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Nemesio Canelo A_


Lima, 1963.


Nemesio Canelo A.


Lima, 1963.


Some Basic Concepts for Planning Theory

The need for a Planning Theory

Planning and the exercise of
r�tionel fJculties
Concept of the planning function
The pl�nning object
The "Human Est:1blishment 11

Principles for a Comprehensive Planning


The purpose of comprehensive planning

Comprehensive planning process and
ne t ho do Lo gy .

Nemesio Canelo A.



The incr2nsing complexity of things in the world, has

demanded an imprcve�ent up to day of the old art of planning.
Since the end of the la�century, s large anount of hunan
effort has been given to this aim. Nevertheless, the problem
has been shown to be quite intrincate, and the challenge which
still reuains at the heart of how to d0 living planning without
falling in the col11Clon error of recipes that fossilize things,
presses man to try to solve it.

But, among the joys of life, the rich complexity of

living things as all those which refer to man, which is one of
the main reasJns why Planning as a science and as an art exists,
is also one of, or perhaps the major headache this bld human
activity and young profession has.

Frequently, it is eGsy to be lost within the apparent

labyrinth of that complex variety by losing sight of the unde£
neath hiden unity which could reve3l clearly the wonderful or­
ganic order that rules it. But still there it is and as a high
price fcir its VDlue, it demands the best of man's efforts so to
be discovered.

Such a distinct vision, depending on the discovery of the

unity within the coQplex variety, can only be achieved by a very

­ 2 ­

ordened and syste�atic effort of analysis­synthesis of the

human intelligence. �h thout o r de r to keep clear the sense
of the way, man can not reach tbe joy of that true unity
which could make h i.n really free and lord of things in the

Although the whole complex is already hard to be under

stood, much more difficult appears to be to manage it for
a human purpose. Of ccurse, after underst�nding its unity
and dynamic order, man could be able to �ct better upon it
if he follows carefully the ways and forces that the complex
entity comprises. If a discipline is needed to discover the
truth, on�ther 2iscipline is required to act according that
truth, That is, a following careful nethodology is also

Up to day, this is one of the rnain challenges planners

have to face; anJ Theory of Planning, their discipline of
thinking to do, As Harvey :t:erloff says "A deliberate
effort nust be made to speed the development of general pri£
ciples of ... plnnning (in t e r­us of substnnti ve na t e r La Ls ,
hypotheses, and theories) as well as the development of basic
meth­:idology of planning".l

Therefore, the purpose of this Thesis is t� essay:

first, a set of conceptual foundations for such planning basic
e t a t.eme n t e ; and second, to try tu esL.blish the out coming pri£
ciples froo that basis, for a nethodological process to do pla£

As Philosophy is in a certain way the Science of sciences,

under the lights of its mastery, particulnrly frum Epistenology
and Philvsophy of Art, it would be founds ne solid basis to

Education for Planning, p,38; Harvey S. Perloff; The Johns

Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957,
- 3 -

achieve the goal. Therefore, the first part of the Thesis

is devoted tu study, under the lights of certain philosophi
cal references, sone fun0amental concepts concerning the ba
sic framework of Planning Theory.

And on the ether h�nd, as with0ut order to keep clecr

the sense 0f th� w�y it is impossible to achieve the expected
results, the second part of this �t•dy isdevotcct to try to
state sone following principl�s for a nethodclogical process
to do planning.

I must explain that due to the nature of the study,

this paper Le ans noz­e on the accumulated criteria and c onc epj,
ual knowledge acquired in seminaries, discussions and lectures
through our experience of student end professor, than on speci
fie bibliogrQphy because of the r�ther few written documenta­
tion existing on applied philosophy to codern planning.

It has been of the best luck to find the reference of a

philosophical work like Mr. Marit�in's one, done in such a
way that it resulted of great usefulness fGr our task.
Some Basic Concepts for Plcnning Theory
­ 4 ­

The need for a Planning Theory

Since hum�n life has beccne more ccmplex due to the

pressure of the increasing and c�ncentrJting population,
and due to the new ond successive scientific �nd technological
discoveries which Ll3n incorporates fer the solution of his
neetls, the adequate ordering and integr3tion of hurn�n activi­
ty with. the purpose of achieving the best results, hos also
become more anu more conplex and difficult.

Planning activity, in other words, the effort to dis­

pose efficiently the best use of resources for the oost ad�
quate care of huuan needs, an art that natur�lly has ever
been characteristic of the rationality and consequent free­
dom of the huunn being, a natter which every nan could under
stand by using common sense, was requiring, nore and more, a
specialized anJ difficult training; particularly when the ob
jectives involved affect large hurnan groups or nuclei.

The activity of planning, which till then was accom­

plished by following the nost simple anJ spontaneous rational
impulses, like intellectual intuition and �ccumulnted culturnl
tr�dition, soon became a task very difiicult to understand and
to solve. The application to it of intelligent effort deman�ed
a more intensive and systematic str�ss; and even the�, never­
theless, many times results did not correspond to the objectiYes

Because of this trouble, it has been appearing successive

and multiple intellectual trials looking for the control of
the new situations; generally, through forns of speci�lized
planning thinking, like the ones coming from the social sciences
- 5 -

field, or froo the econccics, pJliticcl, or physical sciences,

or froo architect�re, etc. Since the beginning of the century,
an 0bss�sicn f0r �uing plLnning has kept Llan trying almust on
every field an<l level. vue to this effort, it has b2en accunul�
ting specific knowledg0 which h�ve turn8d out tu be useful tools
to solve partial prJbler.1s dissected frun the total, noroally, a
conplex and organic thing.

As a consequence cf this Jevelopoent 01 planning, is the

fact that a nunber of partial thec�ies �nd techniques have
enabled ability to Jeal with different specific parts of the
problems; but it is necessary to rec�gnize that by theuselves
they are unable to shed light on the unity of th8 prublem com­
plex entirety. �s a result of this gap, planning prcce2ds by
a process of .'.ld:1::ri.on or Lay , joining in s orie way, pa r t i.a L
objectives which in not a few cases conflict with each other,
or even negate whnt anuther has obtair�d; which obviously spoilds
th_,e goal. By that way it is impossible to re.::ch the solution BY§.

t era in which, to quote David Cr ane "the whole is greater than the
sucr of the pc:rcs 1

It seecrs that as pl�nners thinking still lacks a clearer

general conceptual structure which could provide the basis fur
thet org3nic coordinaticn, they huve bden trustin� tn their i£
tuitiun and genius, some bettor th�n others because �f their ex
perience, luck er �bility. Unduubtecly, the artistic benius or
talent, in the strict sense of the words, must play a very impoL
tent function. But, without trying t0 <leny its v�lue and the
creative fertility of this form of the intelligence ­ which always
will have to do a substantial part of the work in the art of plan­
ning ­ , any najor ccnc�ptual clarification about the complex nature

Arthur T. rtow, Jr.Of City Planning and Design; Yale University,
­ 6 ­

of the natter to which planning is devoted, will help the planner

reach coherents soluticns, free from frustrations and expensive
failures which waste resources and, nost inportcnt, promote the
faith :and confidence which human c orimun i. ties require to support
any planning proposition or furth(r objectives.

Therefore, any syst0matic Qnd disciplined effort tcward

that major conceptual clarific3tion, the field·cf theory making,
undoubtely is of ·the gre&test im)ortance. Here, the need and
usefulness of Planning Theory; not only for the purpose Qf r.1anaging
well, individually, the specific problens disected fron the whol�
but mainly to operate the 0r��nic ensemble �f the total itself.
�ithout it, planning ­ in the way that hunan complex problens
need ­ , could not be real planning.

Science's progress den:lnd.

On the oth�r hand, it could be useful to point out that

progress in science deoands the systenatization of knowledge
which has been ac�uired about its subject. �hile this goal r�
no una ch i e v e d , the discipline with which ··rn ar e c cnc c r ne d
will c c.n t i n ue to be .-1. "precursor" mov e ue n t , without reaching the
m3turity which �ill est�blish it as a s0lid new discipline of

Of course, to ac�ieve this goal demands a very hard effort;

and even so, the results could be uncertain. But, this challenge,
as difficult as it could be, must be met. It is a need.

It seems to us, thnt in a parallel Wtj.y to efforts and r.aseaE_

ches that are being used to re3ch the best possible conc�pts
and techniques about specific aspecto of the probler.1 involved'
in planning, it is time to try ­ with the sane intensity ­ the

­ 7 ­

work of synthesis which could enlighten us about the na t ur e

and laws of the whole. A task of classifying ideas, ns pleg
ner Maurice Rotival has saidl; or better, ns a French philos2
pher Jacques Maritain stntes in, perhaps, his �3in work2:
"to distinguish for to unify". In this way, a basis could be
reached which, as a reference fra�ework, will help to achieve
the heart of the problem.

This is the goal, perhaps too ambitious, of this tentative

essay. We have devoted attention to it becsuse the pressure
of the need felt. Our aim is to put forth a conceptual prop£
sition in this area which might raise some reaction, criticism,
and corrections from authorized commenters which could press
and improve the searching of so important matter.

' .

�Maurice Rotival; Plans and Frojects, 1.

2Les Degr&s du Savoir; Jacques Maritain; Desclie, .de Brouwer;
Paris.­ A work abuut the structure of sciances.
­ 8 ­

Planning and the exercise of rotional f3culties

A large number of different types of specific skills and

techniques heve been developing due to the need, strongly felt
and persistently stated by the contemporary world, to reach
some mastery in the exercise of the old 3rt of plnnning; as ve
have cientioned before.

The particularly complex problems that present civiliza­

tions face have insistently been pressing men to icrprove their
natural rc.1tional faculty of "practical thinking" which the art
of planning involves. Nevertheless, the challenge seems to has
been harder than perhaps what gener::i.lly might h�ve been expected.
The most accurate and delicclte achievements which have been
gained, mainly on specific aspects of the problem, frequently
arrive to the point that ·much can be done on reg�rd of those
particular aspects, but correlations an� resounds that ueasures
generate among other aspects, an� mainly in the whole structure
of the system ­ which again reflects over themselv€� ­ , seems
that still foil to be properly treate', an<l that in many cas�s
the heart of the problem remains without any subst�ntial improv£
me n t .

The exercise of intuition

Facing that situation, many efforts frequently approach

to manage the question, leaning on the major or minor intuitive
talent and experience of few personalities whom attent to point
out the main goals an� objectives which need to be followed ­­
when all the multiples conclusions of specific analysis have
been done by sevaral persons. Of course, the st�tements which
such few pe r e on a Li, ties offer, usually come to be iscussed and
­ 9 ­

approveJ by a l3rger number of pf.rsons with different kind of

respons�bilities and points of view. But, b�sically, if this
process is c,.rcfully analyzed it remains the remark that the
entire propositicn leans at least on the fortune of those gen­
ius intuitions.

Undoubtejly, it could not be expected that r�ti0ncl intui­

tion could entirely be missed in the process of planning. As
an art, an2 a very complex one, planning shall need always the
irreplaceable exercise of that f�culty of the human intelligence.
Nevertheless, intuition has its own proper healthy way to be
suitable usec, and accorcing to which, it could be expected 0£
timal results and to FVoi� the severe risks of failure.

More and more, the exp�rience of l�rge number of efforts

makes clear that accuracy ani skill doing in the managing of
specific aspects of the whole problem, is not enough to achieve
the main expected results of planning. It is essential to achie
ve the ability to manage the whole in itself. To discover the
most that coulr! be possible, the laws an� forces that relate all
its main specific aspects within the unity of its proper particular
nature. Perhaps, it is possible to say that each individual situ�
tion, to be the subject of planning, corresp0n1s to a p.:rrticular
model of interrelationships ani Jynanics, which is import�nt to
discover anc know how coulJ be really mo�ifie2, accortling to the
purpose of pl3nning. It seems that this quality, if achieved,
could truly help to give explicit rational support ­
a criteria ­ which could make able the technical intelligence to
manage, with sense sn� clear purpose, all the specific aspects
within the complex unity of the whole.

In other words, in the same way that techniques have been

improving for the control of specific aspects that totality of
­ 10 ­

the problem involves, in the s�me way, it seems to be need

�n improvenent in some complex technique or art, to control
the gcner3l natter in itself.

An ar� of complex rational operdtion

As th�t general t�chnique we t�lk before, concerns

nainly with the interrelationships between so many different
aspects in which the usual complex problem involvef in planning
could be divided, it seems that its principal characteristic
will be to be a technique, or better saying: an art, ·of orchestra­
ting. Of orchestrating so many_things, points and ways of
view, that it normally requires the contribution of differ0nt
speci.a.J..ized and non specialized persons.

That Lleans that planning is, mainly, an effort of several

brains related in team or orchestra; as it is clearly shown,
more and nore, in the most recent experiences of planning. Con
sequently, it involves the cirt of thinking t gethcr for a conr.ion
purpose; m�tter which requires the quality of cJmmunic�bility and
the aental discipline of how to tlo together synthesis.

All this oper3tion involves two requirenents:

1) in order to rcGch to have comnunicability, the basis

of an org3nic set of fundanent�l concepts about the
main characteristics of the nature of the general pro
blen concerning planning and its subject; as soon as
a special training to think in comnon, systematically,
I . •

with nental Jiscipline, so to reach synthesis; and

- 11 -

2) in order to achieve practical results, which is

essential to planning, the procedure ­agile e­
nough ­ of a complex Llethodology which shews the,
way how to do an' how to follow it witbin a team,
so to reach the desired results.

Tha a�pport of .a conceptual frauework

The r'ason why cooounicability denands the basis of a

franework of an organic conception abuut pl�nning and its
subject, lc�ns bosically in the absolute nea of an objective
comr.,on me an i.n g of things, or Langua ge ; as soon a s fl c ommo n le­
vel of c:iscussion where thinking of several intelligence could
meet and work togeth_r, coherently. Everybody, working for the
planning purpose, need to know what is going about, whi;;;.t each
one means when they.make corrmen £Or statements, where and
when they c o u Ld submit their par­t Lcu Lar contributions. If there
exists a b3sic musical value expressed on guide lines with signs
that means the sane for everyboJy, then, it is possible to play
the rlesired symphony.

This type of framework, which is the basic natter of the

Planning Theory, coulc try to be r�ached by a conventional agree­
ment to c!eate, in sone way, the rules of a game, as in many cas­s
is being done. But this appro�ch to the matter oJuld ueans the
whclc frustration of the purpose of planning. Planning is reque�
ted to reach solutions to very serious human problems. It needs
to reach confidence and th� adh�r�nce, not only of the technicians
involved, buy mainly, of everybody in th� coBmunity so implementa­
tion of the plan's objectives could be achieved,
­ 12 ­

This enrollment of volunteers is iopossible to reach if

the well willing people who must act, Jo n'o t fine". consistent
and truly the plnnning st&t8�ent. Besi:es the probl�m of un­
derstanding what is proposed, thruth is the only basis thut
could r�ally unify people. If the planning effort Joes not
show, at least, a serious and responsible attention to the
truth involved in the problem, far from the easy way of a ­­
convention, it risks the sure f��lure of missing the right
conclusions on the matter and of losing th� indispensable sup­
port and a�herence of peoplG.

Consequently, the need to look for such a theoretical

frGmework appears clear the closest possible to the truth con­
taineJ in the nature of the planning process and its particular
subject. A consider�ble effort must be Covote) to this field, in
a parallel way to the c9ny thut ar8 being workeJ en the speci­
fic fields involved in the matter.

Upon the basis of that franework it coulj be developed,

by one hand, according to the scientific logical �eduction, and
by the other h6nd, following the artistic intuition when trying
to face the chnll�nge of particular situations, a b�sic methodology
for the process of pl2nning; so to accomplish thL second major requi�
remcnt st&ted before.

Alive planning and the risk of mystification

Nevertheless, it is well to pbint out clearly that this

is not the case of trying to est&blish a rigid theory and nethodolog�
as an universal golcen key that in an absolute way pretends to solve
everything in planning, as if the matters invblved coul� be in any
­ 13 ­

case >istinf;"Llishe­­1 like b Lc c k an . white. No t a t all. If

thnt were the �eaning, fur frcn achieving pro5ress in this
delicate question it woul� niss the point, cov�ring it with
the ctarkness of an artificial nystificition which oversimpl!
fies the pr ob Len , dr efforts o.wo.y f'r­on r c a Li. ty, ariu chang
ing free intelligencos to the false go�s uf inanimate recipes.

The discovery of planning thinking structur� ctoes not

mean the fossillization of the alive planning procedure. This
one must be of clearly distinct nature as clear w�ter and li­
ke it, it must be agil� enough to follow the most ccprichious
sinuosities of re9lity. There nust be a unique soli� clear ­­
subst .. nce that unify m.i nJs an-' efforts, arid a uni verse of acci
dents ch�nge3ble according to circunstanc�s.

nhen on trying to achieve the structure of the substance,

cones the failure tG translate the s2md necessary absclut� to
the secondary level of its manifestutions ­ philosophical acci­
dents ­ , which c�nstitutes the cystification we mentioned helE
ful support, becone a heavy eight against the purpose of planning.

To iluoin�te crit�ria

Far from the error we t_lked before, the Ll�in purpose

here, is to try to iTI.uninate cri teri·::. with the mo s t possible
cle�r and precise g neric concepts about the substantial of
the heart of planning oper2tion, anj its basic laws; leavihg
free the ingenious intuition, which supported in the clear ­­
orientation of th_t franework, could artisticel�nanage the
rich complexity of so many particularities involved in each
specific situation.
­ 14 ­

The t skis to cr6�te criteria by meons of a fundamental

phyloso�hy which be �ble to keep a rction�l anl. coherent orie£
tation in the complex operation and successive readjustments
that art of planning involves. In this sense, what is being
looked for is to r�ach the lever resting point for the delic�te
planning operotion. Planning Theory is to be conceived as a ser
vice to the creative effort of nan an� not as a rigid standard
which kills the creative intuition and nisses the true solution
of problems.
­ 15 ­

Concept of the planning function

Practical thinking

Let us try to examine in brief wh: tis irnplie� in the

intellect al effort to do planning. The use of intelligence
could be classified for two main types of oper�tions1:

a) only to koow1 to h3ve explanation of things, to

acquire knowleJge; c3se of the specul3tive think­
ing, speculative science, pure sci0nce, or sirply
named science; and

b) for the purpose to act, to achieve by Beans of

action any benefit for hun an life; c a s e of 1he
practical thinking, practical science or �rt.

Fl­nning effort is inclutleJ within th. type cf practi­

cal thinking. Basically, it consists in the procurer:.1ent of
propositions or w�ys to guiJe nan's action toward n lctermined

The PlanninG process

Trying� strict interpretation, planning cunsists, fun�a

nen t c LLy , in:

a process of, knowing what things should be ­ fruit

of the pernanent speculative thinking­, to investi­
gRte how is their actual situation ­ � scientific
analysis­synthesis tssk ­ so, enlightened by this

Jacques Maritain, "Elements de Philosophie ­ I. Introduction
Generale a la Philosop�ie11; Desclee, de .t3rouwer; Paris.
­ 16 ­

diagnosis, to propose the tre&tnent, the 92eq ate

CTeasures, the design, tu oove things froo their
actual situation to the one they should hav�.

Actually, in practice, this plnnning practical think­

ing process results nuch core complex than the previous sinple
expression, tried, to show clearly its substantial structure.

It is core cooplex bec�use, besiJes the right intLr­

pretation of the phenomenon ­ in its parts anJ the whole ­
over which it needs to act, rather cooplex in itsblf as �e
shall see further in the c as e of the p Lann we are concern,
it comprises the whole pulitical prudential ­ problen of
an efficient strctegy fer action.

There fore, lue to all these r e asons , planning requires

to be inv�sted with the strGaa tow::ird a synthesis of sev2ral
factors for a singular pr ctical operation.

Difficult task in�ee�, which, in practice, often needs

the help of the technique of successive aproxin�ticns, a way
to io by n0ans of successive repeated attents, which improves
results by supporting each one on the r�sults of th� previous
one; 3ccurccy by successive rea:justoents.

Nevertheless this complexity, the previous sinple ­­

schene and st�tement, nb0ut what typo of thinking planning
belongs, is of the cost important thing.

As fr,quently happens, synthesis work has the risk to

fail because of cvnfussions in the order things neG� to be
relcted. One vay or sense of direction for ordering, is quite
different when it is the case of specul8tive thinking than
when it is the c3se of the practical one. The sense of Girection
ch:mges ab so Lu t e Ly , as one way we r.e deduction an d the other,
­ 17 ­

inJuction. ·,Je can go t hr o u gh the whole systen from up

down, or froCT 1
own up; but we can not �xpect to reach pro­
per achievsnent by changing unc·nsciously ­ at any ao�ent
the sense of �iroction.

Cormo n Ly , things z r e a Ll. or gan Lc a L'Ly r­e Li, t e d in the

whule, But it is iCTpossible to discover the orJer of their
interrelationsnips aw' the structure of whole if it is not
followed carefully one chosen sense; in the sane way as any­
boGy could discover the ruundness of earth if he does not keep
traveling through one of the two directions. If not, the usual
outcone is the falling in vicious circles. This tricky easy
way to fail explains why it is frequent to see planning outputs ­­
which gre totaly unable to proc�te implementation, because plan­
ners have missed the point that what is requested has the sense
to a practical gcal ­ sense of tht: practical thinking­, an� not
the contr�ry sense to speculate a beautiful explanation about
things on hand. For exaaple, if planning is interested in eco­
nonic analysis is not for the purpose to do eccnoaic scidnce
but to achieve pr�ctical results fron the econonic point of view;
which is quite different.

Consequently, in this na t t o r as t h c s ame as in all kind

of scientific essays, it is �f the breatest iCTportance to dis­
play the work with a rigurous nental iiscipline, through a clear
knowlcJge of the kin2 of thinking involv0dl,

As we have s&en, all this delicate process of planning,

­ because its own nnturd ­, needs to follow ths laws that rule
practical thinking2; na t t e r of the, science cf Philosophy of Ar t .
The most those princi�les enlighten planning operational form,
the best co�ld be aanaged this conplex art.

1Matter of the science of Logic: Minor or "Fo rma L" Logic, nd

Major or "Material" Logic; .Jac que s M2,ri tain, "Elements de Fhi­
losophie ,,,H, op.c
2 Jacques Maritain, iJe�.
­ 18 ­

N�v­rtheless, in pl2nning, b8c�use its character of

artistic activity, the oajor intuitive artistic talent in many
tines and in a great deal, helps to reach th� synth0sis, if it
leans upon a clear framework of sense. It can avoi1 an enor­
nous amount of vork by synthetizing o nunber of specific f2ctors,
nany of than est�blished after a c�refull scientific analysis of
the concerned matters.
­ 19 ­

The planning object

Planning ·an� Planning; the Comprehensive Pl�nning

One of the main c o n Jf.t.Lone according tc pr­Ln c i.p Le s of

practical science, is t� establish clearly its own proper ob­
ject. Quite an important natter, since from th� nature of that
object depends all the sense an� characteristics of a particular
practical process. In the case of planning, then, its own par­
ticular characteristics depenO on which is the object toward which
the action is taken.

If the object is of an economic matter then planning

will have e c o n on ic characteristics, an d the principles of eco­
nomic science and econonic policy shall rule the whole operation.
If it is the case of strictly a social problen, we ehall be on the
field of social planning where social sciences concepts and their
particular proceclures to act I shall give tho no r­n ; anl so 0:1• Then,
we may say that it will be as nnny planninG nodes as several are
the objects toward which this art operates.

Therefore, consequently, in the case of the type of planning

we arc · .. concern,
,, it is neecec to qu�stion which is its own proper
object, so to be able to discover unJer what principles an� laws
for action it should oper�te. While such f8ct remains obscure or
confused, the whole planning effort runs the sure risk to ag7tate
itself within a nebulous whE:re only confidence remains in the sole
intuitional genius. In this last situation, intuition will try to
discov0r,. alc9st by divination, the exact orientations to make sense
and perctt planning to re3ch coherents and truly practical conclu­
sions. But that i� S;� ill far q.W-0.Y; f'r om what is need.
- 20

According to planning experience that have been taking

place, it c2n be seen how inaccurate still is the vision of
it's own proper object. The diffcr2nt nuoinations civen to
planning essays thnt, at least, exceedin� soCTetines their pr£
per channels, try to achieve the universal f L purpose
nevertheless their aiverse starting Fofut3 of view, show that
uncertainty: developing pl�nning, r8sources use planning,
diractor planning, conprehensive planning,
social planning, econonic plallning, socio­econonic
planning, urban and regional planning, welfare pla£
ning, etc.

However, in all of the� it is possible to perceive a

tendency and at cit agreement toward a c8rt3in type of plan­
ning which tries to solve, nevertheless its conplexity, the
problem nf hunan estnblishnent and welf�re on ��rth. This natter
invulves Llany liffd ent aspects of jiffcrent kind an� level, among
which it is still not clear which of th2m �nd when shoul� they
prime, an� how could they be c.ssuned and conbined.

This half­seen object, object for the planning it is desired

and fron which dcJends th� sense and adequate profit of all other
specifics plannings that its complex nature involves, is one of
the rta j o r not s o Lve d questions that is stopping a be t t er' pro­
gress in this iuportant art.

Fror the desire� planning we �re talking about it _is

expected to sive the genernl franework narc so the whole con­
plex ac ti vi ty of c on t e..ipor-ar-y worlcl could c orae to t h , na i.n purpose
we shall talk f'ur t h e r , results har non.i.ous , coherent, wi th clear
sense for everybody, without frictions or ·�isproportions. Because
all these r­equ.i.r cne nt s , this planning could be name d "c onpr­e he n­
sive or integral planning", or just "conprehensive planning" due

to the fact that it is requested to have ability to channalize

the whole range of things that the nain purpose deoands through
an agile anct percanent integration process.

The price object of conprehensive planning

In the different approaches to point out that nain object

which could qualify the planning we are concern, we nay see that
it has been attempted through diverse relate maters: geographic
population distribution, the use of n3tural resources, the evalu�
tion of re£ources, the regional econocic activity location,
the social structure, the inprcveoent of productivity and
per­capita Lnc one , the ar r an gerten t of regional and urban
space, the social nobility, the infra­structures planning,
the s oc i.a'L­adrri.n i.s t r a t i ve­poli ti cal organization, welfare
inprove�ent, housing and neighborhood progranmes, urban
equipnent, civic and services structur�s, the transporta­
tion system, comuunications systen, utilities, the recrea
tional structure, etc.etc.

Of course, all these natters anJ nany others, concern with

the main problen here stated. They are parts conprised in the
whole object we need to clarify. Talking through philosophical
language, they are "oaterial objacts" of conprehensive planning.1
That is, matters to which comprehensive planning must concentrnte
its attention, its care.

But for the purpose that evory one of then could find its
own right place and its proper way of doing within the whole task
we are t3lking about, it is essential to find the "fornal ob.ject"

Jacques Mari t aa n , "Eler.ients de Philosophie ... II
' op.c.
­ 22 ­

or the forna�nt of v i.ew" ( ob jectur.; f o r-ria Le quid )1


of the conprehensive planning. That is: that specific thing

which comprehensive planning takes care in all those fields and
particular activities; or in other way: what "2Y itself and
over all" is considered by c ompr­e he n s i.v o p Lann i.n g , that thing
because which it considers the natter in general2.

The forr:1a� ob.ject of co1:1prehensiv�lannin3: the Hunan Esta'��ish­

me n t

Undoubtedly, comprehensive planning needs to do basically

with man welfare in its nost co�plete general expression, that
is: mankind anC its probleo of using efficien:ly earth anJ hu­
�an resources for its welfare.

All through history, n&n with his r=tional anJ physical

forces has been tlealing between the resources available and his
needs. He has atte�pted solutions from almost in�ivicually, by
chasing an� fishing in a nuua� way following resources where
they might be; till more conplex forns ­ according to the pres­
sure of his social nature ­ joining in small of l3rge groups,
reinforcing an� specializing by this .eans his for;ns, fixing
himself in certain strategic p · ::. · _; of the earth, and bringing
there all kind of resources he might need by neans of roads,
comr.rnnications, an :' the like,

As a r�sult of the historical and geograpl jc process

that this phe�omenon involves, to day we may se� man established
almost all over the world dealing with that basic equation bet­
ween his necJs an� resourc�s on one hand, and his skillness and
forces on the other. ,,e may see him through organized human
groups distribute� geogr9fically in sone strategic way, with

l, 2 Jacques Maritain, "Eler:1ents de Philosophie " op. c ,


structure ani nuclei, with particular cultural charncteristics,

capital, equipment, socio­econooic and political organization,
land use techniqu�s, infra­structural systems, etc. If we ana­
lyze carefully the fact, it rs::nains that the axis of that e­
quation we nentioned before leans basically in how particular
cultural groups have orgJnized thenselves to establish in so­
me geographical points of the earth, to profit the location
and natural resources available there or brought there, so
to reach by rre ane of their intelligent work, all the goods they
need for their welfare. The essential thing renains in how do
nan esta'..,1­ism himself in a particular geographical point1
how he organizes hinself to profit it, an2 the whole coEplex
interrelationships that coaos out from this sort of aarriage
between man and physical environment.

As this fact focusses the whole. phenor.:enon frdm its

own roots, it seens that we may point out that this human es­
tablishment on points of t h e earth an a all its consequents
inplications: resources anu human needs, human work nn:! welfare,
etc., accomplisheJ all the r�quirenLnts to be that seeke�
"f'or r.a L object" of the c­e ho ne i.v e planning. .te may give it
also a formGl name, took from the hunan­geography language :
.. 24 -

The tl��&n Establish�ent

Principles of the Hu113.n Est:1blish:.1ent concept

Following the purpose of trying to clarify soae tesic

concepts fpr a Planning Theory, let us try to exanine this
planning concept of the numan Lst�blishment.

\'Ve have called "Hunan Establishw.en t " to the conplex

entity resulting when a determined hu�an sroup, taking care
of its needs, est�blishes itself and use a determin�d set of
natural resources; that is, to th� resultant co�ins out f. om the
interrel�tionship or autual influence of two main elem nts or

1 �' and all what his being denands ancl produces on

regard of his needs and in relation to a given set
of resources; and

2 the physical natural environnent, like a set of resources

for h�man life, with all its qualities in favor and
against man.

There fore, ac we ,·,ay see, it comes to the sest2.tion of this

entity, two principal agent�: �an, and the physical n�tural environ

Man, because his intelliGence, his rational power and conse­

quent freedom to act, cu�es to be the active a�en�. cnp�ble to deter
mine the resul.�ant entity; that is, he is able to nodify substantially
the physical nature and cb ar-act.r-r Ls t Lc s of the physical natural environ
ment. His limitations to do, according to this quality1 depend fror

the degree of Culture1 he has reached, from the _d velopnent of his

knowledge about physical nature and how to operate on it, and from
the amount of his forces, tine and other r_sources to act; that is:
from its economic possibility to do ­ in tho largest and most strict
sense of the econo�ic concept
- ' Cons8quently, and in theory, nan
is capable to change substantially the physical characteristics of
the natural environment which has served as the starting basis for
the Hunan Establishoent.

The physical natural environment, because of its correspondent

nature to the constitutive elements of the physicnl part of human
being, which makes man biologically and ­ in certain anount ­,psy­
chologically de11endent on the substantial support of the material
world, cones to be the �assive ag�nt, capable to condition hunan
life and man. Its power to modify hunan life and nan's way of living,
by conditioning, d0,ends in the extrenely h�rd or soft ch�racteristics,
difficulties or fccilitics, it imposes again6t man effort; and also,
from the strength or weakness of man's qualitidS to think and to act,
against the particular challenge of a natural envirom1ent. It is
able, an d c oruaon Ly it dues, to affect human being, not of course in
his substa�tral.part but in his accidental char&cteristics like man's
way of living, thinking ­and doing, 3.S nell as in his accidental and
external physical constitution, appearence, custons, and the like.
Physical natural environnent can change nan in the accidents of his
being, "developing" by challenge to his active roll, out in a par­
tial amountl, a whole style of living, that is: a particular culture.
This conceptual stcte�ent is true because if the physical environment
were able to change aan su stDntially, it would mean his transfornation
in quite ano t h e r kind of being, o t hvr species, which obviously is an
Culture: cultivation of hunan being fnculties und powvrs.
2Dynamic equilibrium of coning forcas in a whole round corplete operation.

\ve make this r enar­k about the partial c au sa L when physical e nv.i.r onmen t
conditions huuun being, bec3use anoth�r bcsic causal refvrs to the pa£
ticular ways of thinking that dif:erent hunan groups develop, due stric
tly to their frea spiritual traditional historical process.
- 26 -

As we have seen, in the first case, the cap3bility to deter­

mine, to be lord, of nan upon the physic�l forces depends in his
major spiritu�l, ethic�l and intellectual devGlopuent, in his na­
jor moral and rtysical vigor to act. The most he had acquired
Culture ­ in its widest sense ­ the +argost will be his capability
to chan�e substantially, for his own benefit, the characteristics
of the particular set of natural resources upon which he has established.

This statement explains how cculd be such cases where huuan

establishments appears to be p�osperous and wealthy nevertheless the
charact=ristics of the physical environment are extrenely hard and
difficult; and ancther ones, that shjw to be poor end weak even.the
good possibilities of their particular physical environments. B�t­
ween b0th extrenes it can be discov�r the whole range of differ�nt
situations, where each on� corresponds to a particular proportion of
the qualities of toth elenents.

In the second case, the c0nditioning power of physical forces

is in direct­relation with the ma jo r intensity of �asy or difficult
characteristics of the n a t ur a L environr:wnt for human life, as well
as with the najor weakness and ignorance of man estahlished on it.
Rigurous clirnate, abund�nce or lack of water, or of agricultural
land, quality of soils, landscape beauty, hard or easy topography,
etc., �s soon as nan's ethic V3lu�s, intollcctual lLvcl, org�nizatio­
nal skillness, nanunl ability, �tc., oblige n�n to ways of doinG that
in the long­r�nGe, i�press on his p rsun·lity a peculiar s��l or stile
of living.

This concept that shows th� two b�sic components and the way
they operate between e�ch other, producing thu resultant wo naued
"human e s t c.b Li.ahme n t !", could be very useful to fix criteria to do
planning for each particular case of hunen org�nized groups loc�ted
in detGrQined physic�l areas.
- 27 -

Particularly, it could be of an extrenely inportnnce for the

so called underdeveloped countries, specially in their regional
rural areas. In those countries nan weakness is high, and the resour
ces to do and to implant planning, are so sc2rcc th�t tney need to
drive csrefully their few possibilities towar� very selected f�cts;
e.s , for excrrp.Le , to er.pha s i.z e go a Ls like: to r a i.s e skillness and cul
turnl level in cert�in areas, or to ch1nge loc3tion of people ­ by
CTigrstion or colonization ­ toward an easier physical environnent or
point of concentrJtion.

Sunnarizing, this planning conplex concept of the human establii:;g

nent is an organic, geographical, anthropological, economic, and social
concept corr�sp0nding to the conpl0x nature of the forNal object of
Comprehensive Planning; drawn for a practical purpose, in such a way
that it could be an useful tool to express planning conclusiona, goals,
and objectives.

Morphology of the Hungn Est&blishQent

Till this moment we have exanined the two roots that ganer�te
the complex entity of the human est�blishment. Let us now try to
exanine the resultant in itself, that is: the actu�l output of those
f ac t or s , the ph e noraen o n that appears to our sight in the. c omnon diary
experience, and which is the direct forcal object cf comprehensive plag

As we have pointed before, from the mutual intcrrelntionships

between a det,r�ined group of men ­ with all their particular qualities ­
s.n d the d e t.c r­mi.n e d ar o a where: they have as t c b Ld s ho d ­ with its own
particular characteristics­, c0mes out� result�nt entity which, from
the physical point of view, looks no nors as the original naiural phy­
sical environment, and frum the anthrupoluLical point of view, its nen
­ 28 ­

also don't look the same as before they e3tablished in the place.
The natural environment shows now a whole system of modifications
and works, due to men activity, which makes it appears with a rati.2_
nal characteristics, that is: fixed under an intelligent norm; and
man, shows a peculiar style of living which keeps relation to, and
makes remember the particularities of the physical area.

Therefore, this new environment, where now human generations

born and growth, is no more a pure physical natural one buy a rationalized
one, a new one conformed with the human seal of men eatablished there:
an humanized environment, a r et i.ona Li.z.e d envirc nmen '; or using a common
expression, an urbanized environment.

The essential characteristics of this resultant environment is

its rational seal, its adaptation to rational life. City is the extreme
example of an environment transformed by man; it is the area where the
major proportion of rational structuration has been done; but it is
only the nucleus of the rationaliz.ed environment. This one spreads
further outside that central area still the last point where men,
depending from that central nucleus, are doing something to the
natural environment. If the human establishment were reg�rded oaly
as a geographical distribution of population, it would look liken
non uniform distribution, coming from a very dispersal light density
form on the periph0ry of the universe� to hihg density concentrations
in a point or points which work like nuclei of different level and
scale. Generally, these nucl i are strategically situated according

to favorable characteristics of the natural physical environment.

Consequently, we may say that the main character of the humanized

environment is its rational structure. Therefore, the principal charact�
ristics which could be studied in the human establishment, regarded as
a rationalized entity, are the cifferent kind of rational structure
it contains.
­ 29 ­

The structure in tha hu� •. n establi�hment

From that point of vi�w we nay scy that tha urb1nized environ
ment is c�nstitutGdof twc types of r�ti�nal structures, or just
called structures, which are interralated between them:

1 n0n­physic�l structures, and

2 physic�l structur�s.

Nun­ hysical structures are the wh0l8 set Jr systen of r�ti0nal

forms or models that menhavs created tp organize themselves, SJ to
be able t0 live and develop by using a specific nJtur�l physical e�
v.i.r onmen t and pr ,fiting its resources. :LciEJ.l c r g aru,z: ti n , pvlitic
and administroti ve crganizati �ns, me n c tar-y system, Le gr.L structure,
e duc­rt i.ona L cr g am.z at i on , welL re and medical or gan i.z a t i, n , perso­
n8l services, econ�mi� structure, finantial Grg3nizati n, commercial
structure, etc. are all examples of those nan­physical structures thst
hu�an establishments c�mprises.

Physical structures ar e the wh c Le sy s t e ra _,f physical instruments

resulting from men's tr�nsf�rrnativn nf the n�tur2l onvir�nment, to
serve their needs, Cultiv�ted land, irrigDti�ns WJrks, r0qds, hJusos
and their distribution, areas of fishing, nines, st rus, bridges,
·tunnels, sp0rts gruunds, Gtc. etc. ar� examples f these ph�sical

An organic univ�rse

Nvvertheless the distincti1.n d�ne between the n_n­physic�l and

the physic�l structuros, there is J cl�sL int0rdepen�ence bet��en cnes
and Gthers. In n.t f�w cases, the sane physic�l structure serves tu
­ 30 ­

different non­physical on�s, and viee v�rs�;. For example, it is

clear that the physical system of structures like roads, railroads,
wharfs, airports, etc. should corraspond to the non­physical structure
of organization for tr&nsportution. Or in other wcrds, that a non­
physical = t r �c�\lTe wr,,1) d r e qu i ro s o ve r n L phys i c a L ones s er­v i.n g
for its functioning; and vice versa; a physical structure could need
the functioning of several non­physical ones for its c nstruction, or

Exauining furthLr this set of structures that constitute the

rational environment, we may see th�t they represent a whole universe
with the rational characteristic of an or�anic system of structures.
Ther it is possible to distin �ish several levels, as well as a
deter�ined nunber of main branches of sub­systems of structures.
This universe, a main structure of structur�s, vo.ries according to
uan's cultural cvntribution to the human establishment, and also
according to thG particular char�cteristics of each physical area.
Nevertheless, perhaps we may try a tentative basic scheme of structures
of a cummon human establishment, r�n£ d fron th� point of view of the
art of planning, th·t is: for a practical purpuse.

Three levels of structur�s

.io . n.Jy s c e three main levels of structures in the whole universe:

1 the first level, corres�onding to th� nost elemental

organization of nrn ectivity when ha is starting to
build the hunan establishnent; c oramo n Ly Lund in primitive
civilizations, in colonization are�s, or are3s which are just
starting to be urbanized; to this level could belong:
­ the population distributi0n structure.
­ the land use structure.
­ the resources �xtractive structur
the nanufacturing structure.
- 31 -

2 the second lev811 corresponding to oan's organizati9�.

for supporting, inproving and Sc,rving the structures
of the first level, as well as to tcke cnre of certain
hunan needs. This is the case cf eln0st all the actual
civiliznttd nr�as of th0 world, Tv this level could
be lung
­ tr,... nsport::. . ticn and c omnun i c a t.Lons s t r­uc t ur e a .
­ hcusing and lodgLlent structur2s.
­ distributi n cf boods structurt..,
­ p�rs0nQl services structure.
­ monLtary, banking an� finanti3l structures.
­ justice adninistr�tion structurG,
­ governrnent�l str�cturc.
­ welfare nnd medical attention structure.
­ educ�tional and cultural structures.
­ recrcaticnal, sports, 18isure structur0.
­ insurance 3nd retirenent structure.

3 the third level, corr�sp,nding to higher degree of hunan

organizatiun, draw� to su�port and i�prcvt.. th� stfuctuies
of the second level. This is t h e c r s ... of t h c few .ro s t
mcdern outst2ncing civiliz�ti0ns. Tu this level c�uld
­ high c0Dmcrci0l structures.
­ high finantinl structur€s.
­ r ­insurnnce structures.
­ high specialized educ­ti0nnl structures,
­ sp0cializ�d consult�nt servic�s structures.
­ very special services structures, etc.
­ 32 ­


Besid2s these three oain lcvuls of_structur�tion, nnd thruugh

all of then, in a cross sunse, we coulc �lso distinbuish syst o of
functional corresponcing structur0s, as fur ex3uplc we 2ay s0e in
the case of popul3tion distribution, housing, and c�rtain specialized
household services; swell as we nay distinGuish in each level itself,
structures thct interr�lote betw�en th�:1s0lvcs according to specific
functions, fur example: transport�tion, conJunic.tions, distribution
of goods, government, finantial and insurance structur�s, are interrel!
ted in the specific problen of getting soacthing in G determin�point
of th� ar­.;a,

Sum�ar�zing, we Llay conclude then, that this r3tional environ­

ment constituted of }hysical 8nd non­physic�l structur�s of different
kind and levels, is an organic �ntity which parts nru close interr la
ted according t0 hunan way of being and needs.

Phisiology of the Hunan =stablishrnent

If we analyze a little furthur in the n3.tter we are examining

we may �lso distinsuish in·th� entity of the hu�en est�blishn�nt,
two import�nt char�cteristicsl

1 in a certain degree, it is a self­regulating

org�nism; and in this sense, a subject t0 be
predicted; 3.nd.

2 in another certain degree, it is also a manufactured

thing, able to be handled and nanipulated; a subject
possible to be modified,

Lectures, prof. I'homas Schocken, "Flanning­ Theory" course,
Institute de Planeamiento de Lima, Programa Interamericano de
Planeamiento Urbano y �egional de la OEA.
- 33 -

Althuugh, human cst�blish�ent is a creature of aan and a

consequence of his intelligence and energy when chnllengcd by
ccnditions of the natur�l envir0nuLnt, nany forces within it
appear to be out uf contr 1 fran rr•npowar. The reason c0uld be
found in the fact th3t 0ften nan hinself, individually and parti­
cularly when he is in tr0up, he hinstlf does not know nany facts
about his own hum3n and social nature, its hided laws and forces
that impel hi1 thruugh situutions and evolutions, that still he
can not control. ThLSC forces oper�t� withuut nen r�alizing them,
therefore it is underst�nd�ble that up to certain degree the human
est�blishLlent can be seen as n self­regulating organism, subject
to be predicted.

nhen certain part of the phenunenon lc

u well known and could
be controled by nan, then in that degree, hunan establishment can
be seen as a manufactured thing, able to be modified by man.
Principl0s for a Conprehensive Planning
- 35 -

The purpose of Conprehensive Planning

Besides th� interest to know whet kind of rational oper�tion

planning is, as well as depending on wh�t thinking noros it nust
operates, and which and how is its for�al object, it is also of a
s ube t anc i a L v..Lue to try to clarify for what end does planning,
cooprehensive planning in our case, operates. It will be of a
decisive det0r11in�tion, particulsrly, for the technic�l procedure
of planning octho'ology.

The n2ture and laws the.t rule an art depends on the nature
and c har ac t e r La t Lc s of its f'oz­nc L ob j.i c t , !'.!S we have seen. An
inpurtGnt part of this forrial object, includes the issue for what
purpose or enJ d00s this art operate upon its natLrial objects1

�e have seen how the bcsic of huoan establishnent cones

from ma nk i nd 's pr­ob Len cf how to use efficiently c ar t h an d human
resources fur its welfare. The question remains in what consists
that welfare. Undoubtedly we tuuch here c v�ry arsued matter with
implic�ti,ns as f.r cs the delicat� religious and philos0phic­l que�
tion. From a basis on thuse nain rocts, it cculd cone out several
approochcs 3cc rding to th� different nunber of cred�s an� philosophi
cal st�to�ents to day •xist.

But, for the purpose of this essay, nevcrthcl�ss the substan­

tial differences they could have, we nay rest up0n a wide basis
comint'from the christian hunanistic philosophic�l fuunJatiun, which
is accepted alnust by everybody with the exceptiun, perhaps, of those
who f'o LLow a naterialistic s t a t crae n t ,

In its wi,1Gst basis, hunan welfare [Jeans the a d e que t e satisfaction

of huaan needs. Now, on the other hand, if the huaan establishment
is an entity created by man as the tean to try his welfare; the, we
may say that the main purpose of hunan estoblishnent is to obtain
Jacques Maritain, "Elements de Fhilosophie ••. i',, op s c ,
­ 36 ­

the most adequate, or 3t least, a better satisfaction has been reached,

will be the b�sic measurenent �f tho quality of thL hu�on estnblishfilent.

In othbr qor s, as th�re are a large nuhber of situations that

c'uld have tho huonn est3blishaent, the best way t judge it fer the
purpcse of plcnning will bathe fileasuroaent of its degree of success
in reaching an adequate level of living: understanding by this : the
degree of satisfaction of hunan needs.

Consequently, we may say lhttt e a c h hum an e s t ab La ehue n t has a

particular degree of hunan needs satisfaction; or in a cocnon used
expression: a detertined luv 1 of living. Therefore the planning
task will be the inproveLlent of the level of living of the huQan

It f0llows clear that the best knowledge about human needs,

will be of a ren3rkable usefulness.

The hunan needs and its classification for planning purpose

An interesting contribution to the point has been done by

the eo c Lo= e c onoru,c p Lan n i.rrg group "Ec onorri c Hui1aino"l, directed
by the well known Fr�nch dooinican priest Joseph Lebret.

They point that hu�nn needs c�n be classified in three

main types, which e.11 three must be aJequntely attend if welfare
is expected to be acconplishe�.

The three types are:

1 the b&sic needs

2 the needs for c0nfort
3 the ncud of �asic goals for living

"Guide Pr ac t i.q ue de L 'Enquete Sociale", L. J .Lebret O. P., Par Ls ,


The first onts, r�f�r to th�se ne2ds which if not attended,

the biological life of individual could finish, To this category
belongs: food, clothin6, housing, hygiene and nedical care, time
for the nest fundaaental human �ctivities, freedon, job opportunity,

The second on�s, reftr to those naJds thet Make living

easier and cGnfortJble; Dccording to tendency to perfection rooted
in the noture of bur.en being. To this cctegory belongs needs of:
tools, furniture, custocs, f�cilitids1 utilities, transport1tion,
and the like.

The third ones, r8fcr to the need aan has to direct his life
and energy tow&rd superior glals thct �ake hin find his life suit
able, useful �nd worthy. It is well known how unhnppy could be
man, nevertheless hew well he cculd be

:iourisn�a ,
1 ,
dr_.sGcd, confortable,
etc. if he finds his life enpty and without any superior ideal or
goal that justifies his existence with dibnity. Tu this c�tegory
belong needs as: cduc�tiua, culture, social life, spiritual life,
art, r2ligion, etc.

All three types of ne e d s nus t be c c-ve r e c c nl n..:cquately solve

if hunan welfare is rcquLsted. This J�as not meon that an absolute
determine stan�3rd sh0uld be reached. Huoan beings nnJ human needs
can not be reduced to abstracts units, without pnrticulsrities and
several ways of e xpr­e a s i.o n , This ne ans t h a t certain .a i.n i.uuua could
be S8lected for each c5se nnd cultur�l type. Delicate work that
suppose a solid background on antropholLgical nnd sociological scienc s.
The t�sk will be to id�ntify that niniou�s for each c�se, in such
a way that the Jegree of solutiun of the hun3n n0�ds for that cultur�l
type cf �on, could be irnpruvcd in a CLrtain anount.
- 38 -

s;or.:iprehensive Planning Process and i'.fothodolqr:y

All ready seen sane b�sic c�ncepts ccncErning coBprehensive

planninG, cs the one ab�ut its neturc of art which cper�tos accor­
dinG to practic3l thinkinc laws, the plannin� function, the function
of rational intuition leaninl on a critGrio. cuning cut fran a fun­
d ame nt a.L theoretical fr:,nework, its forno.l object: th0 hunan establish
ment and its characteristics, its main purpose of improving hun2n
establishnent level of living; under the li�ht of thcit b�sis, let us
try tu exanine their c orri.n g irnplications toward the 1,ay t c d o planning
en� hc.:w to fullow it �ill its fiDo.l prDctical outcoDc.:s.

Con.i.n g frvt:1 t h., ir1co. t h a t the f'c r rrc L vbjL.ct o f c o p r ch c n s Lv e

planning is thd hucan �stJblish.·c.:nt, a cc.:�plex entity with very
pr­e c Ls o ch ar­ac t o r i s t a c s L, one of the first r c qud r c .. c n t s will be; to
organize a such a w�y 0f dving plannin6 so to be.: capable tu J�al
efficiently with that conplexity.

Twv ooin requircJents should be acconplished:

1 to ere. tc a thinking p0wor &blc enough tu Joal

with the CJnplexity mottor; and

2 to create o. speci3l tcchniqu8 to help

that thinking po+e r to appr '1Ch so _:ifficult nat t c r .

For the first vno, the te�n work under o. clear planning
direction is th_ key; anil for the second, a ceth�·0logical process
nccor�ing to the nature of the form�l oujcct and the purpose cf cog
pr�hensive planning, as well as a technique tu de by succcssives
approximations, could be the �ay.

1see first p�rt Jf the Thesis.

­ 39 ­

ive know that hunr n c s t ab Li.ahmo n t has, w i t h i.n its unity, a

variety of savcr3l char�cteristics ncc_rding to specific ways of
looking it: it has social, econ0nic, physic�l, politic and adminis
trative aspectal. All these fields c0rres�cnd tJ specialized
sciLnces and rel�ted techniques. Therefore, to do plLlnning it will
be need an integration process of all the focts involved in the
proble�, which c�uld be Gatters concerning thuse speci&lized fields.

This can be re�ched by necn of the art tc du orchcstr·ting.

For comprehensive plannin· purp se, a numb�r of speciulized technicians ­
acc0rding to the different aspects the problem involves anc already
familiar with the cooprehensive planning process ­ should jcin as a
planning tean under the direction of experts in planning, skill d
on the co�prchensive pl�nning process �nd on the art t0 orchestrate
a team lcaling toward planning goals. This art to orchestrate people
for pl3nning purposes involves principles and techniques corning fr0m
the logic anc psichology sciences, such as nental discipline, dis­
cussion technique, �tc. There is a whole special tr3ining to be requ�£
tvd in this field.

Neverthel�ss, it is not �nuugh to orch0str�te only the basic

t c ara o f t c chn.i c i ans for the purpose of c r e a t the thinking pcve.r
able to do �ith the compl�xity of the planning object. As the whole
prucess of planning has to de with so rnany particular stateoents,
both in the analysis of the existing situ�tion and in the prupositiuns
of goals and objectives, which neither technicians nor statistical works,
nor officials or manoGers, arrive to reach, comes out the need to join
a Lmo s t e ve r yb o dy in t h e connun i. ty, through a c e r t a i.n way, to the or
chestra. Conprehensive planning neecs to be dJne net 0nly f�r the
benefit of people but with the help of the own pe0ple.

Prof. D7. �falter D. H .r-r Ls , Planning ­ nd Pr­o gr arua Ln g in Developing
Areas Seminar, City Pl�nning, Yale University.
­ 40 ­

· The p3rticular ways thr . . ugh which this enlarging orchestrating

must come, depend on each cas� and m·�ent of the planning process.
Planning directors shvuld be­abl� to know when nnd how they should
call sone of th� people or the total to play in the orchestra. A
large amount c f w i s e pr­ud e n t La L t ct is needed in this de Li.c., t c but
very import�nt aattar.

The comprehensive plannin5 prucess

According to the n3ture ·f tho planning functicn, consisting

in a practical operation 0f analysis­synthesis, a distinction of
va Lu e s so t c unify tht­r.1 through an ope r= t i. ...-n n L or gand c f'c r n ; and
to tho natur� of thL f0ru3l object �f cucprehensive planning: the
humen estcblishnent; a neth0Jul0Gical process ctuld be stated as
a f r amewo r k t c ce.rry out c.nm.r­e hc ne p Lunn i ng , This s t e t eue n t
cculd be the followinb:

1 Sufficient and symptomatic qnalyzed inf�rm�tion �bout

the sittlati�n of the humon astablishncnt.
It must be an orb0nic and strntogyc collection
of selected d�ta, which must cov;r the different
precise asp1.;cts th t the huaan est�blish�t:nt has:

a) Data ab0ut th1.; physical natur'll 1::nvir ... nnunt

where the huua n establishnent is 1 c e t e d ,
with tho purpose tc know which anJ how are tho
n a t ura L r1.;.,.:iurccs c va i.Lab Le f', r human life s.s
w1.;ll ns which and how arc tho cbstaclos thQt
physical n turc presents ag3inst hunan life;

b) Data Dbout the �en est blishod in_ the area:�

Their· qu�lities and limitations ­ in the
antrophvlogical sense: culturals an� biolo�ique ­
­ 41 ­

which help or impede them to attend ,heir lavel

e f li;

c) Dn t a ab u t the r-c t i.ona Li.z c d envin,nnent o r the


resultant uf the twu b�sic r��ts of the hunan

e s t ab Li.ahuo n t , that is: da t a about t h­. wh •le
set of physic�l and nun­physical structures ond
the particul3r organic way in which the whole
systea is interrel1tea;1

d) Data abvut the lLvel of living rc�ched by human

est�blisha0nt, th�t is: the decr�e cf hum�n
needs s�tisf ctiun rc1ch0d by re�ns uf huw the
prcvi�us systcn of structures wcrks; anJ

e) Data abJut the histvric 0V2lution and ten:encies

which the human establishncnt sh�ws in its r0�ts
(physic:11 e nv i.r­o nme n t , and nen), result ­mt (r o ­
tiun3lized envirvnment), nd fruit (level of
li vinG).

2 nalysis or the whclo situation of th0 hun�n establish­

me n t SJ to achieve a "Jiagn,,aisn c f th" t o t a L pr o b Le n ,
in its unity &nJ in its parts, by ne�ns uf synthesis.

This �nalysis coul­ b� iune l�anin: on the s .�e

five aspects fr�, �WJrk st&ted in point 1 '­f
this wh ,le process st�tGm8nt; but it needs to be
nan�geJ with an0thcr technique. In the cusc of
inL,rm c., t i cn ' its f�rr,al object is Jot:11 there­

in, to l10velJp t h­vt _,art of the process a r e apo r t

111Le Ncuv e L Ur-br.rri sme!", Gr.e t on Be r 1

et, Paris.

t chniqu� uust be use; but in this c:­se of·"analysis"

where its L.,n1.:1l object arc judgc nc.n t s , a judgment
precess techniqu� nust be follo�ed. This farticul�r
pr0cess cuuld be st�toJ in this w2y:
'llhicb are the pr cb Lou,s anl .�vantc,c:t.s
the human est=blish�cnt is f�cing,
­ FirEt tcnt�tive judgments.
­ Justific�ti n of those judgnents
ac c cr d t c the wh o Le dn t a o f the "Lnf or­ma t i.on'".
Readjustment an2 precise f r�ul�tion cf the
justified ju:gments.
­ Caus�l orfaring 0f tha precise juJcM�nts.
- Fc.r-mu La t a on cf t.h a t or �er t h r o ug h "or gand gr­anc s '",
­ Synthesis of the t o t e L ju.�gnent:
final d.i.agno s i.e ,

3 Formulatic..n of the Plan which �roposcs the way and the

neans through which the level of livint; of th human
establishment could be improved. To achieve this for­
mulation anuther process of analysis­synthesis should
be done concernin� �vals anJ 0bj�ctivas. This process
could be stated in the followinG way:

Selectivn of the main g �ls �ccorcing to the

reached di1gn sis.
­ Issues 0f less resistcnce �nJ lnrgur effect.
­ Issues of eGp effect.
­ Issues �ue to ur�cncy.
­ Sum and integration of effects.
­ ?inal oper .tion3l synthesis: rl�n.

4 Pr o gr­emnu ng and iraplementation. The Flr.n gc a l s should

be reached thrcugh s0lected objectives which implemen­
t3tion nust be programed through a set of interrel�ted
projects. Fur doing so it is ne�d to t�ke c­re the
following r.iatt�rs:

­ To �0int out clearly the objectives

thrcugh which the main guals 0f the
�lan sh�ll be 3chieved.
­ To foroul_te the �rojocts which express
those objectives.
­ For the projects foruulation it must
be checked the rcse,urces avcilable,
the obstacles, the conditioning facturs,
the operotional crgans, the sd�inistra­
tive mechanism required, the budget,
the fin3ntial support, the tiaing,
C(.ntrols, C:tc.

5 Results evnluation anJ renJjustm�nts. As huCTnn esta­

blishment is an org3nic alive entity in peroanent
change, unexpected manif�st�tions coul2 appear as
a c o na e q ue n c e of any plan's n t , t i on . Thercfure, a
c3reful control of r�sults must be <l�ne, anJ r�ndjust­
ments of the plnn must be furescen •

Biblio�raphy and Sernin�ries
­ 45 ­

Bibliogr�phy and SeGinaries

1 "Education for Planning", Harvey S. Perloff, The Johns

Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957.

2 "Of City Planning and Design", Arthur T. R0w, Jr., City

Planning, Ya2e University, 1962.

3 "Plans and Pr oj e c t e '", 1, Mau r Lc e Rotival, New Yc.r k ,

4 "Les Degres du Savvir", Jacques Maritain, Desclee, de

Br uwer, Paris.

5 "Elements de Philcsophie ­ I. Introduction Generale

a la h LLos c phd e!", Jacques Har i t aa.n , Paris.

6 Lectures, pruf. Thor.ic:.s Schocken, "Planning The�ry"

course, Instituto de Plan��oiento de Li�a, Prograna
Interanericano Je Planeami�nt0 Urb�n y Region�l de

7 "Guide Pr:ictique de l'Enquete So&iale", L.J. Lebret O.P.,


8 Planning a n d Pr o gr­arsu.i n g in De v e Lc p.i.n g ar e as r,

pr0f. Dr. islter D. H=rris, City }lanning, Yale University.

9 "Le Nc.uv e L Ur­b an i sme , Gaston Bardet, Par i.s ,