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Integral bridge

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School of Bridge & Structure Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology,

Changsha 410076, China

ABSTRACT

engineering, which has many economical and social implications. The main objective of this

paper is to present a calculation method and to analyse the stresses in pavement under

long-term loads. Shrinkage and creep of concrete increase the vertical deflection of bridge

girders. The deck pavement has the same displacement as the girder because they are

bonded. Thus the shrinkage and creep of the girder concrete of a bridge will cause stresses

in the deck pavement. This paper applies a finite element method to analyse the girder

deflection by the shrinkage and creep of the concrete. It deduces a formula to analyse the

stresses in the deck pavement and uses the Bu-Liu River bridge as a numerical example to

investigate the loading characteristics of deck pavement. The computational results show

that the tension stress and shear stress, which result from the shrinkage and creep of the

girder concrete, should not be ignored.

1. INTRODUCTION

In China, damage to the deck pavement of long-span bridges has become an increasingly

serious problem. Some kinds of damage, such as cracks, tracks and sloughs, occur after

the bridge has been used for a few years. Even though the deck pavement may be well

constructed, many cracks occur under the fatigue loads. Many government projects have

been carried out to maintain the pavement, which have led to severe financial losses and a

negative influence on society. In view of this, bridge deck pavement has become a key

engineering technology issue in highway construction (Xu wei, 2003). The stresses in deck

pavement differ greatly from those in road pavement. To a large extent, the pavement

structure is restricted to the girder distortion. The traditional methods of design and

construction cannot meet the requirements of the deck pavement of a long-span bridge.

When a bridge is designed, the stress in its deck pavement should be analysed in detail.

This paper presents a calculation method to analyse the stresses in the pavement. The

bridge deck pavement is a structural layer which is laid on the girder. It has the important

function of protecting the girder, but it is exposed to the weather and bears vehicle loads

directly. The deflection of the girder has a strong impact on the bridge deck pavement.

Therefore the stresses in the pavement are very complicated. The rolling, pushing and

shear of vehicle wheels probably also have an influence. Temperature variations, rain

water erosion and frost have an influence on the stress in the pavement or cause damage.

The loading, shrinkage and creep of the main beam concrete cause curving, squeezing,

Proceedings of the 25th Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2006) 10 – 13 July 2006

ISBN Number: 1-920-01706-2 Pretoria, South Africa

Produced by: Document Transformation Technologies cc 527 Conference organised by: Conference Planners

extending and shearing between the layers of the bridge deck pavement. This paper aims

to analyse the stress of bridge deck pavement under long-term vehicle load, especially the

effect of concrete creep on the stresses. The stress characteristics of bridge deck

pavement are presented through the example of the Bu-Liu River bridge in Guangxi

province, China.

CALCULATION

The Bu-Liu River bridge is a continuous, rigid-frame bridge with high piers. Design loads

are the Auto-20 and the Trailer-100 (Chinese standards). The span arrangement is 145 m +

235 m + 145 m. The total length is 537.08 m and the cross-section width is 8.3 m. The

superstructure is a non-uniform box girder, with a cross-section of single box and single

cellular girders. The height of the main beam changes from 12.86 m to 4.26 m. The height

of the highest pier is 97 m.

According to the stress characteristics of the bridge deck pavement, several assumptions

are made as follows (Luo li-feng, Zhong ming and Huang zhao-cheng, 2002). Firstly, the

bridge deck pavement, without regard to the shrinkage and creep of the pavement itself, is

tightly bonded to the main beam and deforms together with the main beam. Secondly,

during operation, the main beam only undergoes vertical deflection because of the

shrinkage and creep of the concrete. Finally, the stress along the thickness of the deck

pavement is uniformly distributed because the bridge deck pavement is much thinner, in

other words, the bridge deck pavement is in a membrane stress condition.

3.1 Calculation of the Shrinkage and Creep of the Main Beam Concrete

In long-span concrete bridges, deformation of the structure due to creep is perhaps two to

three times greater than that due to structural loads (Guo zhen-hai, 1999). Therefore large

creep will cause redundant stress on the indeterminate structure on the one hand, and an

increase in the deformation of the main beam on the other hand. The deformation and

internal force will be produced in the deck pavement because it co-deforms with the main

beam. The creep of the concrete is thought to be linear because the stress in it is generally

no more than 40%～50% of the concrete's ultimate strength. Hence this paper uses linear

creep theories for calculating the creep effect of the concrete. In order to easily develop a

plane finite element program for the analysis of the creep effect, the creep coefficient is fit

as an exponential function to establish the recursion equation. The initial strain method is

used to calculate the amount of creep deformation of the main beam in each time interval

(Li chuan-xi and Xia gui-yun, 2002). The creep coefficient can be obtained from equation

(1).

6

ϕ (t ,τ ) = β a (τ ) + ∑ Ci (τ )[1 − e− q ( t −τ ) ]

i

(1)

i =1

where each parameter refers to the documentation (Li chuan-xi and Xia gui-yun, 2002).

528

3.2 Establishment of the Calculation Model

The bridge piers were constructed with the cast-in-site method, and the girder with the

cantilever method, so the construction was more difficult. However, the construction period

was quite short. Consequently, much shrinkage and creep of the girder concrete took place

after the bridge had been completed, and this must be properly taken into account. The

pavement, whose average thickness is 10 cm, was constructed with pitch-concrete. Firstly,

according to the main beam segment construction method, the shrinkage and creep of the

concrete were calculated from construction to final completion stages. Then in the

operational stage, the finite element program was used to set up the calculation model as

shown in Figure 1. There were 159 nodal points and 158 finite elements in total in the

model. The main beam had 128 finite elements and 129 nodal points. The numbers of

nodal points selected at two pier roofs were 36 and 94. The concrete strength grade for the

main beam was C55 and C45 for the pier.

1 36 94 129

65

144

159

The deflection caused by the shrinkage and creep of the concrete is shown in Figure 2 after

the bridge had been open for half a year, one year, 2 years, 3 years and 5 years. Figure 2

shows that the maximum additional deformation in the mid-span caused by the shrinkage

and creep of the concrete is 0.245 m. The beam deflection is consistent with dead load

deformation.

Deflection(cm) Node

-2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-7

-12

-17

-22

five years

-27

529

3.4 Fitting of the Creep Deformation Curve

According to the deflection at every nodal point of the main beam and the distance from the

pavement layer to the section neutral axis, the mathematics software Mathematica was

used to fit the creep deformation curve. The fitting result shows the change law of the

deflection curve y(x) and the distance function h(x) from the pavement layer to the section

neutral axis. In order to fit precisely, different curves are adopted for the side-span and the

mid-span deflections. The curves are adjusted again and again as high-order polynomials

composed of circular functions.

According to the deformation of the girder and the assumptions of the calculation,

equations (2) and (3) are applied.

M = E Iy '' ( x ) (2)

σ =

M

h ( x )

(3)

I

Then equation (3) can be restated as equation (4).

σ = E y '' ( x ) h ( x ) (4)

where E is the elasticity modulus of the material of the bridge deck pavement, σ is the

normal stress, y(x) is the deformation curve function due to the shrinkage and creep of the

girder concrete and h(x) is the distance from the bridge deck pavement to the geometric

centre of the section.

The normal stresses along the axial direction of the bridge pavement can be calculated by

using equation (4) as shown in Figure 3. It shows that the normal stresses cause the

compressive and tensile stresses to be different. The maximum tensile stress in the

pavement occurs about 15 m away from the pier in the mid-span and its value reaches 1.35

Mpa. The maximum compressive stress appears in the mid-span, reaching 1.2 Mpa. It is

obvious that the tensile stress in the pavement is greater than the compressive stress

under long-term load.

530

1.5 half year

one year

two years

1

three years

five years

0.5

Stress(MPa)

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

-1

-1.5

Figure 3. Stresses in the pavement along the axial direction of the bridge.

When a vehicle travels on the bridge at normal speed, it will apply horizontal force, about

0.3 times as great as the vertical wheel pressure, on the surface of the pavement layer in

order to overcome the various resistances. During emergency braking, abrupt acceleration,

going uphill or downhill, the maximum horizontal force is perhaps 0.7 - 0.8 times as great as

the vertical wheel pressure, reaching about 2.0 Mpa, which will undoubtedly cause

inter-layer shear between the girder and the deck pavement. Inter-layer shearing stress

caused by the effect of shrinkage and creep of the concrete cannot be ignored, so

inter-layer shear stresses must be analysed properly. A micro segment of the pavement at

the direction of the bridge span was removed to calculate the inter-layer shearing stress, as

shown in Figure 4.

σ σ+ σ

τ

σ ⋅ B ⋅ t + τ ⋅ dx ⋅ B = (σ + d σ ) B ⋅ t (5)

Where τ is the inter-layer shearing stress, B is the width of the micro segment and t is its

thickness.

531

Based on equation (5), τ can be expressed as equation (6).

dσ (6)

τ = t

dx

Combining equations (4) and (6), τ can then be stated as equation (7).

d σ (7)

τ = t = E y '''

h ( x ) t + E y '' h ' ( x ) t

dx

Using equation (7), the value of the inter-layer shearing stress along the length of the

bridge can be obtained as shown in Figure 5.

0.05

0.04

In te r-laye r sh e a ring stre ss(M P a )

0.03

0.02

-0.01 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

-0.02

-0.03

-0.04

half year one year tw o years

-0.05 three year five years

Figure 5. Distribution of the inter-layer shearing stress along the bridge axis.

Figure 5 shows that the maximum shearing stress of about 0.05 Mpa appears at the two

piers. The shearing stress is caused by many factors, such as braking force, temperature,

and shrinkage and creep of the concrete. This will perhaps make it ineffective for the bridge

deck pavement to be bonded to the main beam, so more attention should be paid to the

inter-layer shearing stress.

4.3 Stress Analysis in Pavements Made of Different Materials and Temperature Effects

If the pavement is made of different materials, its tensile strength and anti-shearing strength

differ greatly and the elasticity modulus of the material also differs greatly. However, the

elasticity modulus of the material has a great effect on the stress in the pavement. From

equations (4) and (7) it can be deduced that the values of the tension stress in the

pavement and the inter-layer shearing stress are directly proportional to the elasticity

modulus of the material.

As to the pitch-concrete, its elasticity modulus and tensile strength differ greatly when the

temperature changes. With a temperature increase, the elasticity modulus of the

pitch-concrete becomes increasingly lower and its strength decreases. The pavement

strength in low or high temperatures should receive more attention.

532

5. CONCLUSIONS

Several conclusions can be drawn from the stress analysis and calculation in this paper.

Firstly, the shrinkage and creep of the concrete in the main beam have a great impact on

the tension stress and shear stress in the bridge deck pavement. Therefore the interaction

of shrinkage and creep should be considered to be as important as the material and

structure. Secondly, the inter-layer shearing stress between the deck pavement and the

girder of a bridge should be checked when the pavement is designed. Finally, because of

the weakness of the pitch-concrete, its characteristics and strength need to be improved in

order to meet the special requirements of deck pavement.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China,

under Grant 04JJ6027. The authors greatly appreciate this support.

7. REFERENCES

[1] ACI Committee 209, Prediction of Creep, 1971. Shrinkage and Temperature Effect in

Concrete Structures. ACI SP-27.p.51~93.

[2] Bathe, K J, 1982. Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis. Prentice Hall.

[3] Guo zhen-hai, 1999. Principle of steel concrete. TsingHua University Press, China.

[4] Li Chuan-xi and Xia Gui-yun, 2002. Computational theory of the long-span bridge

structure. China Communications Press.

[5] Luo Li-feng, Zhong Ming and Huang Zhao-cheng, 2002. Research of the design

method of cement concrete bridge deck pavement. Journal of South China University

of Technology. 30(3), p.61-65.

[6] Meyers, B L and Thomas, E W, 1983. Elasticity, shrinkage, creep and thermal

movement of concrete. In: Kong, F K et al. Handbook of Structural Concrete. London,

Pitman, p.11-1~11-33.

[7] Neville, A M, Dilger, W H and Brooks J J, 1983. Creep of plain and structural concrete.

Construction Press, London and New York.

[8] Wang Wei-an, 2005. Effect analysis of the shrinkage and creep of high-pier and

long-span continuous rigid frame bridges. Thesis for Master's degree of Changsha

University of Science & Technology.

[9] Xu Wei, Bai Hai-tao, Zhang Xiao-ning, 2003. Mechanical numerical modeling analysis

of the deck pavement of long-span cable-stayed bridges. Journal of Harbin Institute of

Technology, 35(6), p.750-754.

533

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