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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

LAB MANUAL
For

MODERN COMMUNICATIONS

B.TECH -VI SEMESTER

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

CYCLE-I
1. Study of different types of Optical Fibers and connectors.

CYCLE-II

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

Experimient-1
AIM: Study of different types of Optical Fibers and connectors.

Introduction to Fiber Optics

Communication can be broadly defined as the transfer of information from one point to another.
Before Fiber optics came along, the primary means of real time data communication was electrical in
nature. It w a s accomplished by using copper wire or by modulating information on to an
electromagnetic wave which acts as a carrier for the information signal. All these methods have one
problem in common the communication had to be over a straight line path. Fiber optics provides an
alternative means of sending information over significant distances using light energy. Light is utilized
for communication has major advantages because it can be modulated at significant higher frequencies
than electrical signals. That is till 1870, when an Irish physicist John Tyndall carried out a simple
experiment. He filled a container with water and shone light into it. In the darkened room he pulled the
bung from the opposite end of the container. The light shone out, of course but in which direction?
The light followed the curved path of water. The light was guided and a new science was born.
This was due to a property of light called refraction.
The principle of operation of optical fiber lies in the behaviour of light. It is a widely held view that
light always travels in straight line and at constant speed. But that's not necessarily true as shown by
Tyndall's experiment. To understand the propagation of light within an optical fiber it is necessary to
take into account refractive index of the dielectric medium. Refractive index of a medium is defined as
the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to velocity of light in medium.

Since, the velocity of light in any solid, transparent material is less than in vacuum the refractive index
of such material is always greater than 1. A ray of light travels slowly in an optically dense medium
than in the one that is less dense. Now, the direction that the light approaches the boundary between
the two materials is very important. When a ray is incident on the interface between two dielectrics of
differing refractive indices, refraction occurs. It may be observed that the ray approaching the interface
is propagating in a dielectric of refractive index n1 and is at an angle 1 to the normal at the surface of
the interface. If the dielectric on the other side of interface has a refractive index n2 which is less than
n1, then the refraction is such that the ray path in this lower index medium is at angle 2 to the normal

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual
where 2is greater than 1.

Figure 1

The angle of incidence 1 and refraction 2 are related to each other and to refractive indices of
dielectrics by Snell’s law of refraction which states that

Total Internal Reflection:

Since the angle of refraction is always greater than the angle of incidence. Thus when the angle of
refraction is 90° and the refracted ray emerges parallel to the interface between the dielectrics the angle
of incidence must be less than 90°. This is the limiting case of refraction and this angle of incidence is
known as critical angle c. The value of critical angle is given by Angle of Incidence = Angle of
Reflection

In case the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle the light is reflected back into the
originating dielectric medium. This behaviour of light is termed as Total Internal Reflection. Here,

Figure 2

This is the mechanism by which light may be considered to propagate down an optical fiber with low
loss. Figure below illustrates the transmission of a light ray in an optical fiber via a series of total
internal reflection at the interface of the silica core and slightly lower refractive index in the silica

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

Figure 3

The light ray shown in figure 3 is known as meridional ray as it passes through the axis of the fiber
core. It is generally used when illustrating the fundamental transmission properties of optical fiber.

Acceptance Angle:

Since, only rays with an angle greater than critical angle at the core cladding interface are transmitted
by total internal reflection, it propagated down the length.

Numerical Aperture:

It gives the relationship between the acceptance angle and the refractive indices of the three media
involved viz. the core, the cladding and air.

Where,

n0 = Refractive index of air

n1 = Refractive index of core
n2 = Refractive index of cladding

The Numerical Aperture is a very useful measure of light collecting ability of a fiber.

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Optical Fiber Communication System

Figure 5

Here, the information source provides an amplified electrical signal to a transmitter comprising an
electrical stage, which drives an optical source to give conversion, may be either a semiconductor laser
or LED. The optical source, which provides an electrical to optical conversion, an optical fiber cable
used for transmission of signal and the receiver, consists of an optical detector, which drives a further
electrical stage and hence provides demodulation of optical carrier. This electrical signal is amplified
and applied to the destination. e.g. speaker photo diodes (P-I-N, or avalanche) and in some instances
photo transistors and photo conductors are utilized for detection of optical signal and optical to
electrical conversion. The optical carrier may be modulated using an analog or digital information
signal. Analog modulation involves the variation of light emitted from the optical source in continuous
manner. In digital modulation however, discrete changes in the light intensity are obtained (i.e. ‘On-
Off’ pulses). Although often simpler to implement, analog modulation with an optical fiber
communication system is less efficient, requiring a far higher signal to noise ratio at the receiver than
digital modulation. Also, linearity needed for analog modulation is not provided by semiconductor
optical sources especially at high modulation frequencies.

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1. Enormous potential band width (BW)
The optical carrier frequency in the range 1013 to 1016 Hz. (generally near infrared around
1014 or 1015 GHz) yields a far greater potential transmission B.W. (Bandwidth) then
metallic cable system. (i.e. coaxial cable Bandwidth up to 500 MHz) or even millimeter
wave radio system. (i.e. system. Currently operating with modulation Bandwidth of 700
MHz) at present the Bandwidth available to fiber system is not fully utilized by modulation
at several GHz over hundred Km. and hundreds of MHz over 300 Km with intervening
electronics (repeaters) is possible. Therefore, the information carrying capacity of optical
fiber system has proved far superior to best copper cable available, by comparison losses in
coaxial cable systems restrict. A much enhanced Bandwidth utilization for an optical fiber
can be achieved bytransmitting several optical signals each at different centre wave lengths
in parallel on the same fiber. This wavelength division multiplexed operation particularly
with dense packing of the optical wave length or (fine frequency spacing) offers potential
information carrying capacity.

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2. Small size and weight

Optical fibers have very small diameter. Hence, when they are covered with protective
coatings they are far smaller & lighter. This is a tremendous boon towards the alleviation of
duct congestion in cities and allowing expansion of signal transmission in mobiles e.g.
aircrafts, ships etc.
3. Electrical isolation
Optical fibers are fabricated from glass or plastic polymers, they are electrical insulators
therefore they do not exhibit earth loop and interface problems. This property makes them
suited for communication in electrically hazardous environment as fiber create no arcing or
spark hazard at abrasions or short circuit & usually fiber do not contain sufficient energy to
ignite vapours or gases.
4. Immunity to interference and cross talk
Optical fibers form a dielectric wave guide and therefore are free from Electro Magnetic
Interference (EMI), Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) or switching transients. It is not
susceptible to lightening striker if used over head rather than underground. More over it is
easy to ensure that there is no optical interference between fibers.
5. Signal security
The light from optical fibers does not radiate significantly and therefore they provide a high
degree of signal security. A transmitted optical signal cannot be obtained from a fiber in a

non-invasive manner (i.e. without drawing optical power form the fiber). In theory,
any attempt to acquire a message signal transmitted optically may be detected. This
feature is obviously attractive for military & banking.
6. Low transmission loss
Optical fibers result in low attenuation or transmission loss in comparison with the best
copper conductor. It facilitates the implementation of communication links with extremely
wide repeater spacing thus reducing both system cost and complexity. This quality along
with already proven modulation B W capability of fiber cable, it is used in long haul
telecommunication applications.
7. Potential Low Cost
The glass which generally provides optical fiber transmission medium is made of sand not a
scarce resource. In comparison with copper conductors, opticalfiber offers low cost line
communication.

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The Optic Fiber:

The simplest fiber optic cable consists of two concentric layers of transparent materials. The inner
portion (the core) transports the light; the outer covering (the cladding) must have a lower refractive
index than the core so the two of them are made of different materials.

To provide mechanical protection for the cladding an additional plastic layer, the Primary Buffer is
added. Some constructions of optic fiber have additional layers of buffer, which are then referred to as
Secondary Buffer. It is very important to note that the whole fiber-Core, Cladding & Primary Buffer is
solid and the light is confined to the core by the Total Internal Reflection due to the difference in the
refractive index of the core as compared to that of cladding.

Figure 6

Single Mode v/s Multi mode:

As we have already seen that there are particular angles of propagation defined by cone of acceptance,
which are able to be transmitted down the optic fiber. At these angles, the electromagnetic wave which
is the light can set up a number of complete patterns across the fiber. The number of complete patterns
called Modes depends on the dimensions of the optic fiber core. There are essentially two different
types of fiber optic transmission schemes in use via,
1. Single mode
2. Multi mode
Single Mode:
As the name suggests the single mode cable is able to propagate only one mode (electromagnetic
wave). This is used in long distance and/or, high speed communication. It is beneficial over long
distances since it completely eliminates a problem known as Inter Modal Dispersionassociated with
multimode cables. All our long distance telephone conversations are now carried by single mode optic
fiber system over at least some part of the route. Multimode the term multimode means that the
diameter of the fiber optic core is large enough to propagate more than one mode (electro magnetic
wave). Because of the multiple modes the pulse that is transmitted down the fiber tends to become
stretched over distance this is referred to as dispersion & has the effect of reducing the available
bandwidth. These are typically used in applications such as LAN (Local Area Networks) & FDDI

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Step Index and Graded Index Fibers:

The first type of fiber optic cable used was called step index. In this design, the cladding has a different
index of refraction than the core. The light bounces off the side and is reflected back into the fiber
core. The problem with this design is that the reflected light must travel a slightly longer distance, than
that which travels down the center of the fiber, thus limiting the maximum transmission rate. This
design was improved with the use of graded index fiber. In this design, the index of refraction
decreases in proportion to the distance away from the center of the fiber core. The light moves more
quickly in the outer portion thus compensating for the additional distance. The change in index has the
effect of bending. This change increases the transmission capacity by a factor. In the newest single
mode design, the diameter of the fiber core is so small that all the light travels in a straight line. Even
the latest fiberoptic facility in use today uses less than 5 % of the maximum theoretical capacity of a
single mode fiber.
Some of the optical fibers in use are:

1. Multimode step index fibers.

3. Single mode step index fibers.
5. All plastic fibers.
Dimensions of fiber optic cables are written as a ratio e.g. a cable with cladding diameter of 125
microns and fiber core diameter of 62.5 or 50 microns will be referred to as 62 .5/125 or 50/ 125 fiber.
Choice of operating frequency:
Once we had the laser and the new optic fiber available, everything was in place for a significant
upsurge in communications. This resulted in two driving forces: one towards the ability to send more
data faster and secondly to send the data to greater distances without being re-amplified.
More Data Faster:
As the transmission rate of data is increased, the required bandwidth increases and this can best be
accommodated by increasing the carrier frequency. This premise has stood us in good stead over many
years. The speech and poor quality music transmissions on the medium frequency, AM radio, give way
to the higher frequency of FM radios which accommodate the increased bandwidth necessary for
improved music quality. When television required even higher data rates, we responded by moving to
even higher frequencies. These previous experience rather suggested that the light used for fiber optic
communications should be of the highest frequency possible. But there was a surprise in store.
Lower frequencies mean lower losses:
The first experiments used visible light of different colours (frequencies). As the losses were
measured, we found that the higher frequencies caused more losses. The losses actually increased by
the 4th power of the frequency. This means that a trebling of the frequency would result in the losses
increasing by 34 or 81 times.

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High frequency = high data rates

Low frequency = long ranges

At the moment, long distance communication is more important than achieving the ultimate in data
transmission rates. Therefore, in most real installations, we tend to go for the relatively low
frequencies of infrared light, which is just below the visible spectrum.

Fiber windows:

We now have an infrared range between 800 nm – 1700 nm with one part of it around 1380nm which
is best avoided. It seemed sensible to agree on standard wavelengths so that equipment from different
manufacturer can be compatible.

Figure 7

This has resulted in three standard wavelengths called windows. The windows were really the result of
looking at the available light sources. Some wavelengths of LED and laser light are easier and less
expensive than others to produce. The design and manufacture of the optic fiber is then optimized for
these frequencies.

Note:
The infrared light is very dangerous to eyes it can cause irreversible damages and since it is invisible
care should be taken to ensure that the optic fiber is not live.

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Losses in Optic Fiber:

1.Attenuation

Transmission of light is not 100% efficient. Some photons of light are lost, causing attenuation of signal.
Several mechanisms are involved, including absorption by materials within the fiber, scattering of light
out of the core caused by environmental factors. The degree of attenuation depends on the wavelength of
light transmitted. Attenuation measures the reduction in signal strength by comparing output power with
input power. Measurements are made in decibels (dB). It is defined as dB loss

2. Material absorption losses

It is a loss mechanism related to the material composition and fabrication process of the fiber
which result in the dissipation of some of the transmitted optical power as heat in waveguide.
The absorption of light may be intrinsic (caused by one or more major components of glass) or
extrinsic (caused by impurities within the glass).
3. Linear scattering losses

Linear scattering mechanisms cause the transfer of some or all of the optical power contained within one
propagating mode to be transferred linearly (proportionally) into a different mode. This process tends to
result in attenuation of the transmitted light as the transfer may be to a leaky or radiation mode which
does not continue to propagate within the fiber core, but is radiated from the fiber. It is mainly of two
types.

a. RayLeigh Scattering
b. Mie Scattering
Ray Leigh Scatter:

When the infrared light strikes a very - very small place where the materials in the glass are
imperfectly mixed. This gives rise to localized changes in the refractive index resulting in the light
being scattered in all directions. Some of the light escapes the optic fiber, some continues in the correct
direction and some is returned towards the light source. This is called back scatter.

Figure 8

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1. Mie scattering

These result from the non - perfect cylindrical structure of the waveguide. It may be the caused
by the imperfections such as irregularities in the core cladding interface core, cladding
refractive index difference along the fiber length, diameter fluctuations, strains and bubbles.
The scattering created by such in homogeneities is mainly in the forward direction.

2. Non linear scattering

Optical waveguide does not behave linearly, several non-linear effects occur, which in the case
of scattering cause disproportionate attenuation usually at high optical power level. This non-
linear scattering causes the optical power from one mode to be transferred in either the forward
or backward direction to the same, or other modes at different frequency. It depends critically
upon the optical power density within the fiber and hence only becomes significant above
threshold power levels.

3. Micro bending and macro bending

A problem which often occurs in cabling of the optical fiber is the meandering of the fiber core
axis on a microscopic scale within the cable form. This phenomenon, known as micro bending
result from small lateral forces exerted on the fiber during the cabling process and it causes
losses due to radiation in both multimode and single mode fiber.
Macro bends:
The light propagates down the optic fiber solely because the incident angle exceeds the critical angle.
If a sharp bend occurs, the normal and the critical angle move round with the fiber. The incident ray
continues in a straight line and it finds itself approaching the core - claddin han the critical angle and
much of light is able to escape.

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Dispersion:

When a laser is energized by a electrical pulse, it launches a short flash or light along the optic fiber.
It is an unfortunate fact that the light burst becomes longer as it moves along the fiber optic cable. The
light spreads out. This effect is called dispersion. In figure 10 the light pulse shown before and after it
has travelled through the cable.

Figure 10

It is going to limit how fast we can send data - how many bits per second we can transmit through a
fiber optic link. In fact it is the main limit to the data transmissionrate for long distance communication
system. If we send flashes of laser light down along link in which dispersion is a problem, the flashes
will merge at the far end andthe ‘On / Off’ states will not be distinguished by the receiver. Over a
giventransmission path, there are only two remedies. Firstly, we could reduce thetransmission rate so
that even allowing for the spreading effect of the dispersion, the‘On – Off’ states is still clearly
separated. This is not a very exciting solution andwould clash with one of the main reasons for using
optic fiber.

1.Inter modal dispersion

2.Intra modal dispersion

Inter modal Dispersion:

You will recall that, to be propagated down the core of the optic fiber, the light must enter at an angle
greater than the critical angle. Let us consider just two such rays of light as they travel along a section
of optic fiber.

Which ray would reach first?

Figure 11

Ray A will reach the far end before Ray B since it is travelling a shorter distance. Assuming that rays
A and B are part of the same pulse of light and start at the same time, we can now seePage how11the
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spreading of the pulses can occur. Each and every ray being propagated at its own angle will arrive at
MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual
slightly different times at the far end. This spreading effect will occur all along the fiber so it is also the
fiber so it is also important to appreciate that the longer the optic fiber, the greater the dispersion.
Transmission rates that are actually possible in an optic fiber therefore depend on its length. In
practice, there are only particular angles of propagation which are able to betransmitted down the optic
fiber.
Intra modal dispersion:
This form of dispersion occurs in both multimode and single mode optic fibers. It is only really
significant in single mode usage since, being very slight, it is completely swamped by the inter modal
dispersion in the multimode case. The cause is simple enough - the refractive index of material is
determined to some extent by the wavelength of the light source. Can you see how this causes
dispersion? A change in refractive index will change the speed of that particular wavelength of light.
Now if your light source produces different wavelengths concurrently, we will havecomponents of the
transmitted light pulse travelling simultaneously. If will have components of the transmitted light pulse
travelling at difference speeds. The total package of light will spread out - hence the dispersion.

The cure for inter modal dispersion:

A large core diameter means many modes and severe inter modal dispersion. The curefor this type of
dispersion is quite simple. Reduce the core size, the number of modesdecreases, and the inter modal
dispersion is reduced. We can do better than justreducing the inter modal dispersion, we can
completely eliminate it. Simply make thecore so small that only one mode is propagated. A single ray
cannot possibly go attwo different speeds so inter modal dispersion cannot occur. In practice the core
isreduced to about 9 m. The optic fiber which now carries only a single mode is nowreferred to as a
'single mode fiber'. Single mode fiber is used for all long distanceand/or high speed communications.
All long distance telephone conversations arenow carried by single mode fiber optic systems over
some parts of the route. The larger core optic fibers for short and medium distances carry many modes
and arecalled ' Multimode'.
The cure for intra modal dispersion:
The cure is apparently so simple; use a light source which emits only one wavelength of light.
Unfortunately, it has not yet been invented. Our light sources in current use are the LED and the laser.
Study figure 12 and decide which of the two would cause the lesser amount of intra modal dispersion.

Figure 12

The laser would cause less intra modal dispersion because its light is more concentrated around the
central wavelength. The spread of wavelength measured between the points where the power output
falls to half of the peak power is called the spectral width. Some lasers have spectral widths as low as
0.1 nm. The low spectral widt together with its high power and fast switching makes the laser first
choice for long distance communications using single mode optic fiber. Also there are some losses due
to coupling in between the fibers and at LED and photo detector ends. Page 12
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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

Security:

You will recall that one of the advantages of the fiber optic system is the high level of security offered.
We know however, that a macro bend would allow the light to escape and hence the data to be copied.
An OTDR monitoring the line would immediately detect the power loss of the macro bend and be able
to measure its distance along the optic fiber to an accuracy of approximately 0.1 meters (4 inches). The
same immediate detection 17
would occur as with the
security matting shown i

F
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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual
Experiment No -2

Apparatus required:
1.Fibre optic trainer kits with power supply cords
2. Optical Fiber cable.
3. Cathode ray oscilloscope.
4. Microphone
5. Speaker

Theory: Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Basically a
fiber optic link contains three main elements a transmitter, an optical fiber and a receiver. The transmitter
module takes the input signal in electrical form and then transforms it into optical energy containing the
same information. The optical fiber is the medium which takes the energy to the receiver. At the receiver,
light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern as fed to the transmitter. Transmitter:
Fiber optic transmitters are composed of a buffer, driver and optical source. The buffer provides both an
electrical connection and isolation between the transmitter and the electrical system the data.

The driver provides electrical power to the optical source. Finally, the optical source converts the
electrical current to the light energy with the same pattern. The optical source used is LED. Simple LED
circuit The transmitter section comprises of Function Generator which generates input signals that are
going to be used as information to transmit through optical fiber. The optic fiber plugs into the connectors
provided in this part of the board.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

JUMPPER SETTINGS DIAGRAM FOR ANALOG LINK

Procedure:

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756 TX1 (650 nm) from kit. Do not remove the
cap from connector once the cap is loosened, insert fiber into cap and assure fiber is
properly fixed. Now tight the cap by screwing it back. Keep the intensity potentiometer 3
at minimum position i.e. fully anticlockwise.
2. Make the connections and jumper settings as shown in Figure. Connect the power supply
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this, ensure that power supply is OFF.
3. Switch ON the power supply.
4. Select the frequency range of Function generator with the help of Range selection switch SW1,
frequency can be varied with potentiometer 2.Adjust the voltage level of sine wave with
potentiometer 1.
5. Connect sine post of function generator to IN post of analog buffer section.
6. Connect outpost of analog buffer section to TX IN post of transmitter.
7. Connect the other end of fiber to detector SFH 250V (RX1) IN kit.
8. Check the output signal from analog buffer at its outpost in kit. It should be the same as
the applied input signal.
9. Observe the output signal from detector at analog outpost on CRO by adjusting intensity
potentiometer 3in kit.
10. To measure analog bandwidth of link ,connect the external signal generator with 2Vp-p
sine wave to IN post of analog buffer section and vary frequency of input signal from 100
Hz onwards. Measure the amplitude of received signal for each frequency reading.
11. Plot graph o gain/frequency. Measure the frequency range for which response is flat.
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12. Repeat procedure 1to 11 for IR LED 450V (950 nm) TX

Observations:

1. Input voltage =
2. Detector output =
3. Amplifier output =
Expected wave forms

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Procedure:

1. Connect the microphone provided with the kit to socket marked MIC on the kit.
2. Make the connections as per connection diagram. Connect the power supply cables
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this ensure that power supply is OFF.
3. Connect Audio IN post IN post of analog buffer section.
4. Connect OUT post of analog buffer section to TX IN post of Transmitter.
5. Connect ANALOG OUT in receiver transimpedance amplifier section post to AUDIO
OUT post.
6. Connect speaker provided with the kit to socket marked Speaker on the kit.
7. Switch on power supply.
8. Speak from microphone and you could hear sound from speaker. Adjust intensity POT3
and volume POT5 to setup fiber optic audio link

Result: The fiber optic Analog link has been established.

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

Experiment No -3

Objective: The study of how digital signal can be transmitted over fiber cable and reproduce at

Apparatus required: 1.Fibre optic trainer kits with power supply cords
2. Optical Fiber cable.
3. Cathode ray oscilloscope.
Theory:
Fiber optic links can be used for transmission of digital as well as analog signals. Basically a
fiber optic link contains three main elements a transmitter, an optical fiber and a receiver. The
transmitter module takes the input signal in electrical form and then transforms it into optical
energy containing the same information. The optical fiber is the medium which takes the energy
to the receiver. At the receiver, light is converted back into electrical form with the same pattern
as fed to the transmitter.

Transmitter: Fiber optic transmitters are composed of a buffer, driver and optical source. The
buffer provides both an electrical connection and isolation between the transmitter and the
electrical system the data. The driver provides electrical power to the optical source. Finally, the
optical source converts the electrical current to the light energy with the same pattern. The
optical source used is LED. The transmitter section comprises of Function Generator which
generates input signals that are going to be used as information to transmit through optical fiber.
The optic fiber plugs into the connectors provided in this part of the board. Two separate links
are provided.

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR SETTING UP FIBER OPTIC DIGITAL LINK

Procedure:

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756 TX1 (660 nm) from kit. Do not remove the
cap from connector once the cap is loosened, insert fiber into cap and assure fiber is
properly fixed. Now tight the cap by screwing it back. Keep the intensity potentiometer 3
at minimum position i.e. fully anticlockwise.
2. Make the connections and jumper settings as shown in Figure. Connect the power supply
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this, ensure that power supply is OFF.
3. Switch ON the power supply.
4. Connect on board square signal of about 1 KHz to in post of digital buffer section and observe
signal at it out post. it should be the same as that of the input signal
5. Connect outpost of digital buffer section to TX IN post of transmitter.
6. Connect the other end of fiber to detector SFH 551V (RX2) IN kit.
7. Check the output signal from analog buffer at its outpost in kit. It should be the same as
the applied input signal.
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8. Observe the output signal from detector at TTL outpost on CRO. The transmitted signal
and received signal are same. Vary the frequency of input signal and observe output
response.
9. To set up a digital link using SFH 450 (950 nm) change jumper connections and repeat
steps 1 to 8 using SFH 450N (950 nm) instead of SFH 756 (660 nm).

Observations:
1. Input voltage =
2. Detector output =
3. Amplifier output =

Result: The fiber optic digital link has been established.

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MODERN COMMUNICATION LAB Lab Manual
Experiment No -4

Objective: To measure the Numerical Aperture (NA) of the fiber.

Apparatus required: 1.Fibre optic trainer kits with power supply cords
2. Optical Fiber cable.
3. Cathode ray oscilloscope.
4. Numerical aperture JIG
5. Steel ruler
Theory:
The numerical aperture refers to maximum angle at which the incident on fiber end is totally
internally reflected and is transmitted along the fiber. The cone formed by rotation of this angle
along the axis of the fiber is the cone of acceptance of fiber. if light ray should strike the fiber
end within this cone of acceptance it will be transmitted properly else it is refracted out of fiber.
Consideration in Numerical aperture measurement
It is very important that the optical source should be properly aligned with the cable and
distance from launched point. The cable should be properly selected to ensure that maximum
amount of optical power is transferred to cable.
The experiment is best performed in a less illuminated room.

Procedure:

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756 TX1 (660 nm) from kit. Do not remove the
cap from connector once the cap is loosened, insert fiber into cap and assure fiber is
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properly fixed. Now tight the cap by screwing it back. Keep the intensity potentiometer 3
at minimum position i.e. fully anticlockwise.
2. Make the connections and jumper settings as shown in Figure. Connect the power supply
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this, ensure that power supply is OFF.
3. Switch ON the power supply.
4. Insert the other end of fiber into numerical aperture measurement jig. Hold the white
sheet facing the fiber, and adjust the fiber such that its face is perpendicular to axis of the
fiber.
5. Keep the distance of about 10 mm between the fiber tip and the screen, gently tight the
screw and fix fiber in the place.
6. Now adjust potentiometer 4 fully clockwise position and observe the illuminated circular
patch of light on screen.
7. Measure exactly the distance d and also the vertical and horizontal diameters MR AND
PN as indicated if Figure----
8. Mean radius is calculated using formula r = (MR+PN)/4
9. Find numerical aperture of fiber using the formula
NA=Sin θmax =
θmax is the maximum angle at which the light incident is properly transmitted through
the fiber.

RESULT: The Numerical aperture of optical fiber is calculated.

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Experiment No - 5

Objective: To measure propagation loss and bending loss in plastic fiber.

Apparatus required: 1.Fibre optic trainer kits with power supply cords
2. Optical Fiber cable.
3. Cathode ray oscilloscope.
Theory:

Attenuation or loss in optical fibers basically refers to the loss of power. During transit, light
pulse loses some of their photons, thus reducing their amplitude. Attenuation for a fiber is
usually specified in decibels per kilometer. The degree of attenuation depends on the wavelength
of light transmitted.
Attenuation measures the reduction in signal strength by comparing the output power with input
power. Measurements are made in decibels (dB). The basic measurement for loss is done by
taking the logarithmic ratio of input power (Pi) to the output power (Po).

Material absorption losses - It is a loss mechanism related to the material composition and
fabrication process of the fiber which results in the dissipation of some of the transmitted optical
power as heat in waveguide. The absorption of light may be intrinsic (caused by one or more
major components of glass) or extrinsic (caused by impurities within the glass).

Linear scattering losses - Linear scattering mechanisms cause the transfer of some or all of the
optical power contained within one propagating mode to be transferred linearly(proportionally)
into a different mode. This process tends to result in attenuation of the transmitted light as the
transfer may be to a leaky or radiation mode which does not continue to propagate within the
fiber core, but is radiated from the fiber. It is mainly of two types:
a) Rayleigh scattering (b) Mie scattering

Bending loss
Radiative losses occur whenever an optical fiber undergoes a bend of finite radius of curvature.
Fibers can be subjected to two types of bends:
a) Macroscopic bends (having radii that are large as compared with the fiber diameter.
b) Random microscopic bends of fiber axis

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BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LOSS MEASUREMENT

Procedure:

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756 TX1 (660 nm) from kit. Do not remove the
cap from connector once the cap is loosened, insert fiber into cap and assure fiber is
Properly fixed. Now tight the cap by screwing it back. Keep the intensity potentiometer 3
at minimum position i.e. fully anticlockwise.
2. Make the connections and jumper settings as shown in Figure. Connect the power supply
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this, ensure that power supply is OFF.
3. Set the sine wave with 1 kHz, 2 Vp-p amplitude and connect to IN post of analog buffer
section.
4. Connect the other end of fiber to detector SFH 250V (RX1) IN kit.
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Observe the output signal from detector at analog outpost on CRO by adjusting intensity
potentiometer 3 in kit and it should be same as original signal. Mark this as V1.

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7. Now replace 1meter fiber without disturbing any previous settings. Measure amplitude
levels at the receiver side again. Mark this as V2
8. If α is the attenuation of fiber then αdb =(10/L1-L2) log10 (V2-V1)
Where α= dB/km, L1=fiber length for V1, L2 = fiber length for V2. α is for wave length
950 nm.
9. To get α for 660 nm wave length, repeat steps 1 to 8 replacing SFH 450V (950 nm) by
SFH 756V (660 nm).
10. Observe the output signal from detector at analog outpost on CRO by adjusting intensity
potentiometer 3 in kit.
11. Connect the jumper settings as shown in figure.
12. Compare values of α and find out the wavelength, which has less attenuation in fiber.
Measure of Bending Losses.
1. Repeat the entire step from 1 to 10 as above.
2. Bend the fiber in a loop.
3. Keep reducing the diameter to about 2 cm & take corresponding output voltage reading.
4. Plot a graph of received signal amplitude versus the loop diameter.

Result: The fiber optic digital link has been established.

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Experiment No - 6

Objective: To study the circuit action of pulse width modulation and demodulation over fiber

Apparatus required: 1. Fibre optic trainer kits with power supply cords
2. Optical Fiber cable.
3. Cathode ray oscilloscope.

Theory:

Pulse width Modulation

This technique of modulation controls the variation of duty cycle of square wave according to
input modulating signal. The amplitude variations of modulating signal is reflected into ON
period variations of square wave. Hence it is also called as technique of V to T conversion.
The input signal is pulse width modulated, so the ON time of the signal is changing according to
modulated signal .In this demodulation technique the PWM signal is applied to an integrator ,the
output is filtered to obtain original signal.

Procedure:

1. Slightly unscrew the cap of LED SFH 756 TX1 (660 nm) from kit. Do not remove the
cap from connector once the cap is loosened, insert fiber into cap and assure fiber is
properly fixed. Now tight the cap by screwing it back.
2. Make the connections and jumper settings as shown in Figure. Connect the power supply
with proper polarity to kit. While connecting this, ensure that power supply is OFF.

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3. Switch ON the power supply.
4. Connect sine post of function generator to PWM IN post of PPM/PWM modulator switch.
5. Select the frequency 1-10Hz with amplitude of 2 VP-P for proper observation of phenomena.
6. Observe PWM signal at PWM outpost the variation of width of square wave is clear.
7. Connect PWM out post of PWM/PPM modulator section to IN post of digital buffer section.
8. Connect OUT post of digital buffer section to TX IN post of transmitter.
9. Connector the other end of fiber to detector SFH551V very carefully as per instruction in step 1.
10. Observe the received signal over fiber at TTL OUT post it should be exactly the same signal
available at PWM OUT post.
11. Slide the switch SW2 to PWM position.
12. Connect the TTLOUT post to PWM demodulator IN post in PWM/PPM demodulator
section.
13. Vary input frequency potentiometer P2 and observe demodulated signal at DEMOD OUT
post. Of PWM/PPM Demodulator. Connect PWM/PPM DEMOD OUT post to IN post of
filter section and observe output at its OUT post which is same as input signal.
14. For different sampling frequencies change jumper cap of JP1 from 32 kHz to desired
value of frequency. The PWM output at lower frequency demodulated PWM OUTis
more distorted at lower sampling frequency.
15. Repeat the above procedure for SFH50V.

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Result: The PWM modulation and Demodulation has been studied over fiber kit.

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Experiment No – 7

AIM: To find Numerical aperture using MATLAB software

SOFTWARE REQUIRED
MATLAB, Computer installed with Windows XP or higher Version.

Clear all;
di sp(‘fundamental of step index fibers’) ;
n1= input (‘enter index of core=’) ;
n2 = input (‘enter index of cladding’) ;
lambda = input (enter operating wave length of fiber in micrometer=’) ;
NA=((n1^2)- (n2^02))^1/2;
di sp (‘numerical aperture of fiber is =’) ;
di sp(NA);
theta = asind(NA)
disp(Acceptance angle in degrees is =’)
disp(theta);
ohm =pi*(NA^2)
disp(Solid Acceptance angle in radians is =’)
disp(ohm);9theta
beta =(w*pi*n1/lambda)*cos(theta);
disp(‘propagation constant of fiber in degree per micrometer is =’);
disp (beta):

TEST PROCEDURE
1. Open the MATLAB® software by double clicking its icon.
2. MATLAB® logo will appear and after few moments Command Prompt will appear.
3. Go to the File Menu and select a New M- file. (File _New-file) or in the left hand corner a
blank white paper icon will be there. Click it once.
4. A blank M- file will appear with a title ‘untitled’
5. Now start typing your program. After completing, save the M- file with appropriate name. To
execute the program Press F5 or go to Debug Menu and select Run.
6. After execution output will appear in the Command window .If there is an error then with an
alarm, type of error will appear in red color.
7. Rectify the error if any and go to Debug Menu and select Run.

Cl

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CCYCC

CYCLE-C

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C Experiment No – 8

AIM: - To study wave guide components.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-
1.

Flanges 
2.

Twisted wave guide 
3.

Wave guide tees 
4.

Directional Coupler 
5.

Attenuator 
6.

Isolators 
7.

Circulators 
8.

Matched terminator 
9.

Slide screw tuner 
10.

Slotted Section 
11

.Tunable probe 
12.

Horn antennas 
13.

Movable Short 
14.

Detector mount
15.

Tunable probe 
16.

Klystorn mount 
17.

Klystorn power supply 
18.

Gunn power supply 
19. Gunn oscillator
20.

Pin modulator
21.

Frequency Meter 
22. VSWR meter 

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THEORY:- A pipe with any sort of cross- section that could be used as a wave guide or
system of conductors for carrying electromagnetic wave, is called a wave guide in
which the waves are truly guided.

(1) FLANGES :- A Waveguide flange is Connector for joining sections of waveguide. These
flanges are designed to have not only mechanical strength but also desirable electric
characteristics.

(2) WAVEGUIDE :-
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound waves.
There are different types of waveguides for each type of wave. The original and most common
meaning is a hollow conductive metal pipe used to carry high frequency radio waves,
particularly microwaves.
a) RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE:- Rectangular waveguides are important for two reasons.
First of all, the Laplacian operator separates nicely in Cartesian coordinates, so that the boundary
value problem that must be solved is both familiar and straightforward. Second, they are
extremely common in actual application in physics laboratories for piping e.g. microwaves
around as experimental probes.

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b) TWISTED WAVEGUIDE :-If a change in polarization direction is required, twisted section

may be used. It is also called rotator. In order to prevent undue distortion on the waveform a 90°
twist should be undertaken over a distance greater than two wavelengths of the frequency in use.
If a complete inversion is required, e.g. for phasing requirements, the overall inversion or 180°
twist should be undertaken over a four wavelength distance..

(3) WAVE GUIDE TEE :- Tees are junctions which are required to combine or split two
signals in a wave guide. Different type of tees are :-
(a) H - PLANE TEE :- All the arm of the H- plane Tee lies in the plane of the magnetic field
which divide among the arm. H - Plane Tee are shunt type T - junction for use in conjunction
with VSWR meters, frequency - meters and other detector devices. Like in E-plane tee, the
signal fed through first port of H - plane Tee will be equally divided in magnitude at second and
third ports but in same phase.. This is thus a current or parallel junction.

(b) E- PLANE TEE : - It lies in the plane of electric field . It is voltage or series junction. E -
plane tee type T - junction consists of three section of wave guide joined together in order to
divide or compare power levels. The signal entering the first port of this T - junction will be
equally dividing at second and third ports of the same magnitude but in opposite phase. In this
signal is divided in to two parts having same magnitude but in opposite phase.

E-Plane TEE H-Plane TEE

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(c) MAGIC TEE :- If another arm is added to either of the T-junction. Then a hybrid T-junction
or magic tee is obtained. The arm three or four is connected to arm 1&2 but not to each other.

(4) DIRECTION COUPLER :- The power delivered to a load or an antenna can be measured
using sampling technique in which a known fraction of the power is measured so that the total
may be calculated. A number of coupling units used for such purpose are known as directional
coupler. Multihole directional couplers are useful for sampling a part of Microwave energy for
monitoring purposes and for measuring reflections and impedance. These consists of a section of
Wave guide with addition of a second parallel section of wave guide thus making it a four port
network. However the fourth port is terminated with a matched load. These two parallel sections
are coupled to each other through many holes, almost to give uniform coupling; minimum
frequency sensitivity and high directivity. These are available in 3,6,10,20 and 40dB coupling.

(5) ATTENUATORS :- It consist of a resistive wane inside the wave guide to absorb
microwave power according to its position w.r.t side wall of the wave guide. Attenuation will be
maximum if the wane is placed at center.
(a) Fixed Attenuators : In this the position of resistive wane is fixed, it absorbs constant amount
of power. Fixed Attenuators are meant for inserting a known attenuation in a wave

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guide system. These consists of a lossy vane inserted in a section of wave guide, flanged on
both ends. These are useful for isolation of wave guide circuits, padding and extending the
range of measuring equipments.
(b) Variable Attenuators :- In this the position of resistive wane can be changed with the help
of micrometer.

Fixed Attenuator Variable Attenuator

(6) CIRCULATORS :- A microwave circulator is a multi port junction device where the power
may flow in the direction from 1 to 2 , 2 to 3, & so on.

(7) ISOLATORS :- Ferrite is used as the main material in isolator. Isolator is a microwave
device which allows RF energy to pass through in one direction with very little loss, while RF
power in the reverse direction is absorbed. The three port circulators may be converted into
isolators by terminating one of its port into matched load. these will work over the frequency
range of circulators. These are well matched devices offering low forward insertion loss and high
reverse isolation.

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(8) MATCHED TERMINATION :- A termination producing no reflected wave at any

transverse section of the wave guide. It absorbs all the incident wave. This is also equivalent to
connecting the line with its characteristic impedance. Matched Terminations are useful for
USWR measurement of various waveguide components. These are also employed as dummy and
as a precise reference loads with Tee junctions, directional couplers and other similar dividing
devices.

(9) SLOTTED SECTION :- A length of wave guide in which a non radiating slot is cut on the
broader side. A section of waveguide or shielded transmission line in which the schield is slotted
to permit the use of a traveling probe for examination of standing waves. Also known as slotted
line; slotted waveguide. This is used to measure the VSWR.

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(10) SLIDE SCREW TUNER:- A screw or probe inserted at the top of wave guide (parallel to
E) to develop susceptance the magnitude & sign of which is controlled by depth of penetration of
screw and it can be moved along the length of wave guide.

(11) H – PLANE BEND :- An H-plane bend is a peace of wave guide smoothly bend in a plane
parallel to magnetic field for the dominant mode (Hard bend).

(12) E – PLANE BEND :- An E-plane bend is a peace of wave guide smoothly bend in a plane
of electric field (Easy bend).

H – PLANE BEND E – PLANE BEND

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(13) HORN ANTENNAS :- The components which radiate & intercept EM energy is of course
the antenna. The open-ended wave guide in which the open end is flared so that it looks like a
horn, is called horn antenna. There are several type of horns – Sectional E-plane horn, Sectional
H- plane horn and Pyramidal horn.

Pyramidal horn E-plane horn Sectional H- plane horn

(14) MOVABLE SHORT :- It is adjustable load which moves along the length of wave guide
and adjusted to get SWR. movable shorts consists of a section of waveguide, flanged on one end
and terminated with a movable shorting plunger on the other end. By means of this non
contacting type plunger, a reflection co-efficient of almost unity may be obtained.

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(15) DETECTOR MOUNT :- It is used to detect the modulated signal. A diode is mounted in
it. Tunable Detector Mount is simple and easy to use instrument for detecting microwave power
through a suitable detector. It consists of a detector crystal mounted in a section of a Wave guide
and shorting plunger for matching purpose. The output from the crystal may be fed to an
indicating instrument. In K and R bands detector mounts the plunger is driven by a micrometer..

(16) TUNABLE PROBE :- These are meant for exploring the energy of the EF in a suitably
fabricated section of waveguide. The depth of penetration into a wave guide - section is
adjustable by the knob of the probe. The tip pick up the RF power from the line and this power is
rectified by crystal detector, which is then fed to the VSWR meter or indicating instrument.

(17) KLYSTRON MOUNT:- It consists of a section of wave guide flanged on one end and
terminated with a movable short on the other end. An octal base with cable is provided for
Klystron.

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(18) KLYSTRON POWER SUPPLY:- Klystron Power Supply For the klystron based
microwave bench. Klystron power supply generates required beam and repeller voltage for the
X-Band klystron tube. It is very stable and contains the short circuit protection circuit. Also it has
amplitude and frequency modulation circuits for the generation of 1 KHz square wave and the
saw tooth wave. Specifications Model SKPS-610 Beam Supply:
Voltage Range: 200-450 V continuously Variable
Current: 50mA Max
Regulation: Better than 0.5% for 10% variation in the mains supply voltage
Ripple: Less than 5 mV rms
Repler supply Voltage Range: 10V to 270 V DC Continuously variable with respect to
klystron cathode
Regulation: 0.25% for 10% variation in the mains supply voltage
Heater Supply: 6.3 V DC (Regulated)
Modulation:

Square Wave: Max. Amplitude: + 110 V peak to peak Freq.: 500 Hz-2000Hz Amplitude and
frequency continuously variable
Sawtooth: Amplitude: -60 V max. peak to peak Freq.: 50 Hz-150 Hz Amplitude and
frequency continuously variable
Operating Voltage: 230V 10%, 50 Hz, A.C.

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GUNN POWER SUPPLY: For Gunn based bench. It is regulated power supply to operate the
gunn oscillator. It also contains square wave generator to provide 1KHz frequency to the pin
modulator for amplitude modulation.

Specifications:
Voltage Range: 0-12V continuously
variable Current: 1A max
Regulation: 0.2 % for 10 % variation in the mains supply voltage
Ripple: 1mVrms
Modulation frequency: 1kHz +/- 10% (900-1100kHz)
Output Connector: BNC (F) for Gunn Oscillator and TNC (F) for Pin Modulator

(19) GUNN POWER SUPPLY: Gunn power supply is an electronically regulated supply
having a square wave generator which operates the Gunn Oscillator and Pin Modulator.
Specifications:
Voltage range -0 - 12 Volts variable
Current -1 Amp. Max.
Regulation - 0.2% for +/- 10% variation in the mains supply voltage
Ripple - 1mV rms
Modulation Frequency - 1KHz +/- 10% (900-1100 Hz)
Output Connector - BNC(F) for Gunn Oscillator & TNC(F) for Pin Modulator.
Heater Supply - 6.3V DC (regulated)

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Modulation - Square Wave : Frequency 500Hz to 2000Hz; Max. Amplitude +110V peak to peak,
Amplitude and frequency continuously variable; Sawtooth: Frequency 50Hz to 150Hz; Max.
Amplitude -60V peak to peak, Amplitude and frequency continuously variable.

(20) GUNN OSCILLATOR:-Gunn oscillators are used to generate the microwave signal and its
micrometer is used to tune the output frequency of gunn oscillator.

(21) PIN MODULATORS:- Pin modulators are designed to modulate the CW output of Gunn
Oscillators. It is operated by the square pulses derived from the UHF(F) connector of the Gunn
power supply. These consists of a pin diode mounted inside a section of Wave guide flanged on
it’s both end. A fixed attenuation vane is mounted inside at the input to protect the oscillator.

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(22) FREQUENCY METER:- Direct reading frequency meter is made up of a cylindrical

cavity resonator fitted with a variable short circuit termination. It can measure the frequency of
microwave signal directly. Very useful for measurement of frequency differences of small
changes.
Micrometer type frequency meter is used for high accuracy measurements. It consists of a cavity,
plunger fitted with a micrometer and section of standard waveguide.

(23) VSWR Meter:- This is high gain meter and its Voltage Amplifier is tuned at the centre It
frequency of 1 KHz. is used for measuring voltage standing wave ratio, attenuation and total
mismatch on the line.

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PRECAUTIONS:-
1. Handle all components with care and do not allow any damage to take place.
2. Do not rub/scratch the inner polished surfaces of the components with any sharp edged body.
3. If demonstrating any assembly of components, ensure that there is no cross threading and
proper tightening.

RESULT:- Students have been able to appreciate the purpose and usage of various components.

POST LAB QUESTIONS

1. What is microwave?
2. Mention the frequency band for a millimeter wave.
3. List some of IEEE microwave frequency bands.
4. List some of characteristic feature of microwave.
5. List some of the application of microwave technology.
6. Draw a simple microwave system.
7. What are waveguide `Tees’?
8. List the basic type of waveguide tees.
9. What is an isolator?
10. What is a circulator?
11. What is a directional coupler?
12. What is velocity modulation?
13. Mention the Principle used in Klystron?
14. When the o/p power of reflex klystron maximum?
15. What is meant by attenuator?

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EXPERIMENT-9
MICROWAVE FREQUENCY & WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENT

AIM: - To determine the frequency in a rectangular wave guide working in TE10 mode.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-
1. Klystron tube 
2. Klystron power supply 
3. Klystron mount 
4. Isolator 
5. Frequency Meter 
6. Slotted section 
7. Tunable Probe 
8. Variable Attenuator 
9. Wave guide stand 
10. VSWR meter 
11. Movable Short / Matched Termination 
12. BNC to BNC Cables. 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

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THEORY:- For dominant TE10 mode in rectangular wave guides λo, λg, and λc are related
as below
1 = 1+ 1
2 2
λ λ2 λ
0 g c
Where, λo = free space wavelength
λg = Guide wavelength
λc = Cut off wavelength
For dominant TE 10 mode λc = 2a where a is broad dimension of wave guide
. The following relationship can be proved.
C=fλ
Where, C is velocity of light and f is frequency.

PROCEDURE: -
(1) Set the components and equipments as shown in block diagram.
(2) Initially set the variable attenuator for maximum position.
(3) Keep the control knobs of Klystron Power Supply as below:
Meter Switch - ‘OFF’
Mod Switch - AM
Beam voltage knob - Fully anti-clockwise
Reflector voltage - Fully clockwise
AM- amplitude knob - Around fully clockwise
AM- frequency knob - Around mid position.
(4) Keep the control knob of VSWR meter as below:
Meter Switch - Normal
Input Switch - Low Impedance
Range db Switch - 50 db
Gain Control knob - Mid position
(5) ‘ON’ the Klystron Power Supply, VSWR meter and Cooling Fan

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(6) Turn the meter switch of power supply to beam voltage position and set beam voltage at
300V with the help of beam voltage knob.
(7) Adjust the reflector voltage to get some deflection in VSWR meter.
(8) Maximize the deflection with AM amplitude and frequency control knob of power supply.
(9) Tune the plunger, reflector voltage, and probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter.
(10) Tune the frequency meter knob to get the ‘dip’ on the VSWR scale and note down the
frequency directly from frequency meter.
(11) Replace the termination with movable short, and detune the frequency meter.
(12) Move probe along with the slotted line, the deflection in VSWR meter will vary. Move the
probe to a minimum deflection position, to get accurate reading, it is necessary to increase the
VSWR meter range db switch to higher position. Note and record the probe position
(13) Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again.
(14) Calculate the guide length wave as twice the distance between successive minimum
positions obtained as above.
(15) Measure the wave guide inner broad dimension ‘a’ which will be around 22.86 mm for X-
band
C
(16) Calculate the frequency by following equation. f   C
where C = 3 X 108m/s
 1 1

 2  2
g c

i.e velocity of light.

(17) Verify with frequency obtained by frequency meter.
(18) Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies

OBESERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:-

Beam Voltage=290V Repeller Voltage=-150V
Calculate frequency using the equation

λg = 2d=4.7 cm

d = first min. – second min=2.3cm.

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λC = 2a=4.56cm.
C C
f  =9.17GHz
 1 1

 2 2
g c

Practically Frequency= ---------GHz.

PRECAUTIONS:-
1. Use fan to keep the Klystron temperature low.
2. Ensure tight connections of the apparatus
3. Avoid cross connections of the threads.
4. Use stabilized power supply.
5. Keep the beam voltage knob to fully anti clockwise and the repeller voltage knob to fully
clockwise.
6. The Beam Voltage should not be more than 300V.
7. Before switch off the power supply release HT knob, Beam voltage fully anti clockwise and
repeller voltage fully clockwise.

RESULT: - The frequency and wave length in a rectangular waveguide working in TE10
mode has been and verified with direct reading.

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EXPERIMENT-10
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS

AIM: - To measure Insertion loss & Directivity of a Multi Hole Directional coupler.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-

1. Klystron power supply 

2. Klystron mount with Tube 

3. Isolator 

4. Cooling fan 

5. Frequency Meter 

6. Detector mount 

7. Variable Attenuator 

8. Waveguide stand 

9. VSWR meter 

10. MHD coupler 

11. Matched Termination 
12. BNC to BNC Cables 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

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THEORY:-
A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the incident and reflected
wave separately. It consist of two transmission lines, main arm and auxiliary arm, electro
magnetically coupled to each other. The diagram is given below. The power entering in port 1 in
the main arm divides between port 2 and port 4 almost no power comes out of port 3. Power
entering in port 2 is divided between port 1 and 3.

Assuming power is entering from port 1, then

The coupling factor is defined as
Coupling (db) = 10 log 10 P1 / P4
Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in transmission line
by Insertion of coupler. It is defined as:
Insertion loss = 10 log 10 P1 / P2.
The directivity of the coupler is a measure of separation between incident wave and the reflected
wave. It is measured as the ratio of two power outputs from the auxiliary line when a given
amount of power is successively applied to each terminal of the main line with other port
terminated by matched load. Hence Directivity is given by
D (db) = 10 log 10 P4f/ P4r
Where P4f and P4r are the measured powers at port 4 with equal amount of power is fed to port 1
and port 2 respectively

PROCEDURE:-
Measurement of Coupling factor, Insertion loss & Directivity
(1) Set the equipment as shown in fig.
(2) Initially set the variable attenuator for maximum position.
(3) Keep the control knobs of Klystron Power Supply as below:
Meter Switch - ‘OFF’
Mod Switch - AM
Beam voltage knob - Fully anti-clockwise
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Reflector voltage - Fully anti-clockwise
AM- amplitude - Around fully clockwise
Keep the control knob of VSWR meter as
below:

Input Switch - Low Impedance

Range db Switch - 40 db
Gain Control knob - Mid position
(4) Switch ‘ON’ the Klystron Power Supply, VSWR meter and Cooling Fan
(5) Energize the microwave source for particular operation of frequency.
(6) Remove the MHD coupler and connect the detector mount to the frequency meter. Tune
the detector for max. Output.
(7) Set any reference level of power on VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator,
gain control knob of VSWR meter and note down the reading (let it be X).
(8) Insert the D.C as shown in fig. With detector mount to the auxiliary port 4 and matched
termination to port 2. Without changing the position of variable attenuator and gain
control knob of VSWR meter.
(9) Note down the reading on VSWR meter (let it be Y) and calculate coupling factor using
X &Y, which will be in db.
(10) Now carefully disconnect the detector from the auxiliary port 4 and match
termination from port2 without disturbing the setup.
(11) Connect the matched termination to the aux. Port 4 and detector to port 2 and
measure the reading on VSWR meter (let it be Z).
(12) Compute insertion loss using X & Z in db.
(13) Repeat the steps from 1 to 4.
(14) Connect the D.C in the reverse direction i.e port 2 to frequency meter side,
matched termination to port1 and detector mount to port 4, without disturbing the
position of the variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter.
(15) Note down the reading and let it be Y0 .Compute the directivity as Y- Y0.
(16) Repeat the same for other frequency.

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OBSERVATIONS AND CALUCLATIONS:-

Input Power Pi =
Port 1 as Input
Output at port 2 Pr =
Output at port 3 Pf =
Port 2 as Input
Output at port 3 Pb=
Coupling factor = Pi -Pf =
Directivity = Pf- Pb =
Isolation = Pi- Pb =

RESULTS: - Thus Directional coupler characteristics have been studied.

Insertion loss of directional coupler is ____________
Directivity of directional coupler is ________________
Isolation of directional coupler is __________________

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EXPERIMENT NO -11

MAGIC TEE

AIM:- To measure the S-Parameters of Magic Tee.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-

1 .Klystron power supply 

2. Klystron mount with Tube 

3. Isolator 

4. Frequency Meter 

5. Variable Attenuator 

6. Detector mounts 

7. Magic Tee 

8. VSWR meter 

9. Cooling fan 
10. Wave guide stand, BNC to BNC Cables. 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

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THEORY:- The Magic Tee is a four port device & it is a combination of the E & H plane
Tee. If the power is fed into arm 3 (H- arm), the electric field divides equally between arm 1 and
2 with same phase, and no electric field exists in arm 4. If the power is fed in arm 4 (E- arm), it
divides equally into arm 1 and 2 but out of phase with no power to arm 3. Further, if the power is
fed from arm 1 and 2, it is added in arm 3 (H-arm), and it is subtracted in E-arm, i.e., arm 4.The
basic parameters to be measured for magic Tee are defined below:

A. Isolation :- The isolation between E and H arms is defined as the ratio of the power supplied
by the generator connected to the E-arm (port 4) to the power detected at H-arm (port3) when
side arms 1 and 2 are terminated in matched load.
Hence, Isolation 3-4 = 10 log10 P4 / P3

B. Coupling Coefficient :- It is defined as Cij = 10 –α / 20

Where α is attenuation / isolation in db when i is input arm and j is output arm.
Thus α = 10 log Pi / Pj
Where Pi is the power delivered to arm i and Pj is power detected at j arm.

PROCEDURE:-

Measurement of Isolation and Coupling Coefficient

(1) Set the equipments as shown in fig.
(2) Remove the tunable probe and magic Tee from the slotted line and connect the detector
mount to the slotted line.
(3) Energize the microwave source for particular operation of frequency and Tune the detector
for max. Output.
(4) Set any reference level of power on VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator; gain
control knob of VSWR meter and note down the reading (let it be P3 ).
(5) Without changing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter,
carefully place the magic Tee after slotted line keeping H-arm to slotted line, detector to E-arm
and matched termination to arm1 and 2. note down the reading of VSWR meter (let it be P4 ).
(6) Determine the isolation between port 3 and 4 as P3 – P4 in db.

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(7) Determine the coupling coefficient from equation given .

(8) The same experiment may be repeated for other ports also.
(9) Repeat the same for other frequencies.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:-

P3 =
P4 =
Calculate Isolation and coupling coefficient using
Isolation 3-4 =
α = 10 log Pi / Pj =

PRECAUTIONS:-
1. Use fan to keep the Klystron temperature low.
2. Ensure tight connections of the apparatus
3. Avoid cross connections of the threads.
4. Use stabilized power supply.
5. Keep the beam voltage knob to fully anti clockwise and the repeller voltage knob to fully
clockwise.
6. The Beam Voltage should not be more than 300V.
7. Before switch off the power supply release HT knob, Beam voltage fully anti clockwise and
Repeller voltage fully clockwise

RESULT:- Measured the S-parameters of Magic TEE

POST LAB QUESTIONS
1. What are the several types of tees used in microwave communication?
2. What is the S.Matrix of H-plane Tee function.
3. What is a hybrid `T’ or magic `T’?
4. Application of magic Tee.
5. List some of the basic Magic Tee parameters.

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EXPERIMENT NO -12
RADIATION PATTERN MEASUREMENTS OF HORN ANTENNA.

AIM:
To measure the polar pattern and the gain of a horn Antennas.

APPARATUS:
1. Microwave source (Gunn or Klystron) with power supply
2. Frequency meter
3. Isolator
4. Variable attenuator
5. Detector mount
6. Antennas
7. SWR meter & accessories.
THEORY:
If a transmission line propagating energy is left open at one end, there will be radiation from this
end. In case of a rectangular wave-guide this antenna presents a mismatch of about 2:1 and it
radiates in many directions. The match will improve if the open wave guide is a horn shape. The
Radiation pattern of an antenna is a diagram of field strength or more often the power intensity
as a function of the aspect angle at a constant distance from the radiating antenna. An antenna
pattern is of course three dimensional but for practical reasons it is normally presented as a two
dimensional pattern in one or several planes. An antenna pattern consists of several lobes, the
main lobe, side lobes and the back lobe. The major power is concentrated in the main lobe and it
is required to keep the power in the side lobes arid back lobe as low as possible. The power
intensity at the maximum of the main lobe compared to the power intensity achieved from an
imaginary omni-directional antenna (radiating equally in all directions) with the same power fed
to the antenna is defined as gain of the antenna.
3dB Beam Width:
This is the angle between the two points on a main lobe where the power intensity is half the
maximum power intensity. When measuring an antenna pattern, it is normally most interesting to
plot the pattern far from the antenna.
Far field pattern is achieved at a minimum distance of
2D2 /- (for rectangular Horn antenna)
Where
D is the size of the broad wall of horn aperture
0 is free space wave length.

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It is also very important to avoid disturbing reflection. Antenna measurement are normally made
at outdoor ranges or in so called anechoic chambers made of absorbing materials. Antenna
measurements are mostly made with unknown antenna as receiver. There are several methods to
measure the gain of antenna. One method is to compare the unknown antenna with a standard
gain antenna with known gain. Another method is to use two identical antennas, as transmitter
and other as receiver. From following formula the gain can be calculated.

Where
Pt is transmitted power
G1, G2 is gain of transmitting and receiving antenna
S is the radial distance between two antennas
o is free space wave length.
If both, transmitting and receiving antenna are identical having gain G then above equation

In the above equation Pt, Pr and S and o can be measured and gain can be computed.as is
evident from the above equation, it is not necessary to know the absolute value of Pt and Pr only
ratio is required which can be measured by VSWR meter.

PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the equipments as shown in the figure, keeping the axis of both antennas in same axis
line and for start connect horn antenna at both the ends

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2. Energize the Microwave source for maximum output at desired frequency with square wave
modulation as per procedure.
3. Obtain full scale deflection (0 dB) at any convenient range switch position of the SWR Meter
by gain control knob of SWR meter or by variable attenuator.
Result and analysis:
4. Turn the receiving horn to the left in 2° or 5° steps up to and note the dB reading. When
necessary change the range switches to next higher.
5. Draw the radiation pattern (power vs. angle).
6. Now you can replace the antenna by another given antenna at the receiver position.
7. From diagram determine 3dB width (beam width) of horn antenna.
Gain Measurement:
1. Set up the equipments as shown in fig. Both horns should be in line. Connect standard gain
horn antenna (16dB) at transmitter end and any other antenna for which gain is to be measured
2. Keep the range dB switch of VSWR meter at appropriate position.
3. Energize the Gunn Oscillator for maximum output at desired frequency with modulating
amplitude and frequency of potentiometer and by tuning of detector
4. Obtain maximum reading in SWR meter with variable attenuator. Record this reading as Pr
5. Replace the transmitting horn by detector mount and change the appropriate range db position
to get the reading (do not touch the gain control knob) Note and record the range db position
6. Now change the horn antenna at the receiver end.
RESULT AND ANALYSIS:

Where, Pt = transmitter power, Pr = received power ,

G1 = Gain of standard horn antenna = 16 dB
G2 = Gain of unknown two antennas
S = Radial distance between two antennas

λ0 = Free space wavelength

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POST LAB QUESTIONS

1.
1. List some of the types of antennas used in microwaves.
2. Why is a paraboloid preferred to horn at microwave frequencies?
3. Write the formula for directivity & power gain of horn antenna.
4. What are the different types of horn antenna is used in microwave frequencies?
5. List some common features of horn antenna.

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EXPERIMENT NO -12
STANDING WAVE RATIO AND REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
MEASUREMENT

AIM: To determine the standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient

APPARATUS:
1. Microwave source (Gunn or Klystron) with power supply
2. Frequency meter
3. Isolator
4. Variable attenuator
5. Detector mount
6. Antennas
7. SWR meter & accessories.
8. Movable short and S-S tuner

THEORY:
The reflex klystron makes use of velocity modulation to transform a continuous
electron beam into microwave power. The electromagnetic field at any point of transmission line
may 60 be considered as the sum of to traveling waves the instant wave propagates from
generator and the reflected wave propagates towards the generator. The reflected wave is set up
by the reflection of instant wave from a discontinuity on the line or from the load impedance.
The magnitude and face of the reflector wave depends up on amplitude and face of the reflecting
impedance. The maximum field strength is found were two wave are in face and minimum were
the two waves adds in opposite face. The distance between two successive minimum (or
maximum) is half the guide wave length on the line. The ratio electrical field strengths of
reflected and incidents wave is called reflection coefficient.VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio)
is defined as the ratio between maximum and minimum field strength along the line.

VSWR(S)= E MAX /E MIN

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PROCEDURE:
1 .Set the cooling fan to blow air across the tube and turn on the filament voltage, and then wait
for a few minutes.
2. Set the attenuator at a suitable level, say at 3 db value.
3.Apply the repeller voltage to its maximum value, say –250 V.
4. Then apply beam voltage say 250 V, to obtain an electron beam indicated by beam current
meter. Klystron is thus set to be oscillates and power output is indicated.
5. Adjust the repeller voltage to have maximum power output (micro ammeter current).
6. Also adjust the Klystron mounting plunger for maximum power output.
7. Set the depth of S-S tuner slightly more for maximum VSWR.
8. Move the probe along with slotted line until a minimum is indicated.
9. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob a variable attenuator to obtain a reading of
3 dB of normal dB of VSWR.
10. Move the probe to the left on the slotted line until full scale deflection is obtain note
and record the probe position on slotted line let it be d1.
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11. Repeat step ix & x and then move the probe right along with slotted until full scale
deflection is obtained let it be d2.
12. Replace the S-S.Tuner and termination movable short.
13. Measure the distance between two successive minima position of probe, Twice this
distance is guide wave length λg.

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