0.31 0.22 1.19E + 09 0.00
cum. Damage 0.42
IRC: 37-2012
Cumulative fatigue damage analysis for Tandem Axle

Modulus of Rupture of the cementitious base = 1.4 MPa

Axle Load in Expected Stress in Fatigue Fatigue life


Stress Ratio
kN Repitations MPa Life consumed
400 419166 0.74 0.53 2.58E + 05 1.626

380 459950 0.70 0.50 5.37E + 05 0.857

360 459950 0.66 0.47 1.12E + 06 0.411

340 471279 0.63 0.45 2.33E + 06 0.202

320 471279 0.59 0.42 4.85E + 06 0.097

300 944823 0.55 0.39 1.01E + 07 0.094

280 944823 0.52 0.37 2.10E + 07 0.045

260 2870721 0.48 0.34 4.38E + 07 0.066

240 2870721 0.44 0.32 9.11E + 07 0.032

220 2367722 0.40 0.29 1.90E + 08 0.012

200 2367722 0.37 0.26 3.95E + 08 0.006

180 1597363 0.33 0.24 8.22E + 08 0.002

170 6407576 0.31 0.22 1.19E + 09 0.005

cumm. Damage 3.46

Cummulative fatigue damage analysis for TridemAxle

Modulus of Rupture of the cementitious base = 1.4 MPa

Axle Load in Expected Stress in Fatigue Fatigue life


Stress Ratio
kN Repitations MPa Life consumed

600 105736 0.74 0.53 2.58E+05 0.410

570 120841 0.70 0.50 5.37E+05 0.225

540 120841 0.66 0.47 1.12E+06 0.108

510 135946 0.63 0.45 2.33E+06 0.058

480 135946 0.59 0.42 4.85E+06 0.028


IRC: 37-2012
Axle Load in Expected Stress in Fatigue Fatigue life
Stress Ratio
kN Repitations MPa Life consumed

450 332312 0.55 0.39 1.01E+07 0.033

420 332312 0.52 0.37 2.10E+07 0.016

390 989383 0.48 0.34 4.38E+07 0.023

360 989383 0.44 0.32 9.11E+07 0.011

330 823227 0.40 0.29 1.90E+08 0.004

300 785464 0.37 0.26 3.95E+08 0.002

270 540007 0.33 0.24 8.22E+08 0.001

255 2139635 0.31 0.22 1.19E+09 0.002

cumm. Damage 0.92

It can be seen that total fatigue damage is greater than 1. Hence the pavement is unsafe and cemented
layer will crack prematurely. It can also be noticed that the Tandem axle weighing 400 kN causes
maximum fatigue damage followed by Tandem axle of 380 kN. It can also be seen that stress
variation is linear due to linear stress analysis. If the load is halved, stress also is halved.

One Tandem axle is considered as 2 Single axles and One Tridem axle as 3 Single axles sharing the
total load equally since there is little superposition of stresses due to individual axles of tandem and
tridem axles in cemented layer as per the computation.

If the heavy axle loads are not allowed, the pavement would be safe. If the cemented layer thickness is
increased from 120 mm to 160 mm Cumulative Fatigue Damage (CFD) is computed as 0.92 and for
165 mm CFD is 0.89 and hence the pavement is safe. If the modulus of rupture is 1.20 MPa, a
thickness of 220 mm is needed. Such checks are to be made on cemented layer because of heavy
loading over the highways in India. Tensile strain in the bituminous layer and the vertical subgrade
strain are very low because of stiff CTB and cement treated SB

Check for the construction traffic: A dumper carrying WMM for the paver may weigh as much as 22
to 24 ton and axle load may be about 16 ton. If the minimum 7 day flexural strength of CTB is 1.4
MPa, the 7 day strength is likely to be greater than 1.0 MPa (at least 70%). For 120mm,CTB, the
maximum flexural stress due to 16 ton axle load =1.21 MPa and the CTB will crack during the
construction of upper layers. Hence, increase the thickness to 160mm
The computed stress is 1.0 MPa. Hence the minimum thickness from the consideration of the
construction traffic=160mm. If cumulative fatigue damage analysis gives a thickness lower than
160mm, provide a minimum thickness of 160mm.
II.3.3 Bituminous Pavement with Cemented Base and Cemented Sub-base with Sami Layer
over Cemented Base
IRC: 37-2012
Design traffic = 131 msa.

Bituminous layer with VG 40 (BC + DBM) = 100 mm.

Take Cemented base= 165 mm for carrying out cumulative fatigue damage analysis

Cemented sub-base layer for drainage and separation = 250 m.


Checks must be done for cumulative fatigue damage and the construction traffic as explained in the
previous example.

II.3.4 Bituminous Pavement with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)


Treated with Foamed Bitumen/Bitumen Emulsion and Cemented Sub-base

Following composition is satisfies all the strain requirement


Design traffic = 131 msa.

Bituminous layer with VG 40 (BC + DBM) = 100 mm.

Consider thickness of treated aggregates RAP = 180 mm, The design is found to be safe from strain
consideration.

Cemented sub-base layer for drainage and separation = 250 m.

II.3.6 Bituminous Pavement with Cemented Base and Granular Sub-base with 100 mm
WMM Layer over Cemented Base
Design traffic = 131msa

BC (VG 40) = 50 mm,


DBM (VG 40) = 50 mm,
WMM = 100 mm,
Cemented base = 195 mm, GSB = 250 mm.
Tensile Strain in CTB=64.45< 65.5. Other values are well below the allowable limits.
A second level check on CTB using cumulative damage principle and safety against construction
traffic have to be done

Check for the safety of CTB layer for construction traffic

CTB forms a very strong layer and the performance of the pavement is dependent greatly on the
condition of CTB after the construction of DBM and BC.
Rear Axle load of dumper =160 kN rear axle, 7 day flexural strength of CTB= 1.0 MPa ( 28 day
strength being 1.40 MPa)
Thickness of GSB= 250mm, Mr of subgrade=62 MPa, Mr value of GSB=149 MPa
Maximum flexural stress for 16 ton axle load at 0.8 MPa tyre pressure= 1.4 MPa> 1.0 MPa
Select a higher thickness of CTB. Take thickness of CTB=230mm, Flexural stress=1.16 MPa>1,0
MPa. Hence a thickness of 250mm for the CTB will be safe since the maximum flexural stress is 1.0
MPa. Pavement will have higher long term strength.
IRC: 37-2012
II.3.7 Design of Flexible Pavement for 300 msa with (i) VG40 mix and with (ii) high modulus mix
Many highways have heavy volume of traffic and the design traffic at the end of concession period can
be as high as 300 msa. The pavement design and mix design are integrated and a thicker bituminous
layer may need milling of the top 40 mm to 50 mm after ten yeras and replaced with a fresh
bituminous wearing course or a hot in-situ recycled mix to remove the cracked and deformed spots and
restore the riding quality.

Assumed Design Parameters

Resilient modulus of subgrade = 75 MPa (corresponding to Effective subgrade CBR of 10 %).

Thickness of Granular Sub-base = 350 mm for separation and drainage


Lower 200 mm of GSB (Grading I,II,V,VI of MORTH) is to act as separation layer and the top 150
mm GSB( Grading III and IV of MORTH) is an open graded granular material to have a permeability
of about 300 m/day to act as a drainage layer in high rainfall area. Its Los Angele’s abrasion value
should be less than 40 to avoid crushing during rolling. In case, the open graded drainage layer is
disturbed by traffic, it may be treated with 1.5 to 2 percent SS2 bitumen emulsion to make it stable
Bituminous layer should be bottom rich, that is, the bottom layer should have an air-void of 2.5
percent compacted to 4% air void(air void for design =3%). This can be established from the
laboratory tests and a field trial.
(i) Pavement with VG40
Resilient Modulus of Bituminous layer = 3000 MPa
Consider a thickness of BC and DBM with VG40 = 235mm, granular layer=350mm thick
Strains in different layers for a design traffic of 300 msa,
Modulus of subgrade=75 MPa for CBR=10, Modulus of granular layer=214 MPa
Allowable tensile strain in the bitumen rich bottom DBM I layer with air void of 3% and volume of
bitumen of 11.5% for DBM I= 121 µЄ , Allowable Vertical subgrade strain= 250 µЄ
Computed (i) maximum tensile strain = 113 µЄ<121 µЄ and (ii) Vertical subgrade strain=224
µЄ<214 µЄ, hence safe.
(ii) Pavement with High modulus bituminous mix
It has been possible to get a modulus of 5500 MPa at 350Cwith hard bitumen (
not air blown) from Haldia refinery before blending for the manufacture of
VG30 and VG40. Even VG40 modified with Eva and commercially available
additives has much higher modulus.
Resilient modulus of High Modulus mix = 5500 MPa
Consider thickness of granular=350mm , Thickness of High MOD mix= 180
Allowable tensile strain HMA layer=115 µЄ,Allowable vertical subgrade strain = 250 µЄ.
Computed maximum vertical subgrade strain = 245 µЄ<250 µЄ
IRC: 37-2012
Computed tensile strain in HMA layer=107 µЄ<115 µЄ

It can be seen that there is a 55mm reduction in thickness of thickness if high modulus bituminous
mix is used.. For long lasting pavement, the wearing courses such as SMA or Gap graded Rubberised
bitumen mix wearing course should be used to give a trouble free service for a minimum period of
ten years.
II.3.8 Long Life Pavements
The pavements which have a life of 50 years or longer are termed as long life also termed as perpetual
pavements. If the tensile strain caused by the traffic in the bituminous layer is less than 70 micro strains (
81 µЄ at 350C)as per tests in laboratories at 200C in US, the endurance limit of the material, the
bituminous layer never cracks (Asphalt Institute, MS-4, 7th edition 2007). Similarly if vertical subgrade
strain is less than 200 micro strain, rutting in subgrade will be negligible (Fig.II-1). Design of such a
pavement is illustrated in the guideline.

0 Endurance limit=200 µЄ
Endurance limit=81 µЄ at 35 C
µmore or less more or
less

Limiting tensile strain at 350C Limiting vertical subgrade strain

Fig. II-1 Limiting Design Strain for a Long Life Pavement

Design Example of Long Life Pavement

Allowable subgrade strain = 200 µЄ.

Allowable tensile strain in the bituminous layer = 81 µЄ (for 350C).

Modulus of the Bituminous layer = 3000 MPa (VG 40 Bitumen).

Elastic Modulus of subgrade = 60 MPa (corresponding to CBR of 7 %).

Granular Drainage and Separation layer = 200 mm.

Modulus of drainage layer = 130 MPa.

Thickness of the Bituminous layer to meet the above requirement = 310 mm(say).

The computed strain in the bituminous layer is 79 µЄ< 81 µЄ and the vertical subgrade strain is
obtained as 168 µЄ <200 µЄ. (The analysis is done by IITPAVE software). The pavement is safe.
IRC: 37-2012

Consider cement treated subbase of thickness 300mm, WMM layer=150mm and a trial thickness
of 250mm of the bituminous layer is considered. MR of WMM layer=350 MPa as per the earlier
example.
Computed strains Tensile strain in bituminous layer79.2 µЄ<81 µЄ,
Vertical subgrade strain = 159 µЄ< 200 µЄ Bu combining various types of materials in different
layers, a cost effective long life pavement can be constructed with marginal increase in the initial cost
but life cycle cost may be less if a durable wearing course is provided.
Use of high Modulus binder for Long Life Pavement (design life≥ 1000 msa)
Consider a thickness of 220 mm for the high modulus mix
Allowable tensile strain at 350C =81 µЄ
Maximum tensile strain bituminous layer=66.3 µЄ<81 µЄ
A conventional pavement needs 310mm of VG40 mix while Cement Treated subbase needs 250mm
of VG40 mix while a thickness of 220mm of high modulus mix is needed.
Practitioners of pavement design should examine optimization discussed above for efficient use of
materials at least life cycle cost for a long life pavement. Low strength cementitious GSB permits use
of marginal aggregates.

II.3.9 Additional thickness of bottom DBM

Considering the maximum undulation of 10mm permitted in WMM, the thickness of the bottom
DBM should be increased by 10mm to ensure that that there is no deficiency of the DBM thickness
anywhere.

ANNEX-III

Equivalence of Thickness of Bituminous Mixes of Different Moduli


Two elastic layers are approximately of equal flexural stiffness if their moduli, Poisson’s ratios
and thickness are related as

𝐸1 𝐻13 𝐸2 𝐻23
=
12(1 − 𝜇12 ) 12(1 − 𝜇22 )

Where
E1, H1, µ1 and E2, H2, µ2 are the Elastic Modulus, Thickness and Poisson’s Ratio of the two mixes.
Different layers can be combined into less number of layers for computation if necessary.

Example Convert 180 mm of DBM with VG 30 with modulus 2000 MPa into that with VG 40
with modulus 3000 MPa
180 mm DBM with VG 30
IRC: 37-2012

180 x (2000/3000)0.333= 157 mm DBM with VG 40 bitumen


Though bending behavior may be comparable from the above equivalence, rutting in the bituminous
layer will be reduced with stiffer bitumen. Sometimes, several layers may have to be combined in one
layer for analysis since too many layers cause problems in elastic layered analysis. This can be done
as follows
If there are three layers of thicknesses H1, H2, H3 having the moduli E1, E2, E3 and equal Poisson’s
ratios, the modulus (Eq) of a single layer of thickness H1+ H2 + H3 is given as

𝑬𝟏 𝑯𝟑𝟏 + 𝑬𝟐 𝑯𝟑𝟐 + 𝑬𝟑 𝑯𝟐𝟑 𝟎.𝟑𝟑𝟑


𝑬𝒒 = ( )
𝑯𝟏 + 𝑯 𝟐 + 𝑯𝟑

The above concept may be needed if several layers of similar materials are to be analysed. IITPAVE
considers only five layers

ANNEX-IV

Preparation of Laboratory Test Specimens for CBR Test and Selection of Subgrade CBR for
Pavement Design

Sample Preparation
1. Wherever possible, the test specimens should be prepared by static compaction, but if not
possible, dynamic method may be used as an alternative.

Static Compaction
2. The weight of wet soil at the required moisture content to give the intended density when
occupying the standard test mould is calculated as follows:
Volume of mould = 2209 cc
Weight of dry soil = 2209×d gm
(100+m) ×2209×d gm
Weight of the Wet Soil =
100
Where,
d = Required dry density in gm/cc
IRC: 37-2012
m = Required moisture content in per cent.
3. The soil lumps are broken down and stones larger than 20 mm are removed. Sufficient quantity
of the soil is mixed with water to give the required moisture content. The correct weight of wet
soil is placed in the mould. After initial tamping with a steel rod, a filter paper is placed on top
of the soil, followed by the 50 mm displacer disc, and the specimen compressed in the
compression machine until the top of the displacer is flush with the top of the collar. The load
is held for about 30 seconds and then released. In some soil types where a certain amount of
rebound occurs, it may be necessary to re-apply load to force the displacer disc slightly below
the top of the mould so that on rebound the right volume is obtained.

Dynamic Compaction
4. The soil is mixed with water to give the required moisture content, and then compacted into the
mould in three layers using a standard soil rammer. After compaction, the soil is trimmed flush
with the top of the mould with the help of a metal straight edge. The mould is weighed full and
empty to enable determination of wet bulk density, and from it, knowing the moisture content,
the dry density is calculated.
5. Further specimens, at the same moisture content, are then prepared to different dry densities by
varying the number of blows applied to each layer of soil so that the amount of compaction that
will fill the mould uniformly with calculated weight of wet soil (vide para 2 above) is known.
Selection of Subgrade CBR for Pavement Design
The CBR values of the subgrade soil varies along a highway alignment even on a homogeneous
section. 90 percentile CBR is recommended in the guidelines. Method of determination of the
90th percentile is given below. The following example illustrates the procedure for finding the
Design.

16 CBR values for a highway alignment are as follows:

3.5, 5.2, 8.0, 6.8, 8.8, 4.2, 6.4, 4.6, 9.0, 5.7, 8.4, 8.2, 7.3, 8.6, 8.9, 7.6

Arrange the above 16 values in ascending order

3.5, 4.2, 4.6, 5.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.8, 7.3, 7.6, 8.0, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0

Now calculate the percentage greater than equal to each of the values as follows:

For CBR of 3.5, percentage of values greater than equal to 3.5 = (16/16) * 100 = 100

For CBR of 4.2, percentage of values greater than equal to 4.2= (15/16)*100=93.75and so on.
Now a plot is made between percentages of values greater than equal and the CBR values versus the
CBR as follows.
IRC: 37-2012

Fig. IV.1 Evaluation of Subgrade CBR for Pavement Design

th th
The 90 percentile CBR value = 4.7, and 80 percentile CBR = 5.7 in. Asphalt Institute of USA (6)
recommends 87.5 percentile subgrade modulus for design traffic greater than one msa.
NOTE: If the data is very large, the CBR values can be grouped for homogenous sections and the
Same procedure followed.

Special Points Relating to Design of Pavement on Expansive Soils


Potentially expansive soils, such as, black cotton soils are montmorillonite clays and are
characterized by their extreme hardness and deep cracks when dry and with tendency for heaving
during the process of wetting. Road beds made up of such soils when subjected to changes in
moisture content due to seasonal wetting and drying or due to any other reason undergo volumetric
changes leading to pavement distortion, cracking and general unevenness. In semi-arid climatic
conditions, pronounced short wet and long dry conditions occur, which aggravate the problem of
swelling and shrinkage. Due recognition of these problems at the design stage itself is required so that
counter measures could be devised and incorporated in the pavement structure. A proper design
incooperating the following measures may considerably minimize the problems associated with
expansive soils.

The amount of volume change that occurs when an expansive soil road bed is exposed to additional
moisture depends on the following:
(a) The dry density of the compacted soil.
(b) The moisture content.
(c) Structure of soil and method of compaction.
Expansive soils swell very little when compacted at low densities and high moisture but swell greatly
when compacted at high densities and low moisture. Hence, where the probability of moisture
variation in the subgrade is high, it is expedient to compact the soil slightly wet of the field optimum
moisture content (+2 per cent) determined on the basis of a field trial. Experience shows that
generally, it is not practicable to compact expansive soils at OMC determined by Laboratory Proctor
IRC: 37-2012
Test. It is, therefore, necessary to study its field moisture density relationship through compacting the
soil at different moisture contents and under the same number of roller passes. A minimum density
corresponding to 95 percent of the standard proctor density should be attained in the field and
recommended moisture content should be. 1-2 per cent wet of optimum moisture content.

Buffer Layer
There is a definite gain in placing the pavement on a non-expansive impermeable soil cushion of 0.6-
1.0 m thickness. It prevents ingress of water in the underlying expansive soil layer, counteracts
swelling and secondly even if the underlying expansive soil heaves, the movement will be more
uniform and consequently more tolerable. However, where provision of non-expansive buffer layer is
not economically feasible, a blanket course of suitable impermeable material and thickness as
discussed below must be provided.
Blanket Course
An impermeable blanket course of at least 225 mm thickness and composed of coarse/ medium sand
or non-plastic moorum having PI less than five should be provided on the expansive soil subgrade as
a sub-base to serve as an effective intrusion barrier. It must have very low permeability. The blanket
course should extend over the entire formation width.

Alternatively, lime-stabilized black cotton sub-base extending over the entire formation width may be
provided together with measures for efficient drainage of the pavement section.
IRC: 37-2012
ANNEXURE-V

Drainage Layer
A good drainage can significantly reduce the magnitude of damage to pavements. Special attention
should, therefore, be given to provision of good drainage measures. The desirable requirements are:
a. Provision must be made for the lateral drainage of the pavement. The
Granular sub-base/base should accordingly be extended across the full width of
shoulders
b. No standing water should be allowed on either side of the road embankment.
c. A minimum height of 1 m (or 0.6 min case of existing road having no history of being
over topped) between the top of the subgrade level and the highest water level should
be ensured.

Example of Design of a Drainage Layer


Design a granular drainage layer for a four lane heavy duty divided highway for an annual
precipitation of 1200 mm. Longitudinal slope = 3 per cent, Camber = 2.5 per cent.

Crack Infiltration Method


Water travels along AD (Fig.V-1) due to camber and the cracks)=12m for flexible pavement
longitudinal slope
Depth of drainage layer = 450 mm (Assuming
BT= 200 mm and WMM = 250 mm)
Width of the drainage layer (one side of the median only)
=8.5m+1.0m+2x0.45=10.4m with 1.0 m wide
Unpaved shoulder
Fig. V-1 Direction of Flow of Water
Fig. V-1, AB = 10.4 m, AC = 10.4 x 0.03/0.025 = 12.48 m.

AD = (10.42+ 12.482)0.5= 16.24 m

Elevation drop along AC = 12 .48 x 0.03 = 0.374 m

Elevation drop along CD = 10.4 x 0.025 = 0.26 m

Total drop along AD = 0.634 m.

Hydraulic gradient = (Elevation drop)/length = I = .634/16.24 =0.039

qI= IC [Nc/Wp+ WC/ (WpCs)],Ic=0.223 m3/day/m, Nc(center

line and two edges)=3,Wp(paved width + shoulder)=10.4 m,

Wc (crack width)=Wp,Cs (assumed intervals of transverse


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qi= 0.083 m3/day/m2.


Amount of water infiltration in pavement per meter width along the flow path AD
= 0.0.083 x 1 x 16.24 = 1.35 m3/day= Q Gradient = 0.039
Q = KAI,
KA=1.35/0.039=34.62,
Where,
A = Area of Cross Section
= Thickness of drainage Layer, m x 1.0 m,
K = coefficient of Permeability, m/day,
If depth of drainage layer is 100 mm
A=1x0.1=0.1m2,
K=34.62/0.1 =346.62 m/day
If the thickness of drainage layer is doubled, the permeability requirement is half.
For major highways in which thick bituminous layer are provided, very little water can enter through
the surface. Rain water may however enter through the pervious median if not designed properly. The
gradations III and IV of MORTH (64) and 4,5 and 6 of AASHTO 93 shown in Table V-1 can be used
as a drainage layer. Gradings close to 4 to 6 are commonly adopted in USA.

Table V-1 Permeability of Untreated Graded Aggregates as per MORTH(13) and AASHTO (1993)

%
passing,Sieve Grading Grading Grading Grading Grading
size,mm III of IV of 4 5 6
MORTH MORTH AASHTO AASHTO AASHTO
53 100 100
26.5 55-75 50-80
19.5 100 100 100
12.5 81.5 79.5 75
9.5 72.5 69.5 63
4.75 10-30 15-35 49 43.5 32
2.36 29.5 22 5.8
2.0 25 17 0
0.84 9.8 0 0
0.075 <5 <5 0 0 0
Co eff. of 588* 329* 350 850 950
permeability
(m/day)
* reference no 80.
Open graded aggregates can be unstable if construction traffic moves on them. They may be treated
IRC: 37-2012
with 2% cement or bitumen emulsion for stability during the pavement construction. Alternatively.
SS2 bitumen emulsion diluted 50:50 with water can be sprayed on the surface at the rate of 0.2 kg/m2
of residual bitumen followed by light application of stone dust to ensure stability under the
construction traffic..
Annexure-VI
Recommendation for Bituminous Wearing Courses for Flexible Pavements

VI-1: India is a large country with vastly different climate in different areas, and many regional
agencies have developed specifications suited to the local conditions. Pavement temperatures in plains
are generally high and the bituminous wearing course ages faster and becomes brittle. In high rainfall
area, the wearing course may suffer moisture damage leading to raveling, pothole formation, and the
moisture infiltrate into the lower layers. Hence a wearing course must be resistant to ageing, moisture
damage and rutting at high temperatures.

VI-2: The wearing course of premix carpet (PMC) and seal coat has given mixed performance. Built
up area has generally poor drainage leading to early damage of PMC under heavy traffic while it has
performed reasonably well on well drained roads in residential area and on rural roads. Good coating
of aggregates with bitumen and proper sealing the surface with sand- bitumen, PMC may last for
about five to six years on low volume roads. Deficiency of binder leads to early failure. Applying seal
coat is a manual operation and has to be done very carefully for proper sealing. Mixed Seal surfacing
also has performed well on low volume roads in high rainfall area of West Bengal when appropriate
amount of binder is added in the aggregates.. Local experience is the best guide.

VI-3: Two coat surface dressing has been used with success in South Africa (24) with traffic up to 5 msa even
in wet region. The bitumen film in surfacing dressing is thick and makes the pavement completely
impervious to ingress of water. Thick bitumen film resists ageing for a longer period and does not
undergo fatigue cracking also. In wet area such as North-East where clear days are fewer, , bitumen
emulsion can be used since the aggregates need not be dry and even windy conditions will help in
evaporation of water from the emulsion and necessary bond is created among the aggregates used in
the surface dressing.

VI-4. UK practice for wearing course for heavy traffic is to use Rolled Asphalt (RA) containing gap
graded aggregates with 35/50 penetration bitumen having the bitumen content as high as 7%. High
binder content gives a durable mix with lower rate of ageing and a stiff binder prevents rutting.

VI-5. It is recommended that the SDBC and BC wearing courses with unmodified bitumen should be
limited to a design traffic of 10 msa. SDBC has a higher voids in mineral aggregates (VMA) and needs
greater amount of binder for 4% air void rather than 4.5% used in practice.. Lime should be used as a
filler since it acts as an antioxidant and prevents moisture damage apart from stiffening the mix. Low
volume of traffic may not cause large scale damage even after the wearing course has become
somewhat oxidised and the expected life can be a minimum of five years for a properly designed mix. It
IRC: 37-2012
should be ensured that a minimum of two hours of curing at the mixing temperature should be done to
allow for full absorption of binder into the aggregates before the evaluation of the compacted density
and theoretical density for air void, VMA and Vfb computation

VI-6. For traffic exceeding 10 msa, dense graded mixes with PMB-40 or Gap Graded mix with CRMB
binder( IRC:SP_107-2015) should be preferred to avoid frequent pothole repair, raveling and
patching. For traffic exceeding 20 msa, Gap graded(GG) mixes such as Stone Marix Asphalt (SMA)
with PMB 40 or a gap graded mix with rubberised bitumen containing at least 20% crumb rubber are
recommended. Both SMA ( IRC:SP:79-2008) and GG mix with rubberized bitumen(IRC:SP-107-2015)
are very popular on heavily trafficked roads in Europe and in some states of USA. Key to a durable
wearing course is usto to use a stiff binder in greater amount leading to thicker films around the
aggregates. Crumb rubber modified binder has carbon black which resist ageing. PMB mixes also
oxidises slowly as compared to neat bitumen.

VI-7: Bituminous pavements over Water Bound Macadam (WBM) base have performed very well in
South Africa. WBM bases consist of coarse single-sized aggregates together with fines added during
the construction to fill the voids. Such bases are recommended by South Africa (68) for pavements
carrying heavy traffic under wet weather condition. Tests in South Africa by Heavy Vehicle Simulator
(50) found that WBM resists deformation better than the graded crushed stone base courses even
under wet condition because of better interlocking of larger aggregate size of WBM. The work is
labour intensive, but it can be one of the options in areas where there is serious problem with
construction equipment.

VI-8 Rolled Aspahlt wearing course over DBM has been routinely used in UK in heavily trafficked
highways. The DBM with a filler content from 7 to 11 % and a hard binder of penetration 35-50 has
been a success on heavily trafficked highways of UK. Such a base is termed as Heavy duty Macadam
(HDM). It requires a little greater amount of rolling to get a strong compacted base with an air void of
4%.

VI-9 Mastic Asphalt (MA) wearing course 25mm thick is very popular in West Bengal and in many
places in India because of its durability even under heavy rainfall during the monsoon. MA is very
hard and it does not suffer moisture damage because of its voidless mass. But laying process is slow
and the aggregates embedded over the surface for providing skid resistance generate noise in the
beginning and roughness is high initially. After a hot summer, the aggregates get embedded into the
aggregates making the surface glassy with poor skid resistance. But its durability is unsurpassable. The
skid resistance can be restored by surface dressing with smaller size aggregates with reduced noise. It
can be considered as a part of the structural layer since bonding with lower bituminous layer is ensured
by tack coat.
IRC: 37-2012

ANNEX-VII
Binders and bituminous mixes

VII-1 Binder must be stiff enough so as not to undergo unacceptable permanent deformation along the
wheel path under traffic in the prevailing climate. It should not become brittle at low temperatures.
Hence its selection should be performance based. Volume of Commercial traffic and temperature
should determine the selection of a binder in a given region. IRC: 111-2009 (29) recommends VG-40
bitumen if commercial vehicle exceeds 2000 per lane per day for plain terrain.

VII-2 Three types of bitumen namely VG-10,VG-30 and VG-40 are being produced in Indian refineries
though VG 20 also is included in the BIS specifications. VG10 is used for low volume roads and VG30
and VG40 are being used for highway and other roads. When the binders were examined as per the performance grading
(PG) scale of USA, the average high temperature grading for VG 30 and VG40 corresponds to PG 64 and PG70 respectively.
There is considerable variability in the results since viscosity range (VR) for bitumen is quite large. The VR of VG40 is from 3200 to
4800 poise while that of VG30 is 2400 to 3600 poise measured at 600C, 3200 to 3600 range being common . If temperature alone is the
consideration, VG30 and VG40 become the choice for pavement temperatures up to 640C and 700C respectively. It may be mentioned that
viscosity grading was found to be deficient in USA and it was replaced with PG grading about twenty years back while UK and Europe
continue to use penetration grading in conjunction with softening point.

VII-3: Summer temperatures are much lower in UK and European countries, average air temperature
being 190C in UK in the hottest month while hottest month’s air temperatures exceed 400C in India in
a large number of locations. For heavy traffic, the British practice (23) is to use mix with stiffer
bitumen of penetration 35 to 45 to obtain high strength bases which allows 10-15 percent reduction in
thickness for equivalent performance or an extended life for the same thickness of softer binder. Much
harder grade of bitumen (15, 25 and 35 penetration) is used in bases for very heavily trafficked
highways in UK and other European countries in spite of very low temperatures.
VII-4: SUPERPAVE Mix design recommends a binder based on temperature only if the traffic is less
or equal to 10 msa. For traffic greater than 10 msa and less than 30, it recommends a binder which is
one grade higher than that needed for 10 msa. If the traffic is greater than 30 msa, selection of binder
which is of one grade higher is strongly advised. For signalized intersection, two grades higher binder
is recommended. As per Superpave guidelines. Thus if VG30 bitumen is to be selected for pavement
temperature up to up to 640 C for traffic less or equal to 10 msa . VG40 should be preferred to VG30
for traffic from 10 msa to 30 msa and it must be used for traffic greater than 30 msa. For areas on
intersection and traffic signals, binder grade is bumped by two grades (say PG76) which imply use
of modified binder of grade PMB40..
IRC: 37-2012

VII-5 AASHTO-TP70-13 has brought out a new criterion in 2013 for the selection of binders based on
multiple stress creep and recovery test for assessing rutting potential of bituminous binders. The test
evaluates the recoverable and permanent deformations in binders under repeated shear load at the
temperature of interest (maximum pavement temperature). Based on the field trials, Federal Highway
Administration of USA has given the following recommendations for the selection of binders

Table VII-1: Binder selection criteria as per AASHTO TP70-13

Binder classification Traffic based on 20 years


projection
Standard Grade (Based on < 3 msa
temperature only)
Heavy Grade > 3 msa
Very Heavy Grade > 10 msa
Extreme Grade > 30 msa

All our major roads fall under extreme grade.


VII-6: Pavement temperatures for the Selection of Grade of Binder in different regions
Selection of binder and mix design are very important for a good performing bituminous layer. Harder
binders are both moisture and rut resistant. Both temperature and traffic determine the binder grade.
Maximum pavement temperature at a location can be determined (5) from the following widely
acceptable equation (Asphalt Institute, 2001)

T20mm = [(Tair - .00618Lat2 + 0.2289Lat + 42.2) * (0.9545)] – 17.78… VII-1


Where T20mm= Pavement temperature at a depth of 20mm
Lat = Latitude of the place
Tair = Average of maximum temperatures of seven days

The above equation was found to be closer to pavement temperatures observed at Kharagpur. For
maximum air temperatures of 380C and 470C, the corresponding pavement temperatures are 610C and
690C respectively. For traffic exceeding 20 msa, the maximum air temperature should be determined
at 98% reliability given as
Maximum air temperature= Mean of maximum 7 day temperatures + 2 standard deviation.
The selection of the binder shall be done on the basis of design traffic and local/regional temperatures.
In the absence of that, the maximum pavement temperatures can be computed from the Eqs VII-1.
The design traffic for the selection of binder shall be computed on the basis of 15/20 years projection.

VII-7 Selection of Binders Considering the practice around the world on the selection of binders and
the Indian experience, the recommendation for the selection of a binder is given in Table VII-1
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Table VII-2 Selection of Binder for Bituminous Mixes

Traffic Binder type for plains Binder for other


in India locations and snow Remarks
bound
mountainous region
Design traffic ≤ 10 msa Select VG30 for For snow bound and
maximum pavement VG 10 is other areas with
temperature less than recommended for difference of maximum
640C , traffic up to 30 msa to minimum pavement
Design traffic > 10 msa but ≤ 30 VG30/VG40 for when the maximum temperatures greater
msa pavement temperature pavement than 920C, modified
less than 640C . VG40 temperature is binders to stand both
may be preferred expected to be high and low
<300C. temperatures is
Design traffic > 30 msa VG40 shall be used VG30 binder is recommended as per
recommended. Local Superpave
experience shall specification,
prevail
Traffic intersection Polymer modified Polymer modified
binder/Mastic asphalt binder/Mastic asphalt
Note: For heavy traffic, SMA.Gap graded Rubberised bitumen mix is recommended for the wearing course. A
minimum of 2% lime in DBM as well as in other bituminous mixes is advisable to (i) control moisture damage (ii) to
reduce the ageing rate and (iii) stiffen the mix to have a higher modulus

VII-8: Evaluation of Mix parameters: air void, Voids in mineral aggregates, theoretical density (Gmm), Bulk
Density (Gmb) and Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixes:

For aggregates with water absorption less than 2%, the aggregates and bitumen should be mixed at the
mixing temperature of the bitumen and the mixture shall be kept in the oven at the mixing temperature
for about two hours in order that the bitumen is absorbed fully into the aggregate pores (MS2). Gmm
should be determined on the cured mixes and Gmb shall be done on the compacted mixes. The curing
is done to simulate absorption of bitumen during the mixing, storage in silo, transportation, laying and
compaction. The mix remains hot for about two hours. Laboratory curing for two hours is essential to
IRC: 37-2012
ensure that effective bitumen content and air voids are computed correctly and there is no deficiency
of bitumen in the mix. The mixed sample shall be cured for four hours at 1350C and brought to the
compaction temperature before compaction by a Marshall hammer to prepare specimen for Resilient
Modulus test. This method gives modulus after the pavement has undergone some initial ageing for a
few months. About 2% lime should be added as a part of filler to (i) eliminate moisture damage and
(ii) slow down ageing process. Lime is also a safeguard against any clay contamination in the
aggregates.

VII-7 If the DBM laid in a single layer, thee DBM mix shall be designed for 3% air void and
compacted to air void less than 4.5% by road roller. For two layer DBM, the bottom layer shall be
designed for 2.5% air void and compacted to an air void less than 4% by road roller. Such mixes may
last till the design period due to higher resistance to fatigue and moisture damage. DBM-I contains
larger size aggregates and it should be ensured that there is no segregation by taking appropriate
measures. Higher size aggregates in DBM display strong interlocking and have a better load spreading
behavior due to higher modulus.

(Note: As per the international practice, traffic exceeding 20 msa is considered as a heavy traffic and
mix is to be rigorously tested)

ANNEX-VIII

Resilient Modulus of Granular Materials

The guide lines for the resilient modulus of granular materials over subgrade recommend use of
widely used Shell’s equation given by Equation7.1, which gives a conservative value. There is now
increasing trend of using a more scientific approach for determination of resilient modulus, Mrgrn, by
tri axial test since it is dependent upon the sum of the principal stresses as well as the octahedral shear
stress as given below (14).
𝜃 𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 𝐾
𝑀𝑟𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛 = 𝐾1 ( )𝐾2 × [ ] 3 …… VIII-1
𝜌 𝜌

1
𝜏𝑜𝑐𝑡 = 𝑂𝑐𝑡𝑎ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = √(𝜎2 − 𝜎3 )2 + (𝜎3 − 𝜎1 )2 + (𝜎1 − 𝜎2 )2
√2
IRC: 37-2012

𝜃 = 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

𝜎1 , 𝜎2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜎3 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑙𝑎𝑦𝑒𝑟


𝜌 =atmospheric pressure=100kPa, K1,K2 and K3 are experimental test constant. The constants of
EquationVII-1 are to be evaluated from repeated triaxial test as per the AASHTO
–T307-99.The default values of the constants k1,k2and k3 may be taken as 220,1.05and
-0.2 respectively (16) for crushed rocks meeting the gradation of Wet Mix Macadam as per
MORTH specifications. A typical modulus value of 450MPa over a strong cemented base may be
taken for design (67). A strong base leads to better packing of aggregates and confinement between
two strong layers leads to higher modulus than given by Shell’s equation Eq 7.1
When WMM is laid over a cementitious subbase, its resilient modulus(MR) will not be high due to
lower strength of support and the MR can be evaluated by using Eq.VII-1. A modulus value of 350
MPa is appropriate. An example is given in in 10.6.1 to illustrate use of the Eq.VII-1.
IRC: 37-2012
ANNEX-IX

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Mix Design

Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) must be used for technical, economical, and
environmental reasons. Use of RAP has been favored all over the world over virgin materials in the
light of the increasing cost of bitumen, the scarcity of quality aggregates, and the pressing need to
preserve the environment. The use of RAP also decreases the amount of waste produced and help
store solve the disposal problems of highway construction materials. Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements
contain best quality aggregates and they can be effectively improved with foamed asphalt/bitumen
emulsion along with/without fresh aggregates and crusher dust to impart necessary strength for
durable pavements. If only the surface layer is weathered or damaged, hot recycling can be an
attractive proposition.

Several recycling techniques, such as hot mix plant recycling, hot in-place recycling, cold mix plant
recycling, cold in-place recycling, and full depth reclamation, have evolved over the past 35 years.
In-place recycling not only reduces the use of new materials but also reduces emissions, traffic, and
energy associated with the transport and production of these materials.

Hot Mix Recycling is the most common method of recycling asphalt pavements in developed
countries. It involves combining RAP with new or “virgin” aggregate, new asphalt binder, and
recycling agents in a central hot mix plant to produce a recycled mix. The amount of RAP allowed in
a recycled hot bituminous mix as per different guidelines varies from agencies to agencies. Some
routinely allow 15 per cent or less RAP while others permit larger amounts of RAP . Higher RAP
concentrations require adjustments in mix design and binder selection. Agency’s recommendations
and international guide lines such as those given by the Asphalt Institute may be used in different
trials because of lack of experience in India. Massive research by all concern is needed to develop
technology to use 100% RAP in in pavement construction.

Cold Mix Plant Recycling is a method of recycling where RAP and emulsified bitumen or foamed
bitumen are mixed cold in a centrally located cold mix plant. Many old road alignment having thick
bituminous layers are being abandoned in four and six laning projects and the entire RAP can be
salvaged by milling machine and reused in new construction. Even cement treated aggregates have
been milled and reused in USA, South Africa and China. Since the components of a cold mix plant
are fairly portable, it can be assembled in satellite locations close to a project site. Cold recycled mix
is hauled to the job site with conventional dump trucks or belly dump trucks. Placement and
compaction of cold recycled mixes are done with the same conventional pavers and rollers used for
hot mix asphalt construction. Cold recycled mixes are normally overlaid with hot mix asphalt or
surface dressing (chip seal) depending on the anticipated traffic level for the finished pavement.
IRC: 37-2012
Cold recycling (21) also involves rehabilitation of the existing asphalt or granular road surface. The
existing surface is pulverized and the material is mixed on the site with foamed bitumen or bitumen
emulsion. The process of in-situ recycling of distressed pavement using cold- mix technology is
referred to as cold in-place recycling (CIPR). CIPR thus is a pavement rehabilitation measure that
typically consists of the following operations, Often all are carried out in one-pass of a recycling
machine and a badly distressed pavement is transformed into a stronger nice looking pavement
1. Milling the existing pavement layers up to a depth of 300 mm;
2. Treatment with bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen, often in combination with addition of
crusher dust, fresh aggregates if required, and a small percentage of active filler such as cement;
3. Adding compaction water; and
4. Repaving the mix.
5. Compaction
In a CIPR process as described above, the top bituminous layer (Reclaimed asphalt pavement) as well
as a part or whole of the granular or stabilized base layer are recycled. The residual binder content
added to the mineral aggregates in the process of CIPR is generally lower (<4 per cent) in comparison
to hot bituminous mixtures. The recycled product is not used as final surfacing layer but used as base
or sub-base layer. CIPR is an attractive alternative for highway rehabilitation operations because of
its economic and environmental advantages. Major economic advantages involve the recycling of
existing road surface aggregates and reduced haul requirements for incorporating new aggregates. In
India, there are many regions where aggregates resources are limited or will be depleted in the near
future. Aggregate haul in these regions is quite expensive. In addition, impacts on adjacent haul roads
are minimized or eliminated because of reduced new aggregate requirements. A major environmental
advantage involved in the use of cold in-place recycling is that there is no requirement for heat during
construction work. CIPR is an energy efficient process that does not produce harmful emissions and
does not require the bituminous mixtures to be transported to an off-site plant. In addition,
transportation of large amounts of aggregate are reduced and hence it is fuel efficient also. A number
of roads rehabilitated with CIPR have been performing well.

Design for Bitumen Emulsion RAP Mixes

Gradations of Aggregates
The aggregates from RAP may not have the required gradation for a good mix. RAP alone has poor
internal friction and its CBR may be as low as 30 though a close graded crushed aggregates may
have CBR as high as 200. Addition of crusher dust containing particle size from 6 mm to 0.075 mm
and fines passing 0.075 mm adds to angle of internal friction as well as some cohesion to the RAP
mixes. The crusher dust requirement can be 15 to 30 percent and 1 per cent cement or lime or both by
weight of dry aggregates helps in dispersion of the bitumen emulsion in the mix. Lime modifies the
clay that may have contaminated the RAP. The RAP may need re-crushing if they have lumped up
during storage. If milled aggregates are from those of Bituminous Macadam, it may be open graded
and some additional fresh aggregates may be necessary for the adjustment of gradation. The grading
of the blend of RAP/fresh aggregates and crusher dust should meet the requirement shown in
TableIX-1 adopted from the South African Standard ‘TG2 (64) CSIR Built Environment, Pretoria.
IRC: 37-2012
The grading has been slightly adjusted to correspond to the sieve size designation in MORTH.

Table IX-1 Gradation of RAP Mixes

Sieve size, mm per cent passing


45 100
37.5 87-100
26.6 77-100
19 66-99
13.2 67-87
4.74 33-50
2.36 25-47
0.60 12-27
0.3 8-21
0.075 2-9

Some RAP may be contaminated with clay which might have risen from the subgrade during the wet
weather. Addition of 2 percent lime would modify the clay and the mix becomes suitable for use.

Bitumen Emulsion Type


Since the blend of RAP and crusher dust consists of plenty of fine particles, only slow setting
emulsion (SS2) with minimum residual bitumen content of 60 per cent is recommended to prevent
the emulsion from breaking during the mixing and construction.

Determination of Optimum Fluid Content


A RAP bitumen emulsion mix has to be compacted to a maximum density only at optimum fluid
content. Compaction tests are done at different fluid content to arrive at the optimum fluid content.
Procedures given in Manual 14 ‘The design and Use of Granular Emulsion Mixes’ Published by
South African Bitumen and Tar association (SABITA) (7) and TG-2 of South Africa (64) have been
suggested for mix design. Users may adopt other methods of mix design given in ‘Cold Mix
Recycling’ and ‘Asphalt cold Mix Manual (MS-14)’Published by Asphalt Institute, USA.

Step 1 Prepare a 50:50 blend of bitumen emulsion and water by volume. Water is to be added to
bitumen emulsion and not the emulsion to water for dilution to prevent breaking. Compatibility for
dilution may be checked.

Step2 Actual water content of the blend of RAP, crusher dust and filler should be determined by oven
drying and fluid increment of 1 per cent by weight of the blend may be added and thoroughly mixed.
The mix is transferred to a standard 100 mm diameter Marshall mould and compacted by 75 blows on
each face at ambient temperature. A minimum of three samples are cast at each fluid content.
IRC: 37-2012
Step 3 Dry density should be computed at each fluid content as per the following

Ddd= Dbulk … IX-


1+FC 1
Where,
Ddd = Dry density in kg/m3,
Dbulk= Bulk density in kg/m2,
FC = Fluid content by dry weight of aggregates in decimal.
A plot is made for dry density vs fluid content as shown below and maximum dry density and the
corresponding optimum fluid content is determined. Optimum fluid content is necessary for the
compaction of the RAP mixes to the maximum density.

Fig. IX-1: Dry Density-Fluid Content Relation for Blended Rap Mix

Step 4 Marshall Samples are prepared at different emulsion content starting from 3 per cent to 4
percent by weight of the total mix in increment of 0.5 percent. Additional water is added first and
mixed then the bitumen emulsion is added and mixed again. The total fluid is close to the optimum.
The sample is compacted in a Marshall mould by applying 75 blows on each face. Six samples are
prepared at each fluid content.
IRC: 37-2012
Step5 The samples should be left in the mould for 24 hours and then placed in an oven for
72 hours at 40°C for curing after the extraction. The sample should be kept on a tray. Most of the
moisture will be lost through evaporation.

Step6 Laboratory tests: Indirect tensile strength tests are to be carried out on dry samples in a
standard Marshall loading frame which applies load at rate of nearly 50 mm per minute(50.8 mm per
minute) and the maximum load is determined at 25°C.Three samples are also
Tested at 25°C after 24 hours of soaking in water.

12.7mm
Fig. IX–2 Marshall Samples of RAP100 mm Diameter and 63 mm
Long Under Indirect Tensile Test
IRC: 37-2012
The loading strip is 12.7mm wide and about 70 mm long to test samples of height up to
70 mm. A modified version of Marshall Test apparatus as per Fig.IX-2 can be fabricated in a
workshop. It is available commercially also.
2000P
Indirect tensile strength, ITS (kPa) = … IX-
πdh 2
Where,
P = the maximum load in Newton,
d= diameter of the sample, mm (may be close to 100 mm),
h = height (thickness) of the sample, mm

Table IX-2 Minimum Strength Requirement of RAP Mixes

Strength Test Specimen diameter Minimum strength, KPa


ITSdry,25°C 100 mm > 225 kPa
ITSwet25°C 100 mm > 100 kPa

If ITSdry is greater than 400kPa and ITSwet is less than 50 percent of the dry value, it is indicative of
contamination with clay and 1 to 2 percent lime may be necessary for modifying the plasticity of the
clay (64). For 100 mm diameter samples, aggregates passing 26.5 mm sieve should be used for mix
design. Effect of higher aggregate size is to increase the strength of the mixes.
The bitumen emulsion content satisfying the minimum strength requirement given in Table: IX
2 can be used for the mixing. Additional 1.5 to 2.5 percent water may be added to the RAP mixes
during the construction due to rapid evaporation of water from the RAP mixes in the hot weather
since optimum fluid content is necessary for maximum compaction and strength gain. Within a few
hours of laying of RAP mix, the top layer is able to stand the construction traffic due to loss of water
on hot sunny days.

Design of Foamed Bitumen RAP Mixes


Foamed bitumen is produced by injecting water into hot bitumen resulting in instantaneous foaming.
The injected water turns into steam which is enclosed by finely divided bitumen bubbles. The foamed
bitumen is injected into the cold RAP mixes or even fresh aggregates containing optimum amount of
moisture for compaction Such operation is highly specialized and agency’s expertise may be used for
the production and construction of RAP mixes with foamed bitumen. The gradation of aggregates can
be same as that given in Table: IX-1. The properties such as maximum expansion ratio (ERm), half-
life (HL), type of binder used for foaming, viscosity of foamed bitumen etc play important role in
quality of mix production.

Mixing Moisture Content: The Mixing Moisture Content (MMC) of a foamed bitumen mix is
moisture content in the RAP mix when foamed bitumen is injected which is practically same as
Compaction Moisture Content (CMC) required for maximum compaction. A few trials are needed to
determine the MMC. Methods of sample preparation and curing are same as that of the bitumen
emulsion mixes.
IRC: 37-2012
Mixes are prepared with different amount of foamed bitumen and that which meets the minimum
strength requirement in dry and wet condition is adopted for production of foamed mixes. 75 blow
compaction on each face of 100mm diameter Marshall Samples is adopted for sample preparation.
Test procedures and strength requirement are also identical as given earlier for bitumen emulsion
mixes. Foamed asphalt mixes need less water and cure faster but in hot weather prevalent in most parts
of India, emulsion mixes also may cure faster due to migration of moisture from high vapour pressure
region in the interior to low vapour pressure region on the surface. Recommendation of TG-2
published by Asphalt Academy, South Africa may be used.

One of the advantages of the cold mixes are that they can be stock piled and used later when needed.
Wet weather damage of RAP due to lack of an impermeable wearing course as well as due to poor
drainage can be a serious problem.

Table IX- Resilient modulus of RAP Mixes

Table-IX-1: Recommended Values of Resilient Modulus and Poisson Ratio o


Material
Material Recommended Range of Remarks
Resilient Moduli
Modulus (MPa) (MPa)
and Poisson’s
Ratio
Foamed bitumen(FB) 800 for FB 600-1200 Higher modulus of RAP
RAP is not sustainable due to
Bitumen emulsion(BE) 800 for BE heavy load. Wet water
RAP damage can be a serious
problem hence higher
modulus is not
recommended
treated aggregates berevisedbasedonFWDtestonin-
A modulus of 800 MPa with foamed bitumen is recommended for RAP mixes for pavement
service pavements
design considering the variability of RAP mixes though laboratory tests under controlled
conditions give modulus values ranging from 600 – 1200 MPa under a haversine loading pulse of
duration 0.1 seconds with a rest period of 0.9 seconds. FWD tests on in-service pavements having
RAP mixes can help the designers to determine the in situ modulus values over a period of time
and compute the remaining life of the pavement. RAP mixes keep on gaining strength with loss of
moisture but high modulus determined in the laboratory is not sustainable due to high tensile
stresses caused by heavy traffic on highway in India.

Fines of the RAP mixes captures most of the bitumen both for bitumen emulsion and foamed
bitumen mixes and particulate nature of the RAP is maintained. Its behavior over granular and
cemented sub-bases is different due to different level of confinement from the top and the bottom.
IRC: 37-2012

ANNEX-X

Pavement Layers with Chemical Stabilized Materials

X-1 Chemically stabilized soils and aggregates may include all kinds of stabilization such as
cement, lime, lime-flyash, or their combination, proprietary chemical stabilizers, enzymes, polymers
and any other stabilizer provided these meet the strength and durability requirements. While cement,
lime, lime- flyash stabilized materials are well known for their strength, he performance and
durability of the commercially produced stabilizers should meet the additional requirements of
leachability and concentration of heavy metals. Where stabilized materials are used in the pavement,
only mechanized method of construction for laying and compaction should be used for major
highways. The equipment capable of administering the design doses of stabilizer and quantity of
water and producing a uniform and homogeneous mix should be preferred. Such materials are also
termed as cemented or cementitious materials.Properties of cementitious bases and subbases are
given in Annex- XI

X-2 IRC:SP: 89-2010 Guidelines for soil and granular material stabilization using cement, lime & fly
ash’ has very comprehensively described the entire process of stabilization. High strength chemically
stabilized layer having a 7-day unconfined strength of 6-12 MPa given Table 8 of IRC:SP-89-2010 is
not recommended because of possible wide shrinkage and thermal cracks that may occur during the
service. Cementitious materials having lower strength can be used in bases and sub-bases. Since they
are required to act as important load bearing layers, a minimum 7 day strength of 4.5 MPa for bases
of cement treated aggregate is necessary for long term durability as measured by Wetting and
drying/freezing and thawing tests (BIS: 4332 (Part IV) - 1968). Specimens having a strength of 5
MPa and above are generally stable under durability tests. Cement stabilized aggregate specimens
should be stored in a moist curing room/ curing chamber undisturbed for seven days before tests.
Modulus of rupture of cementitious bases may be taken as 20 per cent of the 28 day UCS (MEPDG)
for flexure strength evaluation in the absence of laboratory tests though the Low strength
cementitious materials give flexural strength which may approach 30% of the unconfined strength
(16)

X-3: Lime-Soil and Lime-fly ash-aggregate mixes develop strength at as low rate and strength for
their acceptability should be determined at 28days. These low setting stabilizers develop fine cracks
unlike cement treated materials in which the rate of strength gain is high. These binders need less
water for compaction which indirectly reduces shrinkage also. Long term strength of lime–soil or
lime-fly ash-soil mixtures can be determined by curing sealed samples at 400 C (as per ASTM
D5102-09 ‘Standard Test Methods for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Compacted Soil – Lime -
Mixtures’. Accelerated curing may be used to provide a correlation between normal and accelerated
curing strengths for the material-binder combination. Three day curing of lime of lime –fly ash soil at
500 C is found to be equivalent to about 33 to 38 days of moist curing at ambient temperature of
about 300 C (16). Some typical values of unconfined compressive strength and modulus of rupture of
lime - fly ash concrete suitable for cemented bases extracted from IRC: SP: 20-2002 ’Rural road
IRC: 37-2012
Manual’ are given below:
Table X-1: Expected Strength of Lime-Flyash Concrete Mixes

S.No Proportion of Lime: Fly Ash and Water Content, percent 28 day strength in MPa
Coarse Aggregate by Weight by Weight of Mix UCS MR
1 1:2.0:2.5:5.25 10.0 6.9 1.48
2 1:2.0:2.7:6.3 11.0 7.5 1.48
3 1:1.5:2.25:5.25 9.7 7.5 1.48

Extracted from IRC: SP: 20-2002 ’Rural Road Manual’

The proportions may vary depending upon the quality of materials and laboratory tests are required to
be done prior to construction to ensure that the materials have the minimum strength. Different trials
are necessary to arrive at a good mix proportion for a base and a sub-base. Construction procedure is
explained in IRC: SP: 20-2002. Table X–1 indicates that even for lime-fly ash stabilized materials,
flexural strength can be about 20 per cent of the UCS. Published literature also (16) shows that
flexural strength may be as high as 35 to 40 percent of the UCS of lime or lime-fly ash stabilized soil.
The recommendation of MEPDG (3) taking the flexural strength as 20 percent of the UCS is very
reasonable if laboratory data is not available. Long term strength gain for slow setting stabilizers can
be considered in design.

X-4 Laboratory tests: A number of laboratory tests such as flexure tests, direct tension test,
longitudinal resonant frequency test, indirect tensile strength test, direct compression test etc can be
used to measure elastic modulus of cementitious material. Unconfined compression tests give high
values of modulus. AUSTROADS recommend flexure load test since this is considered to closer to
stress/strain in the cemented base layer caused by traffic loading. Relation between UCS and elastic
modulus was recommended (14) as

E (cemented base) = k x UCS … 9-I

UCS = Unconfined strength at 28 days, MPa;


k = 1000 to 1250.

E value of the cemented bases containing 4 to 6 per cent Ordinary Portland, slag or Pozzolanic
cements is recommended as 5000 MPa. If field evaluation by FWD indicates higher modulus, fresh
estimate of pavement life can be made.

Poisson’s ratio of the cemented layer may vary from 0.2 to 0.25. A value of 0.25 may be adopted.
Stresses are not very sensitive to Poisson’s ratio.

Cemented granular sub-base may have cement from 2 to 4 per cent to get a 7-day strength of 1.5 to
3.0 MPa. Its modulus as determined in laboratory on cylindrical specimen with extensometer may
range from 2000 MPa to 3000MPa. since it forms the platform for the construction traffic, it cracks
and cannot retain the initial modulus. A value of 600 MPa is recommended and its fatigue behavior is
not considered because of cracks. If the stabilized soil sub-bases have 7-day UCS values in
IRC: 37-2012
the range 0.75 to 1.5 MPa, the recommended E value for design is 400MPa. Field tests by FWD
should be routinely done to collect data for obtaining pavement design parameters. Cement
requirement for a given strength is much higher for soils than for granular materials. For the
commercially available propriety cementing materials, the binder contents have to be determined from
laboratory tests to meet the strength requirement.
X-5 Laboratory strength and field strength: While a laboratory test in a controlled condition, there is a
variability such as gradation, cement content, moisture content and curing in the field during the
construction. Hence a higher strength should be aimed at in the laboratory to ensure a minimum
strength in the field. MORTH recommends laboratory values to be 1. 5 times the required field
strength.

X-6 Cemented bases should be compacted in a single layer to a maximum compacted thickness of 200
mm. With heavy rollers and Pad feet compactors, it is now possible to compact even 300mm of CTB.
Cementitious layers laid at different times may not have the strength because of lack of interface bond
unless special care is taken.

X-7 After the construction, curing as recommended in IRC: SP: 89-2010 must be done immediately to
aid in development of strength and prevent drying shrinkage. Spraying of bitumen emulsion
immediately after the construction is a very effective method of curing. Exposing the compacted layer
to sun damages the stabilized layer and it does not develop strengths as intended. A minimum of 7 day
curing is necessary for the cementitious base and 3 days for the cementitious subbase.

X-8 Cemented layers normally develop transverse and longitudinal cracks due to shrinkage and
thermal stresses during hydration and during the service life. Hence a layer of Stress Absorbing
Membrane Inter layer (SAMI) of elastomeric modified binder (AUSTROADS2012) is to be provided
over the cemented base to resist reflection cracking. The rate of spread of the binder is about 2
litres/m2 followed by light coating of aggregates of size 10 mm to prevent pick up of the binder by the
wheels of construction machinery. Geotextile seal and many other commercially available synthetic
products available commercially have the promise to retard crack propagation in the bituminous layer.
SAMI is not very effective if the crack opening is more than 3 mm.

X-9 Another very effective and widely tested method of arresting the cracks from propagating to the
upper bituminous layer is to provide an interlayer of good quality dense graded aggregates between the
bituminous layer and the cemented base. The aggregate layer should extend beyond the cemented base
by about 0.5 m so that moisture, if any, travels down to the porous sub-base. Wet Mix Macadam
(WMM) meeting the IRC/MORTH specification can form a good aggregate interlayer. WMM should
be compacted to 100% or higher of the laboratory density. Being sandwiched between two stiff
layers; the aggregates behaves as layer of high modulus under heavy load while its modulus is lower
when lighter loads act. Priming and tack coating are required before laying of the bituminous layer.
Use of 1 to 2 percent bitumen emulsion in WMM is needed only when the construction traffic is likely
to deform the compacted WMM requiring reshaping. Thickness of 75 mm to 150 mm has been used as
the interlayer by different organisations. The Guidelines proposes a thickness of 100 mm.

X-10 Behaviour of cemented base after traffic associated cracking: The cemented layers may get
numerous cracks due to fatigue cracking and its modulus may be reduced drastically from 5000 MPa
IRC: 37-2012
to 500 MPa. Falling Weight Deflectometer can be a good tool to examine the condition of the
cemented base at any time during its service life. The bituminous layer has little tensile strain before
cracking of the cemented base but the tensile strain value becomes very high after the cracking of the
base and fatigue failure of the bituminous layer also is imminent. If the thickness of the bituminous
layer is higher 175 mm (14), the bituminous layer also has considerable remaining life and the total
life of the pavement is the sum of the fatigue life of the cemented layer and that of the bituminous
layer. If the sum of the thickness of bituminous layer and 75 percent of the thickness of aggregate
interlayer is greater than 175 mm (14), the pavement life is again equal to the fatigue lives of the
cemented and that of the bituminous layers.

X-11 Maximum size of the aggregate of the granular base and sub-base should be about 40% of the
thickness of the layer for obtaining a homogeneous mass in mechanized construction. The granular
sub-bases having grading I,II,V anv VI of MORTH can be used in the construction of cemented bases
and sub-bases while grading III and IV of the granular sub-base can be used as a porous cemented
drainage layer laid above the coarse graded cemented sub-base.

X-11 Procedure for the mix design method for cementitious granular bases and sub-bases can be
same as adopted for Dry Lean Concrete (MORTH) except that the cementitious stabilizer content is
much lower due to low strength requirement. Optimum moisture content has to be determined by
trial. Since maximum size of aggregates can be 53 mm, 150 mm cubes have to be made at different
moisture content and compacted by vibratory hammer with square plates. Details are given in
MORTH Specifications for determination of optimum moisture content, method of curing and
evaluation of strength. The properties of cementitious bases and sub-bases are given in Table X1.

X-11 For stabilized soils, even 50 mm diameter, 100 mm high samples can be used for UCS after
curing. Beam size can be 50 mm x 50 mm x 300 mm for flexure tests after curing. Field condition
may be simulated during the curing.

X-13 If the soil is modified by addition of small percentage of lime/cement/other stabilizers, CBR
tests can be done to evaluate the quality of the modified soil. If the cement content is 2 percent or
higher, unconfined compression strength should be determined to determine the strength of the
stabilized soil.
IRC: 37-2012
ANNEX-XI

Properties of Cementitious Bases and Sub-bases:


S.N Descripti UCS(MPa) Modulus of Elastic Range of Remarks
o on rupture modulus, E modulus
(MPa) and
Poisson
ratio
1 Granular 4.5-7.0 at 7days determined by E = 1000 * Initial Material must
material for cement third point UCS (MPa) Modulus can pass
for base (28 days for lime- bending test at at 28 days be in the durability test
layer flyash), 28 days, as per (Austroads) range as prescribed
determined by test IS-516 Adopted 3000-14000 in IRC: SP:
on 150mm cube except that the value MPa(67). 89:
(IRC:SP:89:2010) sample should E=5000, Austroads 2010 for long

Cube shall be be compacted µ=0.25 recommends term


made as per by the flexural durability.

IS-516 except that vibratory modulus of Loss of

they shall me hammer with 5000MPa Weight in 12

compacted by the rectangular for cycles of

vibratory foot at OMC, pavement wetting-

hammer at OMC (20 per cent design drying or

as per MORTH of the UCS at assuming freeze thaw

specifications for 28days may be 28day UCS not more than


taken as value of 14 per cent
DLC
default value
5MPa
for Modulus of
Rupture)
IRC: 37-2012
2 Granular 1.5-3.0 at 7days — E = 600, Initial —
material for cement µ = 0.25 Modulus can
for sub- (28 days for lime- be in the
base flyash), range
determined by test 2000-10000
on 150mm cube MPa, it may
(IRC:SP:89:2010) be reduced
to 500-800
MPa due
to cracking
by the
construction
traffic(49)
3 Granular 0.75-1.5 at — E = 400, Initial —
material 7days for cement µ = 0.25 Modulus can
for sub- (28 days for lime- be in the
base fly ash), range
(Design determined by test 500-7000
traffic <10 on 150 mm cube MPa, it may
msa) (IRC:SP:89:2010) be reduced
to 400-600
MPa due
to cracking
by the
construction
traffic (67)
IRC: 37-2012
4 Chemicall UCS: 0.75 to 1.5 — E = 400 the range of Quantity of
y MPa at 7days for MPa the moduli chemical
stabilized cement (28 days depends on stabilizer
soil for for lime flyash) the soil type requirement
sub-base UCS is to be is much
done cylindrical larger than
specimen 50 that of
mm dia 100 mm The granular
height. (ASTM material for
D-5102-09) the same
strength.
Generally not
recommende
d for heavy
traffic in wet
area
5 Chemicall UCS: 4.5 to 7 Mr = 0.7 MPa E=3500
y MPa at 7days for (MEPDG) for MPa is
stabilized cement (28 days UCS value of recommend
soil for for lime flyash) 5.2 MPa for soil by MEPDG
base UCS is to be cement. for soil
done on ASTM-D1635- cement base
cylindrical 06 value is to
specimen 50 mm Standard Test be
dia 100mm Method for determined
height. Flexural from the
Strength of flexural test
Soil-Cement By
Using Simple measuring
Beam with load and
Third- Point deflection
Loading after28days
Of curing
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