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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

Bicentenary of Karl Marx

struggle against the influence of bourgeois and petty-bourgeois classes
among the workers.
No wonder ideas of Marx met a stubborn resistance among the
Bicentenary of the birth of Karl Marx has been observed world over on established official intellectual circles of his day. They tried to first ignore,
May 5 this year. Karl Marx had, along with his close friend and collaborator then ridicule theories put forward by him but as the correctness of his
Fredrick Engels, established the doctrine of scientific socialism. Not only analysis and his theories gained widespread influence among the workers,
did they develop the world outlook of the proletariat and make the working they were forced into struggle against them. So long as Capitalism and its
class “conscious of its position and needs and conditions of its exploiting classes in all phases of its development and in all those forms
emancipation”, Karl Marx and F. Engels worked hard to guide and lead the of its existence brought about by its interaction with pre-capitalist
proletarian movement in Europe. Founding of the International Workingmen’s exploitative societies, continues, this battle will continue. The official
Association (First International) was one of the crowning successes of economists, philosophers and political thinkers would continue to refute
their efforts. Marxism, writings of these founders of scientific socialism, Marxism. Each time their refutation is much more vigorous, more violent
has guided the movement of working class and the toiling people the world and more ‘thoroughgoing’ as they embark on the refutation of the ‘already
over. refuted’ Marxism. As Lenin remarked, the “intensity of these bourgeois
Marx and Engels built on the efforts of the best of the brains in the attacks on Marxism, which becomes stronger, more hardened and more
history of the humankind. They enunciated the conditions under which the vigorous every time it is “annihilated” by official science”. Many of the
exploitation on a human being by another human being would come to an writings on the occasion of Marx Bicentenary were of this variety. Old
end. Liberation of working class is at the same time the liberation of the refuters of Marxism vied with new entrants in this field to outdo each other
whole human society. Marx subjected the work of the preceding generations to curry favour with the ruling classes. They particularly outdid each other
to incisive analysis and in particular laid bare the laws of the functioning of in proving the failure of socialism and the aim of working class movement
capitalist production, the conditions under which it arises, develops and of the revolutionary transformation of society.
must eventually decay.
But equally sinister was the attempt to portray Marx minus his
But Marxism had to fight at every step in its march to gain sway over revolutionary message. Marx as a contributor to different fields of
the working class in European countries and later the toiling people of the knowledge without the most important aspect of his work i.e. bringing about
world. Marxism had to wage relentless and continuous struggle against not destruction of the bourgeois society and bringing about socialist society
only the bourgeois economists, politicians, their apologists and all the (dictatorship of proletariat) as a transition to abolition of all classes and to
decadent sections of society, it had to wage an equally if not more, ruthless a classless society. This was done both by a section of the so-called
struggle against the alien trends which had influence among the workers. official intellectuals as well as by revisionist leaders. As Lenin said in his
As the struggle for social change involves struggle against vested interests famous State and Revolution, “What is now happening to Marx’s theory
entrenched in class society, the struggle to change society invariably affects has, in the course of history, happened repeatedly to the theories of
the interests of these vested interests who wage a life and death struggle revolutionary thinkers and leaders of oppressed classes fighting for
against this revolutionary transformation. As aptly remarked by Lenin, if emancipation. During the lifetime of great revolutionaries, the oppressing
mathematical axioms were to affect human interests, attempt would be classes constantly hounded them, received their theories with the most
made to refute them. Truly, the march of Marxism is the march of such savage malice, the most furious hatred and the most unscrupulous
struggles, social contradictions unfolding in the arena of class struggle, campaigns of lies and slander. After their death, attempts are made to
both between the exploiting and exploited classes and for influence among convert them into harmless icons, to canonize them, so to say, and to
the exploited masses. Marx and Engels throughout their lives waged this hallow their names to a certain extent for the “consolation” of the oppressed

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
classes and with the object of duping the latter, while at the same time a 'guide to action' and not a dogma. It is through revolutionary practice that
robbing the revolutionary theory of its substance, blunting its revolutionary the science of Marxism has been tested and has spread its influence among
edge and vulgarizing it. Today, the bourgeoisie and the opportunists within the working class and the toiling masses the world over. It is through
the labour movement concur in this doctoring of Marxism. They omit, revolutionary practice that the science of Marxism develops and has
obscure, or distort the revolutionary side of this theory, its revolutionary developed. Marx has laid down the basis of the world outlook of the working
soul. They push to the foreground and extol what is or seems acceptable class and all subsequent developments have only enriched this outlook
to the bourgeoisie.” The revisionists portray Marxism, particularly its and developed Marxism to higher stage. In the course of Russian revolution,
revolutionary essence as 'outdated', which has been developed by these taking Marxism as a guide to action, Lenin analyzed the world situtation
parliamentary cretins or they simply pay verbal obeisance to Marxism, and the conditions in Russia, and solved the problems facing the Russian
devoid of all implications for their practice. They serve the ruling classes revolution. In the process, Marxism developed to the stage of Marxism-
and their 'Marxism' proves no hindrance in that. Leninism. After his death, Stalin continued the work of Lenin guided by
Marxism-Leninism and built a strong socialist society despite having to
Marx was above all a revolutionary. Speaking at his grave a few days wage not only class struggle in the then Soviet Union but also the war
after Marx died, Engels said, "For Marx was before all else a revolutionist. against fascism in which Soviet people offered greatest sacrifices and
His real mission in life was to contribute, in one way or another, to the played the most important role in defeating Nazi Germany. During the
overthrow of capitalist society and of the state institutions which it had Chinese Revolution, Mao took Marxism-Leninism as a guide to action, made
brought into being, to contribute to the liberation of the modern proletariat, a scientific analysis of the Chinese society and solved the problems of the
which he was the first to make conscious of its own position and its needs, Chinese revolution. In particular, Mao developed the theory of bringing about
conscious of the conditions of its emancipation. Fighting was his element. dictatorship of the proletariat in a backward semifeudal semicolonial country
And he fought with a passion, a tenacity and a success such as few could through New Democratic Revolution. Mao also made a concrete study of
rival." It is precisely Marx, the revolutionist, whose ghost revisionists wish the class struggle in socialist society and underlined the need to continue
to exorcise and for this they extol Marx devoid of his revolutionism and revolution under the conditions of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Mao
acceptable to the ruling classes. only only developed the theoretical basis for this, he also led its practice
Marx made huge contributions to many fields, almost all the fields he by leading Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR). Through these
touched. However, he too emphasized the revolutionary essence of his effotts, Marxism-Leninism was further developed to Marxism-Leninism-Mao
writings. In a letter to Wadeymeyer, Marx wrote, "... And now as to myself, Zedong Thought. The Science of Marxism, like all science, not only proved
no credit is due to me for discovering the existence of classes in modern to be correct, it developed further.
society or the struggle between them. Long before me bourgeois historians
When we are observing bicentenary of birth of Marx, the capitalist system
had described the historical development of this class struggle and bourgeois
for whose overthrow Marx tireless worked, is facing an unprecedented crisis.
economists, the economic economy of the classes. What I did that was
Contradictions of the capitalist system, which reached its highest stage of
new was to prove: (1) that the existence of classes is only bound up
Imperialism at the turn of the last century, are getting increasingly exposed
with particular historical phases in the development of production, (2) that
before the people even in developed capitalist countries. Though they could,
the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat, (3)
to an extent, postpone their day of reckoning owing to large scale
that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of
exploitation, loot and plunder of the colonial and semicolonial countries,
all classes and to a classless society."
the contradictions inherent in the capitalist system are making themselves
On the Bicentenary of Marx, it is therefore essential to uphold and felt with greater clarity. Inequality has risen to unprecedented level among
practice the revolutionary essence of his writings and work and oppose all the countries, and also within the countries. As Capital reaches
efforts to portray him otherwise. Marx and Engels likened their doctrine to unprecedented level of accumulation, it is cornering major part of the produce

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
of the working people. Even as scientific progress and technological
advance make the realization of meeting the basic demands of the people
Frederick Engels’ Speech at the
very much feasible, there is growing hunger, poverty and destitution in the
world. As Capital moves to extract increasingly higher share of the produce,
Grave of Karl Marx
problem of unemployment is reaching unprecedented level with an Highgate Cemetery, London. March 17, 1883
increasingly large population of working age unemployed. Capital demands
fullest liberty to exploit every where and is trampling the basic needs of the On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest
people in its march and under the boots of the security forces which act as living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two
mercenary troops in service of big Capital. Neoliberal policy framework minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully
which imperialist countries have adopted and have imposed on other gone to sleep -- but for ever.
countries as well, is today depriving the workers of job security, peasants
of their produce, children of their childhood, youth of the meaning to their An immeasurable loss has been sustained both by the militant proletariat
lives and people at large of the basic necessities of a decent life. No wonder, of Europe and America, and by historical science, in the death of this man.
Marx is being felt increasingly 'relevant', even in the countries where people The gap that has been left by the departure of this mighty spirit will soon
thought that the capitalist 'paradise' built on colonial loot and plunder will enough make itself felt.
stand forever. The greed of Capital has devoured this 'paradise' and torn
Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of organic nature, so
away the 'social contract' which was banded around by the reformists and
Marx discovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact,
bourgeois apologists as their cure for the 'disease of socialism'.
hitherto concealed by an overgrowth of ideology, that mankind must first of
Bicentenary of the birth of Marx affords an opportunity to evaluate the all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursue politics, science,
successes and failures, victories and defeats which working class has art, religion, etc.; that therefore the production of the immediate material
encountered in its struggles. Building on the successes and particularly means, and consequently the degree of economic development attained
drawing lessons from the failures, working class and the toiling people by a given people or during a given epoch, form the foundation upon which
must march ahead to end the exploitation, oppression, misery and hunger; the state institutions, the legal conceptions, art, and even the ideas on
in brief, march towards abolition of all classes, toward a classless society. religion, of the people concerned have been evolved, and in the light of
which they must, therefore, be explained, instead of vice versa, as had
In India, people suffer not only from capitalist exploitation, but also hitherto been the case.
from the exploitation resulting from imperialist loot and plunder as well as
exploitaiton and oppression of the pre-capitalist forms and the classes But that is not all. Marx also discovered the special law of motion
which are rooted in these forms. National oppression by imperialism is governing the present-day capitalist mode of production, and the bourgeois
buttressed by the oppression by the landlords and corporate which draw society that this mode of production has created. The discovery of surplus
their sustenance from imperialism and serve its interests. In order to value suddenly threw light on the problem, in trying to solve which all
advance towards socialism, India has to first overthrow the present previous investigations, of both bourgeois economists and socialist critics,
semifeudal, semicolonial system. And this can be done only by making had been groping in the dark.
New Democratic Revolution victorious in India.
Two such discoveries would be enough for one lifetime. Happy the man
On this bicentenary the only worthwhile resolve to make is to intensify to whom it is granted to make even one such discovery. But in every
our struggles, to lead the New Democratic Revolution to victory. single field which Marx investigated -- and he investigated very many fields,
none of them superficially -- in every field, even in that of mathematics, he
made independent discoveries.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Such was the man of science. But this was not even half the man.
Science was for Marx a historically dynamic, revolutionary force. However Relevance of Marxism to
the contemporary world
great the joy with which he welcomed a new discovery in some theoretical
science whose practical application perhaps it was as yet quite impossible
to envisage, he experienced quite another kind of joy when the discovery
involved immediate revolutionary changes in industry, and in historical
development in general. For example, he followed closely the development (On the occasion of the Birth bicentenary of Karl Marx,
of the discoveries made in the field of electricity and recently those of
CPI(ML)-New Democracy organized a meeting in Hyderabad
Marcel Deprez.
on May 5, 2018. Com. Rajani Desai was invited to speak
For Marx was before all else a revolutionist. His real mission in life was in the meeting along with others. She could not attend but
to contribute, in one way or another, to the overthrow of capitalist society
sent the following paper to the organizers. Her paper is
and of the state institutions which it had brought into being, to contribute to
the liberation of the modern proletariat, which he was the first to make being published here. -Editor)
conscious of its own position and its needs, conscious of the conditions of
its emancipation. Fighting was his element. And he fought with a passion, Dear friends,
a tenacity and a success such as few could rival. His work on the first
Rheinische Zeitung (1842), the Paris Vorwarts (1844), the Deutsche On this, the occasion of 200th anniversary of Karl Marx’s birth, I thank
Brusseler Zeitung (1847), the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848-49), the New you for your invitation to speak about the relevance of Marxism to the
York Tribune (1852-61), and, in addition to these, a host of militant contemporary world. I am sorry that I am unable to attend due to a fracture,
pamphlets, work in organisations in Paris, Brussels and London, and finally, and hence am sending this message.
crowning all, the formation of the great International Working Men's
To be frank, I am somewhat overwhelmed by the scale of the topic
Association -- this was indeed an achievement of which its founder might
itself. Marxism encompasses our conception of the world; our understanding
well have been proud even if he had done nothing else.
of political economy, which is the underpinning of the entire social order;
And, consequently, Marx was the best hated and most calumniated as well as our conception of the social order that must replace the present
man of his time. Governments, both absolutist and republican, deported order. To say anything cogently about such a vast subject is very difficult.
him from their territories. Bourgeois, whether conservative or ultra-
Before we come to the question of the relevance of Marxism to the
democratic, vied with one another in heaping slanders upon him. All this he
contemporary world, let us briefly cast a glance back at the last 150 years
brushed aside as though it were a cobweb, ignoring it, answering only when
since Marx completed the first volume of his magnum opus, Capital.
extreme necessity compelled him. And he died beloved, revered and
mourned by millions of revolutionary fellow workers -- from the mines of Fifty years after the publication of that work, Marxism inspired workers
Siberia to California, in all parts of Europe and America -- and I make bold to set up the world’s first socialist state in the largest country of the world,
to say that, though he may have had many opponents, he had hardly one and later inspired workers and peasants to do so in the most populous
personal enemy. country of the world. It inspired most of the anti-imperialist liberation
struggles around the world – from Korea to Indochina to Africa to Latin
His name will endure through the ages, and so also will his work.
America. For fear of socialism, the imperialist countries instituted welfare
measures in their own countries, and even semi-colonial countries like
India made a show of ‘planning’ and tagged themselves ‘socialist’. No

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
philosopher, no social scientist, no economist has had such an enormous pauperizing the working class.
impact on all of humanity.
Earlier, imperialists used to claim that an efficient socialist economy
Two poles was impossible because it required the coordination of a huge number of
people, factories, farms, transport, storage, and so on, which they claimed
The imperialists and reactionaries worldwide have been crowing for the could only be done by market forces. But today the development of
past nearly three decades about the alleged death of Marxism. In this very information and communication technology (ICT), including the internet,
period, global inequality has soared to unprecedented levels: last year 82 has further strengthened the objective basis for the running of a truly socialist
per cent of the addition to global wealth went to the top 1 per cent of the economy. Instead, under capitalism, ICT is used as a method of oppressing
population. As the imperialist institution IMF itself admits, this is because and exploiting workers more, filling people’s minds with all sorts of
the share of national income going to those who labour is going down, and degenerate imperialist culture and reactionary propaganda, and carrying
the share going to those who have capital is going up. On the other hand, out intensified ruling class surveillance and manipulation of the masses.
according to the ILO, three-fourths of the global labour force is in insecurity, When people try to make use of the internet for the good of humanity, they
misery, or outright unemployment. This strikingly bears out Marx’s statement are stopped and repressed. That shows us again how the productive forces
in Capital that the greater the accumulation of social wealth under created by capitalism can only achieve their real positive potential under
capitalism, the greater is the pauperization of the masses. Just when the socialism, as Marx taught us.
imperialists and reactionaries are crowing about the defeat of Marxism,
reality is bearing out its validity on a world scale. Crises
Since 2008, the world economy has been reeling under a crisis. Before
The coming phase of automation and the use of robots, throwing vast capitalism, a society would be in an economic crisis if it produced too
millions out of work and depressing global wage levels, too is in line with little, due to natural calamities or war. But under capitalism, there emerged
Marx’s analysis: he depicted how the entire history of modern industry with a new type of crisis, a crisis of ‘excess’ production, overproduction. There
the use of machines (in which the labourer becomes a mere appendage to are still needy people, who can put those goods to use. But the production
the machine) witnesses waves of displacement of workers, strengthening is excess in the sense that capitalists cannot make additional profits on it.
the hands of Capital. This process generated vast mass suffering among This is because working people don’t have the money to spend. And so the
the labouring class in Marx’s day, in the form of unemployment and capitalists cut down on production, retrench workers, and send the economy
depression of wages, and it promises to do so again on a global scale into crisis, waiting for the day that it will become profitable to produce once
today. Even imperialist quarters, such as the Governor of the Central bank more. It is thus the drive of capitalists to make profits and accumulate
of England, are issuing dire warnings about such a danger. The imperialists wealth that becomes the barrier to society producing more and meeting
are worried because, as the IMF warns, “Inequality can fuel social tension”, people’s needs. Marx revealed how this ‘accumulation drive’ of capitalists
i.e., class struggle by the exploited masses. is what drives the entire capitalist economy. The source of the wealth of
the capitalist class is the appropriation of surplus value from labour in the
In fact, under a socialist order, the advances in technology could create course of production, as well as the expropriation of nature.
opportunities for humanity to spend less time in drudgery and more time in
the development of the human potential in countless ways; but, as Marx This basic contradiction of capitalism is intensified in its current stage,
noted, under capitalism this is ruled out. As he revealed, all labour-saving namely, monopoly capitalism, or imperialism, which emerged towards the
machinery, under capitalism, becomes just a way of further driving down end of the 19th century, analyzed by Marx’s great disciple Lenin. Industry
the share of wages in the social product, and thereby further exploiting and in the world’s leading economies since then has been dominated by a small

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
number of giant corporations, and the imperialist states represent the his disciples led such revolutions in Russia, China and other countries.
interests of these corporations, whether industrial or financial. In the present Unfortunately, many present-day ‘Marxists’ more resemble what Marx
era, imperialism tries to extricate itself from crisis by resorting to cartels, referred to as “the manifold types of social quacks who wanted to eliminate
trade wars, and outright wars, either local or global. It is Marxism alone social abuses through their various universal panaceas and all kinds of
that provides the concepts with which to understand the developments in patch-work, without hurting capital and profit in the least.” (Communist
the world today. Manifesto) This is not a new process: it began in Germany in the late 19th
century. So the revolutionary essence of Marxism requires constant
The environmental crisis and the accumulation drive reassertion today more than ever.

Today the world is facing multiple environmental crises – pollution, To protect the revolutionary essence of Marxism, it should not be made
depletion of natural resources (including water), wiping out of species, a dogma. Those who did so tried to impose it mechanically on reality, and
climate change. Environmentalists are correct in fighting against all these when reality did not conform to their dogma, they discovered that revolution
processes. But they target ‘development’ or even ‘population’, and do not itself was not possible, or had to be postponed to the indefinite future, till
address the root cause of these problems, i.e., the nature of the present conditions were ripe. Whereas Marxism is a guide to revolutionary action,
social system. The question is, why does the capitalist system destroy and as such must constantly be applied to very varied conditions, and
the environment? Marx’s concept of the capitalist accumulation drive gives enriched in the course of revolutionary practice. Mao quotes Lenin as saying
us a most profound insight into the present global environmental crisis. that the most essential thing in Marxism, “the living soul of Marxism, [is]
What drives a Bill Gates or a Mukesh Ambani to accumulate capital? Marx the concrete analysis of concrete conditions”. This can be seen throughout
shows how the purpose of accumulation by capitalists is not consumption Marx’s work.
– neither their own nor that of any number of generations of their
descendants. Rather, the purpose of the accumulation drive is accumulation It is an essential concept of Marxism that the forms of organization
itself, no matter how nonsensical this may be to any rational being! must change with the objective situation. In Marx’s day, the vanguard of
the proletariat did not constitute itself as a separate party, but with the
This explains why capitalists are driving the world to environmental change of era in the late 19th century, the era of imperialism and proletarian
hell, even as they accumulate fortunes beyond imagination. Any rational revolution, it became necessary for the proletariat to forge the Leninist
person could tell them that the repercussions of their actions will not spare, party to lead the revolution. Much has changed in the objective situation
in the last analysis, their descendants, in whose name, presumably, the since then, but neither has the era passed, nor has this requirement changed.
wealth is being accumulated. But they are beyond all such rationality, since But to fulfill this requirement in today’s circumstances, we need, among
they are ruled by Capital. The only way to prevent multiple environmental other things, to grapple with the objective conditions of revolutionary practice,
disasters, or to salvage some semblance of human existence from these with the aim of changing them.
disasters, is to overthrow the capitalist system before it destroys all of us.
Some scholars rue the fact that, even in the midst of his great theoretical
Revolutionary essence work, Marx devoted a huge amount of his time and energy to building the
international working class movement and giving its practice theoretical
Words like “overthrow” and “revolution” have become uncomfortable for clarity. Thus Capital itself remained unfinished. Marx gave great importance
many current-day Marxists, who adopt many of Marx’s analytic methods to revolutionary practice. In his “Theses on Feuerbach”, he says:
without imbibing his revolutionary purpose. Because he grasped the
systemic nature of exploitation and oppression, Marx worked all his life for The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism... is that
revolution and the “forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions”, and ...reality... is conceived only in the form of the object or of

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
contemplation, but not as ... practice, not subjectively.
A study note on Transition of
The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human
thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Man Agriculture & Marxist problematic
must prove the truth... of his thinking in practice.
after publication of Capital (1867)
... circumstances are changed by men and that it is essential to
educate the educator himself...
Dr. Amitabha Chakrabarti
The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways;
the point is to change it.
‘Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in different ways;
the point is to change it.’ - Marx
In the course of practice, we confront a complex reality, and must learn
how to use our Marxist method to take that practice forward to the eventual
(I dedicate this talk to the memories of our martyrs who have dedicated their
aim. Thus Marx himself, later in life, indicated distinct paths for revolutions
lives to fight against the MNC–Corporate-State nexus of Forceful occupation of
in colonies/semi-colonies (where he advocated the overthrow of imperialist
Land, Forest & Water bodies (Jal- Zamin –Jungal). To Those who have dedicated
rule), as well as for Russia. Lenin actually applied Marxism to concrete
their lives for the emancipation of toiling masses.)
conditions of Russia, formulated the concept of the worker-peasant alliance,
and led the Bolshevik Party through democratic revolution directly to the
(This paper was presented in Marx Bicentenary programme held in Kolkata on
socialist revolution. Mao applied Marxism-Leninism to a country under
May 5, 2018. - Editor)
imperialist domination, where the overwhelming majority were peasants,
and the path of revolution ran from the villages to the cities, rather than the
other way around. In today’s India too, while the working class is to become The question of agricultural transition in ‘Capital’ is based primarily on
the leader, the peasantry is to become the main force. Beyond a broad Marx’s concept of the law of value and his analysis of ground rent. This
conception of the path, much actual practice is required to educate the study is mostly based on the experience of Western Europe with its classic
educators for our specific conditions. form in England. Marx’s Studies on agricultural transition in places other
than western Europe are less discussed. Kautsky in his famous writing on
It is this living, breathing Marxism that retains its relevance, indeed Capitalism & agriculture talked about the relation between capital, precapital
has even greater relevance, for the world today, and will never become and noncapital within the capitalist society. He discussed the transition in
obsolete. It will thrive as long as we grapple with objective reality in order some of the East European societies. Lenin praised Kautsky’s writing on
to change it, using the method which Marx and his great collaborator and this issue. An analysis of the relationship between agriculture and capital
comrade, Frederick Engels, bequeathed to us all, for which we, and all of outside West Europe is very important to understand the transition of
humanity, are forever in their debt. agriculture in India.
The central concept of Marx’s work on capitalist transition of agriculture
consists of: the law of value, equalization of rates of profit and ground rent.
Marx investigated applicability of the general laws of capitalism to a fully
capitalist agriculture. Marx considered “the specific conditions of production
and circulation which arise from the investment of capital in agriculture”
and agriculture was only one among a number of spheres of capitalist

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investment and production in a capitalist society. Average market value determines market prices when ordinary demand is
met by a normal supply of commodities. Since similar commodities will
Marx introduced the concept of rent, defined in general in capitalist have a common market price, a balanced demand-supply market means
economies as surplus value in excess of average profit. Ground rent, that commodities whose individual value is below average will realize extra
however, is a particular form of rent based on land ownership. In discussing value and extra profit. Commodities with above average individual value
agricultural ground rent, if we go through 'Transformation of surplus profit will be unable to realize a portion of their surplus value and will sell at a
into ground rent’ (Capital III: Part VI Ch-37) we find some important loss. This lost value is in fact transferred to commodities of below average
assumptions which have been nicely summarized by Wilfrid B Denis in his value. Again, when supply exceeds demand, market price is determined
writing- Capital & Agriculture- A review of Marxist Problematics- ‘Marx by commodities produced in the best conditions so that even those
operates from a number of working assumptions which are crucial. The commodities produced in average conditions sell at a loss. On the other
first is that both agriculture and industry are fully capitalist. In both sectors hand, if demand exceeds supply, the commodities produced in the worst
surplus-value originates from identical relations of production. Marx conditions determine market price so that all commodities produced in better
also assumes, in this respect, the free movement of labour and capital conditions, including in this case commodities of average value, obtain
between sectors, which means that the general tendency towards the more than their individual value.
equalization of the rate of profit exists in the economy as a whole. Secondly,
he assumes a lower organic composition of capital in agriculture than in That commodities can obtain more value than they embody brings us
industry so that the production of value is higher in proportion to the capital to Marx’s discussion of rent. Marx explained that ‘all ground rent is surplus
invested in agriculture than in industry. Thirdly, he assumes that the supply value, the product of surplus labour’. Marx draws a distinction between
of agricultural products is slightly inferior to demand. Fourthly, all agricultural differential and absolute rents. With the development of an average rate of
production is wheat production and the production factors and costs for profit in any sector, a special case of surplus profit arises when high
other agricultural commodities can be transformed into equivalents of wheat productivity firms monopolize natural forces, such as waterfalls or natural
production. The final assumption is that the land owning class is separate land fertility, or rich ore deposits. In such cases, the increased productivity,
from the capitalist farmers’. and subsequent super profits arise neither from capital nor labour, but from
“. . . the greater natural productiveness of labour bound up with the
Ground rent in a capitalist society is related to the equalization of rates application of a force of Nature, but not a force of Nature that is at the
of profit and its components, market price, market value and production command of all capital in the same sphere of production ...." (Capital III –
price. Different levels of productivity in a sphere mean that individual Differential Rent: General Remarks) The use of such monopolized natural
commodities will have different values. Out of these individual values a forces creates super profits which consist of ground rent. These are
general average value consisting of average costs plus average profit will differential ground rents since they do not enter into the determination of
be determined by the average conditions of production. Here the word production price but rather are based on it. In agriculture such rents accrue
average refers to the bulk of commodities produced under generally to all producers whose individual price of production is less than the average,
prevailing conditions. Marx in the ‘Genesis of capitalist ground rent’ (Capital as long as supply-demand factors are such that market values are not
III) said ‘The whole difficulty in analyzing rent, therefore, consists in determined by the most favourable conditions.
explaining the excess of agricultural profit over averge profit not the
surplus value’. Marx warned that ‘there can be no talk of rent in modern With an average rate of profit in agriculture, there are three causes for
sense’ in a society where capital does not perform the function of productivity differentials and the subsequent differential rents. First is
enforcing all surplus labour and appropriate directly all surplus value. location in reference to access to markets and Second is natural fertility
Market value, or average value, forms the centre around which market (‘Fertility, although an objective property of the soil, always implies an
prices fluctuate. These fluctuations depend on demand-supply factors. economic relation’- Marx). Marx referred to these two sources of rent as

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differential rent I. surplus over the price of production. Land monopoly reduces the amount
of value available for equalization of rates of profit in the economy as a
Differential rent lI depends on the intensity of production which itself
whole and thus reduces the general rate of profit. By this way it hinders the
depends on the investment of constant and variable capital- ‘Difference in
equalization of rate of profit among capitals invested in land. The margins
distribution of capital (and ability to obtain credit) among tenants are added
for absolute ground rent are agricultural production prices and market value.
to the differences in fertility’. Yield on land of equal natural fertility and
If market value falls to the level of production price, or if the organic
similar location will vary according to capital invested. These differential
composition reaches that of industry and rates of profit become similar,
rents, which distinguish high from low productivity soils, do not determine
then there is no extra surplus-value to be appropriated as absolute
agricultural prices. Rather they account for the distribution of surplus value
rent in the sense of surplus above average profit. (The agricultural
within agriculture on the basis of an average price of production for
landowners then find their ownership of land as non profitable)
agricultural commodities. In fact differential rents appear even within SCP
Landowners, however, can still collect a revenue by creating a monopoly
as long as commodities are sold for a common average price on the market.
price which forces agricultural commodities to be sold not only above their
Marx’s earlier assumption that demand for agricultural products slightly
production price but above their value. Such monopoly prices transfer value
exceeds supply led him to conclude that the land of worst quality in
from other sectors to agriculture and again reduce the amount of value
production determines market price, and that all other lands collect a
available for the equalization of rates of profit.
differential rent. This is consistent with his earlier assumption that agriculture
is capitalist so that land will be entered into or removed from production in
So far we have only discussed capitalist ground rent, that is agricultural
direct response to demand fluctuations. Capitalist farmers who operate on
surplus value in excess of average profits. But appropriation of surplus
soils of even less fertility than those determining market price will not
labour in agriculture can also take the form of labour rent, rent in kind and
obtain an average profit. Consequently they will invest their capital
money rent. The transformation of rent in kind to money rent presupposes
elsewhere. As indicated earlier, Marx assumed a lower organic composition
‘a considerable development of commerce, of urban industry, of commodity
in agriculture than in industry. Consequently the production of value and
production in general, and thereby of money circulation’. These forms of
surplus value would be proportionally higher in the former. Assuming the
ground rent are the dominant form of appropriation of surplus labour in pre-
free movement of capital to and from agriculture, this higher surplus value
capitalist epochs. Unlike capitalist rent, they are the equivalent of capitalist
would be transferred to industrial and other capital through the development
profit and do not refer to an excess over profit. Where peasant smallholding
of the general rate of profit. Land ownership as private property, however,
develops under the CMP, it is possible for smallholders to own their land
exists as a barrier to the free movement of value.
and pay no rent. When they purchase land, the price of land and the interest
Capital can not be invested in agriculture without the consent of the paid is deducted from their surplus labour, which is the equivalent of the
land-owners. It is usually obtained in exchange for a share of the value capitalist average profit since the smallholder is not concerned with average
produced. Consequently even land of the worst quality actually in production profit. Cost of land, therefore, appears as a deduction from smallholders’
can collect rent. Such rent is absolute rent since it is not related to surplus labour, in contrast to capitalist farmers where it is an excess above
productivity but rather to simple entry upon the land for agricultural average profit. In both cases the price of land includes differential rents I,
production. Absolute rent inflates market price in agriculture above and that part of II which is fixed to the land. The expenditure of money
production price and consequently removes from capital outside agriculture capital for purchase of land by small landholders decreases their capital in
a part or all of the surplus value in excess of agricultural production price. production, it reduces their means of production. According to Marx this
Normally this excess would be transferred to non-agricultural capital through contradicts capitalist mode of production, it subjects the small peasants to
the equalization of the rate of profit. But ‘owing to the barrier raised by moneylenders. Because land is a commodity with a price, the illusion often
landed property’ market price has to rise to a level so that land can yield a exists that land has value and thus partly determines prices of agricultural

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commodities. But the only case when rent and the price of land which is of differentiation and identical development are still used today.
capitalized rent can influence such prices is that of absolute rent. This
occurs either when a lower organic composition of capital in agriculture The major weakness of this approach is that it made transformation
produces value above production price and market conditions allow into a dogma. A certain differentiation undoubtedly take place within
landowners to appropriate this excess value, or, through monopoly prices. agriculture itself as some SCP farmers expand while others are forced to
Such absolute rent represents a blockage to the equalization of rates of sell out. But to predict the imminent dissolution of SCP agriculture, as well
profit. The evolution of agriculture in the capitalist mode of production, as of other forms of non-capitalist production do not corroborate with
from Marxist viewpoint is essentially an analysis of the distribution of value concrete social conditions. Such predictions reflect a very incomplete
among fractions of capital and a landowning class, based on the law of analysis of the various forms of value production and distribution in SCP
value. and CMP and their relationship. They also fail to consider the specificity
and the potential for resistance and adaptation by simple commodity
Marx generalized and abstracted from the first indications of capitalist producers, as well as the interplay of economic factors affecting both SCP
industrialization of agriculture in Britain to their pure form, leading him to agriculture and capital generally.
predict the eventual disappearance of simple commodity agriculture under
the onslaught of large scale mechanized production and the predominance The analysis of the transition to CMP must begin with the identification
of wage labour. Apart from this analysis, some of Marx’s earlier writings of the dominant pre-capitalist relations of production and their composing
also clearly indicate his expectations regarding the inherent and impending social classes. Since, by definition a mode consists of two classes, therefore
expansion of capitalism through the destruction of pre-capitalist modes of at the level of interaction with capital two or more modes means that four
production. A number of authors have integrated his analysis of ground or more classes are in contact. The ensuing class alliances play a
rent to his expectations regarding the disappearance of SCP agriculture. determining role in the outcomes of the class antagonisms existing in the
These studies, even if they have clarified and re-explained Marx’s analysis various modes. Survival of pre-capitalist forms helps capital to extract
of ground rent, have not contributed significantly to it, and have tended to surplus, they are simply integrated into the CMP. The extent and speed of
emphasize the disintegration of SCP agriculture. Kautsky said industrial this integration depends very much on class struggle and alliances.
capital comes to dominate agriculture and proletarianize the peasants on In the case of peasant agriculture in underdeveloped countries the
location. This prediction of the development of a capitalist agriculture appropriation of surplus labour is carried out by the local dominating class
corresponded in fact to the available statistics on British agriculture at the (unlike industry the surplus extraction from direct producer occurs outside
time of Kautsky’s writing. For Lenin, growing differentiation within the the field of production- in a interlocked market) which then loses some or
peasantry would eventually dissolve peasant agriculture. The growing most of it to merchant capital (circulating capital), depending on the relative
concentration of ownership of land and means of production fosters the strength of each. The law of value is operative mostly at the international
development of an agrarian bourgeoisie among the rich peasants and the level but only within capitalism. Consequently when exchanges occur
proletarianization of the remaining peasants. Frequently there is a notion between pre-capitalist production and capital, prices of pre-capitalist
that differentiation within SCP will always lead to the development of an products are not determined by the law of value. Rather they are
agrarian or agricultural bourgeoisie and proletariat. There is an attempt to determined by historically established power relations in the form of
identify in agriculture identical economic and social developments as in unequal exchange.
industry and commerce. “Thus the fundamental principle of this logic ... is
not the unity but the uniformity of the world, ... the idea of the general The relative strength of each rather than economic laws, determines
movement towards ‘development,’ ‘realization,’ ‘maturity,’ in one word, market prices. The actual linkages between non-capitalist producers
identification. All that does not belong in the categories of the CP, is thought and capital are relations of unequal exchange. In other words, prices
to be precapitalist and will (must) disappear.” (Wilfrid B Denis) These notions are set at the whim of the capitalists (finance capital & its domestic

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
allies), independently of any economic laws. value. It was a dialectical negation of political economy. Capital also opened
up several questions regarding the development of Marxist thought that
Surplus, in an economic sense, refers to a relation between a producer
has developed later on. The materialist epistemology of Capital did not fit
and a non-producer where value is appropriated by the latter. Here we
with Marx’s saying ‘The country that is more developed industrially’ ‘only
have an inadequate integration of Marx’s law of value into the framework.
(to) show the less developed, the image of its own future’. This understanding
This also indicates a shift away from the analysis of economic laws of
of Marx taken from contemporary British capitalist economy in the era of
capitalism based on the labour theory of value in Marx’s Capital.
Darwinism was reflection of ‘evolutionism’ at societal level. The dialectical
Marx has explained that in all cases of 'conquest' the conquering people epistemology of Marx and evidence from his vast study contradicted this
subjugates the conquered, “Under its own mode of production (e.g. English unilinear understanding. Here is an example of alternative pathway of
in Ireland in this century and partly in India) or it leaves the old mode intact development discussed by Marx ‘…the plebians of ancient Rome. They
and contents itself with a tribute or a reciprocal interaction takes place were originally free peasants, each tilling his own plot on his own behalf. In
whereby something new, a synthesis arises (the Germanic conquests, in the course of Roman history they were expropriated….what happened? The
part)” - A contribution to the critique of Political Economy. ‘Reciprocal Roman proletarians became not wage labourers,…what unfolded alongside
interaction’ ‘with something new, a synthesis’ can explain the inadequate them was not a capitalist but a slave mode of production.’ It is very
integration of Marx’s law of value into a framework. interesting here to note that free peasants expropriated from their means of
production does not necessarily lead to capitalism, there should be some
Marx was aware of the progressive historical character of capitalism
more historical conditions.
but he was also aware of the contradictory character of capitalism. Marx
knew capitalism could sustain and strengthen archaic social forms. In 1847 In 1853 Marx worked on Oriental Despotism and Asiatic mode of
he wrote, ‘Direct slavery is as much the pivot of bourgeois industry as production. We find them in his writings in New York Tribune in 1853 to
machinery credits etc. Without slavery you have no cotton; without cotton Grundrisse (1857) but in the phase of ‘Capital’ (1867) unilinear model of
you have no modern industry…. slavery is an economic category of greatest transition to capitalism was in the fore. The global heterogeneity of societal
importance.' In his writing on American Civil war Marx wrote: the slave forms were again conceptualized by Marx after his Capital (1867), reflecting
south grew and developed simultaneously with the monopoly of English new evidence and developments in 1870s.
cotton industry on the world market. While discussing about Ireland, Marx
said: England struck down manufacturers of Ireland, depopulated her cities In this aspect there is a strong relationship between Marx’s thought &
‘every time Ireland was about to develop industrially she was crushed and Russian connection. In 1870-71 Marx started learning Russian language to
reconverted into a agricultural land.' The same manuscript documents the study the Russian economic writings from original. His wife wrote to Engels:
underdevelopment of Irish agriculture itself consequent upon English He has begun to study Russian as if it was a matter of life & death. He
absentee landlordism. This may be a preamble to study another phase of started reading writings of radical Russian scholars, Flerovskii & the famous
Marxist understanding on transition in agriculture. ‘populist’ scholar Chernyshevskii writings were at the top. In 1877 and more
specifically in 1881, he criticized his own writings as ‘suprahistorical’ more
In 1980s, the famous Marxist scholar Haruki Wada drew our attention so in relation to Russian peasant commune. The ‘populists’ challenged the
to Marx’s study on agricultural question of Russia after publication of propagation of liberal idea that western capitalism shall lead to the bright
Capital I in 1867. I am not going into the details of that period of economic future of Russia, they also stood for the ability of Russia to bypass the
study by Marx. That has been discussed in the collection ‘Late Marx and stage of west European capitalism. The revolutionary populists put their
the Russian Road’ edited by Teodor Shanin. (Monthly Review Press) trust on class war as described by Chernyshevskii as war of ‘peasants,
Capital Vol. 1 unleashed the radical interpretation of political economy. part time wage workers & wage workers’. The attitude of revolutionary
It was built on the classical ‘theory of value’ and analyzing it led to surplus populists to Russian peasant commune moulded their world view. Unlike

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Western Europe about three fifth of the arable of European Russia was Zasulich’s question on Russian peasant commune, Marx tried to answer in
under the hand of peasant & Cossack communes. The diversity of wealth a letter (with 4 drafts) which remained unpublished and unknown for a long
within the commune depended upon the ownership of livestock, period. In the draft of ‘Letter of Zasulich’ Marx stated: The historical situation
nonagricultural properties & land from noncommunal sources. Chernyshevskii of Russian ‘rural commune’ is without parallel! …. while it has in common
thought them as the effective agricultural organization for post revolutionary landownership the (natural) basis of collective appropriation, its historical
Russia along with the publicly owned industry plus some private industry. context- the contemporaneity of capitalist production- provides it with
The strongest attack against populists came from ‘The Black repartition' readymade material for huge scale common labour. It is therefore able to
group led by Plekhanov, Axelrod, Zasulich etc. who by 1883 left their incorporate the positive achievements of the capitalist system without
populism and accepted Marxism and scientific socialism. They started having to pass under its harsh tribute …… it may thus become the direct
considering peasant communes as a sign of backwardness. They starting point of the economic system towards which modern society is
considered its removal necessary to clear the way for proletariat and their tending.
revolutionary struggle. Interestingly Marx branded them as ‘Russian
capitalism admirers’. After Fenian revolution (1848) Marx considered In ‘Writings on Paris Commune’ an unpublished work of Marx from his
Ireland’s separation from England as inevitable. In 1867 he defined Irish notebook on Paris commune (published in 1934), Marx mentions ‘What
independence with setting up protective tariff against England, agrarian threatens life of Russian commune is neither a historical inevitability nor a
revolution as Ireland's major needs. By 1870 he concluded: ‘The decisive theory, it is state oppression and by capitalist intruders whom the state
blow against the ruling class in England (and this blow is decisive for the has made powerful at the peasants' expense.’ This state after 1861 ‘placed
working men all over the world) is to be struck not in England but only in the Russian commune in abnormal economic conditions', its tax demands
Ireland.’ Marx always had his sympathy with fighters & revolutionaries. which transformed the commune into ‘a kind of inert matter easily exploited
This attitude was present in his Russian studies as well. by trade, landowners and usurers’. He also said that this state fostering a
new form of capitalist enterprise 'in no way developing the productive
Marx in his first edition of Capital Vol. 1 was highly critical of economic premises of agriculture, is the best suited to facilitate and precipitate the
ideas of 'populists' (Mentioned in one of its footnote). In first & second theft of its fruits by unproductive middleman. In this way, it helped to enrich
German edition of Capital Marx wrote: ‘The expropriation of the agricultural a new capitalist vermin which is sucking the already depleted blood of the
producers, of the peasant, from the soil, is the basis of the whole process. rural commune.’ Marx then speaks about the Russian revolution against
The history of this expropriation, in different countries, assumes different the ‘conspiracy of powerful interests’ which will ensure the ‘unfettered rise
aspects, and runs through its various phases in different orders of of rural commune, the latter will soon develop as a regenerating element of
succession, and at different periods. In England alone, which we take as Russian society and element of superiority over the countries enslaved by
our example, does it have the classic form’. In the French edition it is capitalist regime.’ ( italics –author) Here Marx is not talking about revolution
changed ‘….it has been accomplished in a final form only in England…..but in Western Europe or of the capitalist world, he is talking about the element
all other countries in western Europe are going through the same of superiority of Russia over capitalist regimes. This is in contradiction to
movement.’ It implies that the English form of expropriation as mentioned Marx’s saying ‘The country that is more developed industrially’ ‘only (to)
in Capital is a west European phenomenon, non west Europe (Russia or show the less developed, the image of its own future’.
East Europe) may follow a different path of evolution. Later on Marx was
found to quote only from this French edition of Capital. This change was Marx has mentioned several types of community: the Asiatic commune,
intimately related to Marx’s study of Russia’s agricultural economy. the polis of the Greek and Roman world, the Germanic community, the
Slav commune, and so on. These communes in time became the foundation
In the last decade of his study Marx wrote about 30,000 pages on or at least the starting point for the more complex socio-economic systems.
Russian agriculture without any finalized text. In 1881, in response to Having discussed the primitive commune and the Asiatic, Slav, classical

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
and Germanic forms that together make up the ‘primary’ or ‘archaic’ stage
of society, we now come to the ‘secondary formation’. This includes the
portt on Unnao R
Raape b
byy Pr
Asiatic society based on the ‘general slavery of the East’, the classical Mahila Sangathan (PMS), Delhi
society based on slavery under private law, and the feudal society based
on serfdom, Semi Asiatic society etc. So there is no unilinear evolution of A fact finding team of Pragatisheel Mahila Sangathan (PMS) Delhi visited
society. This transition is marked by the appearance of clearly exploitative Unnao Dist. in Uttar Pradesh on the 15th and 16th of April 2018. Advocate
relationships, social classes and the State. Shobha( President of PMS Delhi), Adv. Poonam (General Secretary, PMS
Engels said: “According to the materialist conception of history, the Delhi) and Adv. Mamta (member, PMS Delhi) were its members. The PMS
ultimately determining element in history is the production and reproduction Delhi decided to send this team to Unnao to get a deeper understanding of
of real life. More than this neither Marx nor I have ever asserted. Hence if the facts and sequence of events regarding the news of rape of a minor by
somebody twists this into saying that the economic element is the only MLA Kuldeep Singh and the killing of her father being reported in the
determining one he transforms the proposition into a meaningless, abstract, newspapers and in other media. Along with meeting the survivor and her
senseless phrase. The economic situation is the basis, but the various family, this team also met the relatives of the accused MLA and the
elements of the superstructure - political forms of the class struggle and villagers of the concerned Makhi village of Dist. Unnao. The team also
its results, to wit: constitutions established by the victorious class after a spoke to police officers, lawyers and journalists in Unnao city in this regard.
successful battle, etc., juridical forms, and even the reflexes of all these The issues which emerged in this two day study by the PMS team are
actual struggles in the brains of the participants, political, juristic, presented here.
philosophical theories, religious views, and their further development into Meeting with the Survivor and her Relatives
systems of dogmas - also exercise their influence upon the course of the
historical struggles and in many cases preponderate in determining their The PMS team reached green Palace Hotel in Unnao city at around
form. There is an interaction of all these elements, in which, amidst all the 11.30 am on the 15th of April. After the survivor’s father was killed in jail on
endless host of accidents (that is, of things and events whose inner the 9th of April2018, the officers of District administration placed the girl
interconnection is so remote or so impossible of proof that we can regard it and her entire family in this hotel for providing them security. When the
as non-existent, as negligible), the economic movement finally asserts PMS team asked the Dist. administration authorities present in the hotel
itself as necessary. Otherwise the application of the theory to any period for permission to speak to the survivor and her family, they instructed us
of history would be easier than the solution of a simple equation of the first to get the permission of the Dist. Commissioner. A large number of media
degree.” (Letter to J. Bloch, Sept. 1890) persons were present at the hotel and the PMS team shared the purpose of
its visit with them. On reaching the office of the DC, we learnt that he was
Therefore while understanding transition in agriculture, though economic in his home and we were able to obtain his permission over the phone. He
condition remains the basis but ensuing class alliances can also play a also assured us that he would inform the dist authorities at the Hotel
determining role in the outcomes of the class antagonisms (‘political forms accordingly. However, when we returned to the hotel at around 5pm we
of class struggles and its results’), they ‘exercise their influence upon the learnt that the administration had shifted the survivor and her family from
course of the historical struggles and in many cases preponderate in there. Media persons present told us that she had been taken with her
determining their form’ existing in the various modes. The dialectical family to the Circuit House of the Irrigation Dept. which was in Unnao itself.
relationship between base and superstructure in understanding transition We reached this place at 5.30 and sought the permission of the SDM present
in agriculture should always be remembered. there to meet the survivor. This was allowed at around 6pm and we found
that the survivor was staying at the place along with her mother, paternal
grandmother(dadi),her four sisters and brother and her paternal uncle and

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
aunt (chacha and chachi). The survivor told us that in the meantime her father had started staying
with her chacha in Delhi. The survivor said that the MLA had got many
Description of Events by the Survivor cases lodged against her father and her chacha. The Chacha was the only
educated person in the familyand hence case after case was filed against
The survivor said she had stayed with her maternal uncle at Rai Baraielly
him till he was forced to leave Unnao and since 2000 he was living in Delhi.
and studied upto class 4. She left studies around 5to 6 years earlier and
Her father was also staying with him. The survivor’s Dadi was very ill and
then began staying with her parents at her home in Makhi village in Dist.
hence her chacha and chachi had kept the Dadi in Delhi with themselves in
Unnao. They had family ties with Shashi Singh and she used to go to her
order to get her treated. When the Dadi’s health improved she was sent
house. The girl told the team that everyone in her family considered the
back to the village Makhi and her medicines were sent by courier. The
MLA to be very good and ever since she had come to her parents’ home
hearing of the case filed under Section 156 was scheduled for 3rd April
from her maternal uncle’s home she had been hearing that ‘’daddu’’ is a
2018. The survivor’s father, Pappu Singh, came to Unnao town to meet his
very good person. The girl further told us that on 11th June 2017, Shubham
wife Asha (the survivor’s mother) as the latter had come to the Court located
Singh (son of Shashi Singh) and one-two other boys pulled her into a vehicle
in Unnao to attend the court date and from there went to his house in
and took her to various places and did ‘’galat kaam’’ with her (The survivor
Village Makhi. The survivor told the team that when they heard about her
has explained to the team in detail about the sexual violence on her by the
father being beaten up on 3rd April she came to the village along with her
MLA as well as the incidents of rape on her between 11th June to 20th June,
chacha-chachi. Her father’s health was very bad because he had been
2017 but we are not sharing it as the matter is pending investigation before
badly beaten up and had also been sent to jail. On 8th April 2018 the survivor
the CBI). She further said that on 20th June 2018 she was found from Aurraya
again went to Lucknow with her chachi to meet Chief minister Yogi but
by Makhi police and was kept at the Mahila Thana from 20th June to 30th
security officers stationed outside his office did not allow them to meet the
June 2017. She said that on 30th June 2017 she came to her ‘’çhacha’in
CM. The survivor said that she then poured oil upon herself and set herself
Delhi. The survivor said to the Team that she understood that the MLA had
on fire. The police present there saved her and the survivor showed the
got her abducted by the boys so that no one should get to know what he
PMS team the burn injuries she had sustained on her person. She further
himself had done and with this she herself became more frightened that
stated that her father died on 9th April and there were at least 75 marks of
when the MLA could get this done, he could get anything done. She said
injury on and inside his body and his intestines were also torn.
that due to her fear of the MLA and his goons she hid herself and came to
Delhi and started staying in Delhi because those who had executed the While speaking to the PMS team, the survivor wept repeatedly and
abduction of 20th June 2017 were free and were looking for her. In August appeared to be broken. The survivor kept saying that the MLA got my
2017,gathering courage, the survivor told her ‘’chachi’’ Pushpa, about her father killed. She said that the jailor of Unnao as threatening the people of
sexual exploitation by the MLA. Pushpa told husband Mahesh (the survivor’s the village against giving evidence. Atul, the brother of the MLA, beat up
chacha ). The Uncle wrote letters to various institutions and authorities the father and was collecting people to give false witness against the
about the sexual exploitation of the survivor by Kuldeep Singh and appealed survivor. She further said that if she had not complained against the
for justice. The survivor said that on 17th August 2017, with a letter asking (‘’kukaram’’) wrong act done by the MLA, my father would have been alive.
for justice, she met Yogi Adityanath with her chachi Pushpa at his janta She further said that because she had given a written complaint against
durbar at Lucknow. The Chief Minister assured the survivor and her chachi the MLA and asked for action, that is why the MLA and his family sent
that justice would be done to them. The girl told the team, that however, no threats to the survivor’s family that when Pappu Singh (i.e. the survivor’s
justice was done. When they did not get justice from anywhere, then in father) comes this time we will parade him naked. The survivor child was
February 2018, the girl’s mother filed a petition under Section 156 of Cr. crying and repeatedly saying that all those who exploited me are roaming
P.C. before the Chief Judicial Magistrate at Unnao for a direction for lodging free and I have not got justice. The MLA will get us all killed. Get me
a FIR against Kuldeep Singh and Shashi Singh. Justice. I have become the guilty of my Father’s death, had I not complained

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
he would not have been killed. The girl also said that had the administration Makhi village , unbolted the door and then Vinod Mishra and many other
supported me all this would not have happened. She said that if anyone goons who worked for the MLA and his brother, pulled their father Pappu
speaks against the MLA and his brother Atul Singh in the village, he is Singh out of the house and beat him with lathis and rifle butts. The aged
beaten up by burning tyres. mother (i.e. dadi of survivor) and the daughters of the beaten man kept
imploring that the beating should stop. When the daughters tried to shield
The child also said that another chacha(uncle) named Tinku is missing his body they were pushed away. When the employee (of the chacha) who
since 6th April. She said that her own medical was done on 23rd or 24th June had accompanied Pappu Singh from Delhi tried to intervene, he was also
last year and the CBI has got her medical examination repeated on 14th beaten. The Dadi asserted that before her eyes her son was beaten brutally
april2018. She said that all the officers of the police refused to register her by Atul Singh and others. She said the MLA had punished Pappu Singh for
FIR against the MLA and she has been going from pillar to post for Justice. meeting his aged mother and his children.
Facts brought to light by the Chachi (Pushpa) Version of Asha, mother of the survivor
While speaking to the survivor we also spoke to her chachi who was Asha Singh, the mother of the survivor, said that when her husband
also present there. It was to this person that the survivor had first told of Pappu Singh met her in the court in Unnao on 3rd April, he said he would go
her sexual exploitation by the MLA. Pushpa said that on 17th August 2017 home to meet his mother and the children. She also said her husband had
she and the survivor had gone to the CM’s durbar and he had assured earlier visited the village on the Chedan festival and met the children. She
justice. Letters were given to several authorities regarding the act of the also said that her eldest daughter has studied upto 8th Std, one daughter is
MLA but when no action was forth coming from any quarter, only then a studying in 7th std and another in 4th std. The girl who is in 4th std is
petition was filed under Sec. 156 CrPC in February 2018 before the court in studying in a school located in the village Makhi and owned by the MLA.
Unnao. She said that when they heard of the beating of the survivor’s
father on 3rd April this year ,she along with her husband and the survivor She also clarified that had they not complained against MLA Kuldeep,
went to Unnao from Delhi on the same day. She said she accompanied the there would not have been enemity. The MLA used to threaten that finish
survivor to the CM’s office at Lucknow on 8th April but they were neither off all this and she will be married off. She also said that when the survivor
taken to the CM nor to any other official. When they were not allowed to went missing on 11th June 2017, even then a person connected with the
meet any official then the survivor poured oil over herself and set herself MLA was involved. She also said that though the survivor was a minor,
on fire. She said that she was unaware that the child had carried oil with she was kept in the mahila thana for ten days. She also informed us that
her. She said that when the girl tried to commit suicide the security posted the family has common agricultural land which is given on batai and the
in the place saved her. household runs on that small income. Now the whole family has been
orphaned by her husband’s death. The survivor had been sent to her uncle
She also told the team that the MLA is exploiting lot of people especially (chacha) so that she remain secure.
in connection with women. She expressed her belief that the CBI would
expose the crimes of the MLA. Mahesh Singh-Chacha of the children

Description by Paternal grandmother (Dadi) of the survivor Chacha Mahesh Singh said that he is in Delhi since the past 17-18
years. He has studied upto graduation. His father was a fitter and worked
The 65 year old Dadi of the survivor told us that her family and the in a private company. His household runs on the income coming from the
family of the MLA are of same caste i.e. Rajput. She and the survivor's family fields. The main reason for his shifting to Delhi was the false cases
elder sister aged 19 years and her two younger sisters together told us that lodged against him by the MLA and his family. The police and administration
on 3rd April, one Vinod Mishra jumped in from the roof of their house in were lodging false cases against him and his brother Pappu at the behest

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
of the MLA and his family. He said around 29 cases lodged against him are and until her death in 2016 everything was fine. The MLA and his brother
over and he has been exonerated in all of them The papers in this connection Atul did not live permanently in the village. The families of both, including
are in Delhi and he offered to give copies of them to the team later. He said wives and children, stayed at Unnao . The MLA came to the village over
that some fresh cases were made against him and his brother in October the weekends. He also said that there are few girls of the village who are
2017, in some of which closure report has been filed and in others the missing since quite some time. He said that one more child was sexually
Lucknow bench has issued stay. He said that in August 2017 his wife assaulted, but the child is motherless and the father, in the face of his
informed him of the sexual exploitation of the survivor by the MLA. He poverty and lack of resources, accepted that she be married off and sent
wrote letters to many institutions to get justice for the child. On 17th August out of the village.
2017 when his wife and the survivor went to the Chief Minister’s durbar
The chacha of the survivor underlined that he had established himself
with the letter of appeal it was sent to the Circle Officer Makhi. After this,
in Delhi in the last 20 years. "If I had a criminal bent, I would have committed
rather than the police of Makhi taking action against the MLA, false cases
crimes everywhere" he said. He said I am fighting for justice. He said that
were lodged against him and his brother Pappu.
on 3rd April when Pappu Singh reached the Police station in an injured
In February 2018 the survivor’s mother, Asha Singh,filed a petition under condition, the police at the behest of the MLA registered a property dispute
Sec.156 against the MLA in the Unnao court. Mahesh Singh said that his in the name of their own cousin and sent pappu Singh to jail. He said that
brother Pappu was staying with him in Delhi. He sent his brother to Unnao the father, Shri Jang Bahadur, of the cousin in question (Tinku), had given
along with an employee on 3rd April for the hearing in the Court and also to a statement before everyone that there was no property dispute between
take the medicines for their ailing mother. When he heard about the beating the families. The same Tinku is now missing for the past many days
up of his brother, he came from Delhi to Unnao and met the MLA’s brother according to Mahesh Singh.
Atul who said to him that he was giving Prasad and that if Mahesh came During all this talk, the mother and Dadi of the survivor kept crying and
he too would be given the same. Mahesh informed the team that he and his saying we will be killed and our lives are in danger.
brother started getting threatened ever since the letter of the CM of 17th
April 2017 reached the CO of the area. Discussions with the Residents of Village Makhi
The chacha said that he along with his two elder brothers and his cousin, The PMS team reached Makhi on 16th April 2018.Near the Aryabrat
were part of the MLA’s family. Hs elder brother Guddu used to work as a Gramin bank in the village, the Team spoke to the women in the surrounding
contractor along with the MLA. Guddu had died, but the family took no houses and to the villagers in the nearby shops. One lady said MLA Bhaiya
action after his death as they did not see any conspiracy in it. He also is innocent. MLA Bhaiya has been falsely trapped and the girl who has
informed that his cousin had recently been in charge of the work of the accused him of rape is characterless and had run away with boys and was
MLA’s brother’s wife in the recent elections for pradhan post.He also found after 10 days. Another woman in the same family spoke in the same
informed us that this time when he filled the name of his own mother for vein. We asked them what else they knew about the girl; they replied that
elections for the post of pradhan, the MLA told him that Atul Singh’s wife is we do not know anything and we get no time to spare from housework. The
also standing for this post so you should take back your mother’s form. charge on MLA Bhaiya is wrong. Another woman living close by said she
Mahesh took back the form.He said there was no bitterness in his relation was busy in looking after her fatherless family and was unaware of what is
with the MLA or the latter’s family. It was immediately after CM Yogi’s going on in the village. We moved a little ahead into the village and met a
letter, in which the survivor had accused the MLA of rape and prayed for knot of people who said that the village is very big. There are 12 khedas
justice, reached the Circle Officer, that from October 2017 the move to and 22 tolas(areas) and about 10,000 voters. He said you are now standing
entangle him in false cases began again. He also said that the mother of in Gadi mohalla.The incident under discussion took place in Sarai mohalla.
the MLA was a good and kind person. She used to run a primary school The MLA is a very good person. Atul Singh has beaten the father of the

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
survivor but the charge of rape on the MLA is totally false. He is 50-55 The MLA’s maternal grandfather had established a reputation 100-150 years
years of age, why would he do such a thing. If he had to do something like earlier and now this status was being besmirched. Do not ask us, they
this he could have gone to Delhi, Mumbai and done it all. He has no dearth said, ask the villagers what the MLA means to them. One said that she too
of money. The whole village knows how many times this girl has run away was a woman and had felt very hurt that another woman had maligned an
from home. The girl’s father and her uncle Mahesh Singh are very bad innocent member of her family. The women said that the MLA has two
people and are history sheeters. As the PMS team was going to walk ahead, daughters. At the age of 21 years he was elected unopposed as an MLA
one youth claimed that he was a distant relative of the survivor’s father. and has served 4 terms. Another woman of the same family told us that
He said the survivor is a characterless girl and when she ran away it was the survivor’s chacha Mahesh had asked the MLA’s wife to tell him how
the MLA who ensured she was found. long she had known the MLA. He himself asserted that he had known the
MLA for 41 years. The lady said to the team that it was wrong to suggest
Each and every person in the village knows about the girl's 'running
that a couple who had been married for 26 years did not know everything
away' which is how the incident she terms as abduction is being described.
about each other. While she agreed that women should be listened to, it
The MLA’s brother, people said, intervened in a family quarrel on 3rd April
did not mean that men should not get a hearing and false allegations could
and may have given one or two slaps while mediating in the dispute. The
be made against them.
MLA ji is a very good man, they all said. The knot of people mentioned
earlier, told the team that Gadi mohalla where you are now standing , is an The day’s newspapers were lying there and one boy picked up the Amar
opposer of the MLA in the sense that in every election it is understood that Ujala which featured an interview with the Team. We said we had spoken
the people of Sarai mohalla and those of Gadi mohalla will fight the elections on the basis of what we had read and had come to find out the
separately and neither will go to the other mohalla to ask for votes. Still,
facts.Thereupon one of the MLA’s supporters said that the girl’s family are
they said, we are saying the MLA is not guilty, One of them said that
all goondas. There are 19 cases on the uncle and an encounter was ordered
because this issue is one of the izzat of Makhi, and of Makhi’s dignity and
status (man,samman) that is why everyone is standing on the side of the in 1995 itself but he ran away to Delhi.
MLA. They told us, you get justice for the MLA. Another supporter, a Muslim, clarified that the MLA was the MLA of
Discussion in Sarai Mohalla Banger Mau and not of the area in which the Makhi village is situated. He
said that the people sitting with me here are also Muslims but the MLA
In this mohalla, the MLA’s house is situated inTakia and in the same takes care of us all. Another named Kunnu Mishra told the team that while
premises are an intermediate school and a temple. The survivor’s house Mahesh was a history sheeter, Pappu was a drunkard and also addicted to
and also Shashi Singh’s house are nearby. There is heavy police deployment smack. He asserted that we could walk around the village but would not
in this area. One villager told us that most villagers are poor people. The find another girl who said that the MLA even raised his eyes when he
MLA is a very good person. Every weekend he resolves the problems of spoke to her. He repeated the age of the MLA and the incident of the girl
5000 people, dealing courteously and with dignity. He lovingly makes people running away which, as we have pointed out, every single person in the
sit down and have some refreshments and he does justice on their issues. village knows. He additionally said that when the girl was found in 2017,
The girl is making a false allegation of rape. Our MLA is god like. she recorded a statement under Sec 164 and in that she did not name the
MLA. When we asked why the girl was falsely implicating the MLA he said
Talk with the relatives of the MLA he did not know but it must be some deep political conspiracy. However,
When the PMS team reached the MLA’s house 10-15 people were he could not name any possible conspirator. He did tell us that no one
present there, including two women. The women told the team that no one from the girl’s family had fought an election whereas Kuldeep was an MLA
was recording their opinion and everyone was terming the MLA a rapist. since the age of 32 years.

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Discussion at the Inter College Makhi was some dispute. One of the persons from the MLA’s house said that
after this we will have to tell the boys to maintain a distance from girls.
This college is situated within the boundary of the MLA’s house. We
met the Principal who said she has been associated with the college since Talk with the Lawyer of the Survivor
2014. Before that the MLA’s mother ran a primary school. This school
became inter level in 2016 and was also recognized by the UP Board. On 15th April, we could meet the survivor’s lawyer. He said that Asha
Around 1000 students study here, many from the same village and children Singh had filed the petition under Sec156 on 12th Feb2018. Earlier, on 11th
also come from 10 kms away as there are bus facilities with the school. June 2017,she had filed a missing report of her daughter at Makhi police
There are both B-Ed and non B Ed teachers employed, many from the station, naming Shubham singh and Avdesh Tiwari. The girl was found on
same village and teachers are paid Rs. 2500-6000 per month. The finances 20th June in Aurayya and the two boys were named in the FIR. On 22nd
of the school and its other problems are looked after by the MLA. The June the survivor made a statement under Sec 164 and in this the names
Principal stated that the survivor was lying and added that if one daughter of Shubham Singh’s mother and sister also figured along with the name of
of the house had been raped would the younger sister attend the school Brajesh Yadav. However the charge sheet filed bythe police named
run by the same MLA till 2nd April 2018? We requested her to allow us to Shubham,Avdesh and Brajesh but did not name Shashi Singh and her
meet the teachers, whereupon she called around 7-8 of them Of these 2 daughter. He also specified that the statement under Sec 164 only pertained
said that they were from the survivor’s family and had been teaching for to the events covered by the FIR of 11th June 2017. He also said that in the
the past seven years. Referring to the survivor they said we think the girl proceedings on the case on Sec 156 which took place on 3rd April, Shashi
appearing on TV with her face covered must be another person because Singh had represented through her lawyer that she wished to proceede
this girl(the survivor) does not know how to speak and the person on TV against the survivor under Sec 340, accusing her of lodging a false report.
was fluent. Another teacher praised the MLA and wondered if other cases The application was accepted and the date of 12th April was given. He also
of rape were also based on false charges. She felt the girl was being said that thepolice have lodged an FIR on the statement of Asha Singh on
pressurized by someone to make the false complaint. She said the MLA 11th April 2018 and hence the proceedings under Sec 156 are over.
had saved Shasi Singh (Shubham’s mother). The Principal asked one of
the teachers to tell us what the survivor’s family had done to hers but the
Addl. PS In Charge
latter simply said there was some dispute among the men many years On 16th April, the team met the CO Shri vivek ranjan. He told us that
earlier. the CO and the entire force of the police station have been suspended. He
knew that there were many cases on Mahesh Singh and Pappu Singh but
Talk with other Villagers
he could not tell the status of those complaints though he knew they
The team met other villagers in the Dalit tola. They are all agricultural pertained to murder and dacoity and that both were history sheeters. In
labourers. Some of the men said that we are poor people and do not know addition he said that apart from political complaints there were only two
what Mahesh and Pappu Singh were like. They did not know the survivor cases against the MLA Kuldeep Singh- one the current one and another
either but the MLA was a very good man. While we were speaking two several years old. He repeated the position we had heard in the area, that
people who were present in the MLA’s house arrived there as also did the survivor had not named the MLA in her statement under section 164.
another woman from the village. Then everyone together repeated that the The police had not gone to the village to arrest Pappu Singh he said, rather
MLA is a good man and there will be problem now because he is under he was brought here by the villagers and his own cousin, Tinku Singh,
arrest and there will be no one to solve our disputes. Another youth spoke lodged a complaint of a dispute. We got Pappu Singh admitted to the
up condemning Pappu Singh and said that he had attacked me with a rifle hospital. After his death, an FIR was lodged and four people were arrested.
butt sometime back. When asked why the attack occurred, he said there Probably the doctor could not assess Pappu Singh’s health properly and

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
while he was in jail his health deteriorated and he died. He also told us that 2. While much is being projected about the fact that the statement of
many girls contract marriages of their choice and their parents lodge missing the survivor under Sec164 last June does not name the MLA, we bring on
reports in the police station. He added that Guddu singh and Mahesh Singh, record that the statement pertains to the case of abduction. Anyway in her
both brothers of Pappu Singh, as well as Pappu himself were part of the statement she involved Shashi Singh and her daughter, but the FIR lodged
MLA’s team for a long time. on the basis of the statement does not carry these names and neither
does the police chargesheet have them.
Comments of the PMS Team
3. Patriarchal feudal values are so entrenched in the village that not
1. We asked Asha Singh whether her husband was addicted to alcohol only can the character of the survivor be maligned, her family terrorized
and took drugs, but she said that he took alcohol sometimes and never and her father killed by beating, the reputation of the MLA accused of rape
took drugs. becomes a question of the reputation of the village! In feudal patriarchal
2. The team understands that the statement of the girl under Sec 164 India a rape survivor has to again and again prove the truth of her allegation,
recorded last June pertains to the abduction of the girl and she described while repeatedly the issue of sexual assault is modified into an issue of
events between 11th June 2017 and 20 th June 2017. the victim being a characterless person. It is quite clear that for a woman
or girl fighting for justice in India, there are many painful challenges to
3. The team thinks to say that the MLA could not have raped the girl overcome and these are even more severe in the rural areas especially
because he was 50 years of age, was affluent or because the girl’s father where the powerful feudals are involved. This is even more so when those
or uncle were history sheeters are illogical statements. guilty of sexual assault are politically powerful like the MLA or his cohorts.
4. The PMS team understands that feudal forces have strong roots in That is the only explanation of why the accused in the abduction of 11th
the village. Kuldeep Singh is a four time MLA and has changed several June2017 got bail though a minor is involved and though the charges are of
parties. In the village it makes no difference that he is not even the MLA of abduction and rape,and also why the case of rape against the MLA could
this area or which party he is with. From the time of his grandfather, the only be lodged after her father was beatenup, died in jail and there was a
MLA’s family have been the big landlords in this village.He and his brother public hue and cry.
Atul are the centres of power in the village and solve all the village disputes
4. We found that the police describes the cases lodged against the
in their durbar. The brothers are known to get people beaten. The team
MLA as ‘political’’, but when cases are lodged against ordinary people under
found that people in the village were upset at the MLA’s arrest because
the same sections, they are termed history sheeters.
they did not know how their disputes would be solved now.

On the basis of the facts we found, the team has reached the Recommendations
following conclusions 1. The PMS team thinks that the CBI team currently enquiring into
the case should conduct a full study of the events consequent to 4th June
1. The MLA and his brother are from an established feudal family and 2017. The facts behind the cases lodged against the relatives of the survivor
rule over the village. They settle disputes, dispense justice. The brother as also the circumstances in which they were lodged should be studied.
Atul is an accused in a case of the killing of a senior police officer. The The PMS demands that an enquiry should be conducted into why the minor
various cases lodged against Pappu Singh and Mahesh Singh seem to be was lodged in a mahila thana between 20th and 30th of June 2017. If the UP
at the instigation of the MLA and his brother. The police works on the side Govt. des not have provision of shelter homes for women the same should
of these powerful in the village. An example is the case lodged against immediately be provided for.
Pappu Singh on 3rd April though he was badly injured. No attempt was
made to record his statement and lodge any case on that basis. 2. PMS also demands investigation on why the concerned officials

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
did not inform the parents about the custody of the survivor after she was
recovered from Aurria by the Police. PMS also demands investigation by
PYL (Telengana) State
the concerned senior officials as to why the date of recording of statement
under Section 164 Cr.P.C. (recorded on 22nd June 2017) was not informed
Conference Successfully Held
to the parents of the survivor.
The 7th State Conference of the PYL in Telengana was held from 25th to
3. PMS demands the constitution of Child Welfare Committees 27 April 2018 in Khammam (Telengana). On the 25th was the mass rally

regarding custody of minor victims in Uttar Pradesh State. from the campus of SR & BGNR College till the Pavilion grounds across
the Mayuri centre. The place of mass meeting was named after martyr
The team also feels that the trial of the case should be conducted not Com. Venkanna. PYL State President M. Hanmesh presided over the mass
in Unnao but in Delhi because the survivor resides in Delhi. meeting.
In view of the kind of comments that have emerged regarding the Umar Khalid –research scholar from JNU in Delhi and leader of the
statement under Sec 164, the PMS team suggests that all judicial officers Bhagat Singh Ambedkar Student Organization (BASO) was the main
in India should be instructed that when recording statement under this Speaker. Others who addressed the mass meeting included Com. P. Ranga
section, they should ask the women/children after the statement is recorded Rao- Jt. Sec of the State Committee of CPI(ML)- New Democracy, NBS-
in the context of the current case, whether they have ever suffered sexual PYL Coordination Committee Convenor Com Raminder Singh, West Bengal
assault or any other type of sexual harassment before this or apart from PYL Secy. Ashim Roy, Bheemlal (NBS-UP), Com. Gummadi Narasiah (ex
the incident that they have recounted. MLA), Com. Aruna (state Gen. Sec. of POW), C.Y.Pullaiah (PYL state
Gen Sec), G. Sakroo (state Vice President PYL), D. Sai Reddy (Jt. Sec
state PYL) K. Kashinath (Treasurer, state PYL) and other leaders of
Phagwara (Punjab)
Telengana PYL.
Attack on Dalits Opposed Com. Umar Khalid highlighted the Modi Govt’s saffronizing of universities
and its attacks on Dalits, women and democrats. It is labelling all students
Annoyed by the successful Bharat Bandh by Dalits on April 2, in tehsil raising questions including about its role in the death of Rohith Vemula, as
Phagwara (Punjab), Shiv Sena and its associated organizations on April anti-nationals. Before Elections, Modi gave the slogan of ‘’Beti bachao’’
13 attacked Dalits who had put up flex boards of Sanvidhan Chowk at a but it actually meant saving girls from BJP leaders. However today the
crossing. They fired at and injured 4 Dalits. One of the youth, Bobby, died Modi Govt has changed its role to ‘Rapist Bachao’, he said, referring to the
during treatment. Those who fired are behind bars since April 28th. On this rape and murder of an 8 year old in Kathua in J&K. He said all facts point
issue RSS and BJP are pursuing their communal and anti Dalit agenda and that Justice Loya's death was linked to saving Amit Shah. He ended by
are demanding arrest of the leader of Dalit Lehar, Harbhajan Suman and stressing the need for youth to participate and lead the fight back to these
others in the FIRs already registered. After the funeral of Bobby on April 29 attacks.
the police registered a fresh case against the Dalit youth and arrested
another leader. This was opposed by the people and in large numbers they Com. Ranga Rao stressed that India is languishing under unemployment.
gheraoed SP Kapurthala who was present in the the SP Phagwara Office. Modi had promised two crore jobs to India and KCR promised one and a
Pendu Mazdoor Union leaders President Tarsem Peter and Kashmir Singh half crore jobs to Telengana. The youth should fight for employment and
Ghughshir reached the protest site and supported the cause. Seeing the also teach these govts. who are only working for the rich, a lesson through
people's anger the police were forced to release the Dalit leaders. their struggles.
Com. Hanmesh asked both Govts- Where are the jobs? He said the

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
govts are wasting time and raising false hopes. Every year 20 lakh in the He said Modi is dividing the country in the name of caste and religion. In
state roam around coaching centres. In 2016, the Govt released 16,067 the name of Hinduism, BJP is raising religious hatred, promoting inequalities
VRO posts and 13 lakhs applied for the jobs. Every year, students from and discriminations. He called for walking on the road of struggle shown by
600 universities across the country and also about a crore from the 60,000 Ambedkar and Phule and fighting in that direction to solve today’s problems.
colleges are looking for
employment after Youth organizations' leaders Raminder Singh (NBS, Punjab), Ashim Roy
passing out. He called (PYL, West Bengal) and Bheemlal (NBS, Allahabad (UP) as well as Umar
on the Youth to fight for Khalid of BASO criticized the Modi Govt. for its false promise of creating
employment. one crore jobs. They were critical of the rulers for misusing the media and
promoting alchoholism and drug addiction in the youth. They all called on
Com. Raminder the youth to unite against political, social and economic inequality.
Singh pointed out that
post the new economic CPI(ML) New Democracy State Committee member, Com. Rayala
policies begun since Chandrashekar called on the youth to participate in the building of a society
1991, the situation of free of exploitation, poverty and unemployment. He called for intensification
employment has of the struggle against landlords and imperialists.
worsened. Modi is After the Inaugural, began the Delegate session. K. Laxmi Narayana
implementing the economic policies of Manmohan Singh Govt. at a much addressed the delegates on State and Communalism and Com. KGR,
faster pace. Both in the country and world over, jobless growth is the norm. member of state committee of CPI (ML) New Democracy, spoke on
Ours is a young population with youth being 2/3 of our 130 crore population. Marxism.
He called on the youth to fight for a progressive and new democratic India.
C.Y. Pullaiah then introduced the Report of activities. It was approved
C.Y. Pullaiah said a Public Employment Act isneeded. During elections after deciding to rewrite the planning part. The new executive was elected
political parties attract the youth with false promises of employment with Com. Sakroo as President, CY Pullaiah as General Secretary, 3 Vice
generation. He demanded that a white ppaper be released regarding presidents and 3 Jt secretaries and members to constitute a 33 member
employment in the country and job opportunities and Rs 5000 per month executive committee. The Conference ended with slogans as the delegates
unemployment allowance should be immediately announced. dispersed to carry out the tasks decided.
Arunodaya added colour and exuberance to the meeting. The ázadi’
dance presented by women members of PDSU was received with
enthusiasm. Coms P.Naganna, Krishna, K. Subbarao and others motivated
the youth with their songs as did the dances of Mahi and Vinay groups.
On the 26th of April, the Conference proceedings got off to a start at the
Rajpadh Function Hall with the inaugural session. Reception committee
President, Adv. V. Krishnamurthy called on the youth to leave the
Conference with new enthusiasm and excitement for social change.
Following this, the flag of PYL was hoisted by Com. Hanmesh.
The Inaugural speaker was Prof. Anand Teltumbde, from IIT Kharagpur.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

Massacre of Unarmed rights and will do every thing to protect the interests of the corporate.
There has been opposition from the people to this Copper smelting plant

Demonstrators in from its inception in 1996 because of concerns about pollution. After it
received permissions from Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB)

Thoothukudi (Tuticorin)
and the Ministry of Environment and Forests in January 1995, these were
challenged before the Madras High Court in 1996. The Company, however,
went ahead and set up the plant that commenced production in 1997. Fresh
petitions were filed seeking directions to take suitable action against the
At least 10 people, including a 17 year old girl, were killed and more
Company for alleged failure to take safety measures due to which there
than 50 injured on 22 May 2018 as police fired on demonstrators protesting
were pollution and industrial accidents at the plant. In September 2010, the
against Sterlite copper in Thoothukudi (Tuticorin) a port town in Tamilnadu.
High Court allowed and disposed the writ petitions with the direction to the
One of them was killed in a second incident of firing in the evening when
Company to close down its Tuticorin plant. The Company went in appeal to
protesters had gathered in another part of the town to protest against the
the Supreme Court which passed an interim order staying the High Court
earlier firing. Most of them had bullet marks on their face, chest or abdomen,
order. In 2013 on March 29, the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board was
said a doctor attached to the Tuticorin district medical office. Video
forced to order closure of the plant after local residents complained about
recordings which have come to light later clearly show police personnel in
noxious emissions. Meanwhile, the Supreme Court, on April 2, 2013, set
civilian clothes standing on top of buses, aiming and doing targeted firing.
aside the High Court order for closure, despite noting that in various
An around 20,000 strong demonstration was being held to mark the investigations the Company had been found to have caused pollution, it
100th day of the current round of protest against Sterlite Copper, a unit of had continued to operate without renewal of consent by the TNPCB for
London based Vedanta Resources, one of the world’s largest metal and some periods and that it had misrepresented and suppressed material facts
mining transnational corporations. This indefinite struggle was launched in its appeal. Instead it directed the Company to deposit Rs 100 crore
on 12th February 2018 to demand closure of the plant and refusal of within three months with the Collector. The money was to be utilised for
permission for starting another unit of the plant. The protestors had applied taking measures to improve the environment, including water and soil in
for permission for the 22nd May protest many days before but the District the vicinity of the plant. How this improvement could take place in the face
administration clamped Section 144 in the town to try to prevent the protest. of continuing pollution from the plant is a question that the Supreme Court
This further angered the protestors who marched to the District Collectorate never answered. Meanwhile, the Company went ahead with its plans to
where the police resorted to firing. Police brutality on the direction of the build another unit to double the capacity from the current 400,000 tons per
Govt. in the service of a mining giant (MNC) owned by Anil Agarwal, was year to 800,000 tons per year.
much in evidence as police not only stopped the people from exercising
The plant was closed since 27th March 2018 by the management
their democratic right, they started beating up the people to disperse them.
for so called maintenance for 15 days. Actually the license from the TNPCB
Police even dragged out a youth from a hospital and killed him. This
for operating the plant has expired on 31st March. The Company applied for
massacre is another instance of the crimes of the ruling parties against the
a 5 yr extension of license. However in the face of strong people's opposition
people of the country.
and agitation, the TNPCB was forced to reject the application on 9th April
Despite anger against this organized massacre, police continued 2018 citing five technical grounds, including non submission of the report
suppression of the people and killed further two persons in police firing on of the test on groundwater in villages in the neighbourhood of the plant and
23rd of May. It showed that the RSS-BJP Central Govt. and Tamilnadu the discharge of hazardous waste in violation of rules. The Company has
Govt. propped up by them, care little about the people’s interests or their moved the Appellate Authority challenging the rejection.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
The demonstration on 22 May was preceded by various forms of
required since the location was to be in the already notified area of the
protest over the last 100 days including indefinite fast by around 250 people State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu (SIPCOT). SIPCOT
who were arrested, successful strike called by over 50 associations on backed this assertion in the High Court which ruled that public consultation
25th March, and a huge demonstration by thousands in Tuticorin and even was not required in this case. In January 2018 a public hearing was
a demonstration by British Tamils at the home of Vedanta Chief Anil Agarwal scheduled for a new industrial park by SIPCOT. The survey numbers for
in London. the 1,616 acres of land required for this were released by SIPCOT. Activists
found that most of these survey numbers were the same as in the list
In 2008 a study found that the iron content in the water sources of submitted by Sterlite and approved for its new plant. This basically means
two villages near the plant was 20 times more than the permitted limit. that this land was not in industrial park area when not having public hearing
Dangerously high levels of sulfur dioxide emissions have been repeatedly was approved by the High Court. SIPCOT had made false claims to allow
documented. A study by the Tiruneveli Medical College in 2008 covering Sterlite to acquire the permissions for its new plant.
80,725 people residing within a 5 km radius of the smelting plant found that
13.9 % of the population suffered from respiratory diseases. It stated that CPI(ML) New Democracy strongly condemned these murders by the
“The attributable cause is...the presence of gases, mixture of gases and state to serve the interests of a corporate and demanded that the plant be
particulate matter”. The study has been kept under wraps. Those suffering shut down immediately, officers who ordered prevention of the rally should
from respiratory ailments state that the doctors say that living in the vicinity be removed without delay and police officers responsible for these killings
of Sterlite is the problem but they do not write down that reason. be arrested and tried for murder. It also demanded that the State govt.
which has organized such a crime, must resign without delay and that the
There is a long history of violations of the laws and false claims by people who have lost their kin, who have suffered injuries or who have
Sterlite and its parent Vedanta. The copper smelting plant was originally suffered from the ill effects of the functioning of the plant be adequately
proposed in 1992 on the west coast in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. People's compensated. CPI(ML) New Democracy called for countrywide protests
movement against it on account of environmental concerns and pollution against these murders and for the above demands and also appealed to all
forced the State govt. and Sesa Sterlite to abandon the project and in 1994 revolutionary organizations, democratic rights organizations and democrats
foundation stone was laid in Tuticorin. The condition here was that it should to raise their voice against this massacre and for the punishment of the
be at least 25 km away from the gulf of Mannar but the plant was guilty of this heinous crime.
constructed only 14 km away. The mandated 25 metre green belt of trees
around the perimeter of the plant has not been created. The approved In the face of the widespread people's anger against the killings,
capacity was 70,000 tons per year but it has been continuously increased the Tamil Nadu Govt. has ordered permanent closure of the plant but will it
to 400,000 now. The height of the chimney stack for gaseous fumes should really be permanent? In the last 22 years the govt. of Tamil Nadu whether
be 123 metres but it remains at 60 metres only, ensuring massive pollution of AIDMK or DMK and the Central Govt whether of UPA or NDA have
of the atmosphere. Vedanta’s attempts for bauxite mining in Niyamgiri, continually aided and abetted Sterlite. The Supreme Court has already once
Odisha were successfully resisted by the tribal people. People are opposing ordered re opening of the plant with a minor financial penalty. Only the
the pollution caused by its alumina plant in Lanjigarh, Odisha. In some sustained people's movement can ensure that the plant is never opened,
African countries like Zambia environmental pollution by Vedanta is being the guilty are punished and the Company is made to clean up the
challenged. environment.

There are even documents to show that environmental clearance given

to the expansion project in 2009 was illegal and based on false documents.
The clearance was given without a public hearing, stating that it was not

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)


FA contrary, the powers that be gave permission for expanding the plant. This
was the immediate cause that led to the organization of the demonstration
THOOTHUKUDI on 22-05-18 which was preceeded by a huge rally in the town on 18th March.

POLICE FIRING 2. A broad non-party platform named Struggle Committee against

Sterlite, headed by a retired Professor, Fatima, has been spearheading
the movement. On 22-05-18, a march to the Collector's office was organized
(The press note issued by the team consisting of leaders of IFTU, AIKMS and it is estimated that some fifty thousand people participated in it.Just a
and POW after the team visited Thoothukudi on May 29, 2018 is being day before the demonstration, one of the activists of this
published here. This press note has been released by the team at the platform,Thangadurai, died of cancer and this could have further angered
press conferences held at Vijaywada (AP), Hyderabad (Telengana) and the people who responded by participating in the programme on 22nd May
Chennai (Tamil Nadu). - Editor) in large numbers. There were women with children along with old people in
the demonstration apart from a cross section of people. The march was
On 22-05-2018, a demonstration of about 50000 people before the stopped by the police with barricades all around the Collector's office and
Collectorate in Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu opposing the expansion of Sterlite the protesters were not even in the ground near the Collectorate building.
company was fired upon by the police killing 11 persons and another two It was a peaceful assembly of people raising slogans against the Sterlite
were killed in a similar fashion the next day bringing the death toll to 13. In plant and its expansion. There was no provocation from the protestors
order to check the veracity of various versions on this grave incident of either.
national importance and find out the real facts, a Fact Finding Team(FFT)
3. Armed cops with assault rifles were all around and positions were
was constituted jointly by the Indian Federation of Trade Unions(IFTU), All
taken to fire upon an unarmed mass of people.There was no public
India Kisan Mazdoor Sabha (AIKMS) and the Progressive Organisation of
announcement by the police nor any warning was issued before they began
Women(POW), AP. The FFT members, J.Chalapathi Rao,Vice-President,
to fire and the firing appears to be aimed to kill and not to disperse or
AIKMS, P. Prasad, Secretary, IFTU and Lakshmi,General Secretary of
“control” the “mob”. The police fired not below the belts but above the belts
POW, AP visited Thoothukudi on 29-05-18 along with two advocates of
resulting in deaths of eleven people that day. The FFT was told that the
TN, Prabhaker and Jyothi and PUCL organizer Sampath. The FFT was
firing was selective in the sense that targets were chosen from among the
helped by the NDLF in organizing the programme.The FFT met families of
protestors. The first victim was Tamilrasan, an activist of the platform and
those killed and the injured. It met some members of the Bar Associations
others who were raising slogans. This is further confirmed by a video which
of various courts in the state. The following are the findings based on the
is going viral in which a policeman is taking position on a van shouting
information procured from the above sources:
“should kill atleast one”. There is ample evidence to show that the firing
1. The Vedanta-owned Sterlite Smelting Company in Thoothukudi was was premeditated and intended not merely to cause injury but to shoot to
established in 1995 despite severe opposition in the area to it as it would kill. Many questioned the official versions of the incident that painted the
be a source of pollution causing immense damage to environment and to demonstration as violent or instigated by anti-social elements. This was
the lives of the people. It is one of the biggest polluting plants in the state an attempt to cover up the heinous act of the police. The police rode rough
of Tamil Nadu leading to health hazards like causing cancer and water shod the next day also by killing a Dalit youth, Kaliappan, in Annanagar.The
borne diseases. Since the last twenty two years a movement for the closure FFT strongly feels that the police firing on 22-05-18,followed by firing the
of the plant has been going on and the governments, both State and Central, next day, was intended to terrorise the protesting people into submission.
have not bothered to look into this demand despite a Supreme Court order The police did not follow the minimum legal principles and followed brutal
penalizing the company to pay 100 crores for causing pollution. On the methods that are normally associated with it.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
4. The nexus with the corporate Sterlite is not difficult to discern as
the Government plays the role of a protector of capital investments as
Homage to Com. Vaskar Nandy
seen in many such instances in the country. In the name of General Secretary of PCC, CPI(ML) Com. Vaskar Nandy breathed his
“development”private investments are given protection by the state over last in the morning of May 4, 2018. He was 80 years old. He was suffering
the people who become victims of this so-called development. In this case, from throat cancer for some time.
in order to facilitate Sterlite Company, environmental concerns were damned
and the right of the people to a clean environment to live in was totally Com. Nandy had already come into contact with progressive movement
ignored. It will not be out of place to refer to the averments of some of during his studies abroad and participated in demonstrations against Vietnam
those which point to a close alliance of the Vedanta group with the Modi war there. Attracted towards the Naxalbari peasant armed struggle, he joined
government. the communist revolutionary movement. He has been a participant in the
ML movement for five decades. Com. Nandy was a revolutionary intellectual
The Fact Finding Team demands that punitive action should be initiated who devoted his entire life to the cause of the revolution in India.
against all the officials responsible for the barbaric act of killing 13 people
and a Judicial probe headed by a Supreme Court judge should be held to Over this period he contributed in developing ML movement in Eastern
inquire into the entire incident. It demands the immediate closure of the India, especially in Assam where he led the development of extensive
Sterlite Smelting plant, initiating action against the management for party organization and mass base. Despite his old age and ill health, Com.
jeopardizing the lives of the local communities and environmental damage. Nandy worked to organize tea plantation workers in Assam and North
(Issued by J. Chalapati Rao, Vice-President, All India Kisan Mazdor
Sabha (AIKMS), P. Prasad, Secretary, National Committee, Indian Com. Nandy became a member of the Central Committee of the CPI(ML)
Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU) and M. Lakshmi, General Secretary, when Unity Committee of CPI(ML) united with Central Committee of CPI(ML)
Progressive Organization of Women (POW) Andhra Pradesh) to form PCC, CPI(ML) in 1977. He was also a member of the Politburo of
the Party.
Read and Subscribe Com. Nandy struggled with problems faced by the revolutionary
Orgg ans movement. He had knowledge, vision and strength of his conviction.

New Democracy English Com. Nandy was very keen to develop joint activities among the
communist revolutionaries especially to fight RSS-BJP’s drive towards
Pratirodh Ka Swar Hindi fascism.
Voice of New Democracy Telugu CPI(ML)-New Democracy pays its homage to Com. Vaskar Nandy and
(Telengana) offers condolences to the leaders and cadres of PCC, CPI(ML) and family
New Democracy Bulletin Telugu members of Com. Vaskar Nandy.
(A.P.) CPI(ML)-New Democracy wishes to continue developing joint activities
with PCC, CPI(ML) on people’s issues particularly in struggle against fascist
Biplabi Ganaline Bengali
drive of RSS-BJP as envisaged and supported by Com. Nandy.
Inquilabi Sada Rah Punjabi
CPI(ML)-New Democracy
Sangrami Ekta Odia May 5, 2018

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

Marx, Karl, was born... However, the reactionary policy of the government, which deprived Ludwig
Feuerbach of his chair in 1832, refused to allow him to return to the
university in 1836, and in 1841 forbade young Professor Bruno Bauer to
(Preface : This article on Karl Marx, which now appears in a
lecture at Bonn, made Marx abandon the idea of an academic career. Left
separate printing, was written in 1913 (as far as I can remember) Hegelian views were making rapid headway in Germany at the time.
for the Granat Encyclopaedia. A fairly detailed bibliography of Feuerbach began to criticize theology, particularly after 1836, and turn to
literature on Marx, mostly foreign, was appended to the article. This materialism, which in 1841 gained ascendancy in his philosophy (The
has been omitted in the present edition. The editors of the Essence of Christianity). The year 1843 saw the appearance of his Principles
Encyclopaedia, for their part, have, for censorship reasons, deleted of the Philosophy of the Future. “One must oneself have experienced the
the end of the article on Marx, namely, the section dealing with his liberating effect” of these books, Engels subsequently wrote of these works
revolutionary tactics. Unfortunately, I am unable to reproduce that of Feuerbach. “We [i.e., the Left Hegelians, including Marx] all became at
end, because the draft has remained among my papers somewhere once Feuerbachians.” At that time, some radical bourgeois in the Rhineland,
in Krakow or in Switzerland. I only remember that in the concluding who were in touch with the Left Hegelians, founded, in Cologne, an opposition
paper called Rheinische Zeitung (The first issue appeared on January 1,
part of the article I quoted, among other things, the passage from
1842). Marx and Bruno Bauer were invited to be the chief contributors, and
Marx’s letter to Engels of April 16, 1856, in which he wrote: “The in October 1842 Marx became editor-in-chief and moved from Bonn to
whole thing in Germany will depend on the possibility of backing Cologne. The newspaper’s revolutionary-democratic trend became more
the proletarian revolution by some second edition of the Peasant and more pronounced under Marx’s editorship, and the government first
War. Then the affair will be splendid.” That is what our Mensheviks, imposed double and triple censorship on the paper, and then on January 1
who have now sunk to utter betrayal of socialism and to desertion 1843 decided to suppress it. Marx had to resign the editorship before that
to the bourgeoisie, have failed to understand since 1905.) date, but his resignation did not save the paper, which suspended publication
in March 1843. Of the major articles Marx contributed to Rheinische Zeitung,
N. Lenin Engels notes, in addition to those indicated below (see Bibliography),[1] an
Moscow, May 14, 1918 article on the condition of peasant winegrowers in the Moselle Valley.[2]
Marx’s journalistic activities convinced him that he was insufficiently
Marx, the student acquainted with political economy, and he zealously set out to study it.

Marx, Karl, was born on May 5, 1818 (New Style), in the city of Trier In 1843, Marx married, at Kreuznach, a childhood friend he had become
(Rhenish Prussia). His father was a lawyer, a Jew, who in 1824 adopted engaged to while still a student. His wife came of a reactionary family of
Protestantism. The family was well-to-do, cultured, but not revolutionary. the Prussian nobility, her elder brother being Prussia’s Minister of the Interior
After graduating from a Gymnasium in Trier, Marx entered the university, during a most reactionary period—1850-58. In the autumn of 1843, Marx
first at Bonn and later in Berlin, where he read law, majoring in history and went to Paris in order to publish a radical journal abroad, together with
philosophy. He concluded his university course in 1841, submitting a doctoral Arnold Ruge (1802-1880; Left Hegelian; in prison in 1825-30; a political
thesis on the philosophy of Epicurus. At the time Marx was a Hegelian exile following 1848, and a Bismarckian after 1866-70). Only one issue of
idealist in his views. In Berlin, he belonged to the circle of “Left Hegelians” this journal, Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, appeared;[3] publication
(Bruno Bauer and others) who sought to draw atheistic and revolutionary was discontinued owing to the difficulty of secretly distributing it in Germany,
conclusion from Hegel’s philosophy. and to disagreement with Ruge. Marx’s articles in this journal showed that
he was already a revolutionary who advocated “merciless criticism of
After graduating, Marx moved to Bonn, hoping to become a professor. everything existing”, and in particular the “criticism by weapon”,[13] and

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
appealed to the masses and to the proletariat. complete Capital but would have inevitably have been crushed by want.
Moreover, the prevailing doctrines and trends of petty-bourgeois socialism,
In September 1844, Frederick Engels came to Paris for a few days, and and of non-proletarian socialism in general, forced Marx to wage a
from that time on became Marx’s closest friend. They both took a most continuous and merciless struggle and sometime to repel the most savage
active part in the then seething life of the revolutionary groups in Paris (of and monstrous personal attacks (Herr Vogt).[10] Marx, who stood aloof
particular importance at the time was Proudhon’s[4] doctrine), which Marx from circles of political exiles, developed his materialist theory in a number
pulled to pieces in his Poverty of Philosophy (1847); waging a vigorous of historical works (see Bibliography), devoting himself mainly to a study
struggle against the various doctrines of petty-bourgeois socialism, they of political economy. Marx revolutionized science (see “The Marxist
worked out the theory and tactics of revolutionary proletarian socialism, or Doctrine”, below) in his Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
communism Marxism). See Marx’s works of this period, 1844-48 in the (1859) and Capital (Vol. I, 1867).
Bibliography. At the insistent request of the Prussian government, Marx
was banished from Paris in 1845, as a dangerous revolutionary. He went to The revival of the democratic movements in the late fifties and in the
Brussels. In the spring of 1847 Marx and Engels joined a secret propaganda sixties recalled Marx to practical activity. In 1864 (September 28) the
society called the Communist League;[5] they took a prominent part in the International Working Men’s Association—the celebrated First
League’s Second Congress (London, November 1847), at whose request International—was founded in London. Marx was the heart and soul of this
they drew up the celebrated Communist Manifesto, which appeared in organization, and author of its first Address[11] and of a host of resolutions,
February 1848. With the clarity and brilliance of genius, this work outlines declaration and manifestoes. In uniting the labor movement of various forms
a new world-conception, consistent with materialism, which also embrace of non-proletarian, pre-Marxist socialism (Mazzini, Proudhon, Bakunin,
the realm of social life; dialectics, as the most comprehensive and profound liberal trade-unionism in Britain, Lassallean vacillations to the right in
doctrine of development; the theory of the class struggle and of the world- Germany, etc.), and in combating the theories of all these sects and schools,
historic revolutionary role of the proletariat—the creator of a new, communist Marx hammered out a uniform tactic for the proletarian struggle of the
society. working class in the various countries. Following the downfall of the Paris
Commune (1871)—of which he gave such a profound, clear-cut, brilliant
On the outbreak of the Revolution of February 1848,[6] Marx was effective and revolutionary analysis (The Civil War In France, 1871)—and
banished from Belgium. He returned to Paris, whence, after the March the Bakunin-caused[12] cleavage in the International, the latter organization
Revolution,[7] he went to Cologne, Germany, where Neue Rheinische could no longer exist in Europe. After the Hague Congress of the International
Zeitung[8] was published from June 1, 1848, to May 19, 1849, with Marx (1872), Marx held the General Council of the International had played its
as editor-in-chief. The new theory was splendidly confirmed by the course historical part, and now made way for a period of a far greater development
of the revolutionary events of 1848-49, just as it has been subsequently of the labour movement in all countries in the world, a period in which the
confirmed by all proletarian and democratic movements in all countries of movement grew in scope, and mass socialist working-class parties in
the world. The victorious counter-revolution first instigated court proceedings individual national states were formed.
against Marx (he was acquitted on February 9, 1849), and then banished
him from Germany (May 16, 1849). First Marx went to Paris, was again Marx’s health was undermined by his strenuous work in the International
banished after the demonstration of June 13, 1849,[9] and then went to and his still more strenuous theoretical occupations. He continued work on
London, where he lived until his death. the refashioning of political economy and on the completion of Capital, for
which he collected a mass of new material and studied a number of
His life as a political exile was a very hard one, as the correspondence languages (Russian, for instance). However, ill-health prevented him from
between Marx and Engels (published in 1913) clearly reveals. Poverty completing Capital.
weighed heavily on Marx and his family; had it not been for Engels’ constant
and selfless financial aid, Marx would not only have been unable to His wife died on December 2, 1881, and on March 14, 1883, Marx passed

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away peacefully in his armchair. He lies buried next to his wife at Highgate The Communist League was the predecessor of the International Working
Cemetery in London. Of Marx’s children some died in childhood in London, Men’s Association (The First International). It existed until November 1852,
when the family were living in destitute circumstances. Three daughters its prominent members later playing a leading role in the First International.—
married English and French socialists; Eleanor Aveling, Laura Lafargue Ed.
and Jenny Longuet. The latters’ son is a member of the French Socialist [6] The reference is to the bourgeois revolutions in Germany and Austria
Party. which began in March 1848.—Ed.
[1] This “Bibliography” written by Lenin for the article is not included. — [7] The reference is to the bourgeois revolution in France in February
Ed. 1848.—Ed.
[2] The reference is to the article “Justification of the Correspondent [8] Die Neue Rheinische Zeitung (New Rhenish Gazette)—Published in
from the Mosel” by Karl Marx.—Ed. Cologne from June 1, 1848, to May 19, 1849. Marx and Engels directed the
[3] The reference is to the Deutsch-Franzosische Jahrbucher (German- newspaper, Marx being its editor-in-chief. Lenin characterized Die Neue
French Annals), a magazine edited by Karl Marx and Arnold Ruge and Rheinische Zeitung as “the finest and unsurpassed organ of the revolutionary
published in German in Paris. Only the first issue, a double one, appeared, proletariat”. Despite persecution and the obstacles placed in its way by the
in February 1844. It included works by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels police, the newspaper staunchly defended the interests of revolutionary
which marked the final transition of Marx and Engels to materialism and democracy, the interests of the proletariat. Because of Marx’s banishment
communism. Publication of the magazine was discontinued mainly as a from Prussia in May 1849 and the persecution of the other editors, Die
result of basic differences of opinion between Marx and the bourgeois radical Neue Rheinische Zeitung had to cease publication.—Ed.
Ruge.—Ed. [9] The reference is to the mass demonstration in Paris organized by
the Montagne, the party of the petty bourgeoisie, in protest against the
[4] Proudhonism—An unscientific trend in petty-bourgeois socialism,
infringement by the President and the majority in the Legislative Assembly
hostile to Marxism, so called after its ideologist, the French anarchist Pierre
of the constitutional orders established in the revolution of 1848. The
Joseph Proudhon. Proudhon criticized big capitalist property from the petty-
demonstration was dispersed by the government.—Ed.
bourgeois position and dreamed of perpetuating small private ownership.
He proposed the foundation of “people’s” and “exchange” banks, with the [10] The reference is to Marx’s pamphlet Herr Vogt, which was written
aid of which the workers would be able to acquire the means of production, in reply to the slanderous pamphlet by Vogt, a Bonapartist agent provocateur,
become handicraftsmen and ensure the just marketing of their produce. My Process Against “Allgemeine Zeitung”.—Ed.
Proudhon did not understand the historic role of the proletariat and displayed [11] The First International Workingmen’s Association was the first
a negative attitude to the class struggle, the proletarian revolution, and the international tendency that grouped together all the worlds’ workers parties
dictatorship of the proletariat; as an anarchist, he denied the need for the in one unified international party.—Ed.
state. Marx subjected Proudhonism to ruthless criticism in his work The
[12] Bakuninism—A trend called after its leader Mikhail Bakunin, an
Poverty of Philosophy.—Ed.
ideologist of anarchism and enemy of Marxism and scientific socialism.—
[5] The Communist League—The first international communist Ed.
organization of the proletariat founded under the guidance of Marx and [13] These words are from Marx’s “Critique of the Hegelian Philosophy
Engels in London early in June 1847. of Right: Introduction.” The relevant passage reads: “The weapon of
Marx and Engels helped to work out the programmatic and organizational criticism cannot, of course, replace criticism by weapon, material force
principles of the League; they wrote its programme—the Manifesto of the must be overthrown by a material force; but theory, too, becomes a material
Communist Party, published in February 1848. force, as soon as it grips the masses.”—Lenin

May, 2018 55 56 May, 2018