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Wetland Design Manual

A1: Design, Construction and Establishment of Wetlands


Table of contents

Acknowledgements 4
Review process 5
Online document 5
Executive Summary 9
Introduction to the manual 10
Purpose of the manual 12
How to use the manual 13
Parts A-D: Wetland design: .................................................................... 13
Supporting resources 14
Support resources .................................................................................. 14
Forms, templates and checklists - Design acceptance process ..................... 14
Concept design stage ............................................................................. 15
Functional design stage .......................................................................... 15
Detailed design stage ............................................................................. 15
Pre-construction stage ............................................................................ 15
As-constructed and establishment stage ................................................... 15
Example design plans ............................................................................. 16
Example as-constructed plans ................................................................. 16
Example maintenance agreement and plan ............................................... 16
Example operational plan ........................................................................ 16
Standard drawings ................................................................................. 16

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Acknowledgements

Melbourne Water has prepared this design manual with the assistance of a specially
appointed consultant and a steering committee of experienced people who provided
valuable comment and advice on the contents of this design manual. Stakeholder
interviews were also undertaken to identify issues of concern with the previous
document and submissions were received in relation to a draft of the design manual
which assisted in the formulation of the final document.

Project consultant: DesignFlow - Georgie Wettenhall and Jason Sonneman

Steering committee: Melbourne Water - Jesse Barrett, Griffin Barry, David


Carew, Luis Correia, Michael Flanagan, Leon Harvey, Birgit
Jordan, Andrew Mellor and David Reginato

Stakeholder interviews: Water Technology - Sarah Law


E2DesignLab – Gary Walsh, Dr Peter Breen, Dr Dale
Browne, Dr Sara Lloyd and Kerrie Burge
Alluvium – Jonathon McLean
Storm Consulting – Rod Weisse
Stormy Water Solutions - Valerie Mag
Aquatic Systems Management – Scott Seymour
The University of Melbourne - Professor Tim Fletcher
Monash Water for Liveability - Professor Ana Deletic
Life Saving Victoria – Rob Andronaco

Peer Review: E2DesignLab


University of Melbourne
Alexandra Brown – Spiire
Rodger Studd – Breese Pitt Dixon
Sasha Jelicic – Reeds Consulting
Thomas Cousland – Water Technology

Industry groups: Association of Land Development Engineers (ALDE)


Urban Development Institute Australia (UDIA)
Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA)
Drainage Scheme Review Group (DSRG)

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Review process

Recognising the complex and continuously evolving nature of wetlands, Melbourne


Water will undertake regular reviews of this design manual. We welcome feedback on
the design manual and the implementation success at all times and we will endeavour
to involve all key stakeholders and customers in any future review.

Feedback can be provided in writing with comments addressed to:

Manager, Development Planning, Waterways & Land Group


Melbourne Water Corporation
PO Box 4342
Melbourne VIC 3001

Further information on wetlands and the land development process can be found on
our Planning and Building website.

Online document
As part of Melbourne Water’s commitment to sustainability, no printed copies of this
document are available. An online version is available at melbournewater.com.au

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Introduction to the manual

Executive Summary
Urban development places significant pressure on waterways and their environmental
and social value. The increased magnitude and frequency of urban stormwater can be
a major force in stream erosion and habitat disturbance. In addition, stormwater
contains considerable levels of contaminants and pollutants that can further degrade
the health of waterways. Wetlands are one option for improving stormwater quality
within a suite of other treatment measures.

Wetlands are built to remove pollutants carried such as fine sediments and water
soluble nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous. These wetlands are shallow,
vegetated systems that fill and drain in a controlled manner following rain events. The
design hydrological regime and vegetation configuration throughout the wetland is
critical to the treatment function of the system. The type, density and quality of
vegetation in the wetland have a direct relationship to the treatment performance. If
the vegetation does not meet the design configuration it is unlikely that the wetland is
providing satisfactory pollutant removal.

This manual has been prepared to assist the land development industry when
designing, constructing and establishing wetlands on behalf of Melbourne Water.

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This document has been developed with a strong focus on:

• Designing and building robust wetland systems;


• Ensuring safety for both the community and maintenance staff;
• Cost effective asset management through design, construction, operation and
maintenance;
• Improvements and efficiencies to the design acceptance process and when
dealing with Melbourne Water;
• Clarity and consistency in decision making; and
• Training and guidance to the land development industry with tools, templates,
and checklists.

This document can be used as a reference for external stakeholders, such as


developers and consultants, and council.

Introduction to the manual


Melbourne Water recognises the importance of wetlands and their role and function
within urban environments. Melbourne Water’s previous wetland guidelines have been
updated in consultation with the land development industry and other stormwater
management professionals; and will assist the industry to deliver best practice
wetland designs. We expect this will help us to achieve our shared objectives for the
treatment of stormwater and improvement of our urban waterways.

The purpose of this part of the wetland manual, titled “Design, Construction and
Establishment of Wetlands”: is to provide greater transparency of the requirements
for constructed wetland systems in the Port Phillip and Western Port region.

The manual has evolved from previous guidelines and documents, the latest being the
Constructed Wetlands Guidelines (2010). Wetland guidelines have been refined over
many years since the industry publication Managing Urban Stormwater Using
Constructed Wetlands was released in 1998. The stormwater industry has matured
through advancements in engineering practice, practical knowledge and further
understanding of natural ecosystems.

The manual reflects current thinking and best practice design, and responds to a
range of needs within the land development industry, including:

• Melbourne Water’s need to see consistent improvement in the quality of


wetland designs being submitted for review and approval; and

• The need from the land development industry for clear guidance from
Melbourne Water regarding:

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o Expectations and requirements for wetlands;

o The appropriate and efficient design approach required of consultants;


and

o The design acceptance process for wetland designs.

Meeting the above needs provides greater certainty and confidence within the industry
that the designs submitted to Melbourne Water will be accepted. This will increase the
efficiency of the design acceptance process, potentially saving time and money.

This manual should be read in conjunction with the following documents (or current
versions of these documents):

• Melbourne Water’s Planning and Building website


• Urban Stormwater: Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines
(Victorian Stormwater Committee, 1999)
• MUSIC tool guidelines
• WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater

This document is a revision of the previous Melbourne Water Constructed Wetlands


Guidelines and provides the current best practice in constructing wetlands. Any
variations between this document and those listed above are superseded by the new
manual.

Wetland fundamentals including form and function and the physical features available
to wetland designers are the drivers of typical wetland designs and treatment is
provided in more detail in Melbourne Water’s Planning and Building website. Planning,
funding and management arrangements for wetlands (as supported by relevant
legislation, policy, strategy and guidelines) are also outlined and available from our
Planning and Building website.

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Purpose of the manual
The manual is intended for use by members of the land development industry who
design, construct and establish wetlands on behalf of Melbourne Water. This manual is
also a resource for other professionals working within the stormwater management,
drainage and land development industry (including other authorities and interested
community members).

The manual facilitates the consistent delivery of high quality wetlands across the Port
Phillip and Westernport region and will improve the customer experience of working
with Melbourne Water during the design, construction and establishment process.

The manual:

• Articulates why it is important to implement best practice design standards, in


terms of values of and objectives for wetlands (Part A1).
• Articulates the requirements of Melbourne Water’s wetland design approach and
design acceptance process (Part B), including the deemed to comply and
alternative approach (Part A2 & Part A3); and
• Describes the approach and tools necessary to deliver best practice wetland
design (Part C & Part D);

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How to use the manual
The manual is structured as a series of parts and associated products to maximise the
flexibility of its use within the land development industry.

There are four main Parts within this manual, each with a distinct purpose:

Parts A-D: Wetland design:

o Part A1: Vision, core outcomes and aspirational outcomes sets out
Melbourne Water’s required core outcomes for wetlands.

o Part A2: ‘Deemed to comply’ design criteria presents the design criteria
that must be met to achieve ‘deemed to comply’ acceptance, and
demonstrates how this criteria aligns with the design intent and core
outcomes.

o Part A3: Design considerations for wetlands provides a set of key


design considerations and minimum standards when considering an
appropriate wetland design and/or when the alternative design approach is
sought.

o Part B: Design acceptance process details the concept, functional and


detailed design stages and the associated requirements of Melbourne
Water’s wetland design acceptance process.

o Part C: Technical design, construction and establishment approach


provides resources for designing, constructing and establishing wetlands.

o Part D: Design tools, resources and glossary outlines the various


analytical design tools, information sources and Melbourne Water resources
that can be used to develop a best practice wetland design.

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Familiarity with the manual will allow the land development industry to gain a full
understanding of Melbourne Water’s requirements for best practice wetlands.
However, the manual has been written in a way that the Parts can be used
independently as required. It is expected that the most heavily used parts of the
design manual will be Part A2 Deemed to Comply Design Criteria, Part A3 Design
Considerations and Part B Design Acceptance Process.

Supporting resources
The design approach set out in the manual draws on a large body of existing
information and design tools, many of which will be familiar to the land development
industry. However, there are several new concepts and tools (see Part D of this
manual for tools). A range of supporting resources has also been developed to assist
designers to completely understand Melbourne Water’s requirements for wetlands and
apply them to their work (see Planning and Building website for relevant resources
and templates).

Support resources

A number of resources have been developed to support the design approach set out in
the manual:

• MUSIC Auditing tool including wet spells analysis tool

• Inundation Frequency Analysis tool

• Hydrological event modelling

• Continuous simulation (water quality, residence time and water level analysis)

• Hydraulic analysis of flow velocities

Forms, templates and checklists - Design acceptance process


The following forms and certification statements are required as part of the land
development process.

Design package templates have been provided for each stage of the design
acceptance process. It is expected that all design submissions to Melbourne Water will
adhere to the structure of the templates, as this will enable efficient processing of
applications.

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Design packages must be complete and the declaration at the front of each design
package signed prior to submitting the package to Melbourne Water. Additional
project specific information may be added to the design package, as necessary.

Melbourne Water must be advised in writing of any variations from the requirements
set out in the Agreement and the policies and procedures outlined in the Planning and
Building website (aka Land Development Manual), with supporting explanations, when
the Certification Statements are forwarded to us.

Concept design stage


• Concept design package template
• Concept design calculation summary table
• Concept design deemed to comply checklist

Functional design stage


• Functional design package template
• Functional design calculation summary table
• Functional design deemed to comply checklist
• Application for Offer of Conditions of Agreement for the Provision of Stormwater
Facilities
• Land Development – Acceptance of Offer of Conditions of Agreement for the
provision of Drainage Facilities

Detailed design stage


• Detailed design package template
• Detailed design deemed to comply checklist
• Design certification checklist - Wetlands
• Consultant’s Design Certification Statement
• Template for Site Environmental Management Plan
• Template for Maintenance Agreement / Plan

Pre-construction stage
• Consultant’s Pre-Construction Certification Checklist
• Consultant’s Pre-Construction Certification Statement
• Permit to Work
• Site Environmental Awareness Training (SEAT) trained

As-constructed and establishment stage


• Consultant’s Construction Certification Checklist
• Consultant’s Construction Certification Statement

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• Consultant’s ‘As Constructed’ Survey Certification Checklist
• Consultant’s ‘As Constructed’ Survey Certification Statement
• Consultant’s Submission of Digital Data
• End of Defects Liability Period Certification Checklist
• End of Defects Liability Period Certification Statement

Example design plans


• Concept design plan example (refer Appendix 1 part A2 of manual)
• Functional design plan example (refer Appendix 2 part A2 of manual)
• Detailed design plan example (refer Appendix 3 part A2 of manual)
• Design of works
• Generic plan contents
• Sample notes for design plans
• Standards for plans and design drawings

Example as-constructed plans


• Connection to title boundaries
• As constructed requirements for digital format
• Media and file naming conventions

Example maintenance agreement and plan

• Maintenance agreement template (ZIP, 1.63 MB)

Example operational plan


• Operational Plan

Standard drawings
All of our standard drawings and concept drawings are located on our website:

• Standard drawings

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Wetland Design Manual

A1: Vision, core outcomes and aspirational outcomes


Table of contents

Introduction 5
Vision 6
Core outcomes 7
Effective pollutant removal and flow management ....................................... 7
Community safety .................................................................................... 8
Maintenance and operational staff safety .................................................... 8
Cost effective asset management ............................................................... 8
Aspirational outcomes 10
Wellbeing, liveability and amenity ............................................................ 10
Alternative water supply ......................................................................... 10
Recreational .......................................................................................... 10
Landscape and cultural objectives ............................................................ 10
Accessibility ........................................................................................... 11
Conservation ......................................................................................... 11

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Part A1: Vision, core outcomes and
aspirational outcomes

Introduction
Wetlands should be designed to respond to the opportunities and constraints of a
particular site. The design response will be informed by characteristics of the site (e.g.
its topography, point of discharge, existing vegetation, geomorphic character and
soils) and the requirements of an urban development.

The design process and final form of a wetland will be influenced by the wetland
vision. In addition to improving water quality, a vision typically includes regulating
flow rates, enhanced landscape and ecological values, and provides a range of passive
recreational and aesthetic benefits to the community.

This part of the manual describes core outcomes that must be achieved for all
Melbourne Water wetlands. The Deemed to Comply standards (refer Part A2 of this
manual) specify wetland properties that we are confident will achieve the core
outcomes. The Alternative Approach provides the option of proposing wetland
elements that differ from the prescriptive Deemed to Comply approach, but still
achieve the required core outcomes.

Aspirational outcomes are also described in this part of the manual. Achieving these
aspirational outcomes is encouraged by Melbourne Water; however we will not accept
aspirational outcomes in lieu of compliance with the required core outcomes.

The aim of this manual is to facilitate consistent delivery of best practice wetland
designs. It is therefore important to define what is meant by best practice wetland
design in clear terms, so that the expectations and requirements of Melbourne Water
for wetlands are clear to all involved.

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Vision
Melbourne Water’s Stormwater Strategy (2012) states that sustainable stormwater
management is expected to protect people, property and receiving waters, enhance
liveability and supply fit-for-purpose cost-effective water.

Melbourne Water is working to achieve multiple community outcomes by considering


stormwater within an integrated water management framework, alongside water
supply, sewerage, drainage and waterway health. The desired community outcomes
are:
• Healthy waterways and bays
• Alternative water supply
• Liveability
• Public health

Our vision for stormwater management proposes that:

“Sustainable stormwater management supports prosperous communities,


thriving landscapes and healthy waterways and bays.”

Melbourne Water has prepared the “Design, Construction & Establishment of


Wetlands” (the manual) to assist future wetland designs to achieve the vision, the
desired community outcomes and the four core outcomes described below.

Figure 1: Community outcomes from sustainable stormwater management


(Stormwater Strategy Figure E1)

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Core outcomes
All Melbourne Water wetlands must achieve the following core outcomes:

1. Deliver effective pollutant removal and flow regime management;


2. Offer a safe environment for the community to interact with;
3. Provide a safe environment for Melbourne Water officers and contractors to
work and maintain; and
4. Enable cost effective, long-term asset management over a life span of at least
25 years.

These core outcomes are described in more detail in the following pages.

Effective pollutant removal and flow management

The primary function of wetlands is to mitigate the impacts of urbanisation by


reducing pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. The State Environment Protection Policy
Waters of Victoria (SEPP WoV) sets out base statutory requirements for the quality of
stormwater runoff. The Victorian Planning Provisions (Clause 56-07) mandate the
treatment of urban stormwater to best practice standards for all residential
subdivisions; wetlands are often used for this purpose.

The Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines for Urban Stormwater


describe the level of stormwater treatment necessary to comply with these regulatory
requirements (refer Table 1). In some circumstances, a wetland may need to be
designed to meet a higher or different level of performance than Table 1 to address
local environmental objectives, Development Services Scheme targets or other
pollutant control issues. Note that these Victorian stormwater standards are currently
being revised.

Table 1: Victorian Best Practice stormwater treatment standards (under


review)

Pollutant Performance objective


Total suspended solids 80% reduction from typical annual urban load
Total phosphorous 45% reduction from typical annual urban load
Total nitrogen 45% reduction from typical annual urban load
Litter 70% reduction from typical annual urban load
Source: (Urban Stormwater: Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines – Victorian Stormwater
Committee, 1999)

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Community safety

Many people find wetland environments appealing. It is important that aquatic safety
risks are managed appropriately, and that the safety of people around wetlands,
especially when in flood, is a central focus of any design. Standing water, pipe/pit
inlets and overland flow paths must be considered as part of aquatic safety risk
management.

A safety design audit may be required to ensure that the unmitigated and mitigated
risk profiles of a design are within acceptable levels. For more information, please
contact Melbourne Water’s Business Improvement team.

Maintenance and operational staff safety

Wetland designs must provide a safe environment for Melbourne Water officers and
contractors. Measures include stable access routes for vehicles, ability to inspect key
wetland components without heavy lifting and/or confined space access requirements,
and maximising the proportion of maintenance tasks that can be undertaken from dry
land.

Cost effective asset management

Asset management refers principally to the operation and maintenance of natural and
built assets, including waterways, and includes all elements that support the efficient
and effective management of such assets, including:

• Adopting a “whole-of-life” system approach to the planning, design,


construction, operation and maintenance of our assets;
• Embracing opportunities for innovation in optimizing the levels of service
provided by our assets to meet customer needs; and
• Undertaking performance and condition monitoring; and data capture and
reporting via knowledge management systems, to inform continuous
improvement of our asset management approach.

Wetlands must be cost effective to:

• design

• construct

• operate

• maintain

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The developer contribution approach provides a cost effective mechanism for the
delivery of wetlands in tandem with new development. The aim is to balance the
benefits being derived from the wetland with the costs of delivering it.

The cost of maintaining wetlands is ultimately borne by the community through the
Waterways and Drainage Charge that Melbourne Water collects via the Water
Retailers. We are obligated to ensure wetlands are cost effective to maintain.

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Aspirational outcomes
Wetland designers should strive to achieve a range of aspirational outcomes in
addition to the required core outcomes described above. These aspirational outcomes
are summarised in this section.

Aspirational outcomes are not always reimbursable by Melbourne Water. Designers


should discuss aspirational outcomes with Melbourne Water at the Concept design
stage to ascertain if they are acceptable and/or reimbursable by Melbourne Water.
Designers should also work with the local council to ensure that desired aspirational
outcomes correspond with council recreational and public open space and
maintenance policies.

Wellbeing, liveability and amenity

• Create greener urban spaces.

• Provide the community with amenity and passive and active recreational
opportunities.

• Improve visual amenity through reduction in litter and pollutants.

• Complement the amenity values of the broader landscape; particularly those


related to adjacent public open space and associated passive and active
recreation.

• Ensure efficient use of space through the integration of wetlands with flood
management areas.

Alternative water supply

• Provide a water supply for uses such as irrigating open spaces and streetscape
vegetation.

Recreational

• Provide recreational opportunities, including walking, bird watching, picnicking


and other forms of passive recreation.

• Provide an appropriate level of direct and indirect access to the wetland.

Landscape and cultural objectives

• Retain, enhance and interpret existing ecological, landscape and cultural values,

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such as trees and other native vegetation and sites of archeological significance.
These are valuable assets to the local community and help to create a unique
sense of place.

Accessibility

• Provide public access to the wetland and associated open spaces including those
with limited mobility such as the disabled and elderly. The provision of public
access requires consideration of potential hazards associated with access paths,
provision of passing areas, ramps, hand/grab rails where needed, and the types
of surfaces used on paths including the use of tactile ground surface indicators.

Conservation

Wetlands often represent important biological ‘hot spots’ in urban areas, as they
encompass a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and may support diverse
flora and fauna communities.

Whilst stormwater treatment wetlands are not specifically designed to meet


conservation objectives, the general provision of habitat within and around a wetland
may be provided by:

• Rocks or logs placed in or around a wetland to provide shelter, perches and


basking areas for native wildlife.

• Terrestrial planting of indigenous tree, shrub and groundcover species to


provide additional habitat for some wetland animals, such as feeding and
resting sites for waterbirds and over-wintering shelter for frogs.

• Enhancing any adjacent riparian habitats and creating ecological linkages


(corridors) between waterways and other vegetation patches.

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The creation of structural complexity in riparian and wetland vegetation is important
for ecological diversity and landscape amenity. This may be achieved by including a
range of plant life forms on the planting schedule. The use of locally indigenous
species ensures that plants are adapted to local environmental conditions and that the
character of the wetland is in keeping with the surrounding landscape.

When designing riparian communities, care needs to be taken so as to not create


nesting sites for colonial bird species, as resident populations of colonial bird species
can have a significant detrimental effect on wetland water quality.

It should be noted that water bodies can attract flocking birds, which may pose a
hazard to airports. Local council planning schemes should be consulted when
considering whether to locate a wetland near an airport.

Wetlands have a primary function of treating stormwater and improving water quality
to receiving waterways and bays; they do not have a primary function of constructing
habitat and/or conservation zones. Therefore, maintenance and ongoing functionality
of the asset is often more important than habitat or biodiversity protection or
preservation in these works.

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Wetland Design Manual

Part A2: Deemed to comply design criteria


Table of contents

Introduction 5
Deemed to Comply criteria 6
General ................................................................................................... 6
Maintenance provisions ............................................................................. 6
Sediment pond ........................................................................................ 8
Macrophyte zone .................................................................................... 10
Bypass .................................................................................................. 11
Inlets and outlets ................................................................................... 12
Vegetation ............................................................................................. 15
Liner and topsoil .................................................................................... 20
Landscape design structures .................................................................... 20
Edge treatment ...................................................................................... 21
Landscape contractor selection, plant supply, installation & maintenance ..... 24
Appendix 1: Concept Design Example Drawings ................................... 5
Appendix 2: Functional Design Example Drawings ................................ 7
Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings ................................. 10

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Part A2: Deemed to comply design criteria

Introduction
This section presents an overview of the design criteria that need to be met to satisfy
the Deemed to Comply assessment pathway. Please refer to Part B for more
information on the Deemed to Comply approach and the Alternative Approach as part
of the design acceptance process. Clear links between the design criteria and core
outcomes are illustrated, assisting the designer to check that their design is meeting
Melbourne Water’s requirements.

These design criteria are expanded upon in this part of the manual and are also
included in the relevant sections of Part C as part of the technical design approach.
The Deemed to Comply conditions are also included in the design checklists available
on Melbourne Water’s Planning and Building website.

The Deemed to Comply design criteria are prescriptive for a reason and additional
design considerations and minimum standards are provided in Part A3 to assist
designers plus provide more guidance if the alternative approach is required.

Demonstration of compliance with only some of the Deemed to Comply criteria is


required for concept and functional design acceptance. Please refer to the right-side
column in the tables provided in this part or the various design checklists for each
stage of the design acceptance process to see which conditions apply at each stage:

• Concept design deemed to comply checklist


• Functional design deemed to comply checklist
• Detailed design deemed to comply checklist

Where applicable, crosslinks have been provided to Melbourne Water standard


drawings relevant to specific Deemed to Comply design criteria to assist with detailed
design documentation.

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Deemed to Comply criteria

General

GN1 The treatment and flow regime performance of the wetland Concept
must be modelled in MUSIC, or similar conceptual modelling Functional
software as approved by Melbourne Water. Detailed
GN2 The meteorological data in the conceptual modelling data or Concept
software (i.e. MUSIC) must be: Functional
• Based on at least 10 years of historical records Detailed
• Recorded at six minutes intervals
• Sourced from a pluviographic station as close as
possible to the wetland site
• Have a mean annual rainfall depth within 10% of the
long term rainfall depth at the rainfall station closest to
the wetland site
GN3 The system configuration shown on the design plans must be Concept
consistent with the conceptual modelling parameters (e.g. Functional
MUSIC) (including the stage/discharge relationship) and Detailed
sediment pond calculator/calculations.
GN4 Peak design flows must be estimated in accordance with Concept
methods in Australian Rainfall and Runoff. Functional
Detailed

Maintenance provisions

MN1 Sediment ponds must be able to be drained whilst maintaining Functional


the macrophyte zone water level at normal water level. This is Detailed
achieved by having the sediment pond transfer pit RL 100mm
higher than the inlet pool NWL. Refer Standard Drawing
7251/12/001.
MN2 All parts of the base of a sediment pond must be accessible: Functional
• Within seven metres of a designated hard stand area Detailed
for excavation vehicles (“edge cleaned”) OR
• Via a maintenance access ramp into the base of the
sediment pond. Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/005.
MN3 The sediment pond base material must extend vertically up Detailed
the batter by 300 mm and comprise of:
• Steel reinforced concrete – steel reinforced, minimum
150 mm thick; OR
• 400 mm compacted rock. Approximately 50% 300mm
in size. The remaining 50% made up of 0-100mm
graded rock, premixed with 300 dia rocks and spread
and tracked so as to form a compacted base.
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/004.

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MN4 ‘Edge cleaned’ sediment ponds must have hardstand areas Detailed
(e.g. crushed rock) for excavation vehicles. A maintenance
track must be provided around the entire perimeter of the
sediment pond. Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/005.
MN5 Maintenance access ramps are required on all sediment ponds Functional
that cannot be ‘edge cleaned’. The maintenance access ramp Detailed
into a sediment pond must:
• Extend from the base of the sediment pond to at least
0.5 metres above TEDD,
• Be at least 4 metres wide,
• Be no steeper than 1:5, (1:12 cross fall or flatter)
• Be capable of supporting a 20 tonne excavator,
• Constructed of compacted 200 mm deep layer of rock:
-Bottom layer is 100mm depth of 0-100mm FCR; top
layer is 100mm of 0-40mm NDCR (6% cement
stabilised below NWL),
• Have a barrier to prevent unauthorised vehicle access
(e.g. gate, bollard and/or fence).
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/005.
MN6 A maintenance access track must be provided to the sediment Concept
pond maintenance access ramp and to enable maintenance Functional
vehicles to safely access and exit the site. The maintenance Detailed
access track must:
• Be at least 4 metres wide,
Comprise of compacted 200 mm deep layer of rock.
Bottom layer is 100mm depth of 0-100mm FCR; top
layer is 100mm of 0-40mm NDCR,
• Be reinforced to take a 20 tonne vehicle,
• At the road edge, have an industrial crossover to
Council standard and rolled kerb adjoining it,
• Have a barrier to prevent unauthorised vehicle access
(e.g. gate, bollard and/or fence).
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/005.
MN7 A hardstand area with a minimum turning circle appropriate to Concept
the types of maintenance vehicles to be used must be Functional
provided adjacent to the sediment pond maintenance access Detailed
ramp to enable maintenance vehicles to safely reverse and
exit the sediment loading area. (Designers should seek advice
from Melbourne Water on the types of maintenance vehicles
that will be used.)
Note: The turning circle must be in accordance with the
Austroads Design Vehicles and Turning Path Templates Guide:
(http://www.austroads.com.au/images/stories/ap-g34-13.pdf)
MN8 Intersections between pedestrian pathways and site Detailed
maintenance access tracks should be reinforced to take a 20
tonne vehicle.

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MN9 Dedicated sediment dewatering areas must be provided and: Concept
• Be accessible from the maintenance ramp/track, Functional
• Have a length to width ratio no narrower than 10:1,
Detailed
• 1:12 cross fall or flatter.
• Be able to contain all sediment removed from the
sediment accumulation volume spread out at a
maximum of 500 mm depth,
• Be located above the peak 10 year ARI water level and
within 25 metres of each sediment pond,
• Be located at least 15 metres from residential areas,
public access spaces (playgrounds, sports fields etc),
and consider potential odour and visual issues for local
residents,
• Address public safety and potential impacts on public
access to open space areas,
• Be free from above ground obstructions (e.g. light
poles) and be an area that Melbourne Water has legal
or approved access to for the purpose of dewatering
sediment.
Refer resetting sediment ponds best practice guideline for
additional information.
MN10 The wetland must be configured to enable maintenance Concept
vehicles to drive around at least 50% of the wetland Functional
perimeter. Note: This can be achieved via subdivisional road Detailed
networks. Vehicular access must be provided as close as
possible to wetland structures that may catch debris (e.g.
provide access to the closest bank where structures are within
the water body).

Sediment pond

SP1 Sediment ponds must be located offline of waterways 1 but Concept


online to the pipe or lined channel they are treating water Functional
from. Refer to Part A3 of this Manual for guidance on offline Detailed
configurations.
SP2 Sediment ponds must be located at each point stormwater Concept
enters the “wetland system” unless: Functional
• The catchment of the incoming stormwater is < 5% of Detailed
the total wetland catchment OR
• The incoming stormwater has already passed through a
bioretention system or wetland immediately upstream
SP3 Sediment ponds must be sized to: Functional
• Capture 95% of coarse particles ≥ 125 µm diameter for Detailed
the peak three month ARI

1
A waterway is defined as either a natural or constructed waterway. Melbourne Water’s
Development Services Schemes define a ‘Constructed Waterway’ as reaches of a waterway that
are required to be fully or partially constructed to service new development.

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• ≤ than 1.6m deep
• Provide adequate sediment storage volume to store five
years of sediment. The top of the sediment
accumulation zone must be assumed to be 500 mm
below NWL (refer to Figure 1).
• Ensure that velocity through the sediment pond during
the peak 100 year ARI event is ≤ 0.5 m/s. (The flow
area must be assumed to be the EDD multiplied by the
narrowest width of the sediment pond, at NWL,
between the inlet and overflow outlet)
Sediment ponds must be ≤ 120% of the size needed to meet
the limiting of the above three criteria. Compliance with the
above criteria must be demonstrated using the methods
described in WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater
(Melbourne Water, 2005). Alternatively, the velocity criteria
can be checked using a hydraulic model such as HEC-RAS.
Refer to Part D of this Manual for guidance on undertaking
velocity checks).
SP4 The sediment pond EDD must be ≤ 350 mm. Concept
Functional
Detailed

Figure 1 Sediment pond storage.

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Macrophyte zone

MZ1 At least 80% of the area of the macrophyte zone at NWL must Functional
be ≤ 350 mm deep to support shallow and deep marsh Detailed
vegetation. The wetland bathymetry should provide
approximately equal amounts of shallow marsh (100mm - 150
mm deep) and deep marsh (150 mm to 350 mm deep).
MZ2 The macrophyte zone EDD must be ≤ 350 mm. Concept
Functional
Detailed
MZ3 Macrophyte zones must be located offline from all waterways Concept
and drains (i.e. there must be a bypass route around the Functional
macrophyte zone). Detailed
MZ4 The length of the macrophyte zone must be ≥ four times the Concept
average width of the macrophyte zone. Functional
Detailed
MZ5 The macrophyte zone outlet must be located at the opposite Concept
end of the macrophyte zone to the inlet(s). Functional
Detailed
MZ6 The macrophyte zone must have a sequence and mix of Functional
submerged, shallow and deep marsh zones arranged in a Detailed
banded manner perpendicular to the direction of flow. Refer
Figure 2).
MZ7 Inlet and outlet pools must be ≤ 1.5 m depth. Functional
Detailed
MZ8 Intermediate pools (between the inlet and outlet pool) must Functional
be ≤ 1.2 m deep. Detailed
MZ9 Velocities in the macrophyte zone must be: Functional
• less than 0.5 m/s for the peak 100 year ARI flow Detailed
• less than 0.05 m/s for the peak three month ARI
Compliance with the above criteria must be demonstrated
using the methods described in WSUD Engineering
Procedures: Stormwater (Melbourne Water, 2005) or using a
hydraulic model such as HEC-RAS or TUFLOW. Refer to Part D
of this Manual for guidance on undertaking velocity checks.
MZ10 The macrophyte zone must provide a 90th percentile Functional
residence time of 72 hours (assuming plug flow between inlet Detailed
and outlet through the EDD and 50% of the permanent pool
volume). Refer to the Melbourne Water online tool and Part
D of this Manual for guidance on determining residence time
and wet spells analysis.
Note: This residence time is required to ensure settling of
suspended particles and pollutant removal. Criteria VG10,

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which relates to ensuring water levels do not drown plants,
must also be met.
MZ11 A grade of between 1:150 and 1:400 must be provided Functional
between marsh zones (longitudinally through the macrophyte Detailed
zone) to enable the wetland to freely drain. Intermediate
pools will generally be needed to transition between marsh
zones.
MZ12 A marker must be used to show wetland water level relative to Detailed
NWL and EDD. The marker must be able to be read from the
bank and attached to the wall of the submerged outlet pit.
Refer to Standard Drawings 7251/12/008 & 7251/12/009.
MZ13 Melbourne Water will not accept islands within wetlands as are Concept
difficult to maintain (need a canoe or boat) and can become Functional
easily overgrown with weeds. Detailed

Figure 2 Macrophyte zone planting bands.

Bypass

BY1 The bypass route must be sized to convey the maximum Concept
overflow from the sediment pond that will occur during the Functional
peak 100 year ARI event. Where a sediment pond is located Detailed

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within a retarding basin, the bypass must convey at least the
peak one year ARI flow.

Inlets and outlets

IO1 All pits, grilles and structures must conform to Melbourne Detailed
Water’s standards as shown in the Land Development Manual
and Standard Drawings.
IO2 Outlet structures must be easily identifiable and maintainable. Detailed
They must be accessible from the bank. The edge of the outlet
structure closest to the bank (maintenance access point) must
be located in < 350 mm water depth.
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/403
IO3 The Twin Chamber Outfall pit (containing the side winding Detailed
penstock and gate valves) must have a grilled or grated lid to
allow visual inspection and valve operation from the surface
(e.g. through the grate/grille).
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/011
Note: Melbourne Water will be installing a hydraulic level
sensor and data logger on all Development Services Scheme
wetlands to ensure the wetland is meeting the required
hydraulic performance targets (refer Figure 3).
IO4 The connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte Functional
zone inlet pool (sediment pond transfer pit) must be sized Detailed
such that:
• All flows ≤ the peak three month ARI event are
transferred into the macrophyte zone (refer Figure 4 ),
AND
• 60% of the peak 1 year ARI flow overflows from the
sediment pond into the bypass channel/pipe when the
water level in the macrophyte zone is at TEDD (and not
enter the macrophyte zone) (refer Figure 5 ), AND
• The velocity through the macrophyte zone is ≤ 0.5 m/s
during the peak 100 year ARI event:
i. Assuming the macrophyte zone is at
TEDD if the wetland is not within a
retarding basin or flood plain
ii. Assuming the water level is at the peak
10 year ARI water level if the wetland is
within a retarding basin or flood plain
IO5 The submerged offtake pit connecting into the twin chamber Detailed
outfall pit must be submerged to minimise blocking from
floating debris. Refer to Standard Drawings 7251/12/008
& 7251/12/010.
IO6 The twin chamber outfall pit must contain both a side winding Functional

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penstock valve & a gate valve so that: Detailed
• When the penstock is fully open the wetland draws
down to NWL quickly assisting with plant growth during
the first 12 months of plant establishment.
• The penstock can be fully opened or closed to assist
with maintenance of the wetland.
• The stage/discharge rate can be adjusted if required to
achieve suitable residence times and/or inundation
patterns
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/011
• The gate valve allows full or partial draw down of the
wetland to assist with maintenance.
Refer Standard Drawings 7251/12/010 & 7251/12/014
IO7 Balance pipes must be placed between all open water zones Functional
(inlet, intermediate and outlet pools) to enable water levels to Detailed
be drawn down for maintenance or water level management
purposes. Refer Standard
Drawings 7251/12/011, 7251/12/012 & 7251/12/013 for
various configurations.
Balance pipes must be 300mm dia RCP with the RL of the
submerged offtake pit (notch cut out) no more than 300 mm
above the base of the deepest point of the pool to maximise
draw down and minimise blockage potential. Refer Standard
Drawings 7251/12/007 & 7251/12/008 for details.

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Figure 3: Hydraulic level sensor & data logger

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Figure 4 Connection between sediment pond and macrophyte zone – three month ARI
flow check (refer to Melbourne Water Standard Drawings 7251/12/001
and 7251/12/002 for more details on the connection between sediment pond and
macrophyte zone).

Figure 5 Connection between sediment pond and macrophyte zone – one year ARI flow
check (Refer to Melbourne Water Standard Drawings 7251/12/001 and
and 7251/12/002 for more details on the connection between sediment pond and
macrophyte zone).

Vegetation & Landscape

VG1 The macrophyte zone must contain a minimum of 80% cover Functional
of emergent macrophytes comprising of shallow and deep Detailed
marsh zones. Open water areas (maximum 20% of the
wetland area) must include submerged marsh vegetation.
VG2 Any open water areas in excess of 20% of the macrophyte Concept
zone area (at NWL) must be located as a separate water body. Functional
These separate water bodies are not considered by Melbourne Detailed
Water to be wetlands for the purpose of treating stormwater,
and are therefore beyond the scope of this document. For
further information, refer to Part A3 for open water,
landscape design and amenity design considerations and
the Planning and Building website for ownership and

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maintenance responsibilities. Conceptual models of wetlands
and other parts of the treatment train (e.g. MUSIC) must
assume there is no reduction in pollutant loads within these
separate waterbodies.
VG3 Ephemeral batters (NWL to 350 mm above NWL) of the Functional
wetland macrophyte zone and sediment pond must be densely Detailed
planted with plants at 6 plants per sqm suited to intermittent
wetting. 80% of the plants used in the ephemeral batters
must be in accordance with the species and densities shown in
Table 1.
VG4 The ephemeral batters must be planted at an average density Detailed
of 6 plants per sqm with individual plants grown in individual
pots or tray cells that are a minimum of 90 cm3 in volume
(V93 hiko cell equivalent), however 200cm3 (forestry tubes)
are preferred.
VG5 The shallow marsh (100 to 150mm below NWL) of the Functional
macrophyte zone and sediment pond must be densely planted Detailed
3
with 2 plants per sqm in >600cm containers. 90% of the
plants used in the shallow marsh must be in accordance with
the species and densities shown in Table 2. A minimum of
three species must be specified for the shallow marsh zone.
VG6 The deep marsh (150 to 350 mm below NWL) of the Functional
macrophyte zone must be densely planted with 2 plants per Detailed
3
sqm in >600cm containers. 90% of the plants used in the
deep marsh must be in accordance with the species and
densities shown in Table 3. A minimum of three species must
be specified for the deep marsh zone.
VG7 The submerged marsh (350 to 700 mm below NWL) of the Functional
macrophyte zone must be planted with 1 plant per sqm in Detailed
>600cm3 container. 90% of the plants used in the
submerged marsh must be in accordance with the species and
densities shown in Table 4.
VG8 Emergent and submerged macrophyte seedlings must be Detailed
grown in individual container/pots with a minimum volume of:
• 600 cm3 (200cm3 forestry tubes are not acceptable)
Note: Seedlings sourced from bare-root divisions from
tub/tray grown stock or stock harvested from existing
wetlands will not be accepted.
VG9 Seedlings grown in >600 cm3 pots must have: Detailed
• minimum stem height of 500 mm (except Triglochin
procerum and Eleocharis acuta – minimum stem height
of 400 mm)
• total stem area must cover at least 50% of the pot

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surface area
• well developed, healthy root system that occupies the
full pot volume (i.e. the growing media must remain
intact when the plant is removed from the pot)
• Not have a pot depth exceeding 150mm.
Note: The minimum stem height criteria specified for 600 cm3
pots does not apply to submerged macrophyte species.
VG10 The effective water depth (permanent pool depth plus TEDD) Functional
must not exceed half of the average plant height for more Detailed
than 20% of the time. This must be demonstrated using
inundation frequency analysis assuming the plants heights are
in accordance with those shown in Table 2 to Table 4.
Refer to online tool and Part D of this Manual for guidance
on the inundation frequency analysis.
VG11 For stormwater harvesting requirements please refer to the Concept
below guidelines. Note: the harvested water can only be Functional
extracted from the downstream chamber of the twin chamber Detailed
outfall pit.
Stormwater harvesting guidelines
Stormwater harvesting technical guidelines
Stormwater harvesting technical guidelines – Drawings
Appendix 2
Note: a diversion licence is required to harvest water from
Melbourne Water assets.
VG12 The wetland must have an appropriately sized outfall to Functional
ensure the planting wont drown and for Melbourne Water to Detailed
accept ownership of the asset at completion of the defects
period.
Note: The developer and or their consultant is to negotiate
with any downstream property owners with regard to outfall
design and construction (temporary or permanent), not
Melbourne Water. The developer must own and maintain any
temporary outfalls until the permanent asset is constructed,
not Melbourne Water.
VG13 Any grassed areas that Melbourne Water must maintain are to Functional
meet one of the below options. Councils batter grade Detailed
requirements should be sought for areas they are to maintain
as each council has a different requirement:
1) 1 in 5 or flatter with a 3m run out area at the bottom of
the slope is to be provided so MW can mow up and
down if necessary. Run out area is to be a maximum
grade of 1:12 and be clear of rocks, trees, fences etc.
2) Maximum grade of 1:12 to allow for safe grass cutting
(horizontal and vertical cutting method). No run out
area is required, area must be clear of rocks, trees,

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fences, drops etc.
Note: For mowing around vegetation MW requires a 3m gap
between vegetation to allow mower access. Overhanging
vegetation can be an access issue. Slopes steeper than 1 in 5
to be densely vegetated.
VG14 No mulch to be placed below Q100 or frequently inundated Functional
areas. Jute mat to be installed in planted areas above TEDD Detailed
for wetlands. Jute mat must be installed to the manufacturer’s
specifications, including fasteners.

Table 1 Ephemeral batter plant list (NWL to 350mm above NWL)

Minimum
density
Botanical name Common name
(>90cm3 cont
ainer/m2)
Baumea rubiginosa Soft Twig-rush 6
Carex appressa Tall Sedge 6
Carex tereticaulis Basket Sedge 6
Cyperus lucidus Leafy Flat-sedge 6
Juncus amabilis Hollow Rush 6
Juncus flavidus Yellow Rush 6
Juncus krausii Sea Rush 6
Juncus pallidus Pale Rush 6
Poa labillardierei Common Tussock 6
Spiny-headed
Lomandra longifolia 6
Matt-rush

Table 2 Shallow marsh plant list (100 to 150mm below NWL)

Minimum density Average


Botanical name Common name (plants/m2) plant
600cm3 tube height (m)
Jointed Club-
Baumea articulata 2 1.8
rush
Bolboschoenus
Sea Club-rush 2 1.0
caldwellii
Bolboschoenus
Tall Club-rush 2 1.8
fluviatilis
Bolboschoenus Marsh Club-
2 1.5
medianus rush

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Cladium procerum Leafy Twig-rush 2 2.0
Common Spike-
Eleocharis acuta 2 0.5
rush
Schoenoplectus
River Club-rush 2 1.8
tabernaemontani
Cycnogeton
procerum
Water Ribbons 2 1.0
(syn. Triglochin
procerum)

Table 3 Deep marsh plant list (150 to 350mm below NWL)

Minimum density Average


(plants/m2) plant
Botanical name Common name
height
600cm3 tube (m)
Jointed Club-
Baumea articulata 2 1.8
rush
Bolboschoenus
Sea Club-rush 2 1.0
caldwellii
Bolboschoenus
Tall Club-rush 2 1.8
fluviatilis
Bolboschoenus Marsh Club-
2 1.5
medianus rush
Cladium procerum Leafy Twig-rush 2 2.0
Eleocharis
Tall Spike Rush 2 1.8
sphacelata
Schoenoplectus
River Club-rush 2 1.8
tabernaemontani
Cycnogeton
procerum
Water Ribbons 2 1.0
(syn. Triglochin
procerum)

Table 4 Submerged marsh plant list (350 to 700mm below NWL)

Minimum density
(plants/m2)
`Botanical name Common name
600cm3 tube

Myriophyllum crispatum Upright Water-milfoil 1

Potamogeton ochreatus Blunt Pondweed 1

Vallisneria australis Eel-grass 1

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Liner and topsoil

LN1 The exfiltration rate from the base and the sides of the Concept
wetland must be accurately represented in the conceptual Functional
modelling software analysis (e.g. MUSIC). Wetlands with a Detailed
permanent NWL must have a compacted clay liner made from
site soils and/or imported material where site soils are
unsuitable based on the recommendations from the site
geotechnical report.
LN2 Impermeable liners (based on the recommendations from the Detailed
site geotechnical report) must be used where the groundwater
table is likely to interact with the wetland or where there are
saline in-situ soils.

LN3 At least 200mm of topsoil must be provided in all areas of the Functional
macrophyte zone; and in sediment ponds to 500mm below Detailed
NWL in accordance with Melbourne Waters Topsoil
Specification.
LN4 Topsoils used within the wetland (in situ or imported) must Detailed
comply with Melbourne Waters Topsoil Specification which is
sub set of AS 4419 Soils for landscaping and garden use 2.
Testing must be carried out by a NATA accredited laboratory.
If required, amelioration to the topsoil must be undertaken to
achieve compliance with Melbourne Waters Topsoil
Specification.

Landscape design structures

LDS1 All boardwalks, piers, bridges and/or structurally treated Detailed


edges installed and maintained by others are to meet
Melbourne Waters below guideline requirements and also
have heights and/or railings in accordance with relevant
design codes and satisfy inundation and safety criteria.
- Constructing waterway crossings guideline
- Shared pathways guideline
- Maintenance Agreements
Refer to Part A3 of this Manual for design consideration and
guidance on landscape design features.
LDS2 Boardwalks and/or viewing platforms are not permitted over Concept

2
The AS 4419 requirement for % organic matter content does not apply. Topsoils used in wetlands
must have a minimum of 5% organic matter content.

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sediment ponds, pipes & pits, weirs, rock chutes and EDD Functional
control structures for maintenance access reasons. Detailed
LDS3 Vehicle exclusion bollards are required around entire wetland Functional
reserve to prevent unauthorised access and illegal rubbish Detailed
dumping.
Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/005

Edge treatment

ET1 The edge of any deep open water should not be hidden or Functional
obscured by embankments or terrestrial planting unless Detailed
measures are taken to preclude access. Public access to
structures, the top of weirs, orifice pits and outlet structures
must be restricted by appropriate safety fences and other
barriers. Permanent fencing is required adjacent to potentially
unsafe structures (i.e. deep water zones, steep drops, top of
weirs, outlet structures etc).
ET2 All wetland edges must have: Functional
• Vegetated approach batters no steeper than 1:5, a 2.8 Detailed
metre wide vegetated safety bench at 1:8 between NWL
and 350 mm below NWL and a maximum 1:3 slope
beyond 350 mm below NWL (refer
• Figure 6). OR
• The batter from TEDD to 350mm below NWL must
contain dense impenetrable planting that is a minimum
of 2.8 metres wide and 1.2 metres high (refer Figure 7
and Figure 8 ).
ET3 A minimum offset of 15 metres must be provided from the Concept
wetland’s NWL to any allotment or road reserve (not including Functional
shared pathways). A safety design audit may be required for Detailed
any proposal that does not achieve this condition. Refer to
Part A3 of this Manual for design consideration and guidance
on safety in design.

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Figure 6 Indicative cross-section of vegetated wetland edge with safety bench (Refer
to Melbourne Water Standard Drawing 7251/12/006 for more details).

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Figure 7 Indicative cross-section of vegetated wetland edge with impenetrable
planting.

Figure 8 Photos showing examples of wetland edges with dense impenetrable


planting

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Landscape contractor selection, plant supply, installation & maintenance

The landscape consultant must be engaged by the developer to supervise and approve
the entire landscape construction process from the pre-commencement meeting
through to achieving the end of defects period (a minimum of 27 months), ensuring
the fellow requirements are met:

The landscape contractor awarded the wetland project is


suitably qualified and experienced and has completed work
on Melbourne Water wetlands historically and the work is of
LC1 a high quality. Construction

The landscape contractor awarded the wetland project must


be the contractor undertaking the plant installation.
Melbourne Water will not accept sub-contracting to another
contractor without written approval to ensure the sub-
contractor is suitably qualified, experienced and has
LC2 completed work of this nature previously.
Construction
The landscape contractor awarded the wetland project must
be the contractor maintaining the planting once installed.
Subcontracting of the maintenance activity must be
approved by Melbourne Water in writing to ensure the sub-
contractor is suitably qualified and experienced and has
LC3 completed work of this nature previously. Construction
The landscape contractor awarded the wetland project must
order stock from an accredited nursery that grows plants to
the specifications outlined within this manual (no wild stock
LC4 or cutting up of planting clumps is to be installed). Construction
Check the planting contractor’s delivery dockets to ensure
the number of plants and format of plants ordered and
delivered matches the landscape plan and requirements of
LC5 this manual. Construction
Audit the quality of stock delivered to site prior to the
installation occurring accepting and/or rejecting any
unacceptable stock that doesn’t meet the requirements of
LC6 this manual. Construction
Ensure the contractor is undertaking regular weed runs
(aquatic, ephemeral and terrestrial) of the site to ensure a
LC7 weed seed bank doesn’t develop. Construction
Undertake random audits of the accredited nursery’s they
regularly source stock from to ensure the stock they are
growing and supplying is of a high quality and meets the
LC8 requirements of this manual. Construction

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Make Melbourne Water aware of any accredited nursey’s
growing and supplying poor quality stock that doesn’t meet
LC9 the requirements of this manual. Construction
Make Melbourne Water aware of any landscape contractor
not sourcing, installing and maintain planting to the
LC10 requirements of this manual. Construction
Make Melbourne Water aware of any topsoil installation that
doesn’t meet the requirements of Melbourne Waters topsoil
specification weather installed by the civil or planting
LC11 contractor. Construction
Make Melbourne Water aware of wetland bathymetry that
doesn’t meet the requirements of this manual resulting in
LC12 reduced planting banding and wetland treatment. Construction
Note: Should Melbourne Water feel the quality of sourced plants delivered to and
installed on site don’t meet the requirements of this manual, we reserve the right to
engage an independent auditor to assess and make a recommendation as to the
quality of the landscape planting. Any required rectification works resulting from this
audit would be at the expense of the developer, not Melbourne Water.

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Appendix 1: Concept Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 1: Concept Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 2: Functional Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 2: Functional Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 2: Functional Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings

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Appendix 3: Detailed Design Example Drawings

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Wetland Design Manual

Part A3: Design considerations for wetlands


Table of contents

Introduction 5
Design Considerations 5
Innovation in design ................................................................................. 5
Open water, landscape design and amenity ................................................. 5
Hydrodynamic design considerations .......................................................... 7
Locating wetlands within a drainage channel or waterway ........................... 10
Locating wetlands within retarding basins ................................................. 15
Designing for maintenance access ............................................................ 15
Sediment pond design considerations ....................................................... 16
Designing the connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone 20
Macrophyte outlet design considerations ................................................... 21
Vegetation and establishment considerations ............................................ 23
Designing to avoid mosquitos .................................................................. 25
Climate change ...................................................................................... 26
Safety in design ..................................................................................... 27

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Design considerations for wetlands

Introduction
The following is a set of key design considerations and minimum standards for the
designer to use as a resource and guidance when considering an appropriate wetland
design, or when the alternative design approach is sought when the designer
cannot achieve or wants to vary some of the Deemed to Comply design criteria
outlined in Part A2.

Design Considerations

Innovation in design

Melbourne Water supports opportunities for designers to push the boundaries of their
designs and to come up with innovative design solutions that are particularly tailored
to their site and project; however all designs must still achieve the core outcomes
outlined in Part A1 of this manual. Innovation is an important part of progression and
we encourage designers to look for better ways to deliver creative design solutions.
Innovation invariably involves higher costs and longer timeframes and ultimately the
risk of failure but these risks can be offset by the potential savings and benefits that
the innovative design can generate. Developers and designers need to consider these
potential upfront costs and risks before the innovative design approach is adopted.

Designers may submit their proposals and innovative design solutions to Melbourne
Water through the alternative design approach for consideration and acceptance.

Open water, landscape design and amenity

Wetlands are a valued asset to urban communities, providing open space areas with
formal and informal recreational benefits. Well-designed wetlands incorporated into
new urban environments are often highly valued natural assets.

The amenity associated with wetlands is a commonly expressed reason for community
visitation to wetland areas and is therefore an important value that needs to be
managed and protected. The use of feature open water zones (lakes) associated with
a wetland are often of high value to a developer and the community, however they
have limited stormwater treatment benefits. A developer can propose to incorporate
feature open water zones with their wetland design, however this may not be a
component that is ultimately funded by Melbourne Water or considered to contribute
to the overall stormwater quality targets.

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The landscape values associated with wetlands delivered by Melbourne Water are
generally provided via the wetland vegetation, and facilitating and/or carefully
managing public interactions with the wetland area in the form of paths, boardwalks
and pedestrian bridges. Please note that whilst these landscape features are highly
valued and supported by Melbourne Water, Melbourne Water does not fund, own or
maintain boardwalks, footpaths and pedestrian bridges associated with wetlands.

Landscape values are also delivered through the interface between Melbourne Water’s
interests and any Council requirements for adjacent public open spaces where
physical infrastructure may be provided (e.g. open mown grassed areas, seating,
playgrounds and barbeques). With all these elements being closely related, amenity
values can be created through the landscape design process.

Wetland amenity values are diminished by the presence of unpleasant or intrusive


development, odour, colour, litter, noise, mosquitoes and other pests.

The design of wetlands and the surrounding urban environment requires an integrated
approach where the requirements of Melbourne Water and Council influence each
other to support a common vision. This integrated approach between various

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authorities highlights the importance of the conceptual design stage in the design
acceptance process, where the design intent is clearly outlined and general
acceptance from Melbourne Water and Council is obtained before time and money is
spent on the functional and detailed design requirements. See Part B of this manual
for more details.

A clear demarcation between the roles and responsibilities of Melbourne Water and
Council is essential to effectively deliver amenity in wetlands. Responsibility for
different parts of the wetland system and surrounding open spaces must be clearly
defined within a maintenance agreement to enable effective asset ownership and
maintenance, especially at the interface between these two areas. See Melbourne
Water’s Planning and Building website for details on the management of wetlands
and Part A1 for amenity aspirational outcomes.

Important note: If larger areas of open water area are desired, then these should be
created as a separate system and located downstream of the wetland. This includes
open water bodies required for stormwater harvesting storage.

Hydrodynamic design considerations

The hydrodynamic design of wetlands is crucial to the successful establishment of


emergent and submerged vegetation, and the ongoing performance of the wetland.
Poorly designed wetlands often result in ongoing operational and management
problems and do not provide the intended level of water quality treatment.

A summary of the major hydrodynamic requirements which must be considered


during wetland design are provided in the table below:

Flow distribution • The wetland shape, bathymetry and placement of the inlet and
outlets must facilitate uniform flow across the wetland. This will
help avoid short circuiting of flows and poorly mixed zones.

Permanent pool • The wetland bathymetry must facilitate establishment of


emergent and submerged macrophytes throughout the
depth
wetland. Macrophyte species are sensitive to permanent pool
depth, and the depth ranges provided within each marsh zone
should be suitable for the types of macrophytes to be planted.
• A uniform depth across the wetland width minimises the area
of fringing vegetation, which negatively influence water

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treatment by enhancing dead zones.
• The permanent pool depth for the shallow marsh zones are:
<= 150 mm below normal water level (NWL) (+EDD = 500
mm)
• The permanent pool depth for the deep marsh zones are: <=
150-350 mm below NWL (+EDD = 500-700 mm)
• A minimum 80% of the macrophyte zone at NWL must be
≤350 mm (i.e. shallow and deep marsh)
• The permanent pool depth for the submerged marsh zones are:
350-700 mm below NWL (+EDD = 700-1050 mm)

Hydrologic regime • The wetland’s extended detention hydrologic regime


(inundation depth, duration and frequency) has a major
influence on the establishment and persistence of macrophytes
within the wetland. The hydrological characteristics of the
wetland’s extended detention (depth, inlet and outlet
properties) therefore play a major role in the sustainability of
vegetation cover within the wetland and the ongoing water
quality treatment performance of the wetland system. Note:
Melbourne Water will be installing hydraulic level sensors and
data loggers on all Development Services Scheme wetlands to
ensure the wetland is meeting the required hydraulic
performance targets.
• Wetlands must be designed to enable the permanent pool to be
occasionally drawn down, as this replicates the hydrological
regime of natural wetlands through regular wetting and drying
of the wetland sediments (important to nutrient uptake) and
the long term sustainability of the wetland vegetation
(macrophyte regeneration and growth).

Extended • The extended detention depth in the macrophyte zone must be


<= 350 mm. See Part A2 for design criteria.
detention depth
(EDD) • If an extended detention depth greater than 350mm is
proposed then an inundation frequency analysis will be
required to ensure the effective water depth (permanent pool
depth plus engagement of extended detention) does not
exceed half the design plant height for more than 20% of the
time (see Part A2 and Part D for more information). However,
a wetland with extended detention depths greater than 350mm
still has the risk of not being accepted by Melbourne Water.

Open water • Inclusion of a limited proportion of open water is supported in


the wetland design; however open water still plays a significant
role in the diversity of a wetland system.

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• Deep zones in the wetland help to break short-circuits when
placed as intermediate pools and provide some degree of
treatment via sedimentation, microbial processing in the
substrate and via algal oxygenation and nutrient uptake in the
water column.
• Placement of deep zones at the inlet will accumulate heavy
sediment particles, which will likely reduce sediment
accumulation in the shallow zones. Placement of deep zones at
the inlet and outlet may also reduce the likelihood of
blockages.

The sensitivity of vegetation to inundation depth is well established in the scientific


literature. Plant growth is severely restricted in excessively deep water and plants will
inevitably die, even if they persist for the first one or two years. The resulting low
plant cover, biomass and productivity are detrimental to the overall wetland function.

Growth difficulties for many emergent macrophytes are reported to occur for water
depths > 300 mm. On this basis, most of the shallow and deep marsh falls within a
sufficiently shallow range when at normal water level. However, an extended
detention depth of 350 mm increases the shallow marsh inundation depth range to
350-500 mm water depth, and up to 700 mm water depth in the deep marsh, which
predominantly lie outside the maximum depth typical of healthy and dense
vegetation. The ability of the macrophytes to cope with increased inundation (such as
occurs when the EDD of the wetland is engaged) depends upon the inundation
frequency, duration and depth. Repeated rainfall events can lead to prolonged
inundation within wetlands, and even a single flood event may cause significant loss
of vegetation if the wetland vegetation is fully inundated for more than one week.

The potential impact of inundation upon the wetland vegetation has been addressed
by the requirement of an inundation frequency analysis during the design, and further
criteria relating to suitable plant types and planting. Refer to the following websites
for access to the online inundation frequency analysis tool & wet spells
analysis.

Important note: the extended detention depth should not be iteratively determined
based upon an inundation frequency analysis.

In Australia, natural wetlands have evolved in an environment of cyclic wet and dry
periods and it is not unusual for them to completely dry out. It is important to design
a wetland so that it has the ability to dry out so that access to the wetland can be
achieved for maintenance, remove unwanted plants, clean out sediment and rubbish,
and renew the vegetation if necessary. This periodic wetting and drying should be

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incorporated into the Maintenance Agreement and Operational Plan for the
wetland system.

Consideration must be given to how inflows are controlled during a deliberate drying
out phase, and provision should be made to allow flows to bypass the wetland or
specific cells and elements of the wetland. Please note, exposing the vegetation to
excessive dry periods can be detrimental to the health of vegetation and specific
advice should be sought from an experienced aquatic plant specialist to determine the
risks to the plants during extended wet and dry periods.

Important note: water level manipulation with the ability to fully drain the wetland is
essential for wetland maintenance plus long-term sustainability and asset life.

Important note: often too much is expected of a wetland and many wetlands in the
past have been undersized or constructed online without consideration of the impact
that larger and frequent flows will have on the aquatic vegetation and/or the
likelihood of re-suspension of the stored pollutants.

The design and construction of these wetland systems is not a task for amateurs and
requires the involvement of professional wetland specialists experienced in the long-
term management of these systems.

A pond fringed with emergent aquatic vegetation will have little impact on nutrient
control and will provide an ideal habitat for water birds, which could result in an
increase in faecal contaminants as well as elevated nutrient levels within the water
column and excessive damage to the emergent macrophytes.

Locating wetlands within a drainage channel or waterway

Although it is possible to design a wetland within a drainage channel or waterway it is


not Melbourne Water’s first preference. Online wetlands are considered undesirable
due to hydrological impacts on wetland function and vegetation survival. Excessive
flows through wetlands may lead to increased inundation frequency, scouring of the
vegetation, accumulated sediments (including metals) and topsoil loss. This

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compromises the integrity of the wetland system and functional performance, both in
the short and long term, resulting in higher ongoing operational and lifecycle costs.

The primary objective when seeking to locate wetlands within or adjacent to


waterways should be the protection of the waterway; including connectivity of
upstream and downstream aquatic ecosystems (including ephemeral and constructed
waterways). Most urban waterways have highly beneficial ecosystem values, and the
construction of online wetlands is generally deemed inappropriate. Refer to Melbourne
Water’s Healthy Waterways Strategy and Constructed Waterways in New Urban
Developments: Design Manual for further information.

Connectivity is a vital component of stream ecology. Connectivity, maintains baseflow


conditions, provides passage for fish, invertebrates and other biota within the
waterway, and facilitates the movement of water borne plant propagules within the
waterway. The location of wetlands within a waterway channel can significantly impact
biodiversity processes and influence the natural sediment transport processes that
may be required for downstream habitat formation and stability. Wetland systems
that are within a waterway channel are also at risk of intercepting large volumes of
water, debris and sediment that increases the need for and costs associated with
maintenance.

Maintenance of a wetland system within a waterway is costly, especially when you


consider the full asset lifecycle. It is desirable for a wetland to be able to be taken
offline, drawn down and dried out, as this replicates the hydrological regime of a
natural wetland through regular wetting and drying of wetland sediments (important
to nutrient uptake) and the long term sustainability of the wetland vegetation
(macrophyte regeneration and growth).

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The Deemed to Comply design criteria outlined in Part A2 states that ‘sediment
ponds must be located offline of waterways but online to the pipe or lined channel
they are treating water from’.

Definition: Offline vs Online wetlands


All wetlands are required to be online to the catchment they are treating runoff from
but offline from waterways (Figures 1 & 2). A waterway is defined as either a natural
or constructed waterway, and includes reaches of a waterway that are required to be
fully or partially constructed to service new development.

The general configuration of a wetland system offline to a waterway is shown in Figure


1. The sediment pond is located online to the pipe or channel conveying stormwater
from Catchment A but offline to the waterway receiving stormwater from Catchment
B. The macrophyte zone is located offline of the pipe or channel and the waterway. A
bypass route (pipe or channel) enables flows to be diverted around the macrophyte
zone and discharged to the waterway when the water level in the macrophyte zone is
at TED. In some circumstances, the wetland may be located within the base of a
retarding basin. Under this scenario, the wetland configuration will be the same
including provision of a bypass route (Figure 1).

A wetland may be located within the floodplain adjacent to a waterway (Figure 2).
Under this scenario, the sediment pond is located online to the pipe or channel
conveying stormwater from Catchment A but must not be located online to the
waterway receiving stormwater from Catchment B. The macrophyte zone is located
offline of the pipe or channel and within the floodplain adjacent to the waterway.
Treated stormwater may be discharged directly to the waterway, whereas a bypass
route (pipe or channel) is still required to divert flows around the macrophyte zone
and to the waterway when the water level in the macrophyte zone is at TED. It is
important that the potential impacts of flooding within the waterway corridor are
considered when undertaking the inundation frequency analysis for the wetland.

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Figure 1 Wetland is online to Catchment A and offline to Catchment B.

Figure 2 Wetland located within the waterway floodplain – online to Catchment A and
offline to Catchment B.

In some instances where there is no alternative, the design of a wetland may need to
be located within a drainage channel or waterway. Designers may submit proposals to
Melbourne Water through the alternative design approach for consideration and

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acceptance. The following is a summary of the requirements that should be
considered for wetland designs that are located within a waterway:

Primary objective

1. Waterway health and • waterway form and function should be protected and the
connectivity of upstream and downstream ecosystems
connectivity of aquatic
should be considered (including ephemeral and
ecosystems constructed waterways). Connectivity is a vital
component of stream ecology, as maintaining baseflow
conditions provides passage for fish and invertebrates
within the stream and facilitates the movement of water
borne plant propagules within the stream system.

2. Overall maintenance • the wetland must be designed so that it is able to be


drawdown and dried out for future maintenance
of wetland system
considerations

Secondary objectives

3. Sizing and • capture 95% of >125 μm particles for the peak three
month ARI.
maintenance frequency
• the size of the sediment pond must result in clean out
of the sediment pond frequencies of less than five years

4. Protection of the • velocities within the sediment pond must not exceed 0.5
m/s during a 100 year ARI event.
sediment pond and
macrophyte zones from • velocities within the macrophyte zone must not exceed
0.05 m/s during 3 month ARI inflow events or 0.5 m/s
scouring
during the 100 year ARI flow event (if located in a
floodplain).

Important note: the primary objectives must be satisfied to Melbourne Water’s


acceptance before the secondary objectives will be considered.

Important note: Low velocities through the wetland are critical to prevent scouring,
erosion and vegetation loss – hence they are critical to the long term performance of
the wetland. The design of the high flow bypass, wetland size, configuration and
outlet properties are the key influences on velocities. Once scouring of the sediments
has started, vegetation growth may be compromised, which promotes further
scouring in a negative feedback cycle. Hence it is vital to protect the wetland from
high velocities associated with large runoff events.

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Locating wetlands within retarding basins

Wetlands are often located in the base of a retarding basin to reduce the overall area
of land required for both stormwater treatment and flood mitigation. Wetlands located
within retarding basins are prone to greater inundation depths when retarding basins
are engaged during intense rainfall events. Whilst the drawdown of water levels in a
retarding basin is normally short (less than 12 hours), it will take at least another
three days for water levels in the wetland to return to normal water level, meaning
that the wetland vegetation may be inundated for extended periods of time.

It is important that the hydraulic and hydrologic conditions within retarding basins are
checked during the design process to ensure that the wetland vegetation is protected
from high inflow velocities and that the expected inundation depth, frequency and
duration will not be detrimental to the long term health of the wetland vegetation.

Important note: If a wetland must be located in a retarding basin, the design must
ensure a relatively rapid drainage of the basin. The inundation frequency analysis
must include consideration of water levels controlled by the retarding basin outlet to
assess the potential impacts of extended inundation when the retarding basin is fully
engaged.

Important note: A requirement for longer establishment periods for vegetation and
for asset handover to Melbourne Water may be necessary for wetlands located within
retarding basins.

Important note: A bypass route for flows up to the 1 year ARI is still required for a
wetland located within a retarding basin.

Designing for maintenance access

Wetlands must be designed to facilitate safe maintenance access to all areas of the
wetland. Maintenance requirements should be considered through all phases of
wetland design, as it may be too late to modify a wetland design to accommodate
maintenance access during detailed design. The maintenance and machinery access
requirements, including sediment dewatering areas, will also help to determine the
size, configuration, and design of the wetland.

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A summary of the major wetland maintenance access requirements that should be
considered during wetland design are provided in the table below:

Sediment pond • A 4 m wide access track between external site access and
sediment pond, capable of supporting large vehicles.
• A 4 m wide ramp to the base of the sediment pond to enable
heavy machinery to enter sediment pond for clean out
operations (except for small ponds that may be edge cleaned).
• A track between the sediment pond and dewatering area
capable of supporting large vehicles.
• Access to hydraulic structures, e.g. inlet and outlet pipes,
bypass weir, pits, etc.
• Gentle batter slopes to enable maintenance access to the
perimeter of the sediment pond.

Macrophyte zone • A 4 m wide access track around parts of the perimeter of the
wetland for maintenance access. Perimeter access tracks are
often integrated with the landscape design, e.g. pedestrian
pathway networks can also be used for maintenance vehicle
access; however they must be reinforced to a suitable strength
to cope with heavy machinery. Note: Melbourne Water may
also accept subdivisional roads acting as maintenance tracks
where a formal access track isn’t possible.
• Access to wetland outlet structures (pits) and water level
gauge.
• Gentle batter slopes to enable the macrophyte zone to be
readily accessed from all locations.

Sediment pond design considerations

Sediment ponds must be designed to capture at least 95 % of the coarse suspended


solids (> 125 um diameter) for the peak three month flow and have sufficient storage
capacity to enable a minimum cleanout frequency of 5 years. In some cases, the size
of the sediment pond may need to be increased to provide sufficient storage volume
required for a 5 year cleanout frequency.

Sediment ponds that are oversized (i.e. more than 120% of the size needed to
capture coarse sediments or provide a 5 year cleanout frequency) are prone to
capturing a higher proportion of the fine suspended solids (<125 um diameter), which
are normally captured and retained within the macrophyte zone. Fine suspended
solids captured in the sediment pond are highly prone to scour, and may ultimately be

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removed from the sediment pond and transported to the downstream waterway
during large rainfall events.

The number of sediment ponds used within a wetland system must be minimised to
one or in some instances no more than two. Multiple sediment ponds associated with
a wetland are significantly more complex and expensive to maintain. Desilting
sediment ponds requires areas to be fenced off and having multiple sediment ponds
requires a significant land area to be fenced off, which reduces customer satisfaction
and increases land disturbance to the surrounding open space area. To undertake
maintenance work safely, entire sections of the open space area surrounding the
wetland may need to be fenced off to public access or the implementation of very
intensive traffic management programs may be required, which are costly. There may
be instances where the topography of a site makes it difficult to achieve one sediment
pond however all options to reduce the number of sediment ponds must be considered
before submitting a design proposal with multiple sediment ponds.

The sediment pond will need to be drained for maintenance and clean out. The
sediment pond must be designed to ensure that the water level in the macrophyte
zone must not be lowered during sediment pond draw down. This is achieved by
pumping excess water within the sediment pond into the transfer pit. Refer Standard
Drawing 7251/12/001 and Melbourne Waters Resetting Sediment Ponds Best
Practice Guide for additional information.

Sediment ponds must be designed with a vegetated safety bench below normal water
level. The vegetated safety bench helps to minimise unrestricted access to the water
and also provides a visual screen around the margins of the sediment pond.

A maintenance access ramp to the base of the sediment pond must be provided to
enable heavy machinery such as excavators to enter the sediment pond for cleanout.
A small sediment pond may not require a maintenance access ramp if the sediment
storage can be accessed (by an excavator) from the margins. The base of the
sediment pond should comprise of either reinforced concrete or rock work (Refer
Standard Drawing 7251/12/004). This is to enable the base of the sediment pond
to be detected during cleanout, and to protect the clay liner.

The primary advantage of placing the high flow bypass within the sediment pond is
that it enables sediments to be captured within the sediment pond rather than silting
up the instream diversion, and potentially enabling more sediments to be transported
to the downstream waterway. The diversion of high flows prior to the water entering a
sediment pond also means that there is no feedback mechanism operating on inflows

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to the macrophyte zone. This means, depending upon the diversion properties, that
either too little or excessive flows may be entering the macrophyte zone.

Important note: When the available space for a wetland is constrained, it is


important to ensure that the size of the sediment pond is not reduced. This ensures
the larger sediments are effectively trapped and prevented from smothering the
macrophyte zone. When the site constrains the size of the wetland it is the
macrophyte zone of the wetland that should be reduced accordingly.

A summary of requirements which should be considered during sediment pond design


and construction are provided in the table below:
Building phase It is important to have protection from upstream flows during
damage construction of the sediment pond. A mechanism to divert flows
around a construction site and to provide protection from litter
and debris is required. Refer to Melbourne Waters Planning
& Building website for additional information.
High flow Contingencies to manage risks associated with flood events
contingencies during construction are required. All machinery should be stored
above acceptable flood levels and the site stabilised as best as
possible at the end of each day as well as plans for de-watering
following storms made.
Maintenance access An important component of a sediment pond is accessibility for
maintenance. Should excavators be capable of reaching all parts
of the sediment pond an access track may not be required to
the base of the sediment pond; however an access track around
the perimeter of the sediment pond would be required. If
sediment collection is required by using earthmoving equipment,
then a stable ramp will be required into the base of the
sediment pond (See Standard Drawing 7251/12/005).
Solid base To aid with maintenance the sediment pond must be
constructed with a hard base (i.e. rock or concrete). This serves
an important role for determining the levels that excavation
should extend to during sediment removal (i.e. how deep to
excavate). Hard bases are also important if maintenance is
required by driving directly into the sediment pond. (see
Standard Drawing 7251/12/004)
Dry out area An area should be constructed that allows for de-watering of
removed sediments from a sediment pond. This allows the
removed sediments to be transported as ‘dry’ material and can

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greatly reduce disposal costs compared to liquid wastes. This
area should be located such that water from the material drains
back into the sediment pond (see Resetting Sediment Ponds
Best Practice Guide for additional information.)
Inlet checks It is good practice to check the operation of inlet erosion
protection measures following the first few rainfall events. It is
important to check for these early in the systems life, to avoid
continuing problems. Should problems occur in these events the
erosion protection should be enhanced.

The connection of the sediment pond to the macrophyte zone should be via a transfer
pipe and pit arrangement. It is important to have an initial open water section in the
macrophyte zone to help disperse flows across the width of the wetland. See relevant
design criteria in Part A2 for more information (plus Standard Drawing
7251/12/001).

The Transfer Pit within the sediment pond should be designed with the following
considerations in mind:

• Ensure that the crest of the pit is set 100mm above the NWL of the wetland
inlet pool

• Ensure that the dimension of the pit provides discharge capacity that is greater
than or equal to the discharge capacity of the inlet structure

• Discharge capacity does not exceed that of the downstream infrastructure

• Protection is provided against blockage by flood debris

• Maintenance is simple to undertake and suitable provisions are made for access

Quick reference and standards for sediment pond design and construction

Sediment pond to operate as a flow regulator into the macrophyte zone during normal
operation
Sediment pond to operate for by-pass of the macrophyte zone during above design
conditions

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The connection between the sediment pond and the macrophyte zone must have an
appropriate design of the inlet conditions to provide for energy dissipation and
distribution of inflow into the macrophyte zone
Provision for sediment and debris removal must be allowed with appropriate
maintenance access and provisions provided
Adequate area must be allocated for dewatering and short term storage of removed
sediments
Sediment ponds must have a mechanism to be drained without impacting on the
macrophyte zone water levels. This is achieved by pumping excess water within the
sediment pond into the transfer pit. Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/001 and
Melbourne Waters Resetting Sediment Ponds Best Practice Guide for additional
information.

Designing the connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone

The connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone must be configured
to enable the peak three month ARI to be transferred to the macrophyte zone when
the macrophyte zone is at normal water level.

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The connection of the sediment pond to the macrophyte zone is achieved using a pipe
and pit arrangement. A piped connection will generally comprise of an overflow pit
located in the sediment pond with a pipe connection to the macrophyte zone inlet
pool. Piped connections are often used in wetland systems where the water level in
the sediment pond is higher than the water level in the macrophyte zone (tiered
arrangement). In such cases, the opening of the overflow pit or the diameter of the
connecting pipe may be used to limit (provide inlet control) the flow rate to the
macrophyte zone. Where pipe connections are used, it is important to have an initial
open water section in the macrophyte zone to help disperse flows across the width of
the wetland.

Macrophyte outlet design considerations

The water level in a wetland is controlled via a twin chamber outfall pit (Refer
Standard Drawing 7251/12/11).

The twin chamber outfall pit has two purposes:

1. hydrologic control of the water level and flows in the macrophyte zone to
achieve the design detention time; and

2. to allow the wetland to be drained or drowned for maintenance.

Twin chamber outfall pits should be designed and located so that they can be easily
accessed for maintenance. Any twin chamber outfall pit located within the outlet pool
of the macrophyte zone should be accessible from the edge of the wetland (Refer
Conceptual Standard Drawings 7251/12/4001-4014). This means that the edge
of the pit closest to the wetland margin should be located in no more than 350 mm
depth.

In addition to being easily accessible, the twin chamber outfall pit should have a
hinged grate or grilled lid to enable visual inspection of the sidewinding penstock and
open the gate valve from the surface. The submerged offtake pit connecting into the
twin chamber outfall pit should be set 300mm off the invert of the deepest part of the
outlet pool and be fitted with a water level gauge (see Standard Drawings
7251/12/008 & 7251/12/009).

The side winding penstock valve allows the water levels to be adjusted easily. Riser or
siphon outlets have been used in past but the maintenance and longevity of these
outlets is now considered inappropriate and Melbourne Water will not accept wetland
designs with these outlet configurations. A riser cannot be altered should the sizing
and catchment change in the future. The PVC material used with the riser is also

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prone to damage by vandals or the weather. Siphons are permanently inundated;
cannot be maintained; and are prone to unacceptable sediment accumulation and
blockage.

Spillways or weirs as controlled outlet structures are simple to construct but are not
adjustable and incorrect water levels can lead to wetland failure and the rectification
works on the spillway height can be difficult and costly. Therefore, Melbourne Water
will only accept weirs or spillways as an outlet control in wetland designs when they
operate in conjunction with a twin chamber outfall pit (Refer Concept Drawings
7251/12/4001-4010). The twin chamber outfall pit working in tandem with a weir
or spillway also assists with bypassing the EDD for the first the 12 months of the
planting establishment period, enhancing plant growth in this time.

The outlet in large wetlands may comprise of a twin chamber outfall pit being located
adjacent to the wetland and a dedicated high flow bypass structure (pit or weir)
located within the outlet pool (Refer Standard Drawings 7251/12/4002 &
7251/12/4003). Under this scenario, treated stormwater passes through the twin
chamber outfall pit. When the water level in the macrophyte zone is at TEDD, all
further inflows to the macrophyte zone will discharge via the overflow structure (pit or
weir). Outflows from the twin chamber outfall pit and the overflow from the high flow
bypass structure, combine into a single pipe or waterway and are then conveyed to
the downstream receiving waterway.

The use of a twin chamber outfall pit maintains an adequate hydraulic gradient across
the wetland, and also has significant benefits in the operation and maintenance of the
wetland. The twin chamber outfall pit includes: the control of the wetland design
detention depth (EDD) (Refer Standard Drawing 7251/12/011); incorporation of
a resilient seated gate valve (not a high pressure valve) to allow full or partial draw
down of the system (no other valve types are acceptable) (Refer Standard Drawing
7251/12/4014) and provides the outlet of flows from the wetland. This provides
outlet conditions with a more dynamic hydraulic regime which allows the
establishment of shallow marsh vegetation and ephemeral and deep marsh species.

Regardless of the controlled outlet type, the controlled outlet must be configured to
provide a 90th percentile residence time of a maximum of 72 hours (refer to Part D
for guidance on calculating the wetland residence time) and should also include
measures to trap debris to prevent clogging and blockage of the outlet structure.

Outlet structures should be designed and located so that they are easily identifiable
and maintainable. This requires easy and safe access for maintenance and operational
personnel. The ability to have total visibility inside the weir pit through a grate

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structure is essential so that the pit lid does not always need to be lifted to see the
controlled outlet in operation, which improves operational staff health and safety and
reduces confined space entry requirements.

Vegetation and establishment considerations

The treatment performance of a wetland is highly dependent upon flows passing


through dense vegetation. The distribution of wetland vegetation is typically
determined by inundation depth, frequency and duration. In wetlands these factors
are determined by the permanent pool depth of the various macrophyte zones
(shallow marsh, deep marsh, submerged marsh) and the amount of time that inflows
engage the extended detention depth. Vegetation in the wetland has a direct
relationship to the treatment performance. If the vegetation does not meet the design
criteria, then it is unlikely that the wetland is achieving the required treatment
standard.

Important note: Approximately equal amounts of shallow marsh (100-150 mm


deep) and deep marsh (150-350 mm deep) in the macrophyte zone is required, and
supported by science literature, for effective wetland function.

At least 80% of the wetland area below normal water level should comprise of shallow
and deep marsh vegetation.

Dense vegetation bands and flat bathymetry orientated perpendicular to the flow path
are required for even flow distribution and reduced short-circuiting through the
macrophyte zone.

Macrophyte species planted within the wetland must be in accordance with the species
lists and guidance provided in Part A2. Whilst the majority (90%) of the species
planted within the wetland must conform to the species lists provided in Part B2, an
allowance of up to 10% has been made for the use of alternative species (20% for the
ephemeral batter). Refer to the species lists provided in Appendix A, WSUD
Engineering Procedures: Stormwater for information on alternative species that
may be planted in the wetland.

The expected wetland inundation regime must be analysed to determine whether


there is a potential risk to the long term health of the emergent macrophytes. The
effective water depth (permanent pool depth plus EDD) must not exceed half the
average plant height for more than 20% of the time. This must be demonstrated

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during design using an inundation frequency analysis. Refer to the Melbourne Water
online inundation frequency analysis tool & wet spells analysis tool. and Part
D for guidance on undertaking an inundation frequency analysis.

Submerged marsh planting (350-700mm) is to occur around the margins of all open
water zones within the macrophyte zone, but are not to be included in the calculation
of the 80% emergent vegetation cover and the inundation frequency analysis.

The minimum pot size to be specified for macrophyte seedlings is 600 cm3.
Macrophyte seedlings grown in smaller pots (90cm3 hiko cell or 200 cm3 forestry
tubes) are generally too small and do not have sufficient energy reserves to withstand
inundation and grazing pressure.

The larger pot size for macrophyte seedlings of 600 cm3 are likely to be more resilient
against inundation and waterbird grazing. Seedlings sourced from bare-root divisions
from tub/tray grown stock or stock harvested from existing wetlands will not be
accepted.

The adoption of larger pot sizes (600 cm3 pots) has resulted in a reduction in
minimum planting densities for this seedling size (refer to Part A2 for minimum
planting densities).

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The minimum acceptable pot or tray size for seedlings planted in the ephemeral
batters is 90cm3 (V93 Hiko equivalent) with 200 cm3 forestry tubes the preferred
option.

The quality of topsoil used in a wetland may have a major influence on vegetation
establishment and growth characteristics. The requirement to meet the Australian
Standard AS 4419 ‘Soils for landscaping and garden use’ will ensure that the basic
agronomic requirements (salinity, pH, soil structure) are considered prior to lining the
wetland with topsoil (Refer Melbourne Waters topsoil specification).

Designing to avoid mosquitos

Mosquitos are a natural component of wetland fauna. The construction of any water
body will create a habitat suitable for mosquito breeding and growth. Healthy, well
vegetated wetlands function as balanced ecosystems and have predators that control
mosquito populations. The risk of mosquito breeding can be addressed through:

• Ensuring all parts of the wetland are well connected to provide access for
mosquito predators to all inundated areas of the wetland;
• Providing areas of permanent open water that provide refuges for mosquito
predators (even during long dry periods);
• Ensuring wetland water quality is adequate to support of mosquito predators
such as macroinvertebrates and fish (this is normally the case for wetlands
where stormwater is the dominant inflow);
• Providing a bathymetry that ensures that regular wetting and drying is achieved
and water draws down evenly so isolated pools are avoided;

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• Ensuring wetland configuration does not provide dead spots or open areas away
from normal direction of flow;
• Maintaining water level fluctuations that disturb the breeding cycle of some
mosquito species;
• Providing gross pollutant control upstream of the wetland so that gross
pollutants do not accumulate and provide mosquito breeding habitat within the
wetland; and
• Ensuring that maintenance procedures do not result in wheel ruts or other
localised depressions that create isolated pools when wetland water levels fall.

Climate change

An assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on stormwater treatment


wetlands was undertaken by Melbourne Water (EDAW, 2010) 1.

Predicted long term changes in climate for Melbourne include:

• Long term increase in temperatures and evapotranspiration, particularly during


summer;
• Reduced mean annual rainfall, particularly during winter and spring; and
• Infrequent but more intense storms and longer dry spells with heavy rainfall
events, particularly during summer.

Three climate scenarios were investigated for predicted changes in rainfall and
evapotranspiration for 2030, 2070A and 2070B (CSIRO and Bureau of Meteorology,
2007) 2.

The modelling indicated that climate change would result in a slight increase in
treatment performance of stormwater wetlands as a result of decreased mean annual
rainfall and increased evapotranspiration, which provides greater drawdown between
events and therefore increased treatment performance for subsequent events.

The study concluded that no design response is required to protect stormwater


treatment wetlands from the potential impacts of climate change, and that potential
issues associated with water level drawdown could be managed by slightly increasing
the normal water level of a wetland.

1
EDAW (2010) Discussion paper: Potential impacts of climate change on wetland
performance. Report prepared for Melbourne Water.
2
CSIRO and Bureau of Meteorology (2007) Climate change in Australia. Technical
Report, 140 pp.

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Safety in design

Melbourne Water advises that the construction of any water body must include the
following design considerations to minimise risk associated with the system:

1. The edge of any deep open water should not be hidden or obscured by
embankment or terrestrial planting unless measures are taken to preclude
access (this could be barrier planting in the long term with short term safety
fencing or farm fencing).

2. All boardwalks, piers, bridges and/or structurally treated edges installed and
maintained by others are to have heights and or railings in accordance with
relevant design codes and satisfy inundation and safety criteria.

3. Details and safety requirements for batter slopes are outlined as design criteria
in Part A2.

4. Please refer to Melbourne Water’s Constructed Shallow Lake Systems –


Design Guidelines for Developers, when large areas of open water are
included in the design in addition to a wetland. Open water or shallow lakes are
generally considered to have a higher probability of algal blooms than wetlands
due to the longer residence times of stormwater, lower abundance of rooted
macrophytes and an increased likelihood of thermal stratification. The likelihood
of algal blooms can however be minimised by appropriate design and
management of the waterbody.

5. Interim fencing will be required until vegetation establishment has occurred and
where any component of the wetland is deeper than 350 mm and not provided
with default minimum safety slopes to the water’s edge. Please refer to
Melbourne Water’s risk assessment for safety and security fencing on
construction sites.

6. Permanent fencing and/or combined fencing and dense impenetrable plantings


should be used alongside deep water zones that do not have safety batters, or
that are adjacent to potentially unsafe structures.

7. Maintenance access areas must fenced, gated or contain bollards to discourage


unauthorised access.

8. Public access to structures, the top of weirs, pits and outlet structures must be
restricted by appropriate safety fences and other barriers.

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9. No public access is permitted into the wetland site during the construction
phase. Appropriate fencing and signage must be provided and maintained by
the developers contractor during this phase. Please refer to Melbourne Water’s
risk assessment for safety and security fencing on construction sites.

10. A minimum offset of 15 metres from the edge of the water to any allotment
boundary or Melbourne Water asset (not including a shared pathway).

As part of Melbourne Water’s ‘Zero Harm’ culture, ‘Safety in Design’ is a paramount


consideration. The Deemed to Comply design conditions have been prepared to
ensure that designs are safe for the contractors to build, safe for people to use, and
safe for people to maintain in the future. Our management of risks and hazards
include eliminating, through design, as many risks as possible that may be
encountered during construction, maintenance or demolition.

Wetland designs must comply with the Melbourne Water Safety in Design Audit to
ensure that projects are undertaken in accordance with the Melbourne Water Safety in
Design Management Procedure. For more information, please contact Melbourne
Water’s Developer Project Works team or visit Melbourne Water’s website.

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Wetland Design Manual

Part B: Design acceptance process


Table of contents

Introduction 5
Design acceptance approaches for submitting proposals to Melbourne Water 8
Deemed to Comply approach ..................................................................... 8
Alternative approach ................................................................................ 8
Working with Melbourne Water 9
Concept design stage 11
Concept design steps .............................................................................. 12
Step 1 – Submit request for Scheme Servicing Advice ................................ 12
Step 2 – Design criteria / information – Scheme Servicing Advice ................ 12
Step 3 – Prepare initial concept design package ......................................... 13
Step 4 – Meet with Melbourne Water ........................................................ 16
Step 5 – Submit final concept design ........................................................ 16
Step 6 – Concept design acceptance ........................................................ 17
Functional design stage 19
Functional design steps ........................................................................... 19
Step 1 – Prepare and submit functional design package .............................. 20
Step 2 – Application for Conditions ........................................................... 23
Step 3 – Meet with Melbourne Water ........................................................ 24
Step 4 – Submit final functional design package ........................................ 24
Step 5 – Functional design acceptance ..................................................... 25
Step 6 – Works offer .............................................................................. 25
Step 7 – Works offer acceptance .............................................................. 26
Detailed design stage ............................................................................. 27
Detailed design steps .............................................................................. 27
Step 1 – Prepare detailed design package ................................................. 27
Step 2 – Submit detailed design package .................................................. 28
Step 3 – Prepare the design certification statement ................................... 29
Step 4 – Detailed design acceptance ........................................................ 29
Pre-construction stage 31
Pre-construction steps ............................................................................ 31
Step 1 – Tender process ......................................................................... 31
Step 2 – Prepare and submit Site Environmental Management Plan ............. 32
Step 3 – Reimbursement calculated ......................................................... 32
Step 4 – Permits and pre-qualifications ..................................................... 32
Step 5 – Prepare pre-construction certification statement ........................... 32
Step 6 – Organise a pre-construction meeting ........................................... 33
As-constructed and establishment stage 35
As-constructed steps .............................................................................. 35

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Table of contents continued

Step 1 – Construction certification ............................................................ 35


Step 2 – As-constructed documentation .................................................... 36
Step 3 – Certificate of Practical Completion ............................................... 36
Step 4 – Submit your End of Defects Liability Period Statement ................... 36
Step 6 – Final reimbursement .................................................................. 37
Step 7 – Certificate of Completion ............................................................ 37

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Part B: Design acceptance process

Introduction
Melbourne Water is the ultimate client for almost all constructed wetlands in the
growth areas of Melbourne. Once constructed, these wetlands become either the
responsibility of Melbourne Water or the local Council (<60 hectare) to own and
maintain.

Designers must ensure they meet the design process requirements of Melbourne
Water, and Council, in the same way they meet the requirements of the Developer for
the subdivision/development adjacent to the wetland. Wetland designers therefore
play a pivotal role in ensuring that the wetland design interfaces with the surrounding
development and environment to the satisfaction of all parties.

Melbourne Water has a design acceptance process that the designer must follow for
the delivery of wetlands. The process has a series of steps, which are detailed in this
part of the manual, and are specific to wetland designs.

Under Melbourne Water’s Quality Management System (ISO 9001 QMS),


developers, engineering consultants and contractors have defined roles and
responsibilities with respect to the delivery of Melbourne Water assets. Further
information about this can be found on the Planning and Building pages of Melbourne
Water’s website.

The following flow charts (Figure 1 Planning and design acceptance process and
Figure 2 overview and steps of design acceptance process) outline the interactions
between the design approach undertaken by the designer, and the steps of the design
acceptance process. The design acceptance process steps and the information
required by Melbourne Water at each acceptance milestone or hold-point are detailed
in this part of the manual. The wetland designer is required to work through key
design stages: concept, functional and detailed, and should also be heavily involved
during the construction and establishment of the asset.

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Figure 1 Planning and design acceptance process

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Design acceptance process
Request for Concept design Functional Detailed design Design
Application for Works offer
Scheme package design package package certification
conditions acceptance
Servicing Advice submission submission submission statement

Concept Functional Design Detailed Design


Design Stage Stage Stage

Design criteria / Concept design Works Functional design Design


information acceptance offer acceptance acceptance

- Melbourne Water Developer Works Team - Designer / developer

- Melbourne Water Developer Projects Works Team - Melbourne Water Corporation

Construction acceptance process

Submit Permits and pre-


SEMP qualifications

Pre-construction Construction As constructed plans


Tender End of defects
certification Superintendent certification submitted & Survey
process certification
statement statement certification statement

Pre – construction Construction Defects Liability Project


Stage Stage Stage Finalisation Stage

Certificate of Reimbursements
Reimbursement Certificate of
Surveillance practical paid
calculated completion
completion

Statement of Maintenance
compliance for agreement
subdivision signed

Figure 2: Overview and steps of design acceptance process

The following forms are key administrative parts of the design acceptance process
under Melbourne Water’s Quality Assurance program for developer constructed assets,
including wetlands:

 Request for Scheme Servicing Advice

 Deemed to Comply Checklist – concept; functional; and detailed

 Application for Conditions

 Acceptance of Conditions

 Design Certification Statement

 Preconstruction Certification Statement

 Construction Certification Statement

 As-Constructed Certification Statement


 End of Defects Liability Period Certification Statement

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Design acceptance approaches for submitting proposals to
Melbourne Water
Melbourne Water has adopted two review/acceptance approaches for submitting
wetland design proposals to Melbourne Water rather than attempting to define one set
that applies to all situations. The two options are:

1. Deemed to comply approach

2. Alternative approach

After consultation with the development industry it is clear that developers and
wetland designers want a clear understanding of Melbourne Water’s requirements for
wetlands and request a prescriptive set of design criteria. It was decided that a
Deemed to Comply design acceptance approach, with a prescriptive set of design
criteria, would be most beneficial and useful for the industry to use (see below for
more information and Part A2 for design conditions). Melbourne Water also
acknowledges that not all wetlands and development sites are the same and it is
difficult to have one set of prescriptive design criteria to suit all types and topography
- so an alternative design acceptance approach is available for designers, which allows
developers and wetland designers to submit designs that do not entirely achieve all
the design criteria but still achieves the required core outcomes (see below for more
information and Part A3 for design considerations and guidance).

Deemed to Comply approach

The Deemed to Comply approach requires designers to demonstrate compliance with


a prescriptive set of design criteria (see Part A2). Deemed to Comply wetland designs
have an estimated review (not acceptance) timeframe of a maximum of 4 weeks.
Providing designers demonstrate compliance with the design criteria they will have a
high level of confidence that their designs will be accepted by Melbourne Water. The
Deemed to Comply design criteria are included in the design checklists, provided on
the Planning and Building website.

Alternative approach

The Alternative approach provides designers with the option of submitting an


approach that differs from the Deemed to Comply prescriptive approach (outlined in
Part A2), but still delivers the required core outcomes for wetlands outlined in Part
A1. Part A3 provides a set of key design considerations and minimum standards
when considering an appropriate wetland design and when the alternative design
approach is sought. If any of the Deemed to Comply criteria are not complied with,
the design will be considered an Alternative approach.

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The designer is responsible for providing Melbourne Water with evidence that the
Alternative approach achieves equivalent or better performance than the Deemed to
Comply approach for the four core outcomes stated in Part A1 of this manual.

The review timeframe for Alternative approach designs will be longer than Deemed to
Comply designs with a review timeframe of a maximum of 8 weeks. Designers should
be aware that there is no certainty that their design will be accepted by Melbourne
Water. This provides the opportunity for developers and their designers with tight
time constraints and/or those that are risk adverse to pursue the Deemed to Comply
approach.

The review process for the Alternative approach will be the same as the Deemed to
Comply approach, with a concept, functional and detailed design package required for
each stage of the process. This ensures a transparent and consistent process for
internal and external stakeholders. When an Alternative approach design is submitted,
Melbourne Water’s review involves input from various internal departments and
expertise in wetland design and operation, including hydrology, hydraulics, ecology,
constructability and maintenance.

For unusual design applications, or where internal resources are not available,
Melbourne Water may choose to seek expert opinion from independent peer reviewers
about whether the information submitted demonstrates that Melbourne Water’s core
outcomes and design objectives will be achieved. Note: The cost associated with this
will be borne by the developer not Melbourne Water.

Working with Melbourne Water


Melbourne Water’s Development Planning team, within the Waterways and Land
Group, is the principle point of contact for all customers undertaking land
development within areas that are covered by a Development Services Scheme or for
projects where a Melbourne Water wetland is proposed.

To find out if your development is located within a Development Services Scheme,


and for more information on working with Melbourne Water, please visit Melbourne
Water’s Planning and Building website:

www.melbournewater.com.au/Planning-and-building/Pages/planning-and-building

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The following diagram represents the structure of the Development Planning team as
it relates to the planning and delivery of key assets in Development Services
Schemes, such as wetlands.

• Development Strategies Team


• Implementation of Development Services Schemes; review of Precinct Structure Plans; assessment of catchment models including
Strategy RORB, hydraulc models and MUSIC in greenfield areas
development

• Urban Growth Services Team


• Scheme Servicing or Feasibility advice; review and assessment of Greenfield planning permit applications and subdivision
applications; review of surface water management strategies; review of concept design package; confirmation of wetland location
Concept Design and indicative footprint; review of core outcomes associated with wetland proposal

• Urban Growth Services & Business Improvement Team


• Combined team review and assessment of functional design package; preparation of internal business cases for the delivery
(timing and funding) of projects; preparation of Non-Works and Works Offers; review of MUSIC and flood models;and review of
Functional
Certification of Plan of Subdivision and consent to the issue of a Statement of Compliance
Design

• Business Improvement Team


• Assessment of detailed design packages; issue design certification; contractor assessment; calculation of reimbursements for
scheme works; preparation of maintenance agreements
Detailed Design

• Business Improvement Team


• Pre-commencement meeting onsite; issue of permit to work; surveillance of on-ground works; issue certificate of practical
Pre-Construction completion
& Construction

• Business Improvement Team


• Full reimbursements paid; maintenance agreements signed; issue certificate of completion
As-Constructed

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Concept design stage
The concept design stage provides a chance to consider the opportunities and
constraints of the subject site in relation to wetland design and construction, and to
understand Melbourne Water’s requirements and aspirations for the wetland that any
design must address.

Before design work commences, the criteria and core outcomes for the design should
be determined. Melbourne Water will provide broad design objectives and criteria for
the wetland to inform the concept design. The wetland must be designed to achieve
the required core outcomes for wetlands, including:

 Effective pollutant removal and flow management

 Community Safety

 Maintenance and operational staff safety

 Cost effective asset management

The land developer and the local government authority may also have design
specifications for the wetland and surrounding open space. The designer is tasked
with the job of preparing a concept that meets each of these combined design
objectives. Discussions with Council regarding any open space requirements should
occur concurrently with the concept design stage for the wetland.

In summary, the concept design phase in this manual is concerned with the process of
synthesising and identifying various options that could potentially meet the design
objectives for the wetland. It does not just determine the location of the wetland but
how the wetland will be incorporated into the landscape design and marry with the
other design considerations associated with a development. A Development Services
Scheme is a catchment masterplan and does not provide the necessary information
required for a concept design of a wetland. It is at the functional design stage where
these options and ideas are tested to determine their feasibility and arrive at an end
product, being the preferred design scenario. This underlines the importance of
iteration during the evolution of the concept and functional design as different options
are explored and refined.

Refer to Part C for more information on technical design, construction and


establishment information to assist with the stage.

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Important note: It is NOT recommended to combine both the concept and functional
design stage in the design acceptance process as this will often lead to problems and
longer time delays, and there is no certainty that this will speed-up the design
acceptance process.

Concept design steps

The concept design stage consists of six steps (see Figure 2).

Concept design stage

Step 1. Submit request for Step 2. Design criteria / information – Step 3. Prepare initial
Scheme Servicing Advice Scheme servicing advice concept design package

Step 4. Meet with Step 5. Submit final Step 6. Concept Melbourne


Designer
Melbourne Water concept design design acceptance Water
Figure 2 Concept design stage steps

Step 1 – Submit request for Scheme Servicing Advice

The consultant must submit the relevant form to Melbourne Water requesting Scheme
Servicing Advice. The form should include the following information:

 A catchment plan clearly defining the property boundaries

 An overall estate plan (if available)

 Any baseline due diligence reports and topographical survey information

It should be noted that this is not an application for Conditions (i.e. the Works Offer),
but a request for Scheme Servicing Advice.

Scheme Servicing Advice / Feasibility website

Step 2 – Design criteria / information – Scheme Servicing Advice

Melbourne Water will provide the designer with advice regarding the wetland
objectives and intent. This advice includes highlighting component size requirements,
open space and waterway corridor requirements (if applicable), design flows, relevant
plans and strategies, Development Services Scheme infrastructure (such as indicative
sizes of pipelines and outfall locations) and any available background studies (flora,
fauna, cultural heritage, etc.). It can also provide information on the initial developer
contribution that is payable to Melbourne Water and the expected estimated costs for

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reimbursable works if the wetland is required as part of a Development Services
Scheme.

Important note: a Development Services Scheme is a catchment masterplan and


only has limited information regarding the subject site, topography, asset size and
location. A MUSIC model that has been set up for the Development Services Scheme
can be provided to the consultant if required. The consultant is responsible for
checking the model includes a suitable representation of the catchment and proposed
treatment train.

Step 3 – Prepare initial concept design package

A concept design package must be submitted to Melbourne Water’s Urban Growth


Services Team. The purpose of the concept design package is to demonstrate that
the wetland site is appropriate and that the draft plan of subdivision provides
adequate space for the wetland footprint. If the concept design package is incomplete
or not submitted to Melbourne Water’s satisfaction, then the application may not be
assessed until all relevant information is provided.

The initial concept design package is prepared by the wetland designer, in close
consultation with the design team, which should include a landscape architect.

The concept design package must contain:

1. A statement and checklist listing any aspects of the package that do not
conform with the “Deemed to Comply” requirements outlined in this manual
(Part A2) and justification as to how the proposed alternative approach
achieves equivalent or better than the deemed to comply approach, in relation
to:

a. pollutant reductions and flow management

b. safety outcomes

c. maintenance

d. sustainability/robustness (i.e. ≥ 25 year life)

2. A Concept Design Report that:

a. Identifies the developer and development location

b. Describes the overall stormwater management strategy (including all


treatment systems) for the site, including whether treatment systems
will be:

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i. integrated within retarding ponds and/or

ii. form part of a stormwater harvesting system

c. Identifies how gross pollutants in the catchment will be managed

d. Identifies whether wetlands are intended to be ephemeral or contain a


permanent pool of water

e. Summarises MUSIC modelling (or alternative method or models),


including:

i. version of MUSIC

ii. meteorological data used

iii. catchment areas with impervious percentage

iv. any routing used

v. treatment node parameters

vi. any modelling parameters that are not in accordance with


Melbourne Water’s MUSIC Modelling Guidelines

vii. pollutant removal results

f. A summary of site characteristics and constraints, including:

i. results from a site Flora and Fauna survey, including identification


of any species of significance listed under the Flora and Fauna
Guarantee Act and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act (the full Flora and Fauna survey must be
included as an appendix to the report)

ii. applicable geology and soils at the site

iii. whether the wetland is likely to be inundated by flows from a


catchment other than the one it is treating (e.g. overflow from
adjacent waterway) and, if so, how often this inundation is likely
to occur

iv. If applicable, results from a Cultural Heritage Management Plan


that is relevant to the wetland footprint (the full Cultural Heritage
report must be included as an appendix to the report)

v. information on existing or proposed services or assets

g. Is technically reviewed and undersigned by the wetland designer

3. A copy of the MUSIC model

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4. A plan showing catchment boundaries for each treatment system and location
of receiving waterways

5. A draft Plan of Subdivision and draft Development Plan for the development
site. The Plan of Subdivision must show the boundary of the reserve the
wetland will sit within. The Development Plan must show the whole
development area including subdivision stages and all reserves

6. A plan showing the location and indicative footprint of all existing and planned
treatment systems, waterways (constructed and/or natural) and retarding
ponds that will be located within and/or service the land shown on the draft
Plan of Subdivision

7. A plan of each proposed wetland showing indicative footprint (allowing for


batter slopes of sediment pond, high flow bypass, macrophyte zone,
maintenance access routes, location of any pipe connections and sediment
dewatering areas. The plan must show these items overlaid on site survey and
constraints (with labelled contours) or a recent aerial photograph. The plan
must show:

a. flow direction, inlet and outlet locations

b. the boundary of the reserve that the wetland will sit within; note that
the reserve boundary should be at least 20% larger than the maximum
extent of all parts of the wetland footprint, as above, to accommodate
any changes to the footprint during later design phases. This plan must
show existing waterways and/or pipe networks within or adjacent to the
reserve

c. details on which assets the developer is proposing will be transferred to


Melbourne Water and who the proposed owner/operator is for other
adjacent assets

d. the location of sediment pond inlet(s) and high flow bypass and
macrophyte zone outlets

e. the alignment of existing or proposed services determined from a


desktop study (e.g. sewer, gas, mains water underground electrical
cables and overhead power lines)

f. the levels (m AHD) of land surrounding the wetland

g. the slope of the batters between TED and the site boundary

h. the location of any existing vegetation that is to be retained

i. the location of any cultural/historical features to be retained

j. the boundary of any planning overlays

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k. any existing or proposed community facilities adjacent to the wetland
location (e.g. playgrounds, buildings and/or walking paths)

8. An indicative long section for each wetland showing:

a. existing surface level (top of batter slope above TED)

b. NWL (m AHD)

c. TED

d. the base of permanent pool

e. planting zones

f. invert of inlet pipe/channel(s)

g. invert of outlet pipe and how this relates to the receiving waterway/drain

h. weir crest levels

9. An indicative cross section showing batter slopes

Please see Appendix 1 of section A2 for the concept design plan examples.

The concept design package is to be submitted in the following file formats (Table 1).

Table 1 Accepted file formats for the concept design packages

Item Format
Statement & Checklist Pdf
Report Pdf
Plans and sections Pdf or jpeg

Step 4 – Meet with Melbourne Water

The wetland designer and consultant project team should meet with Melbourne Water
and the other relevant stakeholders and approval authorities to discuss the initial
concept design. The aim of this step is to seek feedback that the concept is generally
to the satisfaction of Melbourne Water and the other stakeholders, and to give
direction to the designer to ensure they are on the right track for approval of the
asset. Information associated with the concept design should be submitted to
Melbourne Water at least one week prior to this meeting.

Step 5 – Submit final concept design

Collate the feedback from Melbourne Water, relevant stakeholders and approval
authorities, and incorporate this into an iteration of the concept design. If any
changes to the concept are required, the designer will need to re-submit an updated

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concept design package for further review/comment to check that the iteration
correlates with the feedback provided. This submission should:

 Highlight any conflicts that arose from undertaking the iteration in attempting
to address all parties’ comments.

 Highlight any significant changes from the original concept that may not
otherwise be obvious to the reviewers.

Finalise the concept design as per the feedback from this Step, then update the
concept design package for submission to Melbourne Water for formal acceptance.
The final concept design package should include the following to be accepted:

 Concept Design Report


 Concept Design Deemed to Comply Checklist
 MUSIC model (or alternative model or method if used)
 Concept Plan
 Draft Plan of Subdivision and/or draft Development Plan

Step 6 – Concept design acceptance

Melbourne Water is to provide confirmation of concept design comments/acceptance


within 10 working days of receipt of the complete package, if the acceptance
approach is the Deemed to Comply approach or within 30 working days if the
acceptance approach is the Alternative approach.

 If the package is incomplete or not to Melbourne Water’s satisfaction, there is


no guarantee that the above review timeframes will be met.

 Melbourne Water does not accept any liability for delays caused by incomplete
or inaccurate information submitted for review.

Melbourne Water’s concept design acceptance will take the form of an ‘in-principle
acceptance subject to’, with the ‘subject to’ being further feasibility analysis that
needs to be undertaken through the functional design phase.

At the end of the concept design phase, the three key parameters that should
generally have been agreed upon (subject to functional design) are:

1. The core design outcomes

2. The indicative wetland footprint

3. The general location of the wetland

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There is an understanding, at this stage, between Melbourne Water and the land
developer that nothing is ‘locked-in’ and that some changes to size and location of the
wetland, and possibly some of the objectives, may need to be made according to the
results of the analysis undertaken during the functional design.

Further to completing a concept design to Melbourne Water’s satisfaction, and to help


inform a planning permit application, a land developer and their consultant team
should consider working with Melbourne Water to arrive at a concept and functional
design that meets Melbourne Water’s requirements before seeking Melbourne Water’s
consent to a Planning Permit and Certification of a Plan of Subdivision.

A concept design is a great communication tool that will assist in explaining the
intent of the design response to Melbourne Water, Councils and other interested
parties. Melbourne Water’s Development Planning Team will not accept a functional
design package for a wetland until they have reviewed and accepted the concept
design package.

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Functional design stage
Melbourne Water defines a functional design as:

 Demonstrating the optimal solution to achieve our core design outcomes and
criteria for that asset (see Part A1 and Part A2);

 Providing confidence that the asset, if constructed according to the design, will
function according to our requirements;

 Confirming the physical area (accounting for all requirements) needed to


accommodate the asset within the landscape of the proposed development;

 Being prepared in conjunction with rigorous analysis performed using available


modelling software and calculation methods relevant to the type of asset being
designed; and

 Enabling a preliminary construction cost-estimate for the asset to be prepared.

Refer to Part C for more information on technical design, construction and


establishment information to assist with the stage.

Important Note: For wetlands that are subject to land reimbursements from
Melbourne Water, functional designs are a critical part of determining the land area
required for these assets as part of the land reimbursement process. Please refer to
Melbourne Water’s land development policy on reimbursements.

Functional design steps

The functional design phase consists of seven steps (see Figure 3).

Figure 3 Steps in the functional design phase

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Step 1 – Prepare and submit functional design package

A functional design package must be submitted to Melbourne Water’s Urban


Growth Services Team. The purpose of the functional design package is to
demonstrate that the wetland configuration enables the required pollutant reductions
to be achieved, whilst maintaining safety requirements and providing cost effective
maintenance solutions. The functional design package is prepared by the consultant
for the project. The package must contain:

1. A statement and checklist listing any aspects of the package that do not
conform with the “Deemed to Comply” requirements outlined in this manual
(Part A2) and justification for how the proposed alternative approach achieves
equivalent or better than the deemed to comply approach, in relation to:

a. pollutant reductions and flow management

b. safety outcomes

c. maintenance

d. sustainability/robustness (i.e. ≥ 25 year life).

2. A functional design report that describes:

a. The overall operation of the system, including any changes to


assumptions made during the concept design phase

b. A summary of any consultation with other approval authorities (e.g.


Council)

c. The design flow rates, and the method and assumptions used to
estimate them

d. The peak water levels above wetland and in surrounding reserve for 5,
10 and 100 year ARI events, and the method and assumptions used to
estimate them

e. how gross pollutants will be managed

f. the inlet function

g. The calculations used to size the sediment pond/s

h. The calculations used to size the high flow bypass channel

i. The calculations used to size the connection between the sediment pond
and macrophyte zone

j. The calculations used to size the connection between the sediment pond
and high flow bypass (i.e. sediment pond overflow outlet)

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k. The calculations used to size the macrophyte zone extended detention
controlled outlet

l. The calculations used to size the macrophyte zone overflow outlet

m. The maximum flow velocities through sediment pond and macrophyte


zone

n. The plant species and densities that will be used in each zone

o. A description of how sediment ponds can be dewatered during


maintenance (without dewatering macrophyte zone)

p. The calculations used to size the sediment dewatering area

q. A summary of findings of geotechnical testing (full geotechnical report to


be included as an appendix to the functional design report). This
summary must address:

i. Whether maximum groundwater level is within 0.5 m of the


wetland base

ii. Dispersiveness of soils

iii. Whether wetland earthworks involve contaminated material and,


if so, the required soil management approach and costs

iv. Suitability of site soils to form an impervious wetland liner, for


wetlands with a permanent pool

v. The likely infiltration rate from base of wetland, for ephemeral


wetlands

r. The peak 5, 10 and 100 year water levels in the sediment pond and
macrophyte zone

s. A description of the updated MUSIC model (or alternative method or


models), including matching:

i. the inlet pond volume in MUSIC to the sediment pond volume


shown on plans (excluding the sediment accumulation volume)

ii. the permanent pool volume to the proposed bathymetry (using


the user defined stage-storage relationship)

iii. the high flow bypass configuration to the design

iv. the extended detention controlled outlet configuration to the


design (using the user defined stage-storage relationship)

t. An inundation frequency analysis of water levels in the macrophyte zone

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u. The 90th percentile residence time in the macrophyte zone

v. A report from MUSIC auditor tool including the wet spells analysis

w. A table showing percentage of macrophyte zone (at NWL) that is in the


following depth zones:

i. 100 to 150 mm below NWL

ii. 150 to 350 mm below NWL

iii. Greater than 350 mm below NWL

x. How the surrounding environment will be protected during construction


(e.g. protection of significant existing vegetation and preventing
contaminated runoff leaving the site).

3. Scale plan(s) showing proposed surface levels (in m AHD) within the wetland
and in the surrounding area (e.g. produced from earthworks model). The
plan(s) must show lines indicating TED, NWL, the edge of each planting zone,
maintenance access tracks, sediment dewatering areas, any existing or
proposed services within the wetland reserve and locations of any edges that do
not contain safety benches and will therefore be fenced. Note that the presence,
alignment and estimate depth of any underground services must be based on
physical site proving (unobtrusive testing using a detector is acceptable).

4. Plan showing maintenance responsibility boundaries (i.e. which parts Melbourne


Water will be responsible for maintaining and which parts will be maintained by
others – Council. See the Planning and Building website for more information).

5. Letters from other parties agreeing to be responsible for maintaining areas of


assets adjacent to the wetland.

6. Indicative long section of sediment pond(s) and macrophyte zone(s) showing


planting zones, topsoil, liner, peak 5, 10 and 100 year ARI water level and the
location and depth of any underground services.

7. Indicative long section of the high flow bypass.

8. Schematic dimensioned drawings with levels to “m AHD” of:

a. Inlet to sediment pond

b. Connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone

c. Connection between the sediment pond and high flow bypass

d. Sediment pond maintenance draw down outlet

e. Twin chamber outfall pit containing a side winding penstock and gate
valve

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f. Macrophyte zone overflow outlet

g. Connection of wetland outlet(s) to downstream drain/waterway including


the peak 1 year ARI water level in the downstream drain/waterway and
the maximum high tide level (accounting for anticipated sea level rise)

9. Geo-referenced GIS (MapInfo) layers showing catchment boundary for each


sediment pond

10. Landscape concept plans for surrounding areas

11. Works cost estimate with clearly itemised items to be funded by Melbourne
Water.

12. Copy of supporting hydrologic, hydraulic and water quality models (e.g. MUSIC,
RORB and HEC-RAS)

Please see Appendix 2 of section A2 for functional design plan examples for more
information.

File formats and supplementary information on the required elements of the functional
design package are presented in Table 2:

Table 2 Accepted file formats for the functional design packages

Item Format
Statement and checklist Pdf
Report Pdf
Plans, sections, schematic drawings Pdf
Letters Pdf
Catchment boundary Geo-referenced MapInfo layers
Modelling files MUSIC, RORB and/or HEC-RAS files

Step 2 – Application for Conditions

The Developer must submit the following items to Melbourne Water:

 A completed Melbourne Water Application for Conditions (Form A) signed


by the Developer; and

 All plans and information specified on the Application for Conditions form.

The date of the application is the date upon which all required plans and information
have been received by Melbourne Water (i.e. not necessarily the date on the
application form). All applicable fees, charges or contributions are based on the rates

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current at this date. It is therefore in the Developer’s best interest to ensure a
complete and correct application is submitted.

Subsequent to the Application for Conditions being made, if there are changes to the
Plan of Subdivision that affect the extent of works and/or contributions payable, the
Developer must submit a new application. A new application is not required for minor
Plan of Subdivision changes such as minor easement creations or relocations.

All fees, charges, contributions and conditions for a new application would be those
current at the new application date.

Step 3 – Meet with Melbourne Water

The designer and consultant project team must meet with Melbourne Water and the
other relevant stakeholders and approval authorities to discuss the functional design.
The aim of this step is to confirm that the functional design is generally in accordance
with the expectations of Melbourne Water and the stakeholders, and to give direction
to the designer so that they continue on the right track. Information associated with
the functional design should be submitted to Melbourne Water at least one week prior
to this meeting.

Step 4 – Submit final functional design package

The wetland designer must collate all relevant information and feedback from
Melbourne Water, relevant stakeholders and approval authorities, and incorporate this
into a final functional design package.

If any changes are required, you’ll need to re-submit the functional design package
for further review/comment to check that your iteration correlates with the feedback
provided. This submission should:

 Highlight any conflicts that arose from attempting to address all interested
parties’ comments; and

 Highlight any significant changes from previous design submissions that may
not otherwise be obvious to the reviewers.

The final functional design package should include the following to be accepted:

 Functional Design Report


 Functional Design Deemed to Comply Checklist
 Updated or revised MUSIC model including wet spells analysis (or alternative
model or method if used)
 Modelling files (RORB, HEC-RAS, TUFLOW etc)

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 Functional Design Plans, sections, schematic drawings
 Letters from other authorities, landowners agreeing to ownership, maintenance,
works and/or downstream landowners

Step 5 – Functional design acceptance

Melbourne Water is to provide functional design comments/acceptance within 20


working days of receipt of the complete package if the acceptance approach is the
Deemed to Comply approach or within 30 working days if the acceptance
approach is the Alternative approach.

 If the functional design package is incomplete or not Melbourne Water’s


satisfaction, there is no guarantee that the above review timeframes will be
met.

 Melbourne Water does not accept liability for delays caused by incomplete or
inaccurate information submitted for our review.

Step 6 – Works offer

Once Melbourne Water has received the Developer’s ‘Application for Conditions’ form
(Form A) and the functional design package, Melbourne Water will prepare a business
case for internal management approval and forward an Offer of Conditions of
Agreement (the Works Offer) to the Developer. The Works Offer sets out conditions
under which waterway, flood protection and drainage services will be provided to the
development. The Works Offer will include details of any special conditions and
financial arrangements relating to the delivery of scheme infrastructure and the
adjacent development.

Melbourne Water will respond to the Works Offer application within 60 calendar days
from the date of application. The timeframe may be extended beyond 60 calendar
days where insufficient information is submitted (to enable proper assessment of the
application) or where Melbourne Water requires additional information from the
Developer/consultant during the application review process.

The written Works Offer will:

 identify significant environmental issues that need to be considered in the


design or the need for further survey work to be undertaken;

 identify significant cultural issues that need to be considered in the design, or


the need for further survey work to be undertaken;

 include details about how the reimbursement will be determined;

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 include details on the defects liability period; and

 include comments about the design plans (including maintenance comments)


from our Developer Works Team.

Step 7 – Works offer acceptance

The Developer is considered by Melbourne Water to have accepted the Works Offer
when the following items have been lodged with Melbourne Water to its satisfaction
before the Offer expiry date (which is three months from the date of issue-the letter
date):

 The final functional design package and functional design acceptance;

 A completed Melbourne Water Offer of Acceptance Form signed by the


Developer and the Consultant; and

 Any other required information and statements for Quality Assurance purposes.

If the acceptance does not meet Melbourne Water’s requirements, the Developer will
be notified by Melbourne Water within 5 working days of receiving the acceptance.
Any changes or additional information needed to satisfy Melbourne Water must be
lodged before the Works Offer expiry date.

If a Works Offer is not accepted within three months of the date of issue, then the
Works Offer will expire. After this point, a new Application for Conditions will have to
be made by the Developer. The maximum 60 calendar day timeframe will apply
from the new application date.

Important note: If you choose to commence work before accepting the Works Offer
or without a Works Offer, you accept to carry the risks associated with:
1. Lack of clarity on the basis for reimbursement
2. Impact on flora, fauna and cultural heritage issues
3. Land disturbance and environmental pollution
4. Community related issues
5. An asset that is not transferrable over to an Authority
6. Retrofitting costs to meet Melbourne Water’s standards

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Detailed design stage

A detailed design package must be submitted to Melbourne Water’s Business


Improvement team. The aim of the detailed design stage is to confirm the way the
wetland will be constructed, established and maintained. Key steps in this stage are
gaining final design acceptance from Melbourne Water and the lodgement of design
certification paperwork to Melbourne Water, including the addition of set-out
information to the drawing set.

Refer to Part C for more information on technical design, construction and


establishment information to assist with the stage.

Detailed design steps

The detailed design stage consists of four steps (see Figure 4):

Detailed design stage

Step 1. Prepare detailed Step 2. Submit detailed Step 3. Prepare the design Step 4. Detailed design
design package design package certification statement acceptance

Designer Melbourne
Water
Figure 4 Steps in the detailed design phase

Step 1 – Prepare detailed design package

The detailed design package is prepared by the designer. Tasks carried out to prepare
all of the information required as part of the package include to:

 Incorporate comments from the previous Stage in the design acceptance


process;

 Prepare detailed design drawings suitable for public tender;

 Finalise the maintenance plan, schedule and budget;

 Finalise the cost estimate and submit tenders.

Important note: Consultation with Melbourne Waters Urban Growth Services team
will be required for any design changes that may be proposed/required during the
preparation and review of the detailed design if those changes are considered likely to
have an impact on the function of the wetland.

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File formats and supplementary information on the elements of the detailed design
package are presented below:

Table 3 Accepted file formats for the detailed design package

Item Format
Statement & Checklist Pdf
Reports Pdf
Models MUSIC, RORB, HEC-RAS files
Plans Pdf and dwg
Specifications Pdf

Step 2 – Submit detailed design package

A detailed design package must be submitted to Melbourne Water’s Business


Improvement team. The aim of the detailed design stage is to document the design
for construction. Key steps in this stage are gaining final design acceptance from
Melbourne Water and the lodgement of design certification paperwork to Melbourne
Water. The detailed design package must include:

1. A statement and checklist listing any aspects of the package that do not
conform with the “Deemed to Comply” requirements outlined in this manual,
and justification for how the proposed alternative approach achieves equivalent
or better than the deemed to comply approach, in relation to:

a. pollutant reductions and flow management

b. safety outcomes

c. maintenance costs

d. sustainability/robustness (i.e. ≥ 25 year life).

2. An updated design report with a summary of any design changes that have
been made since the functional design was accepted by Melbourne Water. In
addition to the items that must be included in the functional design package
design report, the final design report must include calculations and assumptions
used to specify all scour protection and energy dissipation works.

3. Copies of final hydrologic, hydraulic and water quality models

4. Civil and landscape construction drawings covering all aspects of the wetland
and showing all the required items listed in the functional design package, plus:

a. Scour protection

b. Method for identifying base of sediment pond

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c. Material for maintenance access tracks

d. Topsoil properties

e. Dimensions and details for all hydraulic structures including pits, pipes,
headwalls and weirs

f. Details of any fencing and signage

5. Civil and landscape specifications in accordance with AS 2124, with the sections
that relate to the wetland highlighted.

6. Contact details for the Superintendent for the construction contract and an
outline of their relevant qualifications and experience (including records of
Green Card training).

7. An asset operation plan and maintenance agreement.

8. Details of establishment/maintenance to be undertaken in the first 24 months


following construction (i.e. before the asset is transferred to Melbourne Water).

9. Written approval from service authorities for any service alterations/relocations.

10. A summary of requirements of any Cultural Heritage Management Plan that


relate to the wetland construction.
11. A draft site environmental management plan.

Melbourne Water will review and provide comment on the detail design. Some
amendments may be required prior to lodgement of design certification.

Please see Appendix 3 f Section A2 for detailed design example plans.

Step 3 – Prepare the design certification statement

Once the design has been amended, as per comments from Step 2, and the designer
is confident that their design is acceptable, the Developer must submit The Design
Certification Statement to Melbourne Water:

 The Design Certification Statement

Step 4 – Detailed design acceptance

Melbourne Water will provide confirmation of detailed design comments/acceptance


within 10 working days of receipt of the completed package.

 If the detailed design package is incomplete or not to Melbourne Water’s


satisfaction, there is no guarantee that this 10 working days review
timeframe will be met.

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 Melbourne Water does not accept liability for delays caused by incomplete or
inaccurate information submitted for our review.

The final detailed design package should include the following to be accepted:

 Detailed Design Report


 Detailed Design Deemed to Comply Checklist
 Final modelling files (MUSIC, RORB, HEC-RAS, TUFLOW etc)
 Detailed Design Plans, sections, schematic drawings, including civil and
landscape construction drawings
 Draft Site Environmental Management Plan
 Asset Operational Plan and Maintenance Agreement
 Consultant’s Design Certification Statement
 Letters from other authorities, landowners agreeing to ownership, maintenance,
works and/or downstream landowners

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Pre-construction stage
The objective of the pre-construction phase is to ensure that all stakeholders
associated with the project are aware of their responsibilities, and that the contractor
has all of the information relevant to the construction works. The pre-construction
stage incorporates the tender process and the lodgement of pre-construction
certification paperwork to Melbourne Water.

Refer to Part C for more information on technical design, construction and


establishment information to assist with the stage.

Pre-construction steps

The pre-construction stage consists of six steps (Figure 5):

Pre Construction

Step 3. Reimbursement
Step 1. Tender process Step 2. Submit SEMP Designer
calculated

Melbourne
Step 4. Permits and pre- Step 5. Prepare pre- Step 6. Organise pre Water
qualifications construction certificate construction meeting
statement
Figure 5 Steps in the pre-construction phase

Step 1 – Tender process

The tender interview process should include design related questions so that the
contractor’s understanding of the project can be determined. It is recommended that
the process include a site walk where the designer can communicate the design intent
to the contractor and the field staff. The tender review process is to be conducted by
the Developer or their representative. Melbourne Water is not generally involved in
the tender review process. Refer to Melbourne Water’s Planning and Building website
for further information. Note: for tenders expected to be >$450k please follow the
tendering process (Tenders Vic) found here.

When preparing the schedule of quantities that will form the basis of the tender
documents, the developer's consultant is to itemise those components of the works
that Melbourne Water is to pay for. This will allow for a prompt and accurate
assessment of the value of Melbourne Water's reimbursement for the works.
Tendering of works
Reimbursements

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Step 2 – Prepare and submit Site Environmental Management Plan

The contractor, in consultation with the consultant, must prepare and submit the Site
Environmental Management Plan (SEMP) to Melbourne Water, for our records.

Step 3 – Reimbursement calculated

The actual reimbursement amount will be calculated and Melbourne Water will advise
the Developer of the proposed reimbursement.

An owner who is required to build Melbourne Water assets in conjunction with the
development is reimbursed an amount towards the cost of the works by Melbourne
Water.

Refer to Melbourne Water’s land development policies on reimbursements for further


information.

Step 4 – Permits and pre-qualifications

Before works commence, the contactor is to obtain all permits and complete all pre-
qualification processes:

 The contractor must obtain a Permit to Work for any projects that involve
connections to an existing Melbourne Water pipeline or outlets to a waterway.
The Permit to Work will be issued by the Project Surveillance Office at the Pre-
commencement meeting. The contractor must have completed a Permit
recipient training course in order to obtain a Permit to Work.

 While civil works are being carried out, the contractor must have someone on
site that has obtained a Melbourne Water green card (i.e. attended the Site
Environmental Awareness Training course)

Step 5 – Prepare pre-construction certification statement

Before commencing construction, the Developer must submit the following documents
to Melbourne Water:

 The Pre-Construction Certificate List in the Construction Specifications section of


Melbourne Water’s website in accordance with Commencement of Works.

 Evidence that insurance requirements set out in the Insurance Conditions


section of Melbourne Water’s website have been complied with.

Melbourne Water must have at least two working weeks’ notice of intention to start
construction by submission of a Pre-Construction Certification Statement and
Checklist.

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Important Note: You must give Melbourne Water at least two working days’ notice
from the start date if construction is going to be delayed. Melbourne Water also needs
to know your new start date at least two working days before you begin.

Step 6 – Organise a pre-construction meeting

Once you have completed all the necessary pre-construction activities, you must
organise a project pre-construction meeting with Melbourne Water to review your
plan.

By this stage you should have:

 lodged your pre-construction certification checklist and statement;

 lodged your site environmental management plan;

 had your reimbursement calculated;

 selected a contractor; and

 paid or lodged the necessary bonds if there is no reimbursement associated


with the works

Important note: Consultation with the Melbourne Water Project Officer in the
Business Improvement Team will be required for any design changes during
construction that are considered likely to have an impact on the function of the
wetland. Works must match the accepted design, unless Melbourne Water provides
permission for any changes. If the contractor’s works do not match the design or
meet Melbourne Water’s construction standards, the principal/developer may be asked
to rectify them at their own cost.

View our construction of works website for guidelines and details on construction.

During construction, Melbourne Water’s Business Improvement Team will:

 visit your site to make sure the work complies with our standards;

 monitor your Site Environmental Management Plan, and amend the plan where
necessary; and

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 undertake water quality testing of some sites plus if necessary require
modifications to the Site Environmental Management Plan and/or provide liaison
and cooperation with the Environmental Protection Authority on serious
pollution matters.

If unforeseen issues occur during construction that impact on and/or require a


variation to the accepted design, it may be necessary to resubmit the new design to
Melbourne Water for formal review and acceptance.

Important note: Make the most of Melbourne Water’s expertise when our staff are
on site. For more complex or unfamiliar work, you should consider building a small
sample section of work and have it assessed by your Project Surveillance Officer. You
can then proceed based on an agreement solution and favourable review.

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As-constructed and establishment stage
Documentation of what has been constructed is a crucial part in demonstrating that
the construction process has met the intent of the design, that Melbourne Water’s
objectives for the wetland have been met, and that our desired outcomes are likely to
be realised over time as the wetland is established.

Refer to Part C for more information on technical design, construction and


establishment information to assist with the stage.

As-constructed steps

The as-constructed phase consists of seven steps (see Figure 6):

As constructed and establishment phase

Step 1. Construction Step 2. As-constructed Step 3. Certificate of Step 4. Works


certification documentation practical completion Warranty Bond

Step 5. Submit your End of Defects Liability Step 6. Final Step 7. Certification of
Period Statement reimbursement Completion

Designer Melbourne
Water
Figure 6 Steps in the as-constructed and establishment phase

Step 1 – Construction certification

At the end of construction, the designer must submit a Construction Certification


Statement. Melbourne Water will consider the Works as completed when they have
reviewed and accepted the Construction Certification Statement.

Check that you are ready to lodge your Construction Certification Statement by using
our Construction Certification Checklist. See Melbourne Water’s construction website
for more details.

Be sure to review all conditions in the Works Offer before submitting the Construction
Certification Statement.

If the works are not completed to Melbourne Water’s satisfaction by the due date ,
which is eighteen (18) months from the date of the issue of the Works Offer:

 The agreement may be terminated at the discretion of Melbourne Water;

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 The developer must pay any reasonable additional costs incurred by Melbourne
Water.

If the Agreement terminates, money paid by the Developer under the Agreement will
be forfeited or refunded at the discretion of Melbourne Water. Melbourne Water will
deduct any reasonable costs incurred, before determining any refund amount.

Melbourne Water will not accept the Construction Certification Statement if there is
reason to believe there are discrepancies between the condition of the works as
certified and as-constructed. As-constructed feature surveys should be undertaken
and/or thoroughly reviewed by the consultant/developer to validate the
construction/design process.

Step 2 – As-constructed documentation

Use the As-constructed Survey Certification Checklist to check that the plans you are
submitting contain all the necessary detail.

When the documentation is ready, submit the ‘as-constructed’ plans and complete the
following forms:

 As-constructed Survey Certification Checklist

 Submission of digital data

Step 3 – Certificate of Practical Completion

Following receipt of the Construction Certification Statement and supporting


information, and providing there are no discrepancies between the condition of the
works as certified and as constructed, Melbourne Water will:

 issue you the Certificate of Practical Completion;

 provide you with a Letter of Release for the subdivision (if one has been
requested); and

 pay the reimbursement, less the amount held until the defects liability period
finishes.

Step 4 – Submit your End of Defects Liability Period Statement

The defects liability period starts on the date of the Certificate of Practical Completion.
The Developer must submit an End of Defects Liability Period Certification Statement
at the end of the defects liability period.

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The defects liability period differs depending on the asset. The following periods apply
and take effect from when the Certificate of Practical Completion is issued:

 pipes and structures – three months

 earthwork and rockwork – 12 months

 plantings – 3 month establishment period and two years maintenance period

The Developer's nominated representative must certify that all works still comply with
the Construction Certification Statement and that the construction of the
development's roads and other services is complete.

Use the End of Defects Liability Period Certification Checklist to make sure that all the
necessary steps are completed, and then submit the End of Defects Liability Period
Certification Statement.

 End of Defects Liability Period Certification Checklist

 End of Defects liability Period Certification Statement

Once Melbourne Water has accepted your End of Defects Liability Period Certification
Statement and a Works Warranty Bond has been lodged, Melbourne Water will
organise for the remainder of the reimbursement to be paid and provide a Certificate
of Completion.

Melbourne Water will not accept the End of Defects Liability Period Certification
Statement if it has reason to believe that there are discrepancies between the
condition of the Works as certified and as existing.

Step 6 – Final reimbursement

Melbourne Water reimburses for works after the issue of a Certificate of Practical
Completion and a Certificate of Completion as per the schedule outlined in Melbourne
Water’s Land Development Manual website:

 Reimbursements – Land Development Manual

Step 7 – Certificate of Completion

A Certificate of Completion will be issued by Melbourne Water when all the


requirements of the agreement have been satisfied. The requirements (if applicable),
include:

1. The Certificate of Practical Completion issued by Melbourne Water

2. All contributions have been paid

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3. All other money required by Melbourne Water has been paid

4. Downstream outfall works have been certified complete or the Developer has
made alternative arrangements which are acceptable to Melbourne Water

5. A copy of the amended plan of subdivision, certified by the council and


indicating the easements and/or reserves required to cover all Works, has been
received by Melbourne Water

6. Any other information, notices or documents required by Melbourne Water have


been provided

7. The defects liability period has ended to the satisfaction of Melbourne Water

8. A maintenance agreement is in place (if required).

Important note: Complete the works to Melbourne Water standards and submit the
required documentation to obtain a Certificate of Practical Completion, Letter of
Release (if required) and any outstanding reimbursements.

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Wetland Design Manual

Part C: Technical design, construction and establishment


approach
Table of contents

Introduction 5
Concept design 6
MUSIC Modelling ...................................................................................... 7
Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling ............................................................ 8
Functional design 8
Worked example 1 – sizing connection between the sediment pond and
macrophyte zone (sediment pond NWL = macrophyte zone NWL) ................ 10
Worked example 2 – Sizing connection between the sediment pond and
macrophyte zone (sediment pond NWL > macrophyte zone NWL) ................ 11
Worked example 3 – determining stage – discharge relationship for controlled
outlet .................................................................................................... 14
Detailed design 18
Pre-construction 19
Construction and establishment 20
Construction planning ............................................................................. 20
Construction phase ................................................................................. 21
Establishment phase ............................................................................... 22

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Part C: Technical design, construction and
establishment approach

Introduction
This part of the manual outlines a design approach for wetlands that reflects the
design acceptance process detailed in Part B. The manual provides a summary of the
design process from concept design through to detailed design. The manual also
covers construction, establishment and maintenance considerations.

This document describes the analytical and design tools, and technical resources
required by the designer. A description of the technical details of these tools and
resources is provided in Part D of the manual.

This section includes:

 Concept design
 Functional design
 Detailed design
 Pre-construction
 Construction and establishment

Part C is structured as a series of steps that lead the designer through the design
process. Design iterations are often required during the design process, and the
designer may be required to review and repeat some design steps until the design
meets the required criteria and design intent.

The design approach presented in this Part of the manual assumes a sound
understanding of the fundamentals of wetland function, the core outcomes (Part A1),
the Deemed to Comply design criteria (Part A2), the additional design considerations
(Part A3) and the design acceptance process (Part B).

This section should be read in conjunction with the current versions of the following
documents:

• Melbourne Water’s Planning and Building website


• Urban Stormwater: Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines
• Melbourne Water’s MUSIC Tool Guidelines
• WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater

Note: Any variations between this document and the documents listed above are
superseded by this manual.

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Concept design
The concept design phase is likely to include:

 Authority consultation
 Site visit
 Catchment analysis
 Collaboration between members of design team (e.g. engineering, ecology,
landscape)
 MUSIC modelling to estimate performance
 Preliminary estimates of design flow rates to size high flow bypass route width
 Analysis of feature survey or other information to estimate wetland levels and
spatial constrains (e.g. existing trees)
 Analysis of flora and fauna survey, geotechnical testing and other relevant site
investigations

Note: Where the wetland is located within a Melbourne Water Development Services
Scheme, we can provide the designer with advice regarding the wetland objectives
and intent. This advice includes highlighting component size requirements, open space
and waterway corridor requirements (if applicable), design flows, relevant plans and
strategies, Development Services Scheme infrastructure (such as indicative sizes of
pipelines and outfall locations) and any available background studies (flora, fauna,
cultural heritage, etc.). It can also provide information on the initial developer
contribution that is payable to Melbourne Water and the expected estimated costs for
reimbursable works if the wetland is required as part of a Development Services
Scheme.

Important note: a Development Services Scheme is a catchment masterplan and


only has limited information regarding the subject site, topography, asset size and
location. A MUSIC model that has been set up for the Development Services
Scheme can be provided to the consultant if required. The consultant is
responsible for checking the model includes a suitable representation of the
catchment and proposed treatment train.

Please refer to the Concept Design Package details outlined in Part B and the
requirements outlined in the Concept Design Package report for assistance. The
Concept Design Deemed to Comply checklist outlines the required conditions that
need to be met through the concept design phase.

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MUSIC Modelling

MUSIC modelling is recommended by Melbourne Water and must be undertaken using


the most recent version of the software and should be in accordance with the
Melbourne Water MUSIC Modelling Guidelines. Where the modelling approach is
not in accordance with Melbourne Water’s Guidelines, a full justification for the
alternative approach must be provided.

The sediment pond must be sized accurately during the functional design stage,
however for the concept design stage, the sediment pond can be assumed to be 10%
of the macrophyte zone area and have a maximum depth of 1.5 meters.

Where the sediment pond and macrophyte zones have a common Top of Extended
Detention (TEDD), a single “wetland” node should be used to represent the system in
MUSIC. The Inlet Pond Volume should represent the volume of the sediment pond’s
permanent pool above the sediment accumulation zone.

Where the sediment pond’s TEDD is higher than the macrophyte zone’s TEDD, the
sediment pond and macrophyte zone should be modelled using separate nodes in
MUSIC (i.e. a “sedimentation basin” node and a “wetland node”). When separate
nodes are used, the wetland node’s “inlet pond volume” should be set to zero. The
sedimentation basin’s equivalent pipe diameter or Custom Outflow Relationship must
reflect the hydraulic control between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone.

For the purpose of the concept design phase, it is recommended that the surface
areas used in the MUSIC node(s) are assumed to be the area of the wetland at NWL.
Alternatively, the Custom Storage Relationship can be used to define the storage
volume at a range of depths (although this level of detail is usually not available at
the concept design stage).

Important Note: The wetland guidelines now require that a minimum rainfall dataset
of 10 years is used to model wetlands in MUSIC.

The following resources will assist in configuring the MUSIC model:

 MUSIC tool guidelines


 MUSIC rainfall templates
 Rainfall distribution map - Melbourne
 MUSIC Auditor
 Wet spells analysis tool

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Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling

During the concept design phase, peak design flows are estimated (generally using
the Rational Method) to size the high flow bypass channel. The indicative channel
dimensions can be estimated using Manning’s Equation. Refer to Part D of this
manual for advice on hydrologic modelling and hydraulic analysis.

Functional design
The functional design phase is likely to include:

 Authority consultation to confirm design requirements and maintenance


commitments
 Collaboration between members of the design team (e.g. engineering, ecology,
landscape)
 Confirmation of sediment pond and sediment dewatering area configuration
 Refined MUSIC modelling to confirm performance and ensure adequate
residence time and inundation patterns
 Confirmation of design flow rates to size hydraulic structures and high flow
bypass route
 Three dimensional representation of wetland form to confirm wetland levels and
extent relative to any site constraints
 Analysis of water levels and flow velocities relevant to wetland function
 Confirmation of wetland bathymetry and planting design
 A record of design approach and outcomes in a report format
 An estimate of capital costs of proposed works (construction estimate or using
Melbourne Waters Standard Refund Rates)

WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater (Melbourne Water, 2005) should be used


as the primary reference for the functional design methods. The advice provided in

Doc Name: AMS MAN Wetland Design Manual Part C - Technical design construction and establishment approach Author: Team Leader - Waterways Asset Management
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Part D of this manual supersedes some of the advice provided in the Engineering
Procedures document. In particular:

 The controlled outlet must be sized using the method described in Part D
rather than the method in the Engineering Procedures

 The velocities must be checked using the method described in Part D rather
than the method in the Engineering Procedures.

The MUSIC model developed during the functional design stage must reflect the actual
stage/storage/discharge relationship of the wetland’s extended detention. Where the
wetland is within a retarding basin, the MUSIC model must also reflect the
stage/storage/discharge relationship of the retarding basin (i.e. when the water level
exceeds TEDD). The actual stage/storage/discharge relationships must be represented
using MUSIC’s Custom Outflow and Storage Relationship function.

Where the sediment pond and macrophyte zone have a common TEDD, a single
“wetland” node should be used to represent the system in MUSIC. For the functional
design, the Inlet Pond Volume used in the MUSIC model should match the dimensions
of the sediment pond shown in the earthworks plan (and sized to meet the conditions
in SP3).

Where the sediment pond’s TEDD is higher than the macrophyte zone’s TEDD, the
sediment pond and macrophyte zone should be modelled using separate nodes in
MUSIC (i.e. a “sedimentation basin” node and a “wetland” node). When separate
nodes are used, the wetland node’s “Inlet Pond Volume” should be set to zero. The
sedimentation basin node’s equivalent pipe diameter must reflect the hydraulic control
between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone (this is likely to need to be defined
using the custom outflow function). The surface area and extended detention depth
should match the dimensions shown on the functional design plans. The permanent
pool volume should represent the volume of the sediment pond’s permanent pool
above the sediment accumulation zone.

Please refer to the Functional Design Package details outlined in Part B and the
requirements outlined in the Functional Design Package report for assistance. The
Functional Design Deemed to Comply checklist outlines the required conditions
that need to be met through the functional design phase.

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Worked example 1 – sizing connection between the sediment pond and
macrophyte zone (sediment pond NWL = macrophyte zone NWL)

Scenario: The sediment pond and macrophyte zone NWL is at 20.0 m AHD. The
sediment pond and macrophyte zone each have 350 mm extended detention. The
connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte zone consists of a wetland
inlet weir (length TBC), weir (crest at 20.0 m AHD). A wetland bypass weir (length
TBC), weir (crest at 20.35 m AHD) connects the sediment pond to a bypass channel.
A 2 m long wetland outlet weir (crest at 20.55 m AHD) is at the downstream end of
the macrophyte zone. The wetland is in a retarding basin. The 10 year ARI water
level in the retarding basin is estimated to be 21.0 m AHD.
Design flow estimates are:
Q3month = 1.1m3/s (note this is wetland design inflow)
Q1year = 2.8m3/s (note sed pond high flow bypass is to ensure >60% of peak 1year
flow is to bypass macrophyte zone (refer Par A2 Figure 5)
Q100 year = 14.8m3/s (check wetland velocities in 100 year flow to ensure sufficient
wetland width)

Wetland inlet weir sizing (IO4, first dot point):


The peak three month flow was determined to be 1.1 m 3/s. The connection must be
able to convey 1.1 m 3/s when the water level in the sediment pond is at 20.35 m AHD
(i.e. TED) and the water level in the macrophyte zone is at 20 m AHD (i.e. NWL).

The weir equation is used to determine the width of the wetland inflow and bypass
weirs:
𝑄 = 𝐵 ∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝐿 ∗ ℎ1.5
Where:
Q = flow rate
B = blockage factor (assume no blockage)
C = weir coefficient (assume 1.4)
L = weir length (10 m)
H = head of water above weir (0.35 m)
For the weir length of 10m, the capacity of the weir is therefore estimated to be
2.9m3/s, which is 160% greater than the required capacity, hence a shorter weir
length needs to be adopted. Trial and error – 4m weir adopted as design inlet.

1 year bypass sizing (IO4, second dot point and refer Part A2 IO4 and figure
5):

Bypass weir sizing:


STEP 1 Determine design capacity of wetland bypass weir
= 60% of 1yr flows= 1.7m3/s

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STEP 2- Determine sed pond 1yr level that will (a) ensure 60% of 1yr flow
to be bypassed and (b) 40% of 1yr flows to flow into wetland at TEDD

(b) Is critical in determining 1year level of the sed pond.


40% of 1yr flows= 1.1m3/s (= 3mth flow)
Wetland inlet weir = 4m long (see wetland inlet weir sizing above)

Using weir equation above, wetland inlet weir will require head of 0.35m to
1year pass through flow of 1.1m3/s. Since wetland is at TEDD,
1yearr sed pond level = wetland TEDD + 0.35m = 20.35+0.35 = 20.70m AHD

STEP 3- determine length of bypass weir


Base of bypass weir = sed pond TEDD = 20.35M AHD
Design capacity of design bypass weir = 1.7m 3/s (see step 1 above)
1yr sed pond level = 20.70m AHD (see step 2 above)

Allowable bypass weir head = 20.65- 20.35 = 0.35m

Using weir equation, design length of bypass weir = 6m long

100 year velocity check (IO4, third dot point):


The peak 100 year flow was determined to be 14.8 m 3/s. When the water level is at
21.0 m AHD, the minimum flow area between the retarding basin inlet and outlet that
includes the macrophyte, was determined to be 35 m2. The velocity through the
macrophyte zone is therefore 0.42 m/s which is less than the maximum allowable
velocity of 0.5 m/s.

Worked example 2 – Sizing connection between the sediment pond and


macrophyte zone (sediment pond NWL > macrophyte zone NWL)

Scenario: The sediment pond NWL is at 10.0 m AHD. The macrophyte zone NWL is
at 9.5 m AHD. The sediment pond and macrophyte zone each have 350 mm
extended detention. The connection between the sediment pond and macrophyte
zone consists of a pit (crest at 10.0 m AHD, 0.9 m by 2.9 m) and a horizontal pipe
(750 mm, IL 8.5 m AHD). A 15 m long weir (crest at 10.35 m AHD) connects the
sediment pond to a bypass channel. The wetland is not in a retarding basin.

3 month capacity check (IO4, first dot point):


The peak three month flow was determined to be 1.1 m 3/s. The connection must be
able to convey 1.1 m 3/s when the water level in the sediment pond is at 10.35 m AHD

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(i.e. TEDD) and the water level in the macrophyte zone is at 9.5 m AHD (i.e. NWL).
The capacity of pit and pipe is checked for the following conditions:
i. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as a weir
ii. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as an orifice
iii. Flow rate controlled by pipe (flowing full)

1. Check capacity of pit acting as a weir (using Melbourne Water grate formula on
website)
Grates are required over the pits for safety reasons. During the design, allow for
50% blockage of the upstream grate and 25% blockage of the downstream grate.
It may be more economical to construct both grates with equal sized openings.
To size a grated opening the following equation can be used for flow entering a
horizontal grate (Ref. Open Channel Hydraulics - Chow, e.q. 12.23).
Q = eCLB (2gE)0.5
where
Q = Required flow through grate (m3/s)
e = Portion of area not taken up by bars (Total Area - Area of Bars)/Total Area
C = Discharge co-efficient (=0.45)
L = Grate Length (m)
B = Grate width (m)
g = 9.8 m/s2
E = Specific Energy = Depth above grate + V2/2g (but V=0) (m)
*50% blockage factor is to be applied separately.

2. Check capacity of pipe (flowing full)


A pipe chart is used for this check. The pipe chart shows the pipe capacity (Q) as
a function of the length (L), head (H) and diameter (D). The head for this check is
the difference between the upstream (10.35 m AHD) and downstream (9.5 m
AHD) water levels (i.e. 0.85 m). The pipe chart indicates that the capacity of the
pipe, flowing full, is 1.2 m3/s, which is greater than the minimum required
capacity.

Given that capacity of the pit and pipe are greater than or equal to the three month
flow under four flow conditions, the pit and pipe configuration complies with the first
dot point of IO4.

1 year bypass check (IO4, second dot point):

Repeat step from worked example 1:

The capacity of pit and pipe is checked for the following conditions:
i. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as a weir

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ii. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as an orifice
iii. Flow rate controlled by pipe (flowing full)

3. Check capacity of pit acting as a weir (using Melbourne Water grate formula on
website)

Repeat steps from worked example 1:

2. Check capacity of pipe (flowing full)


A pipe chart is used for this check. The pipe chart shows the pipe capacity (Q) as
a function of the length (L), head (H) and diameter (D). The head for this check is
the difference between the upstream (10.54 m AHD) and downstream (9.85 m
AHD – TED macrophyte zone) water levels (i.e. 0.69 m). The pipe chart indicates
that the capacity of the pipe, flowing full, is 1.1 m 3/s, which is equal to the
allowable capacity.

100 year velocity check (IO4, third dot point):


The peak 100 year flow was determined to be 14.8 m 3/s. The minimum flow area
above the macrophyte zone occurs where the macrophyte zone permanent pool is 0.1
m deep and 20 m wide. The minimum cross sectional flow area when the water level
is at TED is therefore 9 m2 (i.e. 20 m * (EDD+0.1 m)). To achieve a maximum
velocity of 0.5 m/s, the maximum allowable 100 year ARI flow through the
macrophyte zone is therefore 4.5 m 3/s.
The connection must therefore not convey more than 4.5 m 3/s when the water level in
the sediment pond is at the peak 100 year level and the water level in the macrophyte
zone is at 9.85 m AHD (i.e. TED). The peak 100 year water level in the sediment
pond is a function of the overflow weir length (15 m). The peak 100 year water level
is conservatively estimated assuming that 100% of the peak 100 year flow (14.8
m3/s) passes over the bypass weir. Using the weir equation, 0.79 m of head is
required to pass 14.8 m3/s over a 15 m long weir (assuming no blockage and a weir
coefficient of 1.4). A conservative estimate of the peak 100 year flow water level in
the sediment pond is therefore 11.14 m AHD (i.e. 10.35 m AHD + 0.79 m).

The capacity of pit and pipe is checked for the following conditions:
i. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as a weir
ii. Flow rate controlled by pit acting as an orifice
iii. Flow rate controlled by pipe (flowing full)

4. Check capacity of pit acting as a weir (using Melbourne Water grate formula on
website)

Repeat steps from worked example 1:

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Worked example 3 – determining stage – discharge relationship for controlled
outlet
Scenario: A macrophyte zone’s controlled outlet consists of a 100 mm wide
rectangular slot. The macrophyte zone’s NWL is 30.0 m AHD and the EDD is 350 mm.

Determining the stage/discharge relationship:


The stage/discharge relationship for the slot is determined using the following
equations from Measurement of Small Discharges in Open Channels by Slit Weir
(Aydin et al, 2002):
Q = Cd*(2/3)*((2*g)0.5)*b*h1.5
Cd = 0.562+11.354/Re0.5
Where:
Q = discharge (m3/s)
Cd = discharge coefficient
g = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s 2
b = slot width = 0.1 m
h = water depth i.e. stage (up to 0.35 m)
Re = Reynolds number = V*R/v
V = velocity = Q/(b*h)
R = hydraulic radius = (b*h)/(b+2*h)
An iterative approach was used to determine the discharge rate for each stage using
the above equations. The stage/discharge relationship is shown in the table below.

Stage (m AHD) Discharge (m3/s)


30.0 0.0022
30.05 0.006
30.10 0.011
30.15 0.017
30.20 0.023
30.25 0.03
30.30 0.038
30.35 0.045

Worked example 4 - Sediment Pond Sizing Example


A sediment pond is being sized to capture 95% of the coarse particles ≥ 125 μm
diameter for a 60 ha catchment. The peak three month ARI flow is 1.4 m3/s and the
peak 100 yr ARI flow is 5 m3/s. The sediment pond will be 1.5 m deep and has 0.35
m extended detention. It has a turbulence parameter of 1.35 (from Figure 4.3 and
Equation 4.2 of WSUD Engineering Procedures Stormwater (Melbourne Water, 2005)).

Step 1: Determine area required to achieve removal efficiency

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The sediment removal efficiency is calculated using the modified Fair and Geyer
equation:
R = 1-(1+(1/n)*(vs/(Q/A))*(de+dp)/(de+d*))-n
Where:
R = fraction of target sediment removed = 0.95
n = turbulence parameter = 1.35
vs = settling velocity of 125 μm diameter particle = 0.011 m/s
Q = peak three month ARI flow rate = 1.4 m 3/s
A = surface area at normal water level (m 2)
de = extended detention depth (m) = 0.35 m
dp = permanent pool depth (m) = 0.5 m to 1.5 m depending on how much
sediment has been collected
d* = depth below the permanent pool level that is sufficient to retain the
target sediment = 0.5 m to 1.0 m depending on how much sediment has been
collected
The required sediment basin area is determined for two scenarios:
i. Sediment basin is empty:
a. dp =1.5 m
b. d* = 1.0 m
c. Therefore A = 1,100 m2
d. Therefore the area at normal water level must be at least 1,100
m2 to achieve the required removal efficiency when the basin is
empty.
ii. Sediment basin is full
a. dp =0.5 m
b. d* = 0.5 m
c. Therefore A = 1,700 m2
d. Therefore the area at normal water level must be at least 1,700
m2 to achieve the required removal efficiency when the basin is
full.

Step 2: Determine volume to achieve clean out frequency


The sediment removal frequency is calculated using the following equation:
St = Ca*R*Lo*Fr
Where:
St = volume of storage required between base and 0.5 m below normal water
level
Ca = contributing catchment area = 1.6 ha
R = fraction of target sediment removed = 0.95
Lo = sediment loading rate = 1.6 m3/ha/yr
Fr = clean out frequency = 3 years

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The equation shows that at least 300 m 3 of storage is required between the base and
0.5 m below normal water level to ensure a clean out frequency of 3 years.
Step 3: Determine minimum width to achieve scour velocity
The scour velocity is calculated using the following equation:
vscour = Qscour/(de*wnwl)
Where:
vscour = scour velocity threshold =0.5 m/s
Qscour = peak 100 year ARI flow = 5 m 3/s
de = extended detention depth = 0.35 m
wnwl = width of sediment pond at normal water level (m)
The equation shows that the sediment pond must be at least 30 m wide at the normal
water level to ensure a scour velocity of less than 0.5 m/s.

Definition of d*
The sediment pond sediment removal efficiency is a function of the depth below the
permanent pool level that is sufficient to retain the target sediment. This depth is
referred to as “d*” and is measured in meters below the permanent pool level. The
value of d* used in the removal efficiency equation should be:
- 1.0 m if the base of the sediment pond is at least 1.0 m below the permanent
pool level; or
- The depth of the sediment pond if the base if less than 1.0 m below the
permanent pool level.

As a sediment pond fills with sediment the effective base level will rise which may
impact the d* value (refer Error! Reference source not found.). To estimate the
removal efficiency of a 1.5 m deep sediment pond immediately after it has been
emptied, a d* value of 1.0 m should be used. To estimate the removal efficiency of
the same basin which has accumulated sediment to within 0.5 m of the permanent
pool level, a d* value of 0.5 m should be used.

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Figure 1 Schematic showing d* for and empty and full sediment pond

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Detailed design
Our Business Improvement team will review the submitted detailed design plans and
provide feedback. We are also available to answer any questions that you may have
about your design. Please give yourself plenty of time to achieve final acceptance of
your design from Melbourne Water. Our Design of works website provides key lead
times in the design acceptance process:

 Design of works
 Planning and Building website
 Standard drawings

Please refer to the Detailed Design Package details outlined in Part B and the
requirements outlined in the Detailed Design Package report for assistance. The
Detailed Design Deemed to Comply checklist outlines the required conditions that
need to be met through the detailed design phase.

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Pre-construction
The key to successful construction and establishment is undertaking detailed planning.
Pre-construction planning will involve the:
 Preparation of tender documents (that form the basis for reimbursement)
 Development of a Site Environmental Management Plan,
 Engagement of a contractor
 Submission of pre-construction Certification Checklist and Statement.

Melbourne Water advises clients to wait for confirmation of the reimbursement


amount before commencing construction work. Please refer to Part B for further
information about the design acceptance process.

The primary reference for the pre-construction phase is the Melbourne Water Planning
and Building website:

 Planning and Building website


 Permit to Work
 Tendering of works
 Construction of works

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Construction and establishment
The integrity of good wetland design can be jeopardised by poor construction and
establishment, leading to reduced wetland performance and impacts on the long term
sustainability of the wetland system. Similarly, poor understanding of the operational
and maintenance activities required at the site can impact the performance of a
wetland.

Construction planning

Wetlands are most vulnerable during the construction phase of developments, when
large amounts of sediment are likely to enter wetland. It is important to consider how
the wetland will be protected during the construction phase. This may involve staged
construction and establishment of the wetland, whereby the macrophyte zone of the
wetland is protected (kept offline) during the construction phase. A second option may
be to construct the wetland but leave the macrophyte zone acting as a sediment pond
during the construction phase. Under this scenario, sediments that have accumulated
within the macrophyte zone during the construction phase will need to be removed
prior to establishing the wetland vegetation.

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The timing of catchment development relative to the timing of wetland construction
will influence the wetland’s water level regime. Developed catchments generate a lot
more runoff than undeveloped ones. If a wetland is constructed before the majority
of the contributing catchment is developed, the wetland will initially receive less water
than under ultimate conditions. The impact of this interim flow regime on wetland
vegetation should be considered.

Construction phase

To ensure good translation of the detailed design into on-ground works, clear
communication of the design intent to the site contractors and regular inspections are
required. Hold points for inspections need to be clearly written into tender documents.
This may be required to be submitted as part of the detailed design documentation.

The construction works must be undertaken in accordance with relevant Melbourne


Water Standard Drawings and Example Construction Specifications. The site
superintendent is responsible for ensuring that the contractor who constructs the
works meets all of Melbourne Water's required outcomes. Non-compliance with
Melbourne Water’s requirements will require that rectification works be undertaken.
All construction based rectification costs will be borne by the developer and/or
contractor. Please refer to Melbourne Water’s Construction of Works conditions on our
website for more information.

Contractors are required to have Site Environmental Awareness Training (SEAT)


accreditation and an approved site environmental management plan in place before
works commence. The site environmental management plan should identify the
environmental risks for the site, their likelihood and consequence, along with
environmental protection measures which are proposed to manage this risk. See
Melbourne Water’s Site Management Standards for more information.

Site Environmental Awareness Training (Green card)


A Site Environmental Awareness Training (SEAT) course is available to all Contractors
that are involved with the construction of Melbourne Water’s waterway and wetland
assets. This is a full day course run by Statewide River & Stream Management out of
Holmesglen TAFE, and covers topics relating to legislation and obligations, EPA
enforcement and penalties, principles of erosion management and treatment
measures.

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A Melbourne Water green card containing photo identification will be issued to all
people who have completed the training course. All contractors will be required to
have a current SEAT prior to Melbourne Water issuing a Permit to Work.

Construction and Establishment Guidelines


The Construction and Establishment Guidelines: Swales, Bioretention Systems and
Wetlands (Water by Design, 2009) provides information and resources that inform
best practice wetland construction and establishment. The guidelines provide civil and
landscape specifications, step by step construction procedures, checklists and sign off
forms for certification and compliance during the construction phase.

The Construction and Establishment Guidelines can be downloaded from the Water by
Design website:

Bioretention technical design guideline

To avoid invasive plants and animals being introduced to wetlands during construction
and establishment, equipment should be washed down before being used on site and
the suppliers of aquatic plants must demonstrate that their stock is free of pest fish
and unwanted aquatic weeds.

For both safety and security, Construction sites must be isolated from the public and
this is typically achieved using temporary safety and security fencing that complies
with a range of Australian Standards. Melbourne Water has developed a risk
assessment for safety and security fencing on construction sites and this must be
completed for both civil and planting works.

 Risk assessment for safety and security fencing on construction sites

Establishment phase

Successful plant establishment is fundamental to long term wetland function. It is


important to ensure that conditions are provided during establishment that maximise

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plant growth, including water level control by having the sidewinding penstock valve
within the twin chamber outfall pit fully open for the 1 st 12 months of the planting
establishment period.

Important note: The control of the water level in the macrophyte zone is critical to
the establishment of the macrophyte planting. The wetlands water level should be
controlled by having the sidewinding penstock valve within the twin chamber outfall
pit fully open for the 1st 12 months of the planting establishment period. It can then
be gradually closed to the design width over the remaining 12 months of the planting
defects period.

The rapid establishment of vegetation cover within the macrophyte zone enables the
wetland vegetation to cope with waterbird grazing pressure and weed invasion; and
reduces the level of maintenance required during the establishment phase (first two
years prior to hand over).

Plant substitutions should not be made without written approval from Melbourne
Water. Macrophyte species tolerance to water depth and inundation are not the same,
and replacement species must be suitable for the proposed planting depth and
inundation regime. All plant substitutions should be clearly marked on the as-
constructed drawings.

The macrophyte planting should be undertaken in the wetland system during the
spring-summer months (September to March) to ensure a higher success rate of plant
survival and establishment. If a developer and site superintendent decide to plant the
wetland outside of these months, then this will be done at their own risk and cost.
Ephemeral batter vegetation can be generally planted all year round and this can
assist with the staging of landscape planting works.

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Figure 2 An example of a densely planted wetland with good water level control
during the early establishment phase.

Macrophyte planting stock should be well developed, healthy and have a well-
developed root system (Figure 3). All seedlings must be hardened off prior to delivery
to the wetland site and be at least 300 mm high.

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Figure 3 An example of well-developed and healthy macrophyte planting.

The following requirements should be followed to assist vegetation growth during the
wetland establishment phase:

 Maintain water levels at normal water level (do not engage the extended
detention depth) during the first year of operation or the first growing season;

 The outlet should be controlled via a twin chamber outfall pit containing a side
winding penstock and gate valve providing flexibility to gradually implement
the ultimate extended detention depth of the wetland system from no
extended detention depth in the 1st 12 months of planting establishment to
reaching the full design extended detention only after the 2 years and 3
months establishment period; and

 Netting of some macrophytes species (such as Triglochin procerum) to avoid


damage by birds. Appropriate contractor details are to be provided on site so
that in the event of birds becoming caught in the netting, the appropriate
people can be contacted.

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The endorsed maintenance agreement between Melbourne Water and Council plus the
operational plan must be implemented prior to achieving the end of defects period for
the wetland.

Clean out of the sediment pond of a wetland is required to be undertaken immediately


prior to civil works hand over. Please refer to Melbourne Water’s project finalisation
page on the Planning and Building website for further information on defect liability
periods and for other construction and establishment phase information.

 Construction of works
 Provision of notice
 Working on live assets
 Indemnity and insurance
 Signage
 Certification at the end of construction
 Certificate of completion

The Construction and Establishment Guidelines: Swales, Bioretention Systems and


Wetlands (Water by Design, 2010) is a recommended references for the Construction
and Establishment phase stage for a wetland.

Quick reference and standards for construction and establishment

Risk assessment for temporary safety and security fencing on construction sites

Water levels must be maintained at normal water level during the first year of
operation

Some macrophyte species must be netted to avoid damage by birds

Sediment ponds must be cleaned out immediately prior to hand over

Plant suppliers must ensure and demonstrate that their plant stock is free of pests
and weeds

Signage should be installed as the last component of the wetland system just prior to
handover to Melbourne Water

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Wetlands Design Manual

Part D: Design tools, resources and glossary


Table of contents

Introduction 5
Design tools 5
Hydrological modelling .............................................................................. 5
Continuous simulation modelling .............................................................. 11
Inundation frequency analysis & wet spells analysis 13
Hydraulic analysis of flow velocities .......................................................... 16
Resources 22
Planning ................................................................................................ 22
Design .................................................................................................. 23
Maintenance .......................................................................................... 24
Glossary 25

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Part D: Design tools, resources and
glossary

Introduction
This section provides some of the necessary tools required for wetland design. The
information supports Part C of the manual and should be consulted in tandem with
the design procedures outlined.

Design tools
The wetland design process uses software that is available and frequently used by the
Melbourne Water and land development industries. This section presents guidance
regarding:

1. Hydrological event modelling

2. Continuous simulation (water quality, residence time and water level analysis)

3. Hydraulic analysis of flow velocities

Where the wetland designer is using hydrologic event modelling and one-dimensional
hydraulic modelling, Melbourne Water requires the wetland designer to use RORB and
HEC-RAS or other software specifically approved by Melbourne Water for wetland
designs.

The continuous simulation modelling must be undertaken using the Model for Urban
Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) or other software specifically
approved by Melbourne Water for wetland designs.

Various terrain modelling packages are used across the industry and are acceptable to
Melbourne Water. Melbourne Water’s preference is that a software package such as
12D is used.

Hydrological modelling

The catchment hydrology can be estimated using a combination of the Rational Method
and RORB runoff routing software.

The Rational Method

The Rational Method provides a simple estimation of the design peak flow rate. The
Rational Method is recommended for use to:

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 Calculate the design flow rate for small, simple catchments (less than 400 ha)
 Calibrate a RORB model

The Rational Method does not provide runoff volume or hydrograph shape and so
cannot be used to size volume based assets such as retarding basins. The Rational
Method is generally not suitable for catchments of unusual shape, with significant
isolated areas of different hydrologic characteristics, with significant on-line or off-line
storage, with a time of concentration greater than 30 minutes (where a high degree of
reliability is required), and urban catchments greater than 400 ha in size.

Important note: For catchments less than 100 ha, Melbourne Water may accept the
use of the Rational Method for sizing retarding basin storage volumes and designing
other assets. However, project specific written consent from Melbourne Water must be
obtained to confirm if this approach is acceptable. In all other situations RORB models
must be prepared.

The Rational Method procedure is described in Book 4 of Australian Rainfall and Runoff
(1997)1. Book 8 provides information specific to urban stormwater management.

Melbourne Water’s Land Development Manual outlines the Rational Method procedure
including all input parameters and/or sources in Section 5.3.2 Design of Stormwater
Conveyance – Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design (available online):

http://www.melbournewater.com.au/Planning-and-building/Standards-and-
specifications/Design-general/Pages/Hydrologic-and-hydraulic-design.aspx

RORB
The Melbourne Water recommended RORB modelling procedure includes:

1. Set-up of a preliminary RORB model of the catchment without any diversions or


detention storages.

2. Calibration of the preliminary RORB model using the Rational Method

3. Use of the calibrated preliminary RORB model as basis for modelling future
scenario/s with proposed diversions and/or detention storages.

1
Engineers Australia (1997) Australian Rainfall and Runoff, Editor-in-chief D.H.
Pilgrim, Engineers Australia, Barton, ACT.

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Important note: To run a RORB model for a particular catchment, it is essential to
have a set of parameters related to that catchment. To determine these parameters
accurately you need to have sufficient observed flow data (for larger events) and
rainfall data. When the telemetry information is not available, you have to use the
rational method flow estimates for the catchment. Due to limitations of rational values
when compare with observed data, Melbourne Water recommends the use of 100yr
and 10yr calibrations. Also you need to be satisfied that the final set of parameter is
reasonable by comparing against Melbourne Water, Dandenong Valley Authority and
Australian Rainfall & Runoff (1997) equations.

Modelling scenarios
Modelling of the existing condition is to be based on the current planning zones (or
historical if current zone is Urban Growth) and should only consider existing
topography and infrastructure. Modelling of future conditions is to be based on the
proposed planning zone and include all infrastructure (drainage, storage, etc.) and
any changes to topography.

The full suite of design events required for the design of wetlands must be modelled.
Generally, this includes (but is not limited to): Q1, Q2, Q5, Q10, and Q100. For all
events, the full range of storm durations from 10 minutes to 72 hours must be run to
identify the critical duration.

Important note: Generally, RORB underestimates flows for less than 10 year ARIs.
Therefore, the designer needs to check and adjust if necessary RORB flow estimates
for less than 10 year events using the Theoretical relationship between average
recurrence intervals of annual and partial series floods in Australian Rainfall and Runoff
(1997).

Delineation of RORB catchment and sub-catchment boundaries, nodes and


reach alignments
The following requirements apply to the delineation (or review) of RORB sub-
catchment areas, nodes and reach alignments:

 A catchment boundary must match adjoining catchment boundaries that have


been provided by Melbourne Water.
 Sub-catchments must be delineated as is most appropriate for the 1 in 100 year
ARI event.

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 Sub-catchments, nodes and reaches must be named/numbered as
recommended by Melbourne Water.
 Nodes must be located within and at the downstream end of each sub-
catchment.
 Where relevant, the local Council drainage systems should be considered when
delineating sub-catchments.

Fraction impervious methodology


The fraction impervious must be determined using the existing planning zones (as per
the Planning Schemes Zones MapInfo table provided by Melbourne Water) as a starting
point. The Developer must then assess the fraction impervious for each zone in a sub-
catchment.

The fraction impervious must be reported in table format, detailing the fraction
impervious for each zone within a sub-catchment as well as the overall fraction
impervious for the sub-catchment. This must be reported as part of submissions made
to Melbourne Water.

RORB model calibration and model parameters


The preliminary RORB model must be reconciled to a Rational Method estimated flow,
unless it is specifically agreed with Melbourne Water that sufficient data is available to
warrant a calibration to historic data.

The preliminary RORB model must have:

 no special storages;
 no diversions to separately route multiple flow paths (i.e. overland and
underground flows); and
 a structure and reach types consistent with the assumptions of the Rational
Method and the way in which the time of concentration is estimated.

Calibration at multiple locations within the catchment will be required when:

 the topography varies significantly across the catchment; and/or


 the land use varies (i.e. urban vs rural) across different parts of the catchment;
and/or
 the size of the catchment is larger than 20 km2 and/or
 the Developer considers it necessary.

As a minimum, the calibration checks must occur at the upstream end of the
Melbourne Water drainage system. Some projects may require calibration at the

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upstream end of the modelled council drainage system, the catchment outlet and/or
at confluences of drainage networks.

Important note: the designer must discuss calibration points and obtain approval
from Melbourne Water prior to proceeding. The calibration must be to a 1 in 100 year
and 1 in 10 year Rational Method Flow estimate, calculated in accordance with
Australian Rainfall & Runoff (1997) and taking into account time of concentration
calculation requirements outlined in this document.

Important note: Melbourne Water acknowledges that there may be some concerns
with the calibration of a RORB model against the flow estimates from the Rational
Method. The use of Melbourne Water regional parameters could be only reasonable if
that is used with the understanding of the background information to see the relevance
to a given catchment. For a given catchment rational method provides benefit as it
could capture the effect of the local effects such as topography, imperviousness, and
flow conveyance to determine the flows and thereby determine the key parameter for
RORB runs. Melbourne Water considers that calibration against the rational flow
estimates with sanity checks is the most reasonable approach at this time.

All reach alignments should be consistent with the assumptions for calculating the
Rational Method flow for the catchment. Similarly, the fraction impervious should
also be consistent between the preliminary RORB model and the fraction impervious
used to estimate the Rational Method Coefficient of Runoff. The correlation between
runoff coefficient and catchment fraction impervious is described in AR&R.

A value of 0.8 must be assigned to the exponent m unless the Developer believes this
is inappropriate, in which case the recommended value is to be discussed with
Melbourne Water prior to proceeding with this part of the work.

The parameter kc must be adjusted so the flow from the preliminary RORB model
matches the Rational Method estimated flow.

The Australian Rainfall & Runoff (1997) method (Section 1.7 of Book II) must be used
for the Areal Reduction Factor (ARF). ARFs need only be used for catchment areas
greater than 400 hectares.

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Suitable initial loss values must be determined by the developer. As a guide, the
following values may be appropriate in the absence of better information:

 For urban catchments: Initial loss of 10 mm


 For rural catchments: Initial loss between 10 mm – 25 mm

Temporal patterns must be fully filtered.

Suitable runoff coefficients must be determined by the developer. As a guide, a


value of 0.6 is often found to be suitable for an urban catchment for the 100 year ARI
event. If the Developer proposes to use another value, the rationale for adopting that
value must be discussed and agreed with Melbourne Water prior to undertaking this
part of the work. For rural catchments, the Developer is to propose an approach to be
used regarding the use of a Runoff Coefficient versus Initial loss/Continuous loss.

Calculating time of concentration


The method for calculating the time of concentration for the Rational Method is
outlined in Melbourne Water’s Land Development Manual Section 5.3.2 Design of
Stormwater Conveyance – Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design (available online):

http://www.melbournewater.com.au/Planning-and-building/Standards-and-
specifications/Design-general/Pages/Hydrologic-and-hydraulic-design.aspx

RORB model data


The .catg files of all scenario modelling, along with parameter files and IFD parameters
and catchment plan/s in CAD or MapInfo format (with GDA 94 coordinate system),
must be provided to Melbourne Water as part of carrying out the project.

All RORB reach alignments, node locations, sub-catchment and catchment boundaries
are to be populated with appropriate descriptions, slopes, lengths to correspond with
the RORB model code.

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Continuous simulation modelling

MUSIC Guidelines
Melbourne Water has created the MUSIC Guidelines (2016) which recommend input
parameters and modelling approaches for MUSIC users. The objectives of the MUSIC
tool guidelines are to:

 Ensure a consistent scientifically based approach is applied to MUSIC models


 Provide guidance on methods specific to the Melbourne region without inhibiting
innovative modelling approaches
 Reduce the time taken by Melbourne Water in assessing models.

The Melbourne Water MUSIC Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the MUSIC
User’s Manual (eWater). Users of this Wetland Manual are expected to be sufficiently
trained in the use of MUSIC software and know how to use it appropriately.

If alternative methods or models to MUSIC are used, the developer must demonstrate
to Melbourne Water’s satisfaction that performance targets can be achieved.

MUSIC Auditor
The MUSIC auditor is a tool that has been developed for checking the parameter
inputs to MUSIC models to ensure they comply with relevant guidelines and are within
expected or reasonable ranges. The MUSIC Auditor is intended for use by suitably
experienced professionals with an understanding of water sensitive urban design and
MUSIC software.

The MUSIC Auditor is free for anyone to use within Melbourne Water's area of
responsibility and can be accessed using the following website:

http://www.musicauditor.com.au/

How to determine residence time using continuous simulation


The wetland residence time is defined as the time a particle of water spends in the
wetland. The residence time is predicted assuming plug flow between the wetland
inlet and outlet. The residence time for a particle of water entering the wetland can be
determined by counting the number of time-steps it takes for the water “in front” of
that particle of water to be displaced from the wetland (refer Figure 1). This
calculation can be done using wetland flux files generated in MUSIC.

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Water particle
“X” that enters
wetland at
timestep “Y”

Wetland Wetland
inlet Flow direction outlet

Volume of water that must


be displaced before water
particle “X” will exit wetland
Figure 1 Residence time for a particle of water entering a wetland

The plug flow of water through the wetland is assumed to involve 100% of the
extended detention volume and the upper parts of the permanent pool volume.
Melbourne Water will accept calculation methods where up to 50% of the permanent
pool volume is assumed to be involved in plug flow.

An iterative process is needed to identify a wetland configuration that achieves a 10 th


percentile residence time of at least 72 hours. A 10 th percentile residence time of 72
hours means that the residence time will be 72 hours or more 90% of the time. The
recommended method for predicting the 10 th percentile residence time for a particular
wetland configuration is described below.

Melbourne Water has created an online tool to assist practitioners predict wetland
residence time.

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Inundation frequency analysis & wet spells analysis
How to undertake an inundation frequency and duration analysis
Plant inundation (submergence) is a major constraint on the growth and species
distribution of emergent macrophytes. Despite having a wide range of biochemical,
molecular and morphological adaptations to inundation, many emergent macrophytes
are highly sensitive to inundation, particularly in stormwater treatment wetlands
where high turbidity can severely restrict photosynthesis.

An inundation frequency analysis is required to ensure that the plant species proposed
for the wetland are able to cope with the expected wetland hydrology. Melbourne
Water has created an online tool to assist practitioners undertake inundation
frequency analysis.

Inundation frequency analysis – online tool

The following are manual steps that can be taken to do an inundation frequency
analysis if the online tool is not used:

1. Use the plant height information in the tables within Part A2 of this manual to
determine the emergent macrophyte species (excluding ephemeral batter
species) that, when mature, will be the shortest relative to NWL for both
shallow and deep marsh zones. Note that the planting depth relative to NWL
must be taken into account. For example, if a plant will be 500 mm high when
mature, and will be planted at a depth of 200 mm, the height relative to NWL
will be 300 mm.

Figure 2 Plant height characteristics for inundation frequency analysis.

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2. Create a six minute MUSIC model of the system in accordance with Melbourne
Water’s MUSIC Guidelines. Ensure the wetland node has an accurate stage-
discharge and stage-storage relationship. These relationships should include
any detention storage above wetland (e.g. retarding basin). This will require the
use of the “Custom Outflow and Storage Relationship” option in MUSIC (refer to
Error! Reference source not found.), unless the wetland has vertical sides
and a single horizontal circular orifice outlet which is not in accordance with the
Deemed to Comply criteria.

Figure 3 Custom Outflow and Storage Relationship option in MUSIC wetland nodes

3. Export a flux file from the wetland node. Use an online tool or steps below to
analyse the flux file.

4. Delete all columns except for “outflows” and “storage”. Use a pivot table in
excel, or another data processing method, to determine the:

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a. Total inflow volume for each day
b. Total outflow volume from the controlled outlet for each day (exclude
overflows)
c. Average storage volume for each day

Important note: Your MUSIC model should run at a six minute time-step and post
processing of the flux file should be used to determine these daily metrics rather than
running the model at a daily time-step.

5. Determine the average “plug flow volume” for each day in the time-series by
subtracting 50% of the permanent pool volume from the average storage
volume calculated from the flux file.

6. For each day in the time-series, count the minimum number of proceeding days
until the cumulative outflow volume equals the previous day’s plug flow volume.
Use this method to create a daily time-series of residence times.

7. Modify the residence time time-series so that it only includes values


corresponding to days where the inflow is > 0 (this avoids double counting of
parcels of water at the front end of the wetland).

8. Determine the 10th percentile value of the daily time-series of residence times.
If this 10th percentile value is three days or more, the wetland configuration
provides an acceptable residence time.

9. Determine the 20% percentile of the water level time-series using Excel or
another data analysis method.

10. Ensure that the effective water depth (permanent pool depth plus extended
detention depth) does not exceed half the average plant height for more than
20% of the time.

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Hydraulic analysis of flow velocities

An initial check of maximum wetland velocities (sediment pond and macrophyte zone)
can be undertaken using a simple calculation (maximum flow rate divided by smallest
cross sectional flow area). This will produce a conservative estimate of the maximum
velocity. If the velocities estimated by this preliminary calculation are less than the
prescribed limits, no further flow velocity analysis is required. If the prescribed limits
are exceeded, a HEC-RAS model is required to obtain a more accurate estimate of flow
velocities.

Manual calculation
The manual velocity calculation involves the following steps:

1. Identify the following peak design flow rates:


a. Peak flow rate through the sediment pond during the critical:
i. 10 year ARI event
ii. 100 year ARI event
b. Peak flow rate through the macrophyte zone during the critical:
i. three month ARI event
ii. 10 year ARI event
iii. 100 year ARI event

2. Determine the peak water level in the sediment pond during the critical 10 year
ARI event2 (e.g. if the sediment pond is not within a retarding basin and
overflow outlet is a weir, use the weir equation to determine the head of water
needed to pass the peak 10 year ARI flow over the weir). If the sediment pond
is within a retarding basin use RORB to determine the peak 10 year ARI water
level.

3. Determine the narrowest part of the sediment pond in the direction of flow
between the inlet and overflow outlet. Determine the width between the batters
at the location at:
a. NWL; and
b. the peak 10 year ARI water level.

4. Determine the cross section flow area at the narrowest point of the sediment
pond by multiplying the distance between NWL and the peak 10 year water
level by the average of the two widths determined in Step 3.

2
Note this method assumes the peak 100 year ARI flow occurs when the water level
in the sediment pond is equal to the peak 10 year ARI water level.

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5. Estimate the 100 year ARI flow velocity at the narrowest point of the sediment
pond by dividing the peak 100 year ARI flow rate by the cross sectional area
determined in Step 4. Ensure the 100 year flow velocity does not exceed 0.5
m/s (in accordance with Deemed to Comply Condition SP3).

6. Determine the peak water level in the macrophyte zone during the critical 10
year ARI event3 (e.g. if the macrophyte zone is not within a retarding basin and
the overflow outlet is a weir, use the weir equation to determine the head of
water needed to pass the peak 10 year ARI flow over the weir). If the
macrophyte zone is within a retarding basin, use RORB to determine the peak
10 year ARI water level.

7. Determine the narrowest part of the macrophyte zone in the direction of flow
between the inlet and outlet. Determine the width between the batters at the
location at:
a. NWL;
b. TEDD; and
c. the peak 10 year ARI water level.

8. Determine the cross section flow area at the narrowest point of the macrophyte
zone:
a. For the three month ARI event, multiply the EDD by the average of the
NWL and TEDD widths determined in Step 7.
b. For the 100 year ARI event, multiply the distance between the NWL and
the peak 10 year ARI water level by the average of the NWL width (7a)
and the peak 10 year ARI water level width (7c).

9. Estimate the three month ARI flow velocity at the narrowest point of the
macrophyte zone by dividing the peak three month ARI flow rate by the cross
sectional area determined in Step 8a. Ensure the three month flow velocity does
not exceed 0.05 m/s (in accordance with Deemed to Comply Condition MZ9).

10. Estimate the 100 year ARI flow velocity at the narrowest point of the
macrophyte zone by dividing the peak 100 year ARI flow rate by the cross
sectional area determined in Step 8b. Ensure the 100 year flow velocity does
not exceed 0.5 m/s (in accordance with Deemed to Comply Condition MZ9).

3
Note this method assumes the peak 100 year ARI flow occurs when the water level
in the macrophyte zone is equal to the peak 10 year ARI water level.

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HEC-RAS
The Hydrologic Engineering Centre of the US Army Corps of Engineers developed the
River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) software. The software allows the user to perform
one-dimensional steady and unsteady river calculations (US Army Corps HEC RAS
manual) through interaction with the graphical user interface.

HEC-RAS comprises four river analysis components: (i) steady flow water surface
profiles, (ii) unsteady flow simulation, (iii) sediment transport/movable boundary
computations, and (iv) water quality analysis. The steady flow water surface profile
component can be used to estimate wetland flow velocities.

Getting started
The HEC-RAS software and supporting resources (user’s manual, applications guide
and the hydraulic reference manual) is freely available at:

http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/hec-ras/downloads.aspx

This manual assumes that the user is familiar with the steps required to set-up a basic
steady flow simulation project in HEC-RAS.

The HEC-RAS user’s manual provides an overview of installation, getting started,


entering and editing geometric and flow input data, modelling components and
processes, and using the output results. The user’s manual also contains simple
example applications.

The hydraulic reference manual provides the background theory (equations,


assumptions, and modelling approaches) to HEC-RAS.

The applications guide contains a series of examples to demonstrate the various


modelling aspects (data requirements and modelling approach) with supporting
illustrations.

The geometry file


This file is used to:

 Define geometric data (e.g. geometry exported from terrain modelling package)

 Specify the hydraulic roughness (Manning’s n)

 Where applicable, specify bridge/culvert, inline and lateral structure information

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HEC-RAS can import geometric data in several different formats (GIS, HEC-RAS, and
others). The HEC-RAS format may be used when importing geometric data from 12d
Model.
 Geometric data created in 12d Model is imported to HEC-RAS in HEC-RAS
format by selecting File | Import geometry Data | HEC-RAS Format from within
the geometric data editor window. The HEC-RAS user’s manual (pp. 6-131 to 6-
137) provides supporting information for the process.

The wetland geometry file should be created using the following steps:

1. Determine a “design line” or centreline of flow as it passes through the system


(typically the longest route through the deepest parts of the wetland. Note that
the design line may be different for the three month and 10 to 100 year events,
in which case two geometry files will be required.

2. Define suitably spaced cross sections along the design line (typically 20 to 50 m
spacing depending on wetland size). The top of the ephemeral batters should
generally be used as the left and right bank station.

3. Mark the cross section locations on a scale plan and measure the downstream
reach lengths for left over bank (LOB), right over bank (ROB) and channel flow.

4. Determine suitable Manning’s roughness coefficients for different sections of the


wetland geometry. Note that variable Manning’s n values can be defined by
selecting “Options – Horizontal Variation in n values” in the cross section
geometry editor. The HEC-RAS user’s manual recommends Manning’s n values
for common waterway types (Table 3-1 from pp 3-14 to 3-16 in the HEC-RAS
User’s Manual).

Typical Manning’s n values are:


Low flows 0.08 (normal) relating to channels not maintained, weeds and
brush uncut, dense weeds as high as flow depth
High flows 0.03 to 0.05 -> adopt 0.035 (normal) relating to flood plains,
pasture no brush, high grass
Note: the Manning’s n value for low flows is not listed in the HEC-RAS Manual,
but has been sourced from Chow (1959) 4, which is referenced in the HEC-RAS
Manual.

4
Chow, V.T. (1959) Open-channel hydraulics. McGraw- Hill Book Co., New York, 680
p.

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Check steady flow velocities
The steady flow velocities should be checked using the following steps:

1. Enter the peak three month and 100 year flow rates into the HEC-RAS model as
steady flow data.

2. Adopt the NWL for the downstream boundary condition for the peak three
month flow.

3. Adopt the peak 10 year water level (determined as part of the manual
calculations described in the previous section) as the downstream boundary
condition for the peak 100 year ARI flow.

4. Run the model using the steady flow option.

5. View the Profile Output Summary table in HEC-RAS and check that:
a. For all cross sections in the sediment pond and macrophyte zone the
peak 100 year ARI flow velocities are less than 0.5 m/s
b. For all cross sections in the macrophyte zone, the peak three month ARI
flow velocities are less than 0.05 m/s.

If the peak 100 year ARI steady flow velocities exceed the Deemed to Comply
thresholds, modify the wetland configuration. If the peak 100 year ARI steady flow
velocities complies with the thresholds but the peak three month ARI velocity in the
wetland does not, either proceed with checking the unsteady three month velocities or
modify the wetland configuration.

Check unsteady three month flow velocities


The unsteady three month flow velocities should be checked using the following steps:

1. Determine the flow duration for the critical three month ARI event and
construct an approximate flow hydrograph for this event (using RORB output
data for the one year event).

2. Determine volume of water in the critical three month ARI event (area below
hydrograph).

3. Estimate the wetland outflow hydrograph by assuming:


a. The volume of water in the inflow hydrograph is equal to the volume of
water in the outflow hydrograph
b. The outflow hydrograph is a triangular shape

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c. The outflow hydrograph peaks after 36 hours and finishes at 72 hours.

Important note:

Typical Manning’s n values are:


Low flows 0.08 (normal) relating to channels not maintained, weeds and
brush uncut, dense weeds as high as flow depth
High flows 0.03 to 0.05 -> adopt 0.035 (normal) relating to flood plains,
pasture no brush, high grass
The Manning’s n value for low flows is not listed in the HEC-RAS Manual, but has
been sourced from Chow (1959), which is referenced in the HEC-RAS Manual.

4. In HEC-RAS:
a. set the upstream boundary condition to be the critical three month ARI
hydrograph (from Step 1)
b. set the downstream boundary condition to be the outflow hydrograph
(from Step 3)
c. set the Initial Stage for the downstream boundary condition to the
wetland NWL.

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Resources

Planning

The following key strategies and plans detail how Melbourne Water manages its water
assets:

 Waterways and Drainage Strategy


Formally known as the Waterways Operating Charter, the strategy outlines our
responsibilities, goals, services and work programs in managing waterways, drainage
and floodplains.

 Flood Management and Drainage Strategy


This strategy aims to minimise flood risks to public health and safety, property and
infrastructure. It defines five flood management objectives, and outlines actions to
achieve these and guide our priorities and expenditure.

 Healthy Waterways Strategy


This strategy outlines our role in managing rivers, estuaries and wetlands in the Port
Phillip and Westernport region. The strategy set priorities, actions and targets for
improving waterway health 2013/14 to 2017/18.

 Stormwater Strategy
The Stormwater Strategy is closely linked to the Healthy Waterways Strategy and
covers the same five-year period. It focuses on managing stormwater to protect and
improve the ecosystem health of waterways and bays.

 Better bays and waterways


Better Bays and Waterways defines our economic, social, and environmental values,
the threats to these values, and our commitments through an adaptive management
approach to improve the water quality of our rivers, creeks and marine environments
for a more sustainable future.

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Design

Melbourne Water has produced the following range of guidelines which may be of use
or further interest to the wetland designer.

 MUSIC Guidelines

 WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater5

 Waterway Corridors Greenfield Development Guidelines

 Flood retarding basins design and assessment guidelines

 Waterway Crossings Guidelines

 Stormwater connections

 Constructed Waterways in Urban Developments Guidelines

 Shared Path Guidelines

 Jetties Guidelines

 Guidelines for development in flood prone areas

 Building in flood prone areas

 Land Development Manual

 Australian Rainfall and Runoff

 Constructed Shallow Lake Systems – Design Guidelines for Developers

 Urban Stormwater: Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines

5
Melbourne Water (1995) WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater. CSIRO
Publishing, Collingwood. 304 pp.

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Maintenance

A maintenance agreement must be provided to Melbourne Water as part of the


detailed design package. The maintenance agreement outlines all of the activities
associated with maintaining the treatment wetland, and provides for the separation of
maintenance tasks in situations where a wetland may be jointly managed by a Council
and Melbourne Water.

The maintenance agreement comprises of up to four components:

 Schedule 2 – Council maintenance works


 Schedule 3 – Melbourne Water maintenance works
 Plan of assets
 Priority weeds list

The maintenance agreement package should also include an Asset Operation Plan
which provides a brief description of the wetland operation, including all of the key
functional components (which must be clearly labelled on the plan of the asset), any
site access issues (site entry, pit access keys) and any other associated management
information.

Copies of the Melbourne Water maintenance agreement template (including a


completed Maintenance Agreement Schedule example) can be downloaded from the
Land Development Manual website:

http://www.melbournewater.com.au/Planning-and-building/Forms-guidelines-and-
standard-drawings/Documents/Maintenance-Agreement-Package.zip

A schedule of wetland inspection and maintenance requirements is available on our


website to assist with the preparation of the maintenance agreement. A wetland
inspection and maintenance checklist is also provided on our website. The checklist
should be used during inspection and maintenance, as it provides a list of the key
inspection elements, and is a permanent record of the maintenance activities
undertaken.

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Glossary

Term Definition
Adhere To stick (e.g. suspended sediment sticking onto a biofilm coating
the stem of a macrophyte stem).
Algae Simple photosynthetic plants that live in water or moist places
(Source: Melbourne Water).
Algal bloom A rapid increase in the mass of one or more algae, usually caused
by a change in the flow, light, temperature or nutrient levels of the
water in which it lives.
Amenity Attractiveness or community value.
Aquatic The community of organisms living within or immediately adjacent
ecosystem to water (including riparian and foreshore zones).
Australian A measure of height above mean sea level.
Height Datum
(AHD)
Average A statistical estimate of the average period in years between a
Recurrence flood occurrence of a given magnitude. The ARI of a flood event
Interval (ARI) gives no indication of when a flood of that size will occur next.

Bathymetry Topography or the configuration of the underwater land surface.


Batter slopes An edge that slopes backwards from perpendicular.
Beneficial use A use of the environment which is conducive to public benefits,
welfare, safety, health or aesthetic enjoyment all which requires
protection from waste, emissions, deposits and/or noise.
Best practice The best combination of techniques, methods, processes or
technology used in an industry sector or activity that demonstrably
minimises the environmental impact of that industry sector or
activity.
Biofilm A gelatinous sheath of algae and micro-organisms, including
benthic algae and bacteria, formed on gravel and sediment
surfaces and surfaces of macrophytes.
Biological Using natural processes to breakdown high nutrient and organic
treatment loading in water.
Biological uptake The transfer of a substance (typically nutrients) from water or soil
to a living organism such as plants or micro-organisms (a biofilm).
Bypass route A channel or pipe conveying overflows from the sediment pond
around the macrophyte zone.
Catchment All land which drains to a specific location such as a wetland.

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Wetland Water system for the purpose of removing pollutants from
stormwater containing pond, marsh and swamp features.
Controlled outlet An outlet that controls the discharge rate when the water level is
between normal water level (NWL) and top of extended detention
(TEDD). The controlled outlet is configured to provide the required
residence time and water level regimes for the plants.
Deemed to Set of wetland design conditions that are satisfactory to Melbourne
Comply (DTC) Water. If a wetland design does not comply with one or more of
the Deemed to Comply conditions it may not be accepted by
Melbourne Water.
Deep marsh Underwater vegetated parts of the wetland that are between 150
and 350 mm below normal water level (NWL).
Denitrification The biological conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas, nitric oxide or
nitrous oxide.
Design Flow Calculated flow used to size engineering structures to a defined
standard.
Discharge The volume of flow passing a predetermined section in a unit of
time.
Dispersive soils Soils in which clay content has a high percentage of sodium and is
structurally unstable and disperses in water into basic particles i.e.
sand, silt and clay. Dispersible soils tend to be highly erodible and
present problems for successfully managing earth works.
Ephemeral Temporary or intermittent (e.g. a wetland that dries up
periodically)
Ephemeral Land around the perimeter of a wetland that slopes towards the
batter wetland and is above the normal water level (NWL) and below the
top of extended detention (TEDD).
Epiphyte A plant that grows on another plant for physical support but is not
parasitic.
Extended Distance between normal water level (NWL) and the overflow weir
detention depth crest.
(EDD)
Gross pollutant A structure used to trap large pieces of debris (>5 mm)
trap (GPT) transported through the stormwater system.
HEC-RAS A computer program that models the hydraulics of water flow
through channels. The program is one-dimensional and was
developed by the US Department of Defence, Army Corps of
Engineers in 1995.

Inlet pipe Pipe(s) conveying water into the sediment pond.

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Inlet pool Open water at the most upstream end of a macrophyte zone.
Inlet zone See Sediment pond.
Intermediate An open water section within the macrophyte zone located between
pool the inlet and outlet pools. Not all wetlands have intermediate
pools.
Lake Lakes, like ponds, are artificial bodies of open water usually formed
by a simple dam wall with a weir outlet structure. A lake is usually
created for amenity and landscaping purposes.
Lined channel Constructed open drain that is designed to convey stormwater to a
downstream waterway.
Macrophyte A type of vegetation, such as reeds, used in wetlands. They are
plants that grow in waterlogged conditions.
Macrophyte zone Vegetated section of a wetland.

MUSIC The acronym used for the Model for Urban Stormwater
Improvement Conceptualisation software developed by the
Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology to model
urban stormwater management schemes.
Normal water The top of the permanent pool. Above this level water will be
level (NWL) discharged from the macrophyte zone via the controlled outlet.
Notional The nominated time for the detention of stormwater in a wetland.
detention time
Nitrification The process by which ammonia is converted to nitrites and then
nitrates.
Nutrients Organic substances such as nitrogen or phosphorous in a water.
Permanent pool The level of water retained within a basin below the invert of the
lowest outlet structure
Plan of Lodged under Section 22 of the Subdivision Act 1988, when a
Subdivision single title is divided into two or more new parcels of land. The
Plan of Subdivision will show the reserve that a wetland will sit
within.
Pond Ponds, like lakes, are artificial bodies of open water usually formed
by a simple dam wall with a weir outlet structure. Typically the
water depth is greater than 1.5m.
Open water Unvegetated parts of a wetland.
Outlet pool Open water at the most downstream end of a macrophyte zone.
Overflow Outlet (e.g. pit or weir) that conveys flows when the water level
exceeds the top of extended detention (TEDD).

Referral An authority nominated in Section 55 of the Planning and

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Authority Environment Act 1987 that has statutory powers to provide
conditions or object to a planning permit application.
Residence time The time it takes for water to flow from the inlet to the outlet.
Refer to advice provided in Part D on how to determine residence
time using continuous simulation, and also to the Melbourne Water
online tool that can be used to calculate wetland residence time.
Retarding basin A temporary flood storage system used to reduce flood peaks. A
basin designed to temporarily detain storm or flood waters, to
attenuate peak flows downstream to acceptable levels. Also known
as a retention basin.
RORB RORB is a computer program that is used to calculate flood
hydrographs from rainfall and other channel inputs. It can be used
to design retarding basins and to route floods through channel
networks.
Safety bench An upper submerged batter that has a mild slope to minimise
aquatic safety risks for those who inadvertently enter wetlands.
Sedimentation A primary treatment process that removes pollutants through
gravity settling. Sedimentation occurs at reduced flow velocities
and thereby causes particles to settle.
Sediment Lower part of a sediment pond’s permanent pool that is intended to
accumulation collect sediment for subsequent removal.
zone
Sediment Space close to sediment pond for dewatering material excavated
dewatering area from the sediment pond prior to removing from site.
Sediment pond Used to retain coarse sediments from runoff. They are typically
incorporated into pond or wetland designs. Also known as an inlet
zone or sedimentation basin.
Shallow marsh Underwater vegetated parts of the wetland that are between 0 and
150 mm below normal water level (NWL).
Spells analysis Using results of continuous flow simulation to determine the
frequency and duration of consecutive wet and dry conditions.
Stormwater Rainfall runoff from all urban surfaces.
Stormwater The collection and storage of rainfall that runs off impervious
harvesting surfaces for subsequent use.
Submerged Underwater edge of wetland that slopes down from normal water
batter level (NWL).
Submerged Underwater vegetated parts of the wetland that are between 350
marsh and 700 mm below normal water level (NWL).
Suspended Small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a
solids colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one

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indicator of water quality.
Suspension A mixture of small solid particles dispersed in a liquid. The solid
particles are large enough to settle out of the liquid if left
undisturbed.
Terrestrial plant A plant that grows on or in land (i.e. not in water).
Terrestrial batter Land around the perimeter of a wetland that slopes towards the
wetland and is above the top of extended detention (TEDD).
Top of extended The height at which an overflow outlet (e.g. weir) is engaged.
detention depth Below this level, wetland outflow rates are determined by the
(TEDD) controlled outlet.
Transfer Connection to allow stormwater to flow from a sediment pond into
pipe/weir a macrophyte zone.
Treatment train A series of treatment measures to provide an overall approach to
the removal of pollutants from catchment runoff.
Velocity The rate of movement of an object (e.g. a water particle).
Water quality The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water in
relation to a set of standards.
Water sensitive WSUD embraces a range of measures that are designed to avoid,
urban design or at least minimise, the environmental impacts of urbanisation.
(WSUD) WSUD recognises all water streams in the urban water cycle as a
resource.
Waterway A defined watercourse with identifiable flow. A waterway’s
catchment is typically greater than 60 hectares.

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