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AlAA-84-22’85

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Advances In High Speed Jet


Aeroacoustics

John M. Seiner
NASA Langley Research Center
Hampton, Virginia

AIAAINASA 9th Aeroacoustics Conference


October 15-17, 1984/Williamsburg, Virginia

For permission to copy or republish, contact the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019
ADVANCES IN HIGII SPEEO JET AEROACOUSTICS
John M. Seiner*
NASA Langley Research Center
Hampton, Virginia

, Abstract the flow to be supersonic, but the first


phenomenon can also occur with hot subsonic jets,
This paper provides an assessment from an and can first become observed in unheated jet
experimental point of view of the present flows when the plume Mach number achieves a value
understanding of high speed jet noise primarily as near 2. Both phenomena when present are known to
it pertains to shock containing supersonic jet produce intense noise emission, and attain
plumes. The nature of this assessment involves an sufficient energy to be directly visualized by
examination of the complex flow and related standard optical methods.
acoustic field associated with this problem. A By way of illustration consider the 2usec
certain emphasis is placed on prediction of the duration spark Schlieren photographic record of
near acoustic field to satisfy a motivation driven figure 1 . This record, taken with a horizontal
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by a new set of guiding principles. namely the knife edge in the focal plane, essentially
high performance tactical fighter and second captures conditions associated with an unheated
generation space transportation vehicles. The supersonic jet plume with the nozzle operating at
review concludes that after weighing all the its design point. The nozzle is designed to
experimental evidence, only after consideration of produce a uniform axial exhallst Mach number of 2
the role of large scale coherent Structure is across the entire 4.989 cm diameter n o z z l e exit
adopted can a consistent unifying theme be plane. Only weak shock waves appear in the
achieved to physically interpret and properly plume. Clearly defined wavefronts also appear in
predict n o i s e generation by the fundamental the photograph that emanate along the outer
mechanisms. periphery of the turbulent mixing layer and are
confined to a conical envelope centered along the
jet axis with a half angle near 65" with a
Intraductioo corresponding complementary wave propagation angle
of 25* to the jet a x i s . As will be shown later,
In the last several years review this wave propagation angle is the same as that
articles'-' appear on the subject of determined from far field acoustic measurements
AerOaCoUStiCS: a branch of the physical sciences for the principle direction of radiation for this
that involves the study of sound generated particular jet flow condition. Using unpublished
aerodynamically. These articles assess progress Schlieren records of Lilley and Peduzzi, undoubtly
in this field primarily using what is now termed similar to that shown in figure 1, Lighthill
the Lighthil16 Acoustic Analogy Approach. These interpreted these waves in terms of ballistic

, reviews are comprehensive in scope, but


surprisingly focus little attention on recent
developments of sound production by supersonic jet
shock waves emitted bj supersonically convecting
eddies. Later Kramer likened the phenomenon to
the process of Cherenkov radiation. Based on
plumes, particularly those that contain shocks. these interpretations the cone half angle of 65'
The primary purpose of this article is therefore would correspond to the Mach angle
to provide some account for recent developments in e=sin-l(l/Mc). which produces an estimate for
this specific area based on viewpoints acquired the convection Mach number M, of 1.1. This
from experimental observations by the author and corresponds to a convection velocity that is 75
his colleagues. It is perhaps an appropriate time percent of the fully expanded jet velocity that is
to do this for research in this area, at least i n i n the range of measured values.
the immediate future at NASA Langley, will be Historically the observation by Lighthill of
motivated by military and second generation space the effect an sound production by supersonically
transportation endeavors rather than by community convecting disturbances was of great significance
noise criteria for the airline industry. This new to future refinements to the Acoustic Analogy
emphasis centrally involves the abiltty to predict Approach, which at the time predicted infinite
acoustically excited structural loads that sound radiation at the wave propagation angle.
accompany operation of high performance aircraft. This singularity was later removed by Ffowcs
Adequate prediction of these loads requires an Williams', by accounting for retarded time
accur'ate understanding of the dominant sound differences between individual components of the
production mechanisms for high speed flow that multipole sources. Phillips'o, however. who was
charactertze the acoustic near field. concerned about separating refractive effects from
Two fundamental differences exist between low multipole source constituents, took an important
and high speed flows that have a profound effect step by recasting the theory in terms of a
on what is observed as the dominant sound convective wave equation. Phillips' theory was
production mechanism. These differences are the first to analytically treat the phenomenon of
manifest whenever flow disturbances attain supersonically convecting disturbances, a
supersonic phase speed relative to the ambient mechanism which he termed eddy %ch wave
medium and o r shock waves are present in the radiation. The convective wave equation concept
flow. The secoyd phenomenon of course requires of Phillips was later improved by Pao". Using
\. the convective wave equation introduced by
Lilley'', Tester and S~ewczyk'~were able to
*Senior Research Scientist, A I M Member obtain impressive comparisons to measured far
Thisp.p~rirdrel.rrds~orkoI1hoU.S.
~ o v e m m n l ~ lhrrrforrislnlhrpvblie
nd domain.
v
1
f i e l d a c o u s t i c d a t a f o r b o t h h e a t e d and unheated e v o l u t i o n is p a r t l y what t h i s paper is a b o u t .
s u b s o n i c or s u p e r s o n i c j e t s . T h e i r method, T h i s e v i d e n c e , which runs as a common u n i f y i n g
a l t h o u g h based on a n e m p i r i c a l scheme, d i d i n c l u d e theme t h r o u g h o u t t h i s paper, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e
acoustic-mean flow i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s as o b t a i n e d is some c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two dominant noise
from high-frequency approximate solutions to p r o d u c t i o n mechanisms d i s c u s s e d above f o r t h e h i g h
L i l l e y ' s equation. speed j e t plume. T h i s c o n n e c t i o n can o n l y be
While t h e method used by T e s t e r and Szewczyk understood t h r o u g h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e common
is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e most advanced form f o r bond a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h mechanisms, which is of
acoustic predictions based on the Acoustic course t h e time dependent flow s t r u c t u r e . \
Analogy, i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l serious f l a w s from At an early stage Mollo-Christensen 22
t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s paper. These are t h a t r e c o g n i z e d t h e importance of l a r g e s c a l e flow
r e s u l t s d e r i v a b l e from i t a r e o n l y v a l i d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s t o t h e j e t noise problem. His
a c o u s t i c f a r f i e l d of the sources, i t r e q u i r e s t h e experimental studies inferred that turbulence i n a
g e n e r a t i o n of new e m p i r i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r j e t j e t mixing l a y e r is composed of w e l l d e f i n e d
plumes t h a t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from uxisyminetric packages in which c e r t a i n f r e q u e n c y components
behavior. and most i m p o r t a n t of a l l i t does n o t p r e s e r v e t h e i r phase over s e v e r a l j e t d i a m e t e r s .
predict the acoustic radiation i n the principle Highly c o h e r e n t l a r g e scale flow s t r u c t u r e s , i f
d i r e c t i o n when t h e mechanism of eddy Mach wave t h e y e x i s t e d i n h i g h Reynolds number j e t plumes,
r a d i a t i o n is observed as i n f i g u r e 1. T h i s means would be e x p e c t e d t o be h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t e m i t t e r s
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t h a t p r e s e n t s o l u t i o n s a v a i l a b l e from t h e A c o u s t i c of sound i f t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d a r a p i d d i s t o r t i o n a t
Analogy Approach have n o t as y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y some p o i n t d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e . L i t t l e near
evolved t o p r e d i c t tk domJ.nant noise component of f i e l d c a n c e l l a t i o n would occur, and i f convected
full scale high performance military type at s u p e r s o n i c speed would have a lifetime
engines. Even worse, when shocks are p r e s e n t i n s u f f i c i e n t t o produce i n t e n s e b a l l i s t i c shock
t h e plume of a s u p e r s o n i c e n g i n e , t h e second waves l i k e t h o s e shown i n f i g u r e 1. E x p e r i m e n t a l
phenomenon, which is nut accounted f o r i n t h e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e of l a r g e s c a l e
present Lilley type solutions, completely w a v e l i k e s t r u c t u r e s i n h i g h speed j e t plumes has
dominates a c o u s t i c r a d i a t i o n t o a l l o t h e r a n g l e s been around a t least as long as L i g h t h i l l ' s
not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h eddy Mach wave r a d i a t i o n . theory. The s p a r k S c h l i e r e n photographs r e p o r t e d
Shock containing plumes are always to be by P o w e l l z 3 i n 1953 r e v e a l e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a
a n t i c i p a t e d with f u l l s c a l e supersonic engines. h e l i c a l wavelike s t r u c t u r e i n t h e shock c o n t a i n i n g
To i l l u s t r a t e t h e second phenomenon when plume from a choked sonic nozzle. More r e c e n t
s h o c k s are p r e s e n t i n a s u p e r s o n i c plume c o n s i d e r experimental invy+tigations by McLaughliq
t h e s p a r k S c h l i e r e n p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d of f i g u r e Morrison,and T r o u t t , and T r o u t t and McLaughlin S
2 associated with the underexpanded flow have c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of such
(Pe/Pa=3.05) from an unheated sonic n o z z l e of s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o j e t
d i a m e t e r 3.960 cm. Two d i s t i n c t wave f i e l d s noise p r o d u c t i o n f o r low and moderate Reynolds
appear superimposed around the jet plume number s u p e r s o n i c J e t s w i t h presumably shock f r e e
boundary. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e waves t h a t are flow. T h e o r e t i c a l roodels have been proposed t o
i n c l i n e d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e Mach a n g l e as in t h e p h y s i c a l l y a c c o u n t f o r such s t r u c t u r e s in h i g h
p r e v i o u s example, a second set of w a v e f r o n t s can s p e s $ j e t plumes. Tam and Burtonz6 and Norris and
be observed whose p r o p a g a t i o n p a t h a p p e a r t o be Tam have f o r example c o n s t r u c t e d such t h e o r i e s L
d i r e c t e d s l i g h t l y upstream w i t h o r i g i n s c e n t e r e d based on an i n s t a b i l i t y wave model f o r t h e
near t h e t e r m i n a l l o c a t i o n s of shock waves i n t h e s u p e r s o n i c plume and have o b t a i n e d i m p r e s s i v e
j e t mixing l a y e r . These waves are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h agreement w i t h measured inear and f a r f i e l d
t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of c o n v e c t i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s w i t h a a c o u s t i c r e s u l t s i n t h e p r i n c i p l e d i r e c t i o n of
shock wave. e m i s s i o n f o r shock f r e e f l o w s . For t h i s speed
The e a r l y t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i a t i o n s of t h i s regime, ,$his was t h e r e g i o n where T e s t e r and
mechanism by Ribner", Lighthilll', and iloore16 Szewczyk could not achieve satisfactory
c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e agreement w i t h measured d a t a u s i n g t h e a n a l o g y
physical p r o c e s s involved when an a r b i t r a r y method.
d i s t u r b a n c e i n t e r a c t s w i t h a s i n g l e weak shock With t h e above t h o u g h t s i n mind, t h i s review
wave. These t h e o r i e s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t u r b u l e n c e on paper w i l l p r i m a r i l y c o n s i d e r t h e two dominant
c o n v e c t i o n through a shock wave would g i v e r i s e t o n o i s e p r o d u c t i o n mechanisms f o r h i g h speed j e t
Kovasznay's " three modal fluctuations of plumes t h a t are expected t o be p r e s e n t i n f u l l
v o r t i c i t y , e n t r o p y , and sound. The sound mode w a s s c a l e e n g i n e s of h i g h performance a i r c r a f t . In
found to have a preference for upstream k e c p i n g w i t h t h e above d i s c u s s i o n t h e s e dominant
r a d i a t i o n . L a t e r a n a l y s i s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of a components w i l l be termed eddy Mach wave r a d i a t i o n
v o r t e x f i l a m e n t w i t h a plane shock e n e r a t e d i n a to describe the mechanism associated with
shock t be were conducted bToRibne$8, Weeks and d i s t u r b a n c e s t h a t have components w i t h s u p e r s o n i c
LlosanjhP9, and Pao and Salas . Their t h e o m t i c a l phase s p e e d , and shock noise t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
r e s u l t s are i n agreement w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n of c o n v e c t i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s w i t h a
shock typ" measurements of Hallingswortli and Shock wave. Also considered is noise,
R i c h a r d s , whose S c h l i e r e n d a t a d a t e shows conventionally known as jet mixing noise.
d e t a i l s of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s and r e s u l t i n g Examination of t h i s component is unavoidable when
sound f i e l d . Over t h e 'years application of t h e s e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e eddy Mach wave mechanism. This
shock n o i s e t h e o r i e s t o t h e shock c o n t . i i n i n g component, which is c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e i n l p w
s u p e r s o n i c plume problem was p r i m a r i l y i n h i b i t e d speed f l o w s , is a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t e d by models 3
by l a c k of d e t a i l c o n c e r n i n g t h e a x i a l evolution based on t h e A c o u s t i c Analogy Approach. Noise
of t h e complex f l o w f i e l d . produced by combustion d r i v e n i n s t a b i l i t i e s s h a l l
Recently obtained experimental evidence not be c o n s i d e r e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e
examining aerodynamic a s p e c t s of t h i s complcx f l o w two dominant noise p r o d u c t i o n mechanisms under

2
consideration will be examined using available wavelengths, and that the tone had a strong
experimental evidence. The current capability to preference to propagate back to the nozzle exit.
predict the noise produced by these important The screech data of Powell's consisted of
mechanisms will be examined from the perspective discontinuous and disjoint frequency jumps with
of the new mtivating factors at NASA Langley. A nozzle pressure ratio for axisymmetric nozzles,
specific example for future application of whereas the two-dimensional nozzle exhibited a
aeroacoustics technology will be illustrated. and smooth variation of screech wavelengtp with nozzle
two noise reduction mechanisms w i l l be discussed pressure ratio. Davies and Oldfield were among
, due to their merit a8 practical alternatives to the first to later show that the various screech
engine nozzle design. We will begin the review modes reported by Powell were not disjoint, but
first by considering shock noise, since it is much actually overlapped indicating that several modes
easier to establiah a relationship between large could either simultaneously exist, or that the
scale structure and noise emission. plume's preference for a particular mode switched
randomly back and forth.
The screech tone data presented i n figure 4
Shock Associated Noise is included to illustrate what has been typically
observed by numerous investigators since Powell
Imperfectly expanded supersonic plumes for the unheated flow from axisymmetric nozzles.
contain an almost periodic train of shock waves The data only includes values of jet screech that
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whose decay rate is governed by dynamlcs of the are clearly identifiable in the measured
plume's turbulent mixing layer. The acoustic narrowband spectra. The fundamental screech tone
field associated with such plumes exhibits two wavelength As, inferred from measurement of the
fundamental features that characterize the fundamental screech frequency, were obtained near
mechanism of shock n o i s e . These features are most the nozzle exit (R/D=2.44; 0=90'), and are
easily observed at large angles to the jet axis as presented as a function of the jet plume's fully
shown in the example far field (R/U=73.) expanded Mach number Mj (*.e., Mj can be
narrowband acoustic power spectrum of figure 3 . determined from the nozzle pressure ratio through
This particular spectrum is obtained by operating the isentropic relations). The data in figure 4
a nozzle designed for an exhaust Mach number of 2 clearly show the existence of the discontinuous
at a nozzle pressure ratio appropriate for a frequency jumps, and show that for most fully
nozzle designed for an exhaust Mach mmber of expanded jet plume Mach numbers, at least two
1.5. Thus for this illustration the unheated flow fundamental modes can be preferred. The various
is overexpanded having a nozzle exit to ambient modes have been labeled according to established
static pressure ratio of 0.47. The acoustic data convention, except for the E mode which does not
refers to free field conditions at 0=1509 to the appear to have been measured by previous
jet axis. investigators.
As indicated in figure 3 the spectrum is Using information such as tl& and
composed of contributions from several photographic Schlieren records, Powell noted
mechanisms. The dominating spectral components that an integral relationship could be established
above a Strouhal number St=fU/V.-0.38 (D. jet between variations in acoustic wavelength and
diameter; V., fully expanded 'ielocity) are corresponding changes in the shock cell and flow
4 associated wilth the shock noise mechanism. These disturbance spacings. Most important of all, he
components would not be present if the jet plume observed from far field acoustic data that the
were shock f r e e , as would occur if the nozzle screech tones were not Doppler shifted. which
instead were designed to produce an exhaust Mach implied that the mechanism of jet screech could be
of 1.5 for the same nozzle pressure ratio. AS can modelled by stationary sources. From this and the
be seen in figure 3 the shock noise mechanism above observations Powell proposed a mechanism for
produces a discrete spectral component and a band jet screech based on a self-sustained aeroacoustic
limited broadband component ykth an identifiable feedback loop. The resonant phenomenon was
spectrum peak value. Powell developed a model maintained by the shedding of an embryo
to predict the discrete component, which he call disturbance at the nozzle exit by the passing of
jet screech, and later Harper-Bourne and Fisher54 sound past the nozzle lip. The disturbance was
developed a model based in part on Powell's amplified as it evolved downstream, and at a
concept to predict the broadband shock noise certain point achieved sufficient energy to
component. In the following we shall examine interact with several consecutive shocks to
progress made on understanding each of the shock produce intense noise. Powell modelled this
noise mechanisms individually, but shall later process by using an array of several stationary
include a discussion of common features between point monopoles located at the shock termination
them. points in the shear layer. whose phasing was
determined by the disturbance convection
velocity. From this model he obtained good
Jet Screech agreement between measured and computed
directivities of the fundamental and several
In order to place recent jet screech results higher order harmonics of jet screech.
in perspective, it is worthwhile to first recall Norurn3' recently examined Powell's phased
some of the major fin ings from the pioneering linear array model in connection with a study on
research of Powell2 3 * 2 ' . His studies on choked screech suppression by means of altering nozzle
jet noise were confined to sonic n o z z l e s ( % . e . , exit conditions from choked t u b e n o z z l e s . Example
those with an exhaust Mach number of 1.) which comparisons between the measured and Powell
were either two-dimensional or axisymetric. predicted acoustic far field ( R / D = 9 2 ) directivity
Powell noted that increasing nozzle pressure of jet screech obtained by Norum3' are shorn in
ratios were accompanied by increasing screech tone figure 5 for the C-mode screech of figure 4 at

W
3
Mj=1.49. As can be seen excellent agreement was jet screech is axisymmetric for the A1 mode, and
achieved using the Powell model for the helical for the B mode. The heated flow
fundamental and to a lesser extent harmonics illustration of figure b c , where the exit to
through the third order. Further confirmation of Static temperature ratio T,/T,=1.96 and
the importance of feedback in the Powell model has Mj=l.12, show that the preferred structure
been demonstrated by investigators using baffles remains axisymmetric. No phase averaged Schlieren
near the nozzle exit. Far example Glass3' found record could be taken of the B mode structure with
that a hard wall reflector near the nozzle exit heated f l o w at T,/T,=l.96 due to the absence
could enhance the initial energy of disturbances of screech. Also evident from these illustrations L
at the nozzle exit leading to screech tones of is an indication of where screech is principally
much larger amplitudes and plumes with substantial generated. The unheated flow results show intense
increase in spread rate. On the other hand mo near field pressures in the vicinity of the third
recent applications have be n employed by Norum 55 through the seventh shock diamond. The heated
and Naagel and Papathanasioua to eliminate screech flow result shows that intense emission occurs
through cancellation of the upstream propagating slightly further downstream, and that the phase
screech tones by their reflected counterpart from fronts are curved through the shear layer
a baffle. presumably because one can estimate a supersonic
While the Powell model of jet screech has disturbance convection Mach number
been of great assistance in describing the zeneral M,=0.7 Vj/ao=1.09, where Vj is the fully
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features of the phenomenon, there continue to be expanded plume Mach number and a, the ambient
many unexplained physical observations of the jet sound speed.
screech mechanism that are not fully understood. The helical flow pattern exhibited by the B
Some of these naturally involve the influence of stage screech mode also shows that the remaining
forward flight and total temperature. but perhaps shock cell pattern beyond the region of the second
more important is an appropriate explanation for shock cell is perturbed from the center of the jet
the discontinuous frequency jumps, preference for a x i s in response to the local fluid dynamic
source emission points from shock locations helical structure. With helical structure there
distant from the nozzle exit. absence of Doppler is a substantial increase in both the plume spread
shift for radiated screech tones when both shocks and shock wave decay rates as compared to a plume
and flow disturbances are in motion, and with axisymmetric structure. In addition to the
prediction of multimode Structure with A1 stage being axisymmetric Davies and
corresponding amplitudes. It should be noted that old field'^'^ photographic records show that the A2
the predicted screech tone amplitude levels i n the stage is also axisymmetric, and that both the B
directivity comparisons of figure 5 were obtained and C stages are helical. The A0 stage is
only by scaling to the measured levels. In the presumed axial from observation of plume spresd
following an attempt is made to examine each issue rate. and the structure associated with stage E i s
based on recently acquired evidence. The unknown. Even though multiple modes can be
discontinuous frequency jumps shall be considered associated with a given value of Mj, only one is
first. found to dominate for that value of3,Mj
previously shown by Westley and Woolley
sonic axieymmetric nozzles with thin exit lips and
. as
For

Discontinuous Frequency Jumps sharp exterior taper the axisymmetric made is L,


dominant below Mj=1.17, and helical
Aside from both Powell'sz8 and ham mitt'^^^
observation that two-dimensional jets do not have
structure above this value. nor:/'^'^
reflector experiments with choked tube nozzles
baffle

discontinuous frequency jumps o r multi-ma indicate that the regton of dominance around
Structure. the limited data of Seiner and Norumj% M,=I.L7 can be affected depending on whether the
with convergent-divergent nozzles designcd for baffle is positioned for enhancement or
exhaust Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 also indicate cancellation of a particular modal structure. I n
that only a single mode structure exists. Thus general the figure 4 data represents what is
the sonic axisymmetric, nozzle would appear to typically observed for the sonic round Jet. That
represent a special case. P r i ~ t j ~ r e s e a r c h for
, is axisymmetric or toroldal structure is limited
example by uavies and Oldfield , relate the to low values of Mj. This also corresqyds to
nature of these frequency discontinuities to a the phase averaged results of Ku and Seiner , who
change in the preferred spatial Structure in the found that helical structure was preferred over
flow disturbance associated with jet screech. To anisymmetric structure f o r both overexpanded and
illustrate this point consider the A I and H underexpanded flow from axisymmetric supersonic
screech modes at respective value of E,-c . - l . l l and nozzles (i.e., design Mach numbers M.j=1.5 and
1.22 fxom the figure 4 data. These values of M j 2.0) operating over the range 1.25Mj<2.2&.
are selected since the data indicates the presence 'Only a small region of axisymmetric structure was
of a single mode. Figure 6 displays a Series of f o w d near Mj=1.22 for the &=1.5 nozzle.
phase averaged Schlieren records associated with Rased on these results it is worth noting that
these fully expanded plume Mach numbers, where even though the fully expanded velocity Vj of
both the flow and near pressure field are locked the heated flow example of figure 6c exceeds the
to a given phase of the fundamental screech highest value for the unheated results of Ku and
cycle. The experimental methodology for this Seiner and the data of figure 4, the
Schlieren techni e is the same as that reported preferred Structure remains axisymmetric.
by YU and seinergY. Figure 6a and 6c respectlvely Presumably this could occur, for the value of M.
refer to unheated and heated flow around between heated and unh%ated results are nearly
Mj=l.ll, and figure 6b to unheated flow at identical i n the figure 6a and 6c illustrations.
M.-1.22. For unheated flow the illustrations The photographic illustrations of figure 6
siiw that the spatial structure associated with and prior cited research indicate that the

4
wavelength jumps i n f i g u r e 4 are accompanied by
the plume's adjustment t o a new preferred
s t r u c t u r e , and t h a t t h e f u l l y expanded Mach number
M is t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g
d e t h e r t h e s t r u c t u r e is t o r o i d a l or h e l i c a l .
Even though t h e s e r e s u l t s have p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t
i n t o t h e mcchanism of j e t s c r e e c h . t h e y now l e a v e
us w i t h t h e problem of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p h y s i c a l where w is t h e r a d i a n s c r e e c h t o n e f r e q u e n c y , ro
1 p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r o l s s e l e c t i o n of p r e f e r r e d modal and r j d i s t a n c e s t o f a r f i e l d l o c a t i o n from
structure. n o z z l e e x i t and j t h monopole source, e a n g l e t o
T h i s q u e s t i o n is examined in t h e Yu and t h e j e t a x i s , Sd monopole source s t r e n g t h , a,
37 ambient sound s p e e d , and V, and MC t h e f l u j d
Seiner paper. W e s t l e y and Woolley3' have
p r e v i o u s l y demonstrated t h a t the h e l i c a l s t r u c t u r e d i s t u r b a n c e c o n v e c t i o n v e l o c i t y and Mach number.
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j e t s c r e e c h r o t a t e s around t h e j e t Maximum a m p l i t u d e of t h e far f i e l d a c o u s t i c
column a t t h e fundamental s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y . The p r e s s u r e occurs a t t h o s e f a r f i e l d l o c a t i o n s where
phaSe a v e r a g e d S c h l i e r e n r e c o r d s o f f i g u r e 7 , s i g n a l s from a l l sources i n t h e a r r a y a r r i v e
which cover one c o m p l e t e c y c l e of screech, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , which from e q u a t i o n 1 can occur
i n d i c a t e t h i s f o r t h e Md=z n o z z l e a t Mj=l.58. if,
Along t h e s o n i c s u r f a c e , which c o r r e s p o n d s roughly
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Lo( l-Mccose)/Vc = 2nn (2)


t o t h e j e t I i p l i n e , t h e c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l phase
speed of t h e h e l i x is C nfsD and t h e t o t a l
phase speed is 9=
Cp=(a, +Ce2) I/ 2. It is where n is an i n t e g e r . Thus from e q u a t i o n 2 t h e
unreasonable to expect that Cp should fundamental f r e q u e n c y and a s s o c i a t e d harmonics f o r
s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceed a t y p i c a l j e t plume v e l o c i t y , maximum r e i n f o r c e m e n t a t a g i v e n a n g l e E t o t h e
say V j . With d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e s f o r M j t h e j e t axis would be,
plume's fully expanded velocity of course
d e c r e a s e s , but as shown i n f i g u r e 4 t h e screech
( 3)
f r e q u e n c y increases and 60 a l s o t h e e x p e c t e d value
of Ce. A t some p o i n t t h e r e s h o u l d be a
t r a n s i t i o n from h e l i c a l t o a x i s y m m e t r i c s t r u c t u r e , E q u a t i o n 3 is t h e Same as t h a t o b t a i n e d by
f o r o t h e r w i s e one would e s t i m a t e t h a t Cp>V.. Harper-Bourne and F i s h e r 2 ' t o p r e d i c t s p e c t r u m
There are several problems witi this peak a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h broadband
concept. F i r s t i t p r e d i c t s mode t r a n s i t i o n from shock n o i s e , a t o p i c t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t
h e l i c a l t o a x i s y m m e t r i c a t t o o large a value of section. TO o b t a i n a p r e d i c t i o n f o r s c r e e c h
M j . and second c a n n o t e x p l a i n why t h e h e a t e d f r e q u e n c y t h a t involves t h e f e e d b a c k l o o p in t h e
r e s u l t of f i g u r e 6c s t i l l p r e f e r s a x i s y m e t r i c Powell model, t h e a n g l e e=n r e p r e s e n t s the
Structur'C. Based on t h e h e a t e d flow r e s u l t s i t d i r e c t i o n where maximum s y s t e m g a i n can be
may a p p e a r more reasonable to expect that achieved. Thus from e q u a t i o n 3 t h e Powell
a x i s y m m e t r i c s t r u c l u r e would be d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t e d f u n d a m e n t a l s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y can be
m a i n t a i n when t h e flow s t r u c t u r e is convected a t a e x p r e s s e d as,
g r e a t e r speed t h a n t h c speed a t which p r e s s u r e
/ d i s t u r b a n c e s can be t r a n s m i t t e d a c r o s s t h e j e t
plume t o m a i n t a i n s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n i n t h e flow. I n
t h e h e a t e d and u n h e a t e d f l o w example of f i g u r e 6 ,
t h i s r a t i o between t h e f l o w s t r u c t u r e s c o n v e c t i o n
v e l o c i t y t o t h e l o c a l sound speed has remained where from t h e c r o s s e d l a s e r bean e x p e r i m e n t s of
COnStdnt, as has the basic preference for Harper-Bourne and Fisher" the disturbance
axisymmetric S t r u c t u r e . The above arguments are c o n v e c t i o n v e l o c i t y is e s t i m a t e d as
h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and much more r e s e a r c h is Vc = 0.7 V (5)
required to understand fully the physical 1
mechanism responslble for preferred spatial
StCUCture. and from Tam and Tanna" t h e r a t i o of the fully
expanded plume d i a m e t e r D j t o t h e j e t exit
d i a m e t e r is g i v e n by.
Jet Screech Frequency and Shear Layer
Instabilities

I n t h i s s e c t i o n we will c o n s i d e r r e c e n t
p r o g r e s s made i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n of t h e j e t s c r e e c h
f r e q u e n c y and show how C u r r e n t research r e l a t e s where M j and Md are In t h e u s u a l n o t a t i o t I
t h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s t o t h o s e measured f o r t h e most E q u a t i o n 6 , which can be d e r i v e d from Packs
u n s t a b l e mode of t h e s u p e r s o n i c s h e a r l a y e r . l i n e a r i z e d a n a l y s i s . h a s been used by Tam and
H a m m i t t 3 5 was one of t h e f i r s t t o r e c o g n i z e an Tanna t o c o r r e l a t e t h e peak Spectrum v a l u e of
e x p l i c i t r e l a t i o n between t h e s e two mechanisms i n broadband s h o c k noise f o r various nozzles w i t h
h i s s t u d y of choked two-dimensional j e t s . d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s o n i c e x h a u s t Mach numbers.
We s h a l l f i r s t b e g i n by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e I n e q u a t i o n 4 t h e d i s t a n c e between che
p r e d i c t e d s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y as o b t a i n e d from t h e monopole s o u r c e s L (i.e., t h e d i s t a n c e between
Powell model. The f a r f i e l d acoustic p r e s s u r e P shock cells) approximated by an a v e r a g e s h o c k
r e s u l t i n g from a phased linear a r r a y of monopgle c e l l s p a c i n g L , which w e i g h t s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
sources spaced a n e q u a l d i s t a n c e L a p a r t can be
I __
W r L L L e n as,
l e n g t h scale f o r t h e problem c l o s e r t o t h e s p a c i n g
of shock cells where t h e near f i e l d p r e s s u r e is
most i n t e n s e as i n t h e f i g u r e 6 p h o t o g r a p h s .

v
5
Numerical prediction of shock cell spacing The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e fundamental s c r e e c h
is d e f e r r e d t o a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s paper. f r e q u e n c y f a l l s s e n s i b l y near a v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d
While o p t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s have i n t h e p a s t been w i t h t h e most u n s t a b l e s h e a r l a y e r mode f o r a
emplor5d t o d e t e r m i n e shock s p a c i n g , S e i n e r and g i v e n f u l l y expanded Mach number M j is of g r e a t
Norum chose-to use plume S t a t i c pressure s u r v e y s value. Azimuthal p h a s e a v e r a g e d measurements of
t o d e t e r m i n e L f o r a g i v e n n o z z l e as a f u n c t i o n of t h e most u n s t a b l e modes i n t h e j e t s h e a r l a y e r
M.. F i g u r e 8a shows a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e z x a m p l e of r e p o r t e d by M o r r i s o n and M ~ L a u g t i l i n ' ~ show t h a t
t& method employed t o d e t e r m i n e L. This t h e s t r u c t u r e is h e l i c a l f o r shock f r e e s u p e r s o n i c
aerodynamic d a t a , which is a c q u i r e d a l o n g t h e j e t s where &=Mj>l.4, and c o n t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t \
c e n t e r l l n e of a Q=Z nozzle a t Mj=2.24, c h a r t s a x i s y m m e t r i c S t r u c t u r e when Mj=0.9. The h e l i c a l
t h e v a r i a t i o n of mean s t a t i c p r e s s u r e as a s t a t i c s t r u c t u r e r e p o r t e d c o n s i s t e d of both a r i g h t and
p r e s s u r e prob; d e s i g n e d f o r s u p e r s o n i c f l o w is l e f t hand h e l i x of t h e e x p e c t e d s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e
t r a v e r s e d t h r o u g h t h e compression and e x p a n s i o n of jet screech. The low Reynolds number
zones of t h e s h o c k c e l l s . The d i f f e r e n c e between s u p e r s o n i c e x p e r i m e n t s o f t e n show t h e e x i s t e n c e of
t h e l o c a l minimum and maximum s t a t i c p r e s s u r e s can a multi-mode s t r u c t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e values used
be t a k e n as p r o p o r t i o n a l t o shock wave s t r e n g t h , i n f i g u r e 9 a p p l y t o t h e dominant mode f o r a g i v e n
so t h a t t h e d a t a p r o v i d e s a good i n d i c a t i o n as t o v a l u e of M j .
t h e a x i a l e x t e n t and decay r a t e of t h e shock wave Whether t h e s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y c o r r e s p o n d s
field. The shock cell s p a c i n g d e r i v e d from t h i s p r e c i s e l y t o t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e most u n s t a b l e
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method is found t o be i n e x c e l l e n t agreement w i t h s h e a r l a y e r modes remains a m a t t e r of s p e c u l a t i o n ,


Pack's'' t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d p r i m a r y wavelength but an a r e a c u r r e n t l y b e i n g pursued t h e o r e t i c a l l y
Ll/D, and t h e o p t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d s e c o n d a r y by Tam46947. The p o s s i b i l i t y c e r t a i n l y e x i s t s
wavelength Lz/D of Love, Grigsby. Lee and f o r i t would a l s o a p p e a r t h a t t h e j e t noise
W ~ o d l i n g ~ ~Both . of t h e s e shock w a v e l e n g t h s are mechanism must be dependent on Some form of
-
i n d i c a t e d i n f l g u r e 8a i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a v e r a g e
L. F i g u r e 8 b , which is r e p r o d u c e d from r e f e r e n c e
a c o u s t i c f e e d b a c k so as t o p r o v i d e a means for t h e
observed S t r o u h a l number s c a l i n g . P e r h a p s one
42, p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t e d measure of how t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e most u n s t a b l e s h e a r l a y e r mode
measured f o r several nozzles varies w i t h the becomes a u d i b l e as j e t s c r e e c h is t h a t t h e f l u i d
plume's f u l l y expanded Mach number where, dynamic d i s t u r b a n c e , which in t h i s case a p p e a r s t o
be a coherent large scale structure, is
E/D = at3b a(M
j
* - l)b/2 (7) s u b s t a n t i a l l y a m p l i f i e d on i n t e r a c t i o n w l t h shock
waves w i t h o u t change i n a v e r a g e axial s p a t i a l
s t r u c t u r e . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n on broadband shock
The c o e f f i c i e n t s a and b o b t a i n e d f o r t h e t h r e e
n o i s e , e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e is p r e s e n t e d t h a t
nozzles Q = l . O , 1.5 and 2.0 are l i s t e d i n f i g a r e
tends t o support t h i s concept.
8. -
With t h e s e e s t i m a t e s f o r Vc and L i n
e q u a t i o n 4 , f i g u r e 9 shows measured and p r e d i c t e d
Prediction of Jet Screech Amplitude
v a l u e s f o r t h e fundamental s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y u s i n g
a l l t h e d a t a of f i g u r e 4 e x c e p t t h e E mode. Also
While l i t t l e has been done by way of
i n c l u d e d is t h e s u p e r s o n i c n o z z l e i t Mach number
p r e d i c t i n g t h e a m p l i t u d e of j e t s c r e e c h ,
f a r f i e l d d a t a of S e i n e r and Norum". The d a t a is
i m p o r t a n c e h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d by Hay and Rose iE8
p r e s e n t e d as a f u n c t i o n of t h e f u l l y expanded Mach \\

who documented sonic f a t i g u e f a i l u r e due t o


number M j , and as is e v i d e n t t h e d a t a from t h e in-flight j e t s c r e e c h f o r a VC-IO subsonic
various n o z z l e s are d e c e n t l y c o l l a p s e d w i t h f a i r
aircraft. I n view of t h e new major emphasis a t
p r e d i c t i o n b e i n g a f f o r d e d by e q u a t i o n 4. Also
NASA Langley to predict noise from high
i n c l u d e d i n f i g u r e 9 are t h e measured S t r o u h a l
performance aircraft it is clear t h a t more
number v a l u e s f o r t h e most u n s t a b l e f r e q u e n c i e s of
emphasis w i l l be placed In t h e future on
t h e s u p e r s o n i c f r e e j e t s h e a r l a y e r as measured in
p r e d i c t i n g t h e a m p l i t u d e of j e t s c r e e c h .
t h e low Reynolds numb r e x p e r i m e n t s of McLaughlin,
P r e d i c t i o n of s c r e e c h a m p l i t u d e is of course
M o r r i s o n , and T r o u t t f 4 and r e c e n t l y t a b u l a t e d by
e x t r e m e l y complex, since as t h e r e f l e c t i n g b a f f l e
Morrison and M ~ L a u g h l i n ~ ~ .The d a r k c i r c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t s have shown, t h e a m p l i t u d e can g r e a t l y
symbols i n d i c s t e t h i s d a t a , and also incl.ude a
s u b s o n i c v a l u e of M j . depend on i n i t i a l j e t boundary coj5ditions. As an
i n i t i a l a t t e m p t , Yu and Seiner attempted t o
Figure 9 is representative of results
r e l a t e s i m p l e p a r a m e t e r s of t h e shock c o n t a i n i n g
p r e v i o l y r e p o r t e d by Hu and McLaughlin4', Yu and
plume t o t h o s e r e g i o n s where s c r e e c h was most
SeinerY' and most r e c e n t l y by Tam et a146. Tam's
i n t e n s e and t h e a m p l i t u d e s t a b l e w i t h time. The
r e s u l t s are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r i n s t e a d of
p h o t o g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s of f i g u r e 7 r e p r e s e n t
e m p i r i c a l values f o r V c and T i n e q u a t i o n 4 ,
an example of t h i s f o r t h e overexpanded flow from
a n a l y t i c e x p r e s s i o n s were d e r i v e d f o r t h e s e u s i n g
t h e Md=2 n o z z l e . For t h i s case i t was observed
an i n s t a b i l i t y wave a n a l y s i s f o r t h e flow
t h a t b o t h t h e s c r e e c h wavelength A s and t h e
s t c u c t w e c o u p l e d t o a m u l t i p l e - s c a l e s model of
a x i a l i n s t a b i l i t y w a v e l e n g t h , s a y A,, were b o t h
t h e shock cell S t r u c t u r e . The major d i f f e r e n c e
n e a r l y equal t o t w i c e t h e shock c e l l s p a c i n g
between t h e o b s e r v e d S t r o u h a l number b e h a v i o r
1.2. The s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y ' s wavelength was
shown in f i g u r e 9 and t h e p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s is t h a t found t o be s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of t h e
t h e d a t a of f i g u r e 9 i n c l u d e s a l l t h e multi-mode flow's helical structure. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t was
s c r e e c h d a t a and not j u s t C mode t y p e s c r e e c h p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e upstream p r o p a g a t i n g s c r e e c h
r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y as i n t e n s e s t a b l e s c r e e c h .
t o n e would p r o v i d e maximum r e i n f o r c e m e n t t o t h e
The t h r e e p r e d i c t e d curves in f i g u s 9 are p r o c e s s as i t p a s s e d s u b s e q u e n t shock c e l l s on i t s
r e l a t i v e t o e a c h t y p e of nozzle where L has been t r a v e l t o t h e nozzle e x i t .
d e f i n e d from e q u a t i o n 7. and are used t o i n d i c a t e
t h a t t h e d a t a d o e s not f a l l on a u n i v e r s a l curve
b e c a u s e of t h e multi-mode s t r u c t u r e .

6
To test the general validity of this the downstream shock structure. Even though the
observation we can use the screech frequency data As/i=2 criterion may also lead to the most
of figure 9 to estimate the axial wavelength of intense screech for a given shock wave strength,
the associated fluid dynamic structure, l i b that it by itself is not a reliable predictor for
shown in figure 6 . Since the frequency of both maximum screech amplitude.
the screech and instability wave are the same, we
have that
Influence of Temperature on Screech
,
For many years it was thought that jet
screech phenomenon would not be present in full
scale engines due to irregular nozzle exit
Using this relation and equation 4 we have conditions, non-uniform exit velocity profile
alternatively, and jet exhausts. The experiments of Jungowski&s
clearly demonstrate just how irregular a flow can
be and still generate jet screech. Antonw and
Sladkevich" report measuring jet screech for
where the average shock cell spacing shall again model supersonic nozzles with design exhaust Mach
be taken as the relevant parameter. Figure IO numbers ranging from Md=2.4 to 3.53 with gas
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displays the estimated axial wavelength of the flow total temperatures to 2100'K. All their
flow structure associated with jet screech, and 88 nozzles were examined in the overexpanded regime
can be observed in almost all instances where where the maximum value of M examined was near
screech has been measured the structure's 2. Their results indicate tiat with increasing
wavelength is nearly 2 i . This is especially true jet total temperature the measured jet screech
for the helical type of fluid dynamic structure. appears to propagate mre downstream than toward
The axisymmetric A2 mode which lies closer to the nozzle exit. This may explain the general
A,/i-3/2 is never found to be a particularly appearance of the 6c photograph, and also why with
intense screech mode. The results of figure 10 a microphone near the nozzle exit screech was not
may imply that a gener_al criteria for audible jet recorded with heated flaw corresponding to the
Screech is when AXIL is near 2. For those figure 6b nozzle pressure ratio. As Antanov and
instability waves that do not Satisfy this Sladkevich suggest this may be the main reason why
relation, insufficient gain is achieved for jet screech has been overlooked with hot gas jet
detection. studies.
The data of figure 10 indicate that it was not Roshford and TomsS1 also investigated the
unusual for Yu and Seiner to find Ax/L2 near influence of jet total temperature To on jet
2. The second condition for intense screech was screech from a sonic nozzle with Mj and To
when As/L2 was also near 2. Figures lla and ranging respectively to 1.9 and 800'K. They show
llb display the measured amplitude levels for that with increased heating the screech frequency

AJi .
fundamental screech tones and the variation of
as a function OF M Figure 11a ahows
the recorded sonic nozzle data for both the B and
increases for a fixed value of M.. Figures 12a
and 12b show the general trend observed with
increase in jet total temperature. This data,
c C stage of screech. and figure llb the results for recently acquired at NASA Langley, refers to the
the Q '
1.
5 and 2.0 nozzles. As indicated from AI screech mode at Mj=l.ll when initially
the measurements i n figure Ila, the screech unheated. This particular screech mode
amplitude remains nearly constant over the range corresponds to the phase averaged Schlieren
of Mj where helical structure i s found. The B results of figures 6a and 6c. As can be observed
stage screech dominates both high and low values in figure 12a the screech wavelength decreases as
of Mj, but abruptly yields to stage screech in heat is applied. The data is presented as a
the central region. While AslL decreases toward function of the jet exit static to ambient
a value near 2 in this region, no general temperature ratio to later provide correlation to
conclusion can be drawn about its Eignificance. results obtained with nozzles with supersonic
From figure Ilb we see that the As/L value near exhaust Mach numbers. Figure 12b displays the
2 represents a special case for the Q=2 nozzle, same data, except as a Function of the estimated
and again no general conclusion concerning of convection Mach number.
significance of AJZ can be drawn. The curves in figures 12a and 12b represent
I n c nection with the earlier work of Seiner predictions of the screech frequency using
and Norum", it was shown that the strength of the equation 4 . The solid curve was obtained by
downstream shocks asymptote to a given strength selecting for L Pack'e'' analytically derived
when a Mach disc is present in the plume, like the primary wavelength as given by
normal shock in figure 2, and the preferred flow L~/O-1.31(Mj2-1)1/2. The dashed curve
structure is modified by the basic annular assumes L is given by the average shock c e l l
appearance of the plume. This occurs due to spacing as defined by equation 7. The open and
non-isentropic losses associated with the strong solid symbols are used simply to distinguish the
oblique shocks in the shear layer. Thus from two modal structures that appear.
anywhere above a value of Mj=1.5 for the sonic As can be observed equation 4 provides
n o z z l e the strength of the downstream shock waves adequate account for the dependence of screech on
do not increase, and as we see i n figure Ila convection Mach number. The use of the primary
neither does the amplitude of measured screech. wavelength of Pack relative to the average shock
AS the value of M is decreased toward the cell spacing suggests as is indicated in figure 6
design point of all the n o z z l e s examined the that heated flows produce screech further
amplitude of screech diminishes. For the nozzles downstream than cold flows. Figure 12b shows that
examined here, intense screech can always be
associated with strong shock wave amplitudes of

7
the modal structure, which begins as the A I mode reduced. However as observed by them this change
for unheated flow, disappears when & = I . i n frequency with corresponding change in shock
Based on the above observations. and spacing can only be accounted for by equation 4 by
particularly those of Antonov and Sladkevick we assuming that the preferred modal structure has
can expect jet screech to be present i n hot-gas shifted to B stage screech. This example
flows. However, thus far inclusion of jet total illusLrates that the preferred modal Structure of
temperature for predicting the frequency of jet jet screech, as shown in the figure 4 screech
screech appears accounted for within the context data, can be strongly influenced by forward
of the model proposed bT6 Powell" o r the flight. It i s important to note that these
theoretical work of Tam et a1 . results refer to unheated sonic jet flows and the
general result of figure 14 coiild be substantially
modified with heating due to a large increase i n
Effects of PoNard Plight on Jet Screech the fully expanded jet velocity relative to the
same forward flight value.
The influence of flight on noise emitted by
jet flows is extremely important i n assessing
whether one would expect sonic fatigue to occur. Location of P r i n c i p l e Region for Jet Screech
In supersonic flight the noise generated by mssion
~-
interaction of disturbances with shock waves is
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not considered to play a fundamental role for one From the above discussion in the preceding
expects to see partial transmission of plume sections, and particularly the illwtratlons of
shocks to free Gpace. However, even for current figure 6 , screech 1s generated from shocks
generation supersonic fighter aircraft, the that a r e not near the nozzle exit. We have also
majority of flight hours involve operation at shown that the most unstable jet shear layer modes
subsonic forward flight speeds where the nozzle are close to what is measured as jet screech when
pressure ratio is still supercritical. one equates fully expanded Mach number between
The study of shock generated noise with shock containing "2%shock free supersonic jets.
simulated forward flight represen s a reasonably Hu and McLaughlin have shown that results
new area for current research'2-54, and one simil.ar to that obtained i n figure 9 can also be
which requires much more research to derive full observed i n low Reynolds number improperly
understanding of the physical process involved. expanded supersonic j e From the theorflical
By way of illustration we consider the complex work of Tam and Burtonz'and Morris and Tam and
behavior of the unheated sonic plume wlth the ex erimental work of McLaughlin. Morris. and
relatively low forward flight speeds (i.e., Troutt" the most unstable shear layer modes grow

Shearin .
Mf=0.15~5 as recently reported by Norum and
Figures 13a and llb reproduced from
data in their report show respectively the
rapidly i n the annular region of flow, achieve
neutral stability near or slightly beyond the jet
potential core, and decay beyond this region.
centerline variation of measured static pressure These observations provide a plausible explanation
with downstream distance and far field narrowhand for the observation that screech is principally
acoustic data for several angles to the jet a x i s generated f r m regions typically beyond the third
for both static and simulated forward flight. 'The shock cell.
acoustic data shows the B stage screech mode L
obtained at a value of Mj=1.38. The figure 13a
static pressure data shows that with an i n c r e a s e Stationary Source Model
in flight speed there is a slight increase i n the
measured shock cell spacing of the downstream We have shown t.hat the stationary linear monopole
shocks. Figure 13b shows that the screech array of phased sources as envisioned by Powell
frequency in flight is reduced, as might be predicts within a certain degree of accuracy the
expected from equation 4 due to a slight increase screech frequency and associated directional
I n L. The results i n figure 13 are representative field. The accuracy is however dependent on ones
of what may occur i n low speed simulated flight choice for the source or shock c e l l spacing and
when there is no shift i n the preferred modal convection velocity of the associated fluid
structure of screech. dynamic disturbance. It is surprising to the
To illustrate what can occur when the author that fundamental experiments have still not
preferred screech mode changes due to forward been conducted attempting to demonstrate that the
flight $?wider the results obtained by Norum and motion of the shocks, clearly evident on cine
Shearin as shown i n figure 14a and 14b. In this records, i s phase locked to the motion of the
example the jet plume's fully expanded Mach number fluid dynamic disturbance. It would appear that
has increased to Mj-1.67. The simulated forward this i s a necessary condition to assume that jet
flight speed remained at Mf=0.15. Comparison of screech sources can be viewed as stationary.
the plume centerline static pressures in figure Phased averaged cine records indicate that the
14a show that with even this low speed simulation motion is phase locked, but detailed analysis is
the resulting shock structure has heen required.
substantially modified. While the average shock
wavelength has increased compared to the static
c a s e , the shock wave amplitude decay rate has been Broadband Shock Noise
substantially increased to where it begins to
emulate that found for B stage screech of the We return now to consider the band limited
figure 13 illustration. The acoustic data of broadband spectral components of figure 3 that
figure 14b, which for the static case is C stage have been denoted as broadband shock associated
screech in the Norum and Shearin experiment, again noise. Detailed study of this component is $6
shows that the screech frequency has been more recent vintage, Harper-Bourne and Fisher

'd
making the first real attempt to model the we have s h o w in figure 9 and 10 that the
mechanism for the unheated flow of the shock wavelength of the most unstable shear layer mode
Containing supersonic jet plume as produced by a is more nearly twice the plume's aver ge shock
choked sonic nozzle. Their model closely cell spacing. In the Pa0 and Seiner6$ theory,
parallels the concept of the Powell jet screech which relies heavily on the shock tube numerical
model, where previously it was noted that equation shock- ortex interaction simulation of Pao and
3 also represents their result for prediction of Salas", physical aspects of the interaction of a
the broadband component's spectrum peak value single vortex with an oblique shock are examined
, fP. Harper-Bourne and Fisher show good within the context of the shock containing
agreement between measured and predicted Doppler supersonic jet plume. Both the Howe and Ffowcs
shifted spectrum peak values, where the Doppler Williams and Tam and Tanna theories predict
shift is associated with the (l-M,cose)-l term multiple spectral peak values for broadband shock
in equation 3 . Figure 15. reproduced from noise that exceed 2 fp, which as we have
reference 5 6 , illustrates the associated Doppler indicated in figure 15 appears to be in the w o n g
shift using a sequence of far field narrowband direction. These proposed shock noise theories
spectra for various angles to the jet axis for the are quite involved, so it is sufficient to say
same nozzle and fully expanded Mach number of the that they do recover the frequency formula of
figure 3 spectrum. Figure 15 shows that shack equation 3 , the intensity scaling of relation 10,
noise in this illustration clearly dominates all and explicitly account for varying oblique shock
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other noise radiation at angles greater than 75" strength so that they are applicable as well to
to the jet axis. A l s o evident from figure 15 is the flow fTom improperly expanded
the appearance of a secondary spectrum peak value convergent-divergent nozzles. To date the
that is typically always found to be less than theoretical potential of these theories has not
2fp. yet been fully explored, due to a certain extent
Harper-Bourne and Fisher's experimental to limited understanding the shock containing
results also show that the spectrum shape around supersonic turbulent plume structure, particularly
the spectrum peak value fp for any given value in the region away from the jet nozzle where most
of E is invariant to details of the associated intense shock noise is apparently generated.
time dependent Structure in the supersonic shear The direction for early shock noise research
layer, that the mechanism can like jet screech be at NASA Langley was directed toward improved
associated with downstream shocks, and that the understanding of the supersonic shock containing
energy produced by the shock noise mechanism is far fie1 plume structure, and was stimulated by
proportional to shock wave strength as represented Ribner's'' shock noise theory, in which he had
by derived a relatively simple expression for shock
noise energy produced by the interaction of
I a B4 = (Mj2 - 1) 2 (10) isotropic turbulence with a plane shock. His
theory only required specification of the upstream
turbulence energy level, shock strength and area
( i . e . , proportional to the pressure jump s uared of shock interaction.
across a normal shock). Seiner and have In the following sections of this paper on
shown that this proportionality is only valid up shock noise, we shall examine some of the recent
1
to a point where a Mach disc begins to form in the experimental results pertaining to both the w a n
plume, like the normal shock evident in the figure and turbulent plume's far field structure. With
2 photograph. Other than this broadband shock the aid of this information the physical mechanism
noise energy was not found to be highly dependent for shock noise production is explored as well as
on in;$ial conditions as has jet screech energy. the preferred region for broadband shock noise
Tanna shows that the Harper-Bourne and Fisher emission. Predictive capabilities for the
model also provides satisfactory agreement for amplitude and spectrum peak value for this shock
measured data acquired from hot choked sonic noise component is examined based on this
nozzle plumes. additional information. The directional
Several new shock noise theorie have been
propo28d by Howe and Ffow s william^'^, Tam and
characteristic of the mechanism is briefly
examined, and the section concludes with effects
Tanna , and Pa0 and Seine)'. These theories are of flight and temperature on broadband shock
basic, their formulation being founded on the noise. The illustrations in the following
conservation equations. The Howe and Ffowcs sections are made based on results from the same
Williams theory envisions a continuum of basic set of n o z z l e s used to describe the Jet
axisymmetric Vortex rings which, when convect d screech phenomena.
through the weak shock wave field of Pack's",
interact with shocks and produce sound. Their
results indicate that the scattering of this noise mean Aeberodyoanie Behavior of Shock Containing
by the random turbulence and shocks gives rise to supersarllic Pl-a
the characteristic broadband spectral shape that
does not depend on initial specific ions of the As an aid to defining general regions i n a
vortex sheet. In the Tam and Tanna?" theory the shock containing supersonic jet plume that are
physical mechanism for shock noise production is relevant to this and the following sections,
viewed as arising from the interaction of a large figure 16 illustrates the underexpanded flow
scale coherent Structure with the weak shock wave produced by a Md=2.0 supersonic nozzle operating
field derivable from the linear inviscid theory with unheated flow at M 2.24 (i.e.,
due to Pack. The sound is emitted in terms of PeIP,=1.47). The figure l d = illustration
eddy Mach wave radiation when the coherent actually represents output from a new numericgt
structure's wavelength and that of the shock cell plume prediction model, the Dash and Wolf
pattern are of the same order. Thus far, however, SCIPVIS code. This code explicitly accounts for

9
plume spreading through turbulent mixing using a assumptions have previously been applied by Morris
new shock capturing viscidlinviscid computational and Tamz7 and Tam and Burtonz6 in their
model with three optional two equation turbulence quasi-linear instability wave models with
closure models i n its code. To improve clarity in apparently good justification.
the resulting output from this code, the radial Comparison of the measured and SCIPVIS
a x i s is magnified by a factor of 2.5 in figure 16 computed centerline mean Mach number for the
so that angles of shocks and plume spread rates Q=2 nozzle operating underexpanded at Mj-2.24
are not shown i n true perspective. Both the x and is shown in figure 19. The experimental data is

nozzle's radius R .
R coordinates are normalized by the jet exit
In figure I i the inner edge of the mixing
derived from supersonic total and static tube
pressure measurements, and the compressibility
modified kW turbulence closure option is chosen
layer, denoted n ~ , is outlined by the interior for @e numerical plume prediction (see Dash and
cone. The outer solid lines show the radial Wolf for details of this model and the SCIPVIS
extent of the outer edge of the mixing layer, code in general). As is evident a remarkably good
denoted as nu, which along with the lower edge agreement is obtained for this case. Figure 19
of the mixing layer characterizes the rate of also includes the fully expanded condition to show
plume spreading. The region of supersonic flow is that the underexpanded jet behaves in a similar
enveloped by the sonic line, shown here by the fashion but with an annular mixing and fully
dashed cone. It represents the boundary for shock developed region occurring further downstream as
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wave terminations. The shock wave reflections on would he obtained if Md=M.-2.24. Of greater
the sonic cone produce a repetitive shock wave utility for shock noise prediction purposes is to
pattern. which forms the familiar diamond shape show how well the SCIPVIS code emulates the
cell as evident in the figure 6 and 7 Schlieren plume's average static pressure distribution.
records. As can be observed in figure 16 the Figure 20 compares both measured and predicted
shock wave field extends well beyond the nozzle (kw) plume static pressure as a function of
exit providing a large area for the interaction of downstream axial distance. Both a centerline
the Lime dependent fluid dynamic disturbances and (R/Rj=O.) and near lipline (R/Rj=0.45) are
shock waves. These shocks which are located near included in the figure. The results of figure 20
the end of the inner mixing layer are what we have show that for this underexpanded condition the
previously referred to as the downstream shocks. SCIPVIS ?de would perform well in estimating an
All shocks in the mixing layer are curved since average L, as was done using measured data i n
they propagate into B region of nonuniform flow. figure 88 to scale the jet screech phenomenon.
This curvature. along with the radial increase in The deviation that does occur between measured and
sonic line location, is responsible for the predicted static pressure i n the transition zone
gradual steepening of the average wave angle is primarily due to the absence of a necessary
relative to the mean flow. This leads to the potential flow iterative coupling to accurately
observable decrease in shock cell spacing and account f o r jet entrainment induced effects.
shock wave strength with axial distance. The However, in the initial mixing region the
entire decay process is governed by those fluid evolution of the plume's turbulent mixing region
dynamic structures that control the ra e of plume is modeled with adequate precision as s h o w by the
spreading. which according to Townsendk4 would be comparison between the measured and predicted
associated with large scale structure. sonic l i n e i n figure 21. The minimum values in i
Before showing how well the SCIPVIS code ftgure 21 correspond to the axial and radial
fairs when compared to experimental evidence, it locations for shock terminations.
is important to first review the mean aerodynamic In a recent paper by Seiner, Dash and Wolf 63
field of the fully expanded supersonic jet plume extensive comparisons between measured and
f o r later points of view expressed in this paper. predicted results are carried out for both
For this purpose the Q=2 supersonic nozzle overexpanded and underexpanded conditions using
oprating fully expanded at M.-1.99 (i.e., the s o n i c choked nozzle and those designed for
Pe/Pa=l.O) is used as a 'representative ~ = 1 . 5 and 2.0. In general it was found that
example. Figure 17, reproduced from reference 65, SCIPVIS adequately describes the interactive
shows the typical variation with axial distance supersonic jet mixing and wadshear-layer
observed for the plume's half velocity jet radius interactions phenomena that describe the average
r.5. and the velocity half width b=r.5-nL, evolution of a shock containing jet plume. This
where n~ as defined in figure 16 is the inner remark. however, is only valid for those
edge of the annular mixing region. Beyond the supersonic plumes where strong resonant behavior
region where nL=O note that re5=b. Figure 18 is absent. For example, the Reynolds averaged
also from reference 65 shows that the radial mean equations of SCIPVIS do not describe plume
velocity profiles collapse to the half Gaussian devclopment for the sonic nozzle when B stage
form U/U,=exp[-(1n2)n21 in terms of the radial screech is the dominant mode. On the positive
coordinate !l=(r-nL)/b. The behavior of the side. however, it should be noted that the SCIPVIS
centerline mean velocity U, with axial distance code contains the necessary algorithms to deal
can be inferred from the centerline mean Mach with hig? temperature jet plumes for aircraft in
number variation in figure 19 which shows the subsonic and supersonic fltght.
characteristic variation beyond the region Besides obtaining an estimate for shock cell
where q,=O. The mean velocity data of f i g u r e spacing, the SCIPVIS code can also be used to
18, which includes radial velocity p r o f i l e furnish estimates for the shock wave strength and
measurements at 27 axial stations ranging from I average position as would for example be required
to 67 x/Rj, clearly shows that the plume, on an in Ribner'S61 shock noise theory to compute shock
average, experiences a linear growth rate in the noise energy. Before this could be accomplished
annular mixing region and i n the far field region however one would need to have an estimate for the
where Uax-l. The above mean flow shape turbulent kinetic energy incident or convected
through the oblique shock waves. We will now expanded Mach number suggests that shock
consider some elementary turbulent shock wavelturbulence interactions do not.
containing plume properties that have been only To examine this, first recall from figure 17
recently acquired experimentally, and compare that in the annular mixing region the jet spreads
these results to that available from SCIPVIS. linearly. Along the jet lipline (i.e., RIRj=I)
one can record narrowband one-dimensional
turbulence spectra like those shown in figure 2 5 a
Turbulent Plume Behavior for axial locations ranging from x/0=2.25 to 10.
1
This data, previously reported in reference 6 7 , is
The turbulence measurements described in this normalized by the jet exit velocity and presented
section were acquired using a commercial wedge as a function of the Strouhal number
hot-film anemometer whose profile v i e w is shown in St=fDIUe, For this illustration the flow is
figure 22. The dynamic heat transfer produced by a Q=2 nozzle operating fully
characteristics of this probe were found to expanded. This data is thus presented on an
significantly differ from that of the cylindrical absolute basis, but if instead both the amplitude
wire probe in transonic to supersonic flow a s l e v e l and frequency are normalized to local values
indicated by the mean Nusselt number correlation in the shear layer the spectral data collapses to
with a free Stream Reynolds number as shown in a more universal form as shown by figure 25b.
figure 2 3 . The hot wire probe's response varies This result is of course expected since the jet
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with a Reynolds number based on stagnation spreads linearly in this region, and the collapse
conditions, and as such has the same sensitivity would be expected to improve if instead the r.5
to density as velocity for free stream Mach line of figure 17 rather than the lip line had
numbers exceeding 1 . 3 . With the wedge probe been selected.
however the Sensitivity between these modes is For the Same &=2 nozzle we can now examine
always unequal. A complete analysis of the wedge the behavior of measured one-dimensional
probe's behavorial response characteristics are turbulence Spectra when the jet is operated
reported in reference 6 6 . underexpanded at Mj=2.24 (i.e.,
In figure 24 the measured longitudinal Pe/P,=1.47). Figure 26, reproduced from
turbulence intensity is compared to that derived reference 4 2 . shows mass flux per unit volume
from the SCIPVIS code using the kW option for the spectra in term of the local flow properties a s
same &=2 nozzle and underexpanded condition at was done in the figure 25b fully expanded
M.=2.24 as used to compare mean flow results. example. For reference purposes the fully
Since the SCIPVIS code contains a transport expanded universal spectrum of figure 25b is also
equation for the turbulent kinetic energy per unit included OD each figure. The axial locations for
mass k=1/2ujui=1/21u'2+v'2+w'2), the each spectra are chosen to correspond to the

as .
longitudinal turbulence intensity can be expressed
(u ' 2 , / 2 / U = ( 2g(x) k) 2U11
function g(x) then represents the fractional part
The
minimum and maximum turbulence intensity l e v e l s of
figure 2 4 . These points generally correspond to a
location before the start of a compression cycle,
of k due to longitudinal fluctuations. With shock the end of a compression cycle, and a point near
containing supersonic jet plumes virtually **thing the completion of the expansion cycle (this can be
is known about how g(x) varies in the shear seen from the static pressure data of figure 20 or
layer. Its numerical value can of course never the sketch in figure 2 9 ) . The radial location for
exceed 1, and probably is never less than 113 these measurements are along the jet lip line
which describes a state of isotropic turbulence. R/Rj=I. The spectra in figure 263 correspond to
Actual values of g(x) should f a l l between these conditions in the second shock cell, and figure
limits. I n figure 24 the predicted longitudinal 26b to conditions i n the third shock cell.
turbulence intensity is shown for various values The local Strouhal number scaling indicates
of g(x). As can be seen the measured data falls that the spectrum level rises above that for the
within the envelope of predicted values. Both the fully expanded condition at the end of the
measured and predicted turbulence intensity values compression cycle, and after each expansion cycle
are f o r the axial evolution along the jet lipline returns back to the self similar spectrum shape
R=R.. Both the measured and predicted only after accounting for a linear average plume
t u r h n c e data indicate that the turbulence l e v e l spread rate. The similarity in the shock cell
peaks at the end of a compression zone and i s a spectra imply that on an average the shock
minimum at the end of an expansion zone ( s e e containing plume spreads linearly, and more
reference 4 2 and 6 3 ) . The level of agreement importantly that variation in turbulence level
exhibited in figure 2 4 would appear adequate for through a shock c e l l are simply governed by local
shock noise energy predictions, although to date variation of the jet plume boundary which occur's
this has not yet been carried out. as a result of mean flow variations produced by
One advantage of using a wedge hot-film probe the presence of shock Structore. Thus on an
for supersonic shear layer measurements is its average all spectral s c a l e s of the turbulence are
inherent high frequency response ( i . e . , typically expected to e v o l v e in a similar fashion
greater than 100 kHz). This feature permits independent of the presence of shocks i n the
examination of the following point. Do multiple plume. The example selected refers to a condition
shock wavelturbulence interactions in a shock when only weak shocks ( i . e . , Ps/P,<l) are
containing plume alter the evolution of the present i n the plume.
governing fluid dynamic disturbances so as to On the basis of the above turbulent shock
modify jet noise radiation? In certain respects containing plume properties, one would expect then
the correspondence between jet shear layer that those fluid dynamic disturbances that govern
instability frequency i n the fully expanded jet the principle component of noise radiated by a
with jet screech frequency at the same fully supersonic jet would be invariant to the presence
of shocks i n the plume. This could be

v
11
demonstrated by examining far field noise spectra low pressure region marked i n the figure with an H
for two nozzles with the same ideal thrust where and L whose location corresponds to the original
one is operated fully expanded and the other direction of vortex rotation. A sequence of such
underexpanded. Figure 27 shows such a comparison, frames shows the subsequent motion of the
where it is difficult to distinguish one spectrum cylindrical acoustic wave, and that it is trapped
from the other. In this example a far field to a region behind the shock.
spectrum obtained from a sonic nozzle operating The numerical results clearly show, as others
underexpanded is compared to one obtained f o r a have before, that sound is produced when a fluid
supersonic nozzle designed for %=I .5 operating disturbance, in this case a vortex, is moving at a
fully expanded. Both n o z z l e s have the same ideal relative speed to a shock and interacts with the
thrust at this condition. The data is presented shock wave. The above result depicts what
In terms of a Strouhal number based on the fully happens. however, when there is no applied mean
expanded diameter Dj of equati n 6 . Subsequent shear. In the supersonic plume shear layer there
examples of Seiner and Norum'' show that when is of course a strong mean shear, directed such
strong shocks are present in the plume the above that along any oblique shock wave the mean flow
behavior ceases to be observed, and jet noise is density decreases reaching almost an ambient value
reduced at the peak spectrum value. near the sonic line. Thus for the supersonic
shear layer one expects the trapped cylindrical
wave to be re racted outward toward the sonic line
f
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - ANN ARBOR on September 18, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1984-2275

Shod: Noise Heeehanism ( s e e Crighton ).


Experimentally some aspects of this process
Up to this point we have examined general have been observed for the supersonic plume in the
features of the turbulent shock containing plume measurements reported in reference 4 2 . These
and the capability to predict such interactive experiments involved the use of correlated
phenomenona. We now turn to consider the physical signals derived from a wedge hot-film probe
mechanism for the production of broadband shock located at the symboled locations in figure 29,
noise. As was discussed in the previous section and a near field microphone located directly above
on the jet screech mechanism, a large scale the shock termination point but otherwise beyond
coherent type structure can be associated with the the subsonic mixing layer. The center frequency
phenomena, and from cine records the motion of of the filtered bands were selected to correspond
both the shocks and coherent structure appear to to the broadband shock n o i s e and jet noise
be phase locked together. Although it will be spectrum peak values. Both the first and third
shown later that experimental evidence indicates shock cell were examined for the underexpanded
that the same coherent structure can be linked to flow produced by the Md=2 nozzle operating at
the production of broadband tho k noise M.-2.24. Figure 29 illustrates conditions
theoretical evidence 1, go, 1 9 , 1 6 , I < ti;ough the third shock c e l l in that actual best
suggests that broadband shock noise is principally estimated shock locations are included. The
associated with fluid disturbances that have a objective of this experimental survey was to
relative motion to shocks. determine if a preferred region existed for shock
To examine this, the recent numerical work of noise production i n the supersonic plume shear
Pa0 and Salas" will be used to qualitatively layer.
describe the transient interaction process of a Figure 30 shows results obtained for L
single line vortex and a plane shock in a two- correlations obtained for the various radial
dimensional chann& This problem was p r e y p l y locations of the wedge probe. These correlations
treated by Ribner , and Weeks and Dosanjh with are expressed in physical units between the near
experimental results obtained by Hollingsworth and field pressure and mass flux fluctuations per unit
RichardsZ1. The finite difference numerical volume. This data refers to correlations obtained
calculations of Pao and Salas employ the Ruler without a filter, and this particular flow
equations, where at each time step the condition was.,selected since shock waves are still
Rankine-Hugonoit relation is satisfied. In the weak and jet screech is minimal. As indicated i n
computed results a simple clockwise rotating figure 30 considerably stronger correlations were
vortex embedded in the supersonic freestream is obtained in the third shock cell than the first.
convected through an initially plane shock front but inaximum values in both cells were found to
from right to left. Figure 28 represents an occur only slightly inside the lower mixing layer
exampl&acomputed time frame taken from the Pao and boundary 'IL of each shock cell. Beyond the
Seiner paper which shows the resulting complex sonic l i n e the correlations were found to be
pressure pattern after the vortex has passed the negligible. thus indicating that the shock noise
shock. The shock wave now appears deformed in the dominated near field microphone spectrum received
direction of the vortex rotation. The contour its components from within the region of
levels in figure 28 are normalized to the supersonic flow bounded by shock waves.
unperturbed pressure downstream of the shock. The In an attempt to further determine where
vortex center can be located as the deep pressure shock noise originated, the time delay information
depression marked with a cross. A cylindrical of figure 31 for axial trace through the third
acoustic wave front propagating outward from the shock cell were analyzed in the following
vortex center can be identified and the location fashion. Assuming a disturbance convection
of this wavefront is indicated by the circle with velocity based on equation 7, and that sound
dashed lines. Behind the shock the vortex center produced within a shock cell region would travel
has been moving subsonically relative to the directly to the near field microphone above
shock. The cylindrical wavefront can intersect without significant path length change due to
the shock s i n c e it propagates at the sonic speed, refraction produces a possible set of solutions
but cannot propagate through the shock into that satisfy the time delay equation. Figure 32
supersonic flow. This leads to both a high and shows a set of possible solutions to this time

w
12
delay equation based on the data shown in figure at respective values of Mj=1.80 and 2.24. These
31. It is apparent that the possible solutions to correlations however were acquired from the
the time delay equation focus to a region near the correlation of the wedge hot film probe and a near
oblique shock wave in the shear layer that forms a field microphone each located at various axial
characteristic boundary for the third shock cell. locations where shocks terminate i n the shear
This experimental evidence is consistent with layer. These correlations are expressed in
the theoretical concepts for shock noise physical units. As can be seen the results
production previously described. Figure 33 from correspond to the figure 34.3 micmphone
I reference 60 represents a summary between the correlations in that the principle reglon for
numerical results and experimental evidence. Here shock noise emission occurs near the er+q of the
the fluid dynamic disturbance, which can also be a annular mixing region. Norum and Seiner show a
coherent wavelike structure. produces the most similar result can be obtained for the sonic
intense sound on interaction with an oblique shock nozzle.
in the vicinity of the lower edge of the mixing As will be shown in the spectrum on jet
layer boundary where the shock wave is the n o i s e , large scale coherent structures, associated
strongest. The resulting cylindrical acoustic with the principle component of jet noise like
wave incident at the shock, travels along the those visualized in figure 6 , achieve maximum
oblique shock boundary due to refraction effects growth where " ~ ' 0 . Beyond this point they
and produces what appears to be an apparent source rapidly decay.
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region at the intersection of the oblique shock


and sonic line. The figure 2 photograph shows a
set of circular concentric rings with an apparent Prediction of Broadband Shock Noise f p
source near where the oblique shock terminates in
the shear layer. In the figure 2 photograph jet In this section use shall be made of the
screech cannot be detected so these rings Can most above observation of where the principle component
likely be associated with broadband shock noise. of broadband shock noise is apparently emitted.
This must be factored in to provide prediction of
the associated peak spectrum level frequency fp
Principle Loeation for Broadband Shock Noise of figure 15. Toward this purpose, recall that
mission equation 3 requires that one properly choose a
characteristic length scale L that represents the
To follow up the results of the previous shock spacing in the vicinity of principle shock
section which show that more broadband shock noise noise generation. This suggests that the shock
engggy is generated further downstream, Seiner and cell spacing near the end of the annular mixing
Yu have recently reported data that indicates region where n ~ = 0would represent an appropriate
the major portion of this energy is generated near choice for L in equation 3, which we shall denote
the end of the plume's annular mixing region. at b.
Figure 34 from their paper show estimated regions At normal viewing angles to the jet axis i n
for maximum shock noise generation. Figure 34a the acoustic far field, equation 3 can then be
represents filtered correlations between a written a s ,
traversing near field microphone and one fixed in
= M, (e=90°) (12)
the acoustic far field at 90' to the jet a x i s .
The filter center frequencies for both microphones
were centered at the frequency of the broadband where Le denotes the shock the shock cell length
shock noise spectrum peak value Of the far field where n~=0, Ap the acoustic wavelength at the
microphone. Figure 34a shows haw the normalized spectrum peak value, and MC the convection Mach
correlation coefficient i n this filtered band number of the associated fluid dynamic
v a r i e s as the near field microphone is located at disturbance. The convection Mach number will
various x/D distances along the jet plume. The again be estimated from equation 7. The
flow in this example is produced by a nozzle experimentally determined value for Le is
designed for Q=l.5 and is overexpanded for the derived first from an estimate of the axial
two eases at Mj=1.28 and 1.37. In this example location where n ~ = 0 as computed from equation
Then from the shock cell spacing data of
nozzle exit ( s e e Tanna $9) .
jet screech is suppress with a tab device at the
The numbered symbols
11.
reference 56, Le is computed from a least
indicate which shock termination point the near squares first at the axial location where 'IL is
field microphone is almost directly above. This estimated to be zero.
experimental evidence indicates that the principle Figure 35 shows how the measured ratio
component for broadband shock noise is generated Le/Ap varies as a function of Mj for three
by shocks far downstream. The peak value for the different supersonic nozzles. The solid l i n e
normalized correlation coefficient for both represents prediction of this ratio using equation
overexpanded conditions is found to occur near the 12. The dashed curves represent 210 prcent error
end of the annular mixing region, denoted as bands around this prediction which corresponds to
n ~ = 0on the figure. Here the axial length of the experimental uncertainity in determining
the annular mixing region is estimated fr9f the Ap. As can be observed however equation 12
empirical ersults of Nagamatsu and Horvay who describes the general trend of the data, the
determine that this length can be expressed as, majority of data falling within 510 percent of the
predicted value. The largest deviations in this
Lc/O = 5.22 M + 0.22 (n,, = 0) (11) result occurs at a low value of Mj, where a
j strong imbedded shock is present in the Q=1.5
and 2.0 plume. Figure 35 also includes %=2
Figure 34b shows a similar result for both the data, where instead of using measured values for
Md-1.5 and 2.0 n o z z l e s operating underexpanded
Le, the SCIPVIS code estimate for Le has been

W
13
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I
A
We can show that equation 13 can also be used represents omni-directional radiation for
to scale convergent-divergent nozzle data using broadband shock noise. It is evident from figure
the same scheme as is shown in figure 39. In this 41 that the experimental evidence indicates that
figure we see that in the vicinity where a strong broadband shock is fairly directional at low
imbedded shock can be expected for the convergent- values of 6, but approaches omni-directionality at
divergent nozzle, substantial deviation occurs higher values of 6.
between predicted and estimated broadband shock The Howe and Ffowcs Williams theory
noise intensity. In the underexpanded region of explicitly contains two additional Doppler factors
flow (1.e.. Mj-Md>O) equation 13 scales the for the predicted shock noise intensity. This
data adequately for the weak shock condition, but agrees reasonably well with the experimental
overestimates the shock noise intensity in results of figure 41 near 6=0.8. Since the Howe
overexpanded regions when the same scaling and Ffowcs Williams theory is based on a
Parameter E is used from the underexpanded linearized analysis one would not expect their
condition. theory to apply to the higher values of 6, due to
expected shock wave amplitudes beyond the range
where the linearized analysis is valid. The above
Broadband Shock Noise Directivity results point out a real problem in the method
used to achieve shock noise intensity scaling from
The photograph of figure 2 illustrate8 that 90' data alone, where omni-directionality was
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the centered waves near the shock termination assumed.


points have phase fronts that appear directed As a final example on broadband shock noise
slightly upstream. These waves, as previously directional behavior, several acoustic near field
discussed, are associated with broadband sho
noise. Theoretically, Howe and Ffowcs Williams slr directivity comparisons for a shock free and shock
containing supersonic jet plume reported in
indicate that the basic directivity for static reference 65 are shown in figure 42. This data
jets is near 8=105" to the jet axis with an compares various one-third octave band levels
anticipated increase toward a larger angle to the between the choked sonic nozzle and the Q=I.5
jet axis with flight. The theoretical results nozzle where bath have the same ideal thrust at
were found to be in good agreeyent with the

by Jacques .
experimental,5 results of Deneuville ' as reported
To demonstrate that there is
Mj=1.5 ( s e e figure 2 1 for far field spectral and
amplitude Similarity for these nozzles).
rotation Of the peak spectral level with angle to
The

reasonable agreement between experimental evidence the jet axis is due to the Doppler factor, and the
and the directivity predicted by the Howe and value St=0.59 refers to the spectrum peak
Ffowcs Williams eory the experimental results of amplitude value fp where 8=90". The directivity
Norm and SeinerFP will be used, since the Jacques data of figure 42 have been principally included
report was unavailable to the author. to show that shock noise should not be overlooked
We have already shown that the broadband for angles 8<90". As can be observed the high
shock noise spectrum peak value frequency f is frequency content of spectra at angles even as low
Doppler shifted by a factor D=(l-Mccos8)-f in as 8=30' can be dominated by shock noise. For the
equation 3. To compare spectra at different standpoint of community noise driven criteria this
angles to the jet axis, the spectral amplitudes means little, for the amplitudes are considerably
/
must be adjusted by this factor (1.e.. IOlog~oD) lower than the dominant spectral component.
to account for the spectral compression. A However, for the aircraft designer concerned about
similar process is also applied to obtain the sonic fatigue the level increase of spectral
universal turbulent velocity spectrum of figure components in this direction can be of great
25b. When spectra for various angles are compared value.
in this way the spectrum peak values are aligned
as we would expect, but the amplitude levels
require additional Doppler factor corrections to Effect of Forward Plight a n d Temperature on
align their spectrum peak values. The additional Broadband Shock Noise
Doppler factors required to match the
spectra indicate a directivity pattern for Up to now all experimental evidence presented
broadband shock noise that is slightly inclined in for broadband shock noise only involves static
the upstream jet direction. The number of unheated axisymmetric jets. To provide an
additional Doppler factors required to align the effective message for the properties discussed
spectrum peak value serves as a measure for above requires consideration of the modification
broadband shock noise directivity. that temperature and forward flight may have on
Figure 40 shows a series of spectra the mechanism. Earlier studies have shown that
normalized in this manner for the sonic the relative importance of shock n o i s e diminishes
axisymmetric choked nozzle where the jet screech with increasing nozzle total temperature5
was suppressed with a tab ( s e e However recent model jet results of Yamato et a1 6
;:::?';: The data encompasses an operating range
of plume Mach numbers Mj from 1.17 to 1.67
indicate that this is not true. as is for example
shown by their acoustic data in figure 43a. Here
(<.e., 8-0.6 to 1 . 3 4 ) and the flow is unheated. we see that the underexpanded choked sonic n o z z l e
The spectral amplitudes associated with broadband substantially dominates the overall sound power
shock noise are seen to collapse for all angles level of a convergent-divergent nozzle operating
between 8=75 to 135 degrees. Those spectral at its design point for angles above 70' to the
components associated with jet noise are jet axis (i.e., their angles are referenced to the
uncorrelated by this normalization procedure. The inlet axis). Of particular value to this acoustic
number of additional Doppler factors n required to result is that they measured with a laser
achieve satisfactory normalization are summarized velocimeter the degree to which their heated
in figure 41. A value of n equal to zero convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle was actually

V
15
operating fully expanded. As shown in figure 43b end of the annular mixing region. These latter
the C-D nozzle plume contains only a very weak waves are not visible in the figure 1 photograph
shock wave system and one would expect little since the annular dxlng regfgn7$tends beyond the
shock noise radiation from this nozzle. This field of v i e w . Oertel * however shows
result is expected, since their C-D n o z z l e was excellent photographic visualizations for these
designed to include real gas effects and provtde longer waves and the other two distinct groups.
for essentially a shock free plume. The earlier oectel reports from laser velocimeter studies that
studies involving the influence of temperature on these three different wave groups can be related
shock noise designed their nozzle for unheated to three different convection speeds in the
flow, and in all probability never achieved a supersonic shear layer. From his studies he
reference shocln free flow. The results of Yamato concluded that a l l wave groups resulted from the
et a1 clearly indicate that the importance of convection of large scale coherent structures.
shock noise does not decrease with an increase in Within the context of the Lighthill Acousti
jet total temperature. Analogy approach, Parthasarathy and Massier88
In the same study Yamato also has shown that report that the Ffowcs Williams and Maidanik'l
the broadband shock noise intensity slightly approximate theory for eddy Mach wave radiation
increases in forward flight as shown in figure compares well to their measured acoustic data for
448. This can be judged by comparing the actual the waves in the wider spaced grouping which
OASPL l e v e l s between figures 43a and 43b f o r predominate the near acoustic field of figure 1.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - ANN ARBOR on September 18, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1984-2275

angles near the inlet a x i s . Also consistent with Their experimental results cover the range of jet
numerous other investigators is that the jet noise total temperature from 422' to 1366'K, where from
overall level at high angles to the inlet a x i s their Md'1.43 convergent-divergent nozzle eddy
decreases with forward flight. Of important v a l u e Mach wave radiation would be expected. Their
to the interpretation of these acoustic results is study also shows the increasing presence of shock
that in forward flight the C-D nozzle's plume n o i s e with increase in jet total temperature since
shock structure remains insignificant. These their C-D nozzle was designed for a fixed jet
results clearly indicate that shock noise remains total temperature.
an important noise contributor at least wtth Westley and Woolley'882 experiments with
subsonic flight. It is important to note that the small choked axisymetric helium jets have shown
Howe and Ffowcs WilliamsS8 theory predicts an that the radiated Mach waves are actually
increase in the shock noise mechanism efficiency positioned "on-symmetrically around a jet,
with forward flight. differing by a half wavelength on opposite sides
of the jet. This can he seen in the figure 1
photographic record if one exercises great care.
Jet N o i s e Mechanism for aigh Speed P l o w s Based on the nature of the radiation pattern.
Westley and Woolley concluded that the planar
As pointed Out by Ffowcs Williams9 many years flapping mode of jet oscillation (i.e., nearly
ago the prediction for total acoustic power equal left and right hand helices) would be most
radiated from,prbo jet engines of military power consistent. Recall that the low Reynolds
(circa 1950 ) cannot be estimated from supersonic plume measurements of McLaughlin,
Lighthill's famous eighth power law. Instead for Morrison and Troutt" also show that the preferred
these engines one needs to consider the more mode of instability for the initial jet shear \c
efficient noise production mechanism due to layer is the jet flapping mode. For the previous
supersoni ally convecting distutbances which discussions on the jet screech mechanism this may
Phillips" termed eddy Mach wave radiation. not be entirely surprising. Both figures 6 and 7
Figure I shows an example of the radiat-d near show that, even before the eddy Mach wave
acoustic field for this mechanism. As discussed mechanism is cut-on by supersonic convection
in the introductory remarks, current and future effects, the helical structure is the preferred
research efforts are being directed to obtain a mode of instability for the initial jet shear
better understanding of the phenomenon since it layer. As shown above this type of preferred
would clearly be active i n the noise field Of high Structure is already indirectly linked to intense
performance military aircraft and second screech tone emission through the Strouhal number
generation space transportation vehicles. For s c a l i n g of figure IO.
these class vehicles the mechanism would dominate The supersonic jet noise mechanism has more
acoustic radiation within the Mach cone of figure recently been modelled
1. which for most applications involve4 a theorcticallyZ6s 2 ' 9 83 by considering the
substantial portion of radiation in the jet plume r o l e of coherent type structures in the turbulent
quadrant. mining layer. Such consideration is not
The radiated acoustic field visualized in the restricted to supersonic flow, but is also
figure 1 photograph is actually compoyed of considered relevant to 8Ehe subsonic jet noise
several distinct grouping of vaves. Hall ', f o r mechanism. Crighton's paper examines this
example, classifies these waves into the following issue, and provides substantial references to
categories. N o z z l e centered high frequency fintte current work i n this field. For supersonic flows
amplitude waves that originate in the initially the quasi-linear instability wave models of Tam
thin supersonic shear layer near the nozzle exit and Burtonz6 and Morris and Tam" have progressed
(these waves are visible in the figure I to the point where direct evaluation with
photograph). Wider spaced with wavelengths experiment has been possible. Both models when
of jet diameter order originate between 1 and 6 applied to the problem of spatially growing
nozzle diameters and are associated with eddy Mach instability waves can provide prediction of the
wave radiation (these are the predominate waves o t near acoustic field. The more recent model of Tam
figure I ) . Lar angle waves with wavelengths and Burton has extended the analytical method to
spaced two jet diameters apart originate near the now include the supersonic damped wave phenomenon,

W
16
and thereby render the solution valid where eddy Laufer, Schlinker and Kaplan show that the eddy
Mach wave radiation is observed. Due to the Mach wave mechanism is the dominant source. For
importance of obtaining near field acoustic heated flows, the relative importance of the eddy
predictions, recent results obtained using these Mach wave mechanism would be expected to occur at
models will be examined. decreasing values of &.
The degree to which the wave model can As to why the quasi-linear instability wave
predict properties he acoustic field was model predicts an apparent source location far
demonstrated by MorrOifs'' several years ago in upstream of that indicated by experimental

Yu and Dosanjh' .
comparison to mgasured results obtained earlier by
Representative results from his
report are shown in figures 45 and 46. Figure 45
evidence remains an unanswered question. Inherent
to the derivation of the quasi-linear instability
wave model is that it assumes all wave induced
shows the degree to which Morris was able to stresses are zero, although it is otherwise cast
predict the far field directivity for a fully i n conservative form. This means that the wave
expanded high Reynolds number (i . e . , exchanges no energy with the random field
Re=pjVjD/v>106) supersonic plume as produced components as it evolves downstream. The
by a convergent-divergent nozzle designed for an instability wave, perhaps initiated at the nozzle
exhaust Mach number of %-1.5. For this example exit by acoustic feedback like that in jet
we expect that +<l, and that the preferred m d e screech, rapidly grows 8 6 it is convected
of instability is helical. The measured data downstream by the imposed local mean shear. Due
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consists of one-third octave band sound pressure to jet spreading the growth rate of a fixed
levels with a center frequency at St=0.25 which frequency instability wave is reduced, and at some
was close to the peak spectral value in the point in the flow becomes critically damped. As
principle direction of radiation. The predicted Tam and Morris have explained, acoustic radiation
directivity pattern, which assumed the preferred occurs for a fixed frequency instability wave due
instability mode was axisymmetric (i.e., m=O), to the spatial change of wave amplitude that
adjusted at only a single pint to match measured produce wavenumber components with supersonic
pressure levels. From this comparison it would phase speed. The theory is called quasi-linear in
appear that the major features of radiation in the the sense that the field equations are linearized
principle direction of radiation for the dominant by specifying the mean flow development hy
spectral component B K ~well represented by the incorporating empirically generated parameters
model of a spatially growing instability wave. like that shown in figures 17 and 18. Thus the
The near field pressure contours in figure 46 at instability wave analysis of either reference 26
this same flow condition show that the overall or 27 can be used to predict the coherent flow
features are represented by this model. The structure evolution and acoustic near field
uplifted contours near x/rj=O are due to shock properties for supersonic jets with varying
noise, and should not be considered in making a Reynolds numbers, provided that the appropriate
qualitative comparison. However, closer mean flow structure is specified The
examination reveals that the instability wave measurements of Morrison" and Troutt" clearly
model produces an apparent source location for show that the r . 5 and b lines of figure 17 is
this Strouhal number component much farther considerably different i n low Reynolds number
upstream than is indicated by the measured data. flows.
I The directional mirror teles 0 e measurements of on the basis of the above discussion, in
Laufer, Schlinker and KaplanP8'have shown, that particular that wave induced stresses are set
for this M,y1.5 supersonic plume, the apparent equal to zero, one m y expect that a better
source location is near the end of the annular agreement exists between the apparent source
mixing region (i.e., n~=0). This agrees well location for predicted and measured results in
with the measured pressure contour levels of Yu lower Reynolds number flows where the above
and Dosanjh. assumption &s more likely to be unquestioned. Tam
reference 67 the numerical code of and BurtonZ have recently done this. and compare
Morrift6 was used for a similar purpose to compare their new analysis to both the flow evolution and
measured and predicted near field pressure contour
levels for the Md=2 nozzle when operated fully
expanded (i.e., this corresponds to the condition
.
near ~ C O U S c field results reported by Troutt and
McLaughlink i The data acquired by Troutt and
McLaughlin refer to a small nozzle designed for an
in the figure 1 photograph). Figure 47 shows the exhaust flow Md=2.1 and operating at a Reynolds
result obtained i n this study for the dominant number of 70,000. To afford understanding of what
one-third octave spectral components centered at will be discussed later about these comparisons it
St=0.3. Again the hasic near field pattern is is important that the similarity in acoustic
represented well by prediction. the difference in properties between supersonic jets with varying
apparent source location from that indicated by Reynolds numbers first be illustrated.
measured data appears similar to what was observed The narrowband spectral data in figure 48,
when b = 1 . 5 . For the Q2. nozzle the acoustic acquired at RIP40 and 8=30" illustrates how the
mirror measarements of Laufer, Schlinker and spectrum shape varies as a function of jet
Kaplan identify two apparent source locations, Reynolds number for exhaust Mach numbers near 2.
with approximately equal source strengths. The The lower Reynolds number spfctra are orig,,hally
first originates in the annular mixing region, from the thesis of Morrison and Troutt , the
which they were able to identify with higher higher Reynolds number data is from NASA data
frequency eddy Mach wave radiation like that shown using the M,3=2 nozzle whose near field is
in figure I . The second apparent source location illustrated in figure 1. All n o z z l e s are operated
originates from a region beyond the annular mixing fully expanded for this illustration. Even though
region, and for the St=0.2 component, agrees the flow is unheated we expect for these Mach
well wtih the measured contour data in figure 47. numbers that the lower Reynolds number jets should
At higher exhaust Mach numbers near Md=2.5, also exhibit eddy Mach wave radiation. The

W
s p e c t r u m f o r Re=7900 c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of a The s t u d i e s o f r e f e r e n c e 67 also made
s i n g l e peak a t St=0.22. which is i d e n t i c a l t o comparisons between measured and predicted
4
t h e one r e p o r t e d by Morrison and McLaughlin as p r e s s u r e c o n t o u r levels f o r t h e St=0.4 component
t h e most h i g h l y a m p l i f i e d in t h e annular mixing which we can i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e eddy Mach wave
region. T h i s is t h e Same S t r o u h a l number t h a t is r a d i a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 1. The p r e s s u r e
p l o t t e d w i t h j e t s c r e e c h d a t a a t M.=2.1 in c o n t o u r d a t a f o r t h e St=0.4 v a l u e from t h e
1
f i g u r e 9. The s m a l l e r s e c o n d a r y peak near r e f e r e n c e 67 s t u d y is shown i n f i g u r e 50 f o r t h e
St=0.43 can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e eddy Kyjh h i g h Reynolds number %=2 nozzle. As is e v i d e n t
chanism based on t h e r e s u l t s o f H a l l , b o t h t h e i n c l i n a t i o n and a p p a r e n t source r e g i o n \L
Wave % , I 9
nertei , and Laufer, Schlinker and are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by p r e d i c t i o n . The p r e d i c t e d
Kaplans8. T h i s s e c o n d a r y peak is also v i s i b l e i n c o n t o u r s i n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n were d e r i v e d from
t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s p e c t r u m a t Re=70000, but not t h e e a r l i e r n u m e r i c a l code of M o r r i s 86 ,
c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e h i g h Reynolds number From t h e above i l l u s t r a t i o n s it would a p p e a r
spectrum f o r as shown p r e v i o u s l y by L a u f e r e t a1 t h a t t h e q u a s i - l i n e a r i n s t a b i l i t y wave a n a l y s i s
a t t h i s e x h a u s t Mach number t h e eddy Mach wave h a s p r o g r e s s e d t o t h e p o i n t wvre t h e i m p o r t a n t
mechanism r a d i a t e s n e a r l y e q u i v a l e n t e n e r g y t o eddy Mach wave mechanism can be p r o p e r l y p r e d i c t e d
t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j e t mining n o i s e ( t o use 8 even i n t h e a c o u s t i c near f i e l d . why t h e a n a l y s i s
p o p u l a r acronym). As can be o b s e r v e d i n f i g u r e 48 does not do as w e l l w i t h t h e lower S t r o u h a l number
even though t h e s p e c t r u m broadens w i t h a d v a n c t n g components remains an u n r e s o l v e d issue.
Tb7
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Reynolds numbers, t h e spectrum r e m a i n s c e n t e r e d h o t - f i l m band p a s s e d wedge probe measurements


around the majoq' Strouhal value peak at around t h e St=0.2 v a l u e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e growth
St=0.22. The d i r e c t i v i t y of t h e o v e r a l l sou"? rate for a preferred structure a t this fixed
p r e s s u r e l e v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e same t h r e e f r e q u e n c y is much l e s s t h a n would be p r e d i c t e d by
Reynolds numbers is shown i n f i g u r e 49, As is t h e quasi-linear i n s t a b i l i t y wave a n a l y s i s . This
e v i d e n t good s i m i l a r i t y is o b t a i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t of may s u g g e s t that the instability wave does
t h e spectrum c o n t e n t . The l o w Reynolds number exchange s i g n i f i c a n t e n e r g y w i t h random f i e l d
data i n t h i s f i g u r e have been c o r r e c t e d t o components as i t e v o l v e s downstream, as s u g g e s t e d
s t a n d a r d ISA c o n d t t i o n s f o r t h i s comparison ( i . e . . by Liu".
t h e ambient p r e s s u r e i n t h e law Reynolds number
experiments is s u b - a t m o s p h e r i c ) . It is of
i n t e r e s t t o note that the pressure levels nearly Discussion of Supersouic Source H e c h a u i w
a g r e e a f t e r t h i s is done, s u g g e s t t n g t h a t t h e
e n e r g y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i s o l a t e d peaks a t In t h i s p a p e r we have e x h i b i t e d many f e a t u r e s
Re=7900 becomes d i s t r i b u t e d across t h e Spectrum a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h t h e plume development and
w i t h advancing Reynolds numbers. The above a c o u s t i c f i e l d of s u p e r s o n i c j e t s t h a t are e i t h e r
acoustic data indicates that the physical noise p e r f e c t l y or i m p e r f e c t l y expanded. We have where
p r o d u c t i o n mechanism is h i g h l y s i m i l a r between p o s s i b l e shown how t h e n a t u r e of t h e aerodynamic
j e t s of v a r i o u s Reynolds numbers. s o u r c e and j e t plume s t r u c t u r e are r e q u i r e d t o
We r e t u r n now t o c o n s i d e r what Tam and Burton enable prediction of the major noise
found when comparing t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n mechanisms, even though, as i n t h e case
Re=70000 d a t a of T r o u t t and McLaughlin. In their of shock noise, e l e m e n t a r y models were a p p l i e d .
comparison of t h e most h i g h l y a m p l i f i e d shear Based on t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper i t L
layer instability wave at St=0.22, good would a p p e a r t h a t a l l t h e dominant mechanism a r e
agreement was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e overall growth of c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o l a r g e s c a l e s t r u c t u r e s in t h e
the s t r u c t u r e , but i t s i n i t i a l growth rate plume, and t h a t t h e s e are p a r t l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c due
exceeded t h a t of t h e o n e - t h i r d o c t a v e band passed t o t h e a c o u s t i c f e e d b a c k t h a t a s s i s t s maintenance
d a t a of T r o u t t and McLaughltn. Thus t h e p r e d i c t e d of t h e p r e f e r r e d s t r u c t u r e . I n the following a
l l a u t r a l p o i n t of s t a b i l i t y f o r t h e f i x e d f r e q u e n c y brief discus,;ion is attempted citing the
h i s t a b i l i t y wave occurs f u r t h e r u p s t r e a m t h a n t h a t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e v a r i o u s mechanisms.
. i h o m by t h e measured d a t a . The measured a x i a l F i r s t i n t h e j e t s c r e e c h mechanism i t was
peak l o c a t i o n occurs in t h e v i c i n i t y where t h e shown i n f i g u r e 9 t h a t t h e s c r e e c h f r e q u e n c y and
annular mixing region ends (1.e.. q~=0). t h a t o f t h e most a m p l i f i e d s t r u c t u r e i n t h e
llowever t h e p r e d i c t e d growth and decay of t h e a n n u l a r mixing r e g i o n have n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l v a l u e s
h i g h e r S t r o u h a l [number value of 0.4 showed [near a t t h e same value of t h e f u l l y expanded plume Mach
p e r f e c t agreement between b o t h t h e growth and number. In f i g u r e 10 i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e
dec.ay of t h e i n s t a b i l i t y wave. For t h i s S t r o o h a l a s s o c i a t e d f l o w s t r u c t u r e ' s wavelength-was near
,wt:nber v a l u e t h e p r e d i c t e d n e u t r a l p o t n t o f twice the average shock spacing L. the
s t a b i l i t y is n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o the axial i n s t d b i l i t y wave a n a l y s i s and phase a v e r a g e d
l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e measurements. which f o r hot-wire plume measurements i n l o w Reynolds number
t h i s component occur's n e a r l y halfway between t h e s i m u l a t i o n s shows t h a t t h e axial wavelength of t h e
d i s t a n c e between t h e nozzle e x i t and t h e [ p o i n t structure increases as It is convected
where nL-O. Tam and Burton also show t h a t t h i s downstream. On t h e o t h e r hand t h e shock cell
d i f f e r e n c e in l o c a t i o n of t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t of s p n d n g d e c r e a s e s w i t h d i s t a n c e from t h e n o z z l e ,
s t a b i l i t y f o r a f i n e d f r e q u e n c y wave also can be as is t y p i c a l l y s h o w i n f i g u r e 8 a . From
observed when comparisons are made betwccn c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e phased source a r r a y model of
predtcted and measured near field pressure P o w e l l , i t i s known t h a t maximum system g a i n
contours. For the St=0.4 value b o t h t h e occurs when t h e i n d i v i d u a l sources of t h e a r r a y
i n c l i n a t i o n and a p p a r e n t source l o c a t i o n are a r e phased by f a c t o r s 2nn. T h i s means t h a t i n t h e
c o r r e c t l y predicted. However f o r t h e St=0.2 r e g i o n where t h e a s s o c i a t e d l a r g e scale s t r u c t u r e
v a l u e b o t h t h e b a s i c c o n t o u r i n c l i n a t i o n and of f i g u r e s 6 and 7 f o r example have a wavelength
a p p a r e n t GOUTCB l o c a t i o n d i f f e r , s i m i l a r t o t h a t comparable t o t h e s h o c k s p a c i n g s c r e e c h s h o u l d be
shown i n f i g u r e 41. most i n t e n s e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l e v t d e n c e i n d i c a t e s

v
18
t h a t it would be i n t h e a x i a l plume l o c a t i o n where and eddg, Mach wave mechanisms C r i g h t o n and
one f i n d s s h o c k s p a c i n g s n e a r L. For t h e n o z z l e Bashfort and Morfey and H o ~ e l ; ~ * have r e c e n t l y
f l o w s examined E i s l o c a t e d d i s t a n t from t h e a d d r e s s e d t h i s i s s u e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h noise
n o z z l e e x i t , b u t u p s t r e a m and w i t h i n t h e a n n u l a r r a d i a t e d from f u l l scale a i r c r a f t , and c o n c l u d e d
mixing r e g i o n . I t is i n t h i s r e g i o n t h a t b o t h t h a t n o n - l i n e a r p r o p a g a t i o n e f f e c t s need t o be
p r e d i c t e d and measured r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e a c c o u n t e d f o r a c c u r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e f a r
preferred shear layer i n s t a b i l i t y has sustained f i e l d a c o u s t i c spectrum.
J maximum g r o w t h , which we have shown h a s t h e same
f r e q u e n c y as t h a t of t h e r a d i a t e d s c r e e c h t o n e .
T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h t h e mechanism of s c r e e c h T w Supareodic Noise Suvpression Devices
and j e t n o i s e may be c o u p l e d t o t h e same f l u i d
dynamic s t r u c t u r e . It would n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o o v e r l o o k some
From p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s ye have a l s o shown r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d j e t nose s u p p r e s s i o n d e v i c e s
that the jet screech mechanism is h i g h l y t h a t r e p r e s e n t clear p o t e n t i a l f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o
i n f l u e n c e d hy j e t i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , where w i t h a f u l l scale h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e engines where t h r u s t
t a b or r e f l e c t i v e b a f f l e t h e mechanism's gain l o s s is n o t e a s i l y n e g o t i a t e d . The two t h a t would
c o u l d be a d j u s t e d . I f s c r e e c h and j e t n o i s e Were a p p e a r t o d e s e r v e s p e c i a l m e r i t are t h e POKOUS
c o u p l e d t o g e t h e r by the same f l o w s t r u c t u r e , we p l u g n o z z l e s u p p r e s s o r and the i n v e r t e d v e l o c i t y
p r o f i l e c a a n n u l a r j e t w i t h c r i t i c a l Mach number
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would e x p e c t t h a t r e d u c t i o n of t h e s y s t e m g a i n
would lower b o t h t h e measured j e t and s c r e e c h tone r a t i o between t h e t w o streams.
amplitude levels. F i g u r e 51 shows t h a t b o t h The porous p l u g nozzle co c e p t was f i r s t
components are r e d u c e d when a t a b is used t o e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d by b e s t r e l l o ' as a means f o r
r e d u c e t h e B s t a g e s c r e e c h mode f o r t h e sonic r e d u c i n g jet n o i s e , which he found i t d i d f o r b o t h
nozzle a t Mj-1.37. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s can be s u b s o n i c and s u p e r s o n i c f l a w s . Maestrello also
o b t a i n e d as w e l l f o r t h e C s t a g e s c r e e c h mode. found t h a t s h o c k noise was e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d
T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s to what was o b s e r v e d in t h e low due to shock c a n c e l l a t i o n over the porous
Reynolds number 2xperiments of McLaughlin, s u r f a c e 4 b I n d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s hy Bauer, Kibene and
M o r r i s o n and T r o u t t ', when t h e glow d i s c h a r g e Wlezien t h e s e f i n d i n g s were l a t e r c o n f i r m e d , and
e x c i t e r is o p e r a t e d a t t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e from d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of the annular plug
preferred shear layer instability. Here t h e j e t f l o w f i e l d t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e s h o c k s were
noise was found t o i n c r e a s e due t o p o s i t i v e s y s t e m effectively eliminated, Figure 52 shows t h e
gain. r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by M a e s t r e l l o between a sonic
From t h e same phased l i n e a r a r r a y model i t choked annulus w i t h o u t a p o r o u s s u r f a c e ( s t a n d a r d )
h a s a l s o been shown t h a t b o t h t h e f r e q u e n c y of and one w i t h porous t r e a t m e n t . The f a r f i e l d
s c r e e c h f, ( e q u a t i o n 4 ) and t h a t f o r broadband s p e c t r a a t 90' t o t h e j e t axis are used s i m p l y t o
s h o c k noise f p ( e q u a t i o n 3) can be p r e d i c t e d d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t b o t h t h e j e t and s h o c k noise
w i t h i n a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of a c c u r a c y . We found mechanisms are substantially reduced. In
however t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t s o u r c e l o c a t i o n would be a p p l i c a t i o n of s u c h a c o n c e p t f o r s h o c k n o i s e
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l o w p r o p e r t i e s beyond t h e a n n u l a r c o n t r o l t h e p l u g can of course be c o n s t r u c t e d much
mixing r e g i o n , like t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e j e t s h o r t e r t h a n used i n t h e above s t u d i e s . but n e v e r
/ n o i s e process. It is i n t h i s r e g i o n where t h e s h o r t e r t h a n t h e a x i a l l o c a t i o n where t h e f i r s t
p h a s e a v e r a g e d o r band p a s s e d plume measurements b a r r e l shock is i n c i d e n t on t h e p l u g s u r f a c e . The
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e f e r r e d s t r u c t u r e of t h e p o r o s i t y and p l u g volume are s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e
a n n u l a r mixing r e g i o n becomes c r i t i c a l l y damped. s u f f i c i e n t r a d i a l e n t r a i n m e n t by t h e p l u g t o
While phased a v e r a g e d c i n e r e c o r d s show t h a t t h e weaken t h e b a r r e l s h o c k b e f o r e t h e f i r s t s u r f a c e
s h o c k wave s t r u c t u r e is coupled t o t h e motion o f reflection. For j e t noise c o n t r o l M a e s t r e l l o
t h e i n s t a b i l i t y wave i n t h e a n n u l a r mixing r e g i o n , found t h a t t h e p l u g l e n g t h would have t o be a t
one wanders i f i n t h e r e g i o n where t h e wave i s l e a s t as l o n g as t h e l e n g t h of t h e i n i t i a l mixing
damped, i f t h e n o t i o n becomes uncoupled t o t h a t of region.
the s h o c k s . I f i t were t o do so. t h e n t h e The second s u p p r e s s i o n c o n c e p t w 6 i n i t i a t e d
r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y between t h e wave and t h e s h o c k s and s t u d i e d by Tanna, Tam and Brown S B . Using an
would be at a maximum, and as shown by t h e i n v e r t e d v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e c o a n n u l a r j e t , whose
s h o c k l v o r t e x i n t e r a c t i o n model i n t e n s e shock noise i n n e r and o u t e r n o z z l e s were b o t h c o n v e r g e n t ,
would be e m i t t e d . The spectrum would be e x p e c t e d t h e y found that s h o c k s would be e l i m i n a t e d i n t h e
t o be broadband. o u t e r underexpanded stream when t h e inner s t r e a m
Much more r e s e a r c h is of course. r e q u i r e d t o was j u s t s l i g h t l y underexpanded a t Mj=1.03.
d e t e r m i n e s u c h f l o w f e a t u r e s , b u t i t d o e s seem T h e i r f l o w r e s u l t s are shown i n t h e s e r i e s of
clear t h a t p h y s i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e various S c h l i e r e n r e c o r d s i n f i g u r e 53. Their acoustic
mechanisms a p p e a r t o be mst s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t when r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e j e t n o i s e
viewed w i t h i n t h e framework of c o h e r e n t t y p e r e d u c t i o n due t o t h e use of t h e i n v e r t e d v e l o c i t y
structure. The v a l u e of t h e q u a s i - l i n e a r wave profile jet, s h o c k noise was substantially
model a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a means t o reduced. The a u t h o r s concluded t h a t t h e s h o c k
a n a l y t i c a l l y unify these various mchanisms within wave c a n c e l l a t i o n of t h e o u t e r stream would o n l y
the structure of the conservative field o c c u r f o r an inner s t r e a m v a l u e of Mj=1.03, but
equations. For t h e f u t u r e i t h o l d s g r e a t promise was o t h e r w i s e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e o u t e r stream(8
i n t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o c a p t u r e t h e major f e a t u r e s f u l l y expanded Mach number. This should be
of t h e a c o u s t i c n e a r f i e l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t examined a g a i n i n view of t h e f a c t t h a t the
a s s o d a t e d w t i h eddy Mach wave r a d i a t i o n . geometry of t h e i r n o z z l e system remained f i x e d
B e f o r e c l o s i n g t h e s e c t i o n i t s h o u l d be throughout t h e study.
mentioned that the effects of non-linear
p r o p a g a t i o n d i s t o r t i o n have n o t been c o n s i d e r e d .
S t r o n g p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s are t h e j e t s c r e e c h

L
Future Aeeroaeoutic Peeearch Opportunities PO' and 90' for those angles more near the jet
axis. At high angles to the jet axis the levels
As briefly mentioned i n the introductory eventually coincide. This directivity data refers
remarks, the principle wtivstion for future high to operation of this nozzle at its design point,
speed jet aeroacoustics research at NASA Langley so that MpMj. As indicated by the data
will involve application of what is known about considerably more noise is radiated to the 90'
the major noise mechanisms of high performance azimuthal plane, which occurs when the minor axis
military aircraft and second generation space of the nozzle is facing the microphone receiver.
transportation vehicles. Aside from interest in For the structural design engineer concerned with
predicting long range acoustical contaminants, the sonic fatigue, this represents an important
major emphasis is in the area of providing consideration.
prediction of aeroacoustically driven dynamic The narrowband acoustic spectra in figure 56
loads spectra for these vehicles. This requires show that for the angles near the jet axis, the
accurate prediction of the near jet acoustic field increase in level is totally accounted for by high
associated with intense acoustic emissions. Often frequency emissions. At high angles to the jet
to meet new mission requirements a strong emphasis axis the narrowband spectra of gigure 57 show that
is now being placed on the use of advanced the spectrum is independent of azimuthal angle.
composites to lower vehicle gross weight. Already As can be observed in the figure 57 spectra, even
though this nozzle is being operated at its fully
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for some vehicle concepts this already requires


that noise reduction be achieved for even the high expanded condition, considerable shock noise is
specific thrust engines currently in use. For radiated by this nozzle.
existing high performance aircraft there are
already strong Suspicions that many failures with
metallic structures are related to high intensity COncluBfon
shock noise emissions. At the present time no
performance trade offs a r e made on the basis of In this paper the major fundamental
intense jet and shock noise emissions, so it is a mechanisms for noise production by high speed
common practice to increase structural reliability supersonic jet plumes is reviewed from the
by increase i n structural weight in the impacted perspective of experimental evidence. After
areas. The new mission goals, however, provide weighing all the experimental evidence, this paper
motivating factor's to change this practice. shows that only after consideration of the role of
requiring the system's designer to account for large scale coherent structure can one find a
reduction of intense acoustic emissions as a consistent unifying theme to physically interpret
tradeoff against performance. and properly predict noise generation by the
As with any new ares of endeavor, it is fundamental mechanisms. Future theoretical
reasonable to first start by considering candidate analysis of the supersonic jet noise problem must
nozzle propulsion systems for the new class of therefore model all mechanisms within the
high performance vehicles. The 2-D framework that all are governed by similar fluid
convergent-divergent nozzle represents such a dynamic disturbances which are preferred modes of
candidate. Model scale perfggmance studies with the jet plume Structure. The quasi-linear
this nozzle by Berrier and Re , for example, show instability wave analysis appears to provide the
that when integrated to the fuselage of an proper approach for accomplishing this pursuit.
advanced tactial fighter in simulated forward When considering the new application of
flight there is a substantial reduction in boatail aeroacoustic technology to afford prediction of
drag relative to the unshrouded twin axisymmetric dynamic loads on structures, theoretical models
nozzle configuration. What makes this particular must account for the dynamical evolution of the
2-D nozzle different than those used in prior plume to provide prediction of the important near
aeroacoustics studies is that their aspect ratio's acoustic field.
are very low, typically less than 4 to 1. As a The major noise production mechanisms
consequence the plume flow field rapidly reviewed for high speed jet plumes include eddy
transitions into a complex three-dimensional Mach wave radiation, jet screech and broadband
Structure that is difficult to measure and shock noise. Since most cited illustrations
numerically predict. involve unheated supersonic plumes, jet mixing
Figure 54 shows a typical 2-D C-D n o z z l e noise was also included. In general it can be
where performance improvement was found by stated that the experimental evidence for large
reduction of boatail drag. The nozzle scale coherent structures as an important source
configuration is shown as it would appear for t o the high apeed problem has been there for some
typical afterburning applications with reheat. time. This evidence, including more recent
The aspect ratio for this nozzle ( i . e . , throac research endeavors, have been summarized below.
wtdth to throat height) is 2 to 1, and, in this For jet screech it is clear that the
configuration, the design Mach number is discontinuous frequency jumps are related to the
Md-1.66. Recently a set of acoustic field plume's preference for a given mode of
measurements were acquired for this nozzle, where instability. Toroidal or axisymmetric type
on the basis of throat width Wt. the distance to structure is limited to lower values of fully
a circular array of microphones centered at the expanded plume Mach number Mj. typically less
nozzle exit was R/Wt-36. Preliminary results than Mj-I.17 but dependent on nozzle initial
from this study are shown in figures 55 through conditions. Helical structure dominates the
57. region beyond this value. The screech frequency
The directivity data of figure 55, which is the same as that for the most highly amplified
shows the overall sound pressure level as a instability wave of the annular mixing region.
function of angle from the jet axis, shows that The frequency for this same preferred instability
the level differs in the two azimuthal planes at wave is the same as that observed for the spectrum
peak value of Jet mixing noise, so that when 'Lighthill, M. J.: On Sound Generated
screech is reduced so is jet noise due to coupling Aerodynamically 1 1 . Turbulence as a Source of
of both mechanisms to the same fluid dynamic Sound. Proc R. SOC., A 222, pp. 1-32, 1954.
disturbance. The presence of weak plume shocks do
not alter the average evolution of the shear 'Kramer, H. P.: Note on the Emission of
layer's preferred modal instability. Strong Noise by Supersonic Jets. 3. Acous. SOC. h e r . ,
imbedded shock can alter the preferred structure. Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 789-790, 1955.
The amplitude of Jet screech is not easily
/
predicted, but is related to nozzll. initial 'Ffowes Williams, J. E.: The Noise From
conditions and a close alignment exists between Turbulence Convected at High Speed. Phil. Trans.
the fixed frequency instability's wavelength and Roy. SOC., A 255, pp. 469-503, 1963.
the shock cell spacing.
The principle component for broadband shock 'oPhillips, 0. M.: On the Generation of Sound
noise is associated with plume properties beyond by Supersonic Turbulent Shear Layers. 3. Fluid
the plume's annular mixing region, and Mech., Vol. 9, Pt. 1, pp. 1-28, 1960.
experimental evidence suggests that the isolated
shocklvortex interaction model predicts many "Pao, S. P.: Aerodynamic Noise Emission from
observed physical features of the shock noise Turbulent Shear Layers. 3. Fluid Mech., Val. 59,
generation process in a plume. Both the spectrum Pt. 3, pp. 451-479, 1973.
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peak value frequency for broadband shock noise and


screech can be adequately predicted using plume 12Lilley, G. M.: The Generation and Radiation
features derived from the numerically simulated of Supersonic Jet Noise IV. Theory of Turbulence
plume. Both the screech and broadband shock noise Generated Noise. USAPL TR-72-53, 1972.
mechanisms remain relevant with heating and
forward flight. 13Tester, B. 3.; and Szewczyk, V. M.: Jet
The quasi-linear instability wave model was Mixine Noise: Comoarison of Measurement end
1

found to adequately predict the eddy mach wave Theory. AIAA 5th Aeroacoustics Conf., Paper No.
radiation when compared to near field acoustic 79-0570, 1979.
measurements. It appears however to require
future development to predict the Jet mixing noise 14pibner, H. s.: Shock-Turbulence
component. No theoretical or empirical model has Interaction and the Generation of Noise. NACA
at yet been proposed to predict jet noise when Report 1233, 1955.
there are strong imbedded shocks in the plume.
A future opportunity for application of this "Lighthill, M. J.: On the Energy Scattered
aerocoustic's technology for high speed plumes has from the Interaction of Turbulence with Sound or
been outlined in the paper. Satisfactory Shock Waves. Proc. Camb. Phil. S O C . , Val. 49,
solutions to this problem will highly depend on Pt. 3, pp. 531-51, 1953.
our understanding of the important flow
disturbances that produce intense near field 16Moore, F. K.: Unsteady Oblique Interaction
pressures. Understanding how these intense noise of a Shock Wave with a Plane Disturbance. NACA
mechanisms are related to the plume dynamic TN-2879, 1953.
J structures must be achieved to provide R
successful outcome. 17Kovasanay, L. S. G.: Turbulence in
Supersonic Flow. J. Aero. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 10,
pp. 657-674, 1953.
References
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1977.
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6Lighthill, M. 3.: On Sound Generated 23P0well, A.: On the Mechanism of Choked Jet
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21
2'McLaughlin, D. K.; Morrison. G. L.; and "Tam, C. K. W.; and Tanna, H. K.: Shock
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Supersonic Jet Noise. AIAA J., Val. 15. pp. Convergent-Divergent Nozzles. J. Sound Vib.,
526-532, 1977. Vol. 81, No. 3. pp. 337-358, 1982.

2 5 T r ~ ~ t t ,T. R.; and McLaughlin. D. K.: "Pack, D. C.: A Note on Prandtl's Formula
Experiments on the Flow and Acoustic Properties of for the Wavelength of a Supersonic Jet. Quart.
a Moderate Reynolds Number Supersonic Jet. J. J. Mech. and Applied Math., Val. 3 , Pt. 2 , pp.
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26Tam, C. K. W.; and Burton, D. E.: Sound "Seiner, J. M.; and Norum, T. D.:
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Woodling, M. J.: Experimental and Theoretical
27Morris, P. J.; and Tam, C. K. W.: Near and Studies of Axisymmetric Free Jets. NASA TR-6,
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Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - ANN ARBOR on September 18, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1984-2275

Axisymmetric Jets, AIAA Paper No. 77-1351, 1977.


4rMorrison, 6. L.; and McLaughlin, D. K.:
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29Harper-Bourne, M.; and Fisher, M. J.: The '%u, T. F.; and McLaughlin, D. K.: Flow
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3 0 D a ~ i e ~ M,. G.; and Oldfield, D. E. S.:
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Structure, Eddy Velocity and Source Locations. On the Relationship Between Broadband Shock
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257-277, 1962.
'"Tam, C. K. W.; and Jackson, J. A.: On the
31Norum, T. D.: Screech Suppression in Shock Cell Structure and Noise of Supersonic
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235-240, 1983.
"Hay. J. A.; and Rose, E. G.: In-Flight
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84-2279, 1984. Generation in Flows. Gottingen, Germany, Ed. E.
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34Nagel, R. T.; and Papathanasiou, A. G . : An
Experimental Study of Supersonic Jet Shock 5 0 h t 0 n ~ v , A. N.; and Sladkevich, M. S.:
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Temperature Jet. Translated from Izvestiya
35Hamitt, A. G.: The Oscillation and Noise Akademii Nauk SSSR, Mekhanika Zhidosti i G a m ,
of an Overpressure Sonic Jet. J. Aerosp. Sci., Plenum Pubishing Corporation, No. 5, pp. 155-158,
Vol. 8, NO. 9, pp. 673-680, 1961. 1978.

36Seiner, J. M.; and Norum, T. D.: 'lRoshford, T. J.; and Toms, H. L.: Recent
Experiments of Shock Associated Noise on Observations Including Temperature Dependence of
Supersonic Jets. AIAA Paper No. 79-1526, 1979. Axisymmetric Jet Screech. AIAA J., Val. 13, NO.
9. pp. 1384-1386, 1975.
3'Yu, J. C.; and Seiner, J. M.: Nearfteld
Observations of Tones Generated from Supersonic 52Drevet, P.; Duponchel, J. P.; and Jacques,
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Convergent Nozzle as Observed on the Bertin
38Westley, R.; and Woolley, J. H.: An Aerotrain. AIAA Paper No. 76-557, 1976.
investigation of the of the Near Noise Fields of a
Choked Axisymmetric Jet. AFSOR-UTI& Symposium on , , W. D.: and Pinker R. A.:
53Brvce. The Noise
Aerodynamic Noise Toronto, May 1968. from Unheated Supersonic Jets in Simulated
Flight. AIAA Paper 77-1327, 1977.
39Westley, R.; and Woolley, J. H.: The
NearField Sound Preseures of a Choked Jet when
Oscillating in the Spinning &de. AIAA Paper No.
75-479, 1975.

22
54~arohia, V.; Some Flight Simulation "Norum, T. D.; and Seiner, J. M.: Broadband
Exoeriments on Jet Noise From Supersonic Shock Noise from Supersonic Jets. AIAA J., Val.
Unherexpanded Flows. A I M J., Vol. 16, NO. 7, 20, No, 1 , pp. 68-73, 1982.
pp. 710-716, 1978.
72Tanna, H. K.; Tam, C. K. W.; and Brown, W.
55Norum, T. D.; and Shearin, J. G.: Effects H.: Shack Associated Noise Reduction from
of Simulated Flight on the Structure and Noise of Inverted Velocity Profile Coannular Jets. NASA
Underexpanded Jets. NASA TP-2308, 1984. CR-3454, 1981.
1
S6Norum, T. D.; and Seiner, J. M.: "Stone, J. R.: Interim Prediction Method for
Measurements of Mean Static Pressure and Far Field Jet Noise. NASA TMX-71618, 1974.
Acoustics of Shock Containing Supersonic Jets.
NASA M-84521, 1982. 74Deneuville, P.: A Simplified Prediction
Scheme for the Shock Associated Noise of B
"Tanna. An Exoerimental Study of Jet
H. K . : Supercritical Jet Exhausting ., from a Conical
Noise, -Part'fI: Shock Associated Noise. j . Sound Nozzle. SNECMA Report YKA, No. 5982, 1976.
Vib., Vol. 50, pp. 429-444, 1977.
'5Jacques, J. R . : Efficiency of Generation of
58H0we, M. S.; and Ffowcs Williams, J. E.: On Shock Associated Noise. SNECMA Report YKA, No.
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the Noise Generated by an Imperfectly Expanded 6081. 1977.


Supersonic Jet. Phil. Trans. Royal SOC. London,
Vol. 289, No. 1358, pp. 271-314, 1978. 76yamata, K . ; Braush, J.; Balsa, T. F.;
Janardan, B. A.; and Knott, P.: Experimental
59Tam, c. K. W.; and Tanna, H. K.: Shock Investigation of Shock Cell Noise Reduction for
Associated Noise of Supersonic Jets from single Stream Nozzles in Simulated Flight: G.E.
Convergent-Divergent Nozzles. J. Sound and Vib., Report R82AEBG492, 1983.
Vol. 81, NO. 3, pp. 337-358. 1982.
"Hall, S. L.: The Effect of Refraction on
60pao, S. P.; and Seiner, J. M.: AcouStic Wave-Angle Emission from Free Jets.
Shock-Associated Noise in Supersonic Jets. AIM proc. of 7th Austratasim Conf. an Hydraulics and
J., Vol. 21, No. 5 , pp. 687-693, 1983. Fluid Mech., pp. 350-355, 1981.

"Ribner, H. S.: Acoustic Energy Flux from "Oertel, H. : Measured Velocity Fluctuations
Shock-Turbulence Interaction. J. Fluid Mech.. Inside the Mixing Layer of a Supersonic Jet. In:
Vol. 35, Pt. 2 , pp. 299-310, 1969. Recent Contributions to Fluid Mech., Berlin,
Springer-Verlag. pp. 170-179, 1982.
62Dash, S. M.; and Wolf, D. E.: Interactive
Phenomena in Supersonic Jet Mixing Problems. A I M 790ertel, H.: Coherent Structures Producing
Paper No. 83-0288, 1983. Machwaves Inside and Outside of the Supersonic
Jet. PTOC. of Structure of Complex Turbulent

./ 63Seiner, J. M.; Dash, S. M.; and Wolf, D. E.:


Shock Noise Features using the SCIPVIS Code. A I M
Paper No. 83-705, 1983.
Shear Flow, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, PP. 334-343,
1983.

80Parthasarathy, S . P.; and Massier, P. F.:


64Townsend. A. A.: The Structure of Turbulent Mach Wave Emission from Supersonic Jets. AIM
Shear Flow. Cambridge University, London, 1956. Paper No. 76-505, 1976.

65Seiner, J. M.; and Ponton, M. K.: "pfowcs Williams, J. E.; and Maidanik. G.:
Aeroacoustic Data for High Reynolds Number The Mach Wave Field Radiated by Supersonic
Supersonic Axisymmetric Jets. NASA M-86296, 1984. Turbulent Shear Flaws. J . Fluid Mech, Vol. 21,
Pt. 4, pp. 641-657, 1965.
66Seiner, 3. M.: The Wedge Hat-Film
Anemometer in Supersonic Flow. NASA TP-2134, ''Westley. R.; and Woolley, J. H.: The Noise
1983. Field and Wave Shape of Periodic "Mach Wave"
Radiations from a Small Supersonic Helium Jet.
"Seiner, J. M.; McLaughltn, D. K . ; and Liu. AIAA Paper No. 75-481, 1975.
C. H.: Supersonic Jet Noise Generated by Large
Scale Instabilities. NASA TP-2072, 1982. 83Chan, Y. Y.: Discrete Acoustic Radiation
from a High-speed Jet as a Singular Perturbation
%ibner, H. S.: Convection of a Pattern of Problem. Canadian Aero. and Space J . , Vol. 21,
vorticity Through a Shock Wave. NACA Report 1165, No. 6, pp. 221-227, 1975.
1954.
8 4 ~ i ~J., T. C.: O n Eddy-Mach Wave Radiation
"Seiner. J. M.: and Yu. J. C.: Acoustic Near source Mechanism in the Jet Noise Problem. A I M
~~~
.~
Field Promr.ties Associated with Broadband Shock
~
~~

Noise. A I M J., Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 1207-1215,


~~
.
Paoer No. 71-150. 1971.

1984. "Crighton, D. 6 . : The Role of Coherent


Structures in Modelling Turbulence and Mixing.
'"Nagamatsu, H. T.; and Horvay, 6.: ~ecrure Notes in Physics, $ringer-Verlag, Ed. J.
Supersonic Jet Noise. A I M Paper No. 70-237, Ehlers, pp. 340-362, 1981.
1970.

W
23
86Tester, B. J.; Morris, P. J.; Lau. J. C.; 92Morfey, C. L.; and Mowell, 6. P.: Nonlinear
and Tanna, H. K.: The Generation, Radiation, and Propagation of Aircraft Noise in the Atmosphere.
Prediction of Supersonic Jet Noise. AFAPL-TR- A I M Paper No. 80-1041, 1980.
78-85, 1978.
93plaestrello, L.: An Experfental Study on
87Yu, J. C.; and Dosanjh, D. S.: Noise Field Porous Plug Jet Noise Suppressor. A I M Paper No.
of Coaxial Interacting Supersonic Jet Plows. A l M 79-0673, 1979.
Paper No. 71-152, 1971. L
9*B~uer, A.; Klbens, V.; and Wlezien. R. W.:
"Laufer, 3.; Schlinker, R.; and Kaplan, R. Jet Noise Suppression by Porous Plug Nozzles.
E.: Experiments on Supersonic Jet Noise. AIM NASA Contractor Rept. 3613, 1982.
J. Vol. 14, No. 4 , pp. 489-497, 1976.
95Tanna, H. K.: Tam, C. K. W.; and Brown, W.
89Morrison, G. L.: Flow Instability and H.: Shock Associated Noise Reduction from
Acoustic Radiation Measurements of Low Reynolds Inverted-Velocity Profile Coannular Jets. NASA
Number Suprsonic Jets. Ph.D. Thesis, Okla. State Contractor Report 3454, 1981.
University, 1977.
96Berrier. 8. L.; and Re, R. J.:
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"Troutt, T. R.: Measurement8 on the Flow and Investigation of Convergent-Divergent Nozzles


Acoustic Properties of a Moderate Reynolds Number Applicable to Reduced Power supersonic Cruise
Supersonic Jet. Ph.D. Thesis. Okla. State Aircraft. NASA TP-1766. 1980.
University, 1978.

"Crighton, D. G.; and Bashford, S.:


Nonlinear Propagation of Broadband Jet Noise.
AIAA Paper No. 80-1039, 1980.

24
SONIC NOZZLE
(UNHEATED FLOW) B&D

E
..I

A0
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Figure I . - Horizontal Spark Schliercn of fully i_/L_ILI' -~..,..-~~...~...~..


expanded (P,/Pa=l.OO) axisymetric 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 8
jet designed far an exhaust Mach
number Md=2.
9
F i g u w 4.- Fundamental wavelength variations of
the various stages of screech.

128 108 108 128


:..*?'

Figure 2.- Horizonral spark Schlieren of


underexpanded (Pe/Pa-3.05,
M.=1.8)
J axisymetric sonic nozzle.

117 97 97 117

109 89 89 109
I 3 Figure 5.- Far field directivity of C stage
St=f D/V, screech at Mj=1.49; jet exhausts to
the right; 0 measured;
Figure 3.- Typical far field narrowband shock --- predicted: (a) fundamental;
., n o i s e spectrum. (b) second harmonic; ( c ) third
harmonic; (reproduced from Norum3').
Toroidal structure (b) Helical structure (c) Toroidal s t r u c t u r e

Pe/Pa = 1.15, Te/Ta=0.83, Nj-1.11. P,/P, = 1.33, Te/T,=0.83, Mj=1.22. P,/P, = 1.15, Te/Ta=1.96, M.=1.12.
J
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Figure 6.- Phase averaged Schlieren records illustrating spatial structure


during j e t screech from a 3.984 cm diameter sonic nozzle.

Figure 7.- Sequence of phase averaged Schlieren records far q = 2 nozzle


operating overexpanded a t Mj=1.58: fs=2810 llz, 16 exposures.
Md
P I.0(AXISYMMETRIC)
0 1.0 (HELICAL)
'7[
.6 0 1.5
A 2.0
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.2KrI
0.
0 s
IIII
10
1L-
1s 25 30 3S 40
$D

(a) Definition of average shock spacing. Figure 9.- Fundamental jet screech and preferred
shears layer made frequency behavior
with fully expanded Mach number:
curves computed from equation 4 using
appropriate (equation 7) for each
nozzle

t.b ' 110 112 ' l!, ' 1!6 118 a ,Io 2i2 2
I
(b) i for various nozzles (from reference 42).
Mj
Figure 10.- Estimated variation of instability
axial wavelength relative to average
Figure 8.- Variation of aver e s ock cell shock cell spacing: symbols
spacing with 8-(Mj-l)1 2.eg ? correspond to legend in figure 9.

27
4.0
SONIC NOZZLE
Po/Pa = 2.158 L
hs/D = a,3(1+ 1 /Mc)
3.5
a = 1.31
-----a = 1.16
3.0

2.5’
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2.0

1.5

I .O
l , l , l , l ,
.5 1 .o 1.5 2.0 5
%/To

(a) B, D, and C Stages. (a) Static exit to ambient temperature ratio.

1.o
I40 SONIC NOZZLE ~

.9 - Po/Pa = 2.158
2.5
hs/D = a@(l+l/Mc)
-a = 1.31
- L
-
m
V
v
I20 2.0

-
As
-
>-
2 -
2 -
.B

.7
.*. -.
..-.-.
----- a = 1.16

a L
1.5


II

.6-

.5 -

u
1.0 1.4 2.2 2.6 .5 i

(b) Q = 1.5 and 2.0.


(b)
number .
Estimated variation with convection Mach

Figure 11.- Screech amplitude and wavelength Figure 12.- Fundamental screech wavelength
variations with M j , variations for heated flow from sonic
nozzle with fixed pressure ratio:
cold flow AI-stage of screech.

28
2.0 M, M,
- 1.37 0.15 - 1.64 0.15
....... 1 .37 0.00 I10dB ....... 1.64 0.00
1.5 e max dB

2
hl.0
I a
.5 .... 140' 109.8

u
0 4 8

X/D
12 16
NORUU h SHEARINU
20

v, 0
C

5 IO 15 20 25 30
(a) CENTERLINE STATIC PRESSURE Frequency. kHz
NORUU & SHEARIN"
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(b) ACOUSTIC FAR FIELD PRESSURE

Figure 14.- E f f e c t of simulated forward f l i g h t


- 1.38 0.15 when B s c r e e c h modal s h i f t occurs.
I10dB ....... 1.38 0.00

n-

.-
A
140' 120.1
n
v, 0 5 10 I5 20 25 30 max dB
Frequency, kHz 110.8
HORUY & SHfARIHY
( b ) ACOUSTIC FAR FIELD PRESSURE
111.0
Figure 13.- Effect of simulated forward f l i g h t
when no s c r e e c h mode s h i f t occurs.
102.1

101.5

100.4

2.0 75' 96.7

- 1.67 0.15 -1
1.5
.. 1.67 0.00 a 60° 95.8

2 1.0
\
a
t

Figure 15.- Typical example of Lbppler s h i f t e d


f a r f i e l d s p e c t r a (from r e f e r e n c e
56).

29
'c

INITIAL MlYlNC LAW lRANSITION Z M

1 \
4
.
\
\\ .
',
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0 0 -
-
- .
3-

0
0
0
t u
n - 0
-
M Y -
2-
0
o
L.

Figure 19.- Comparlson of p r e d i c t e d (kw) and


measured c e n t e r l i n e Mach numbers
(from r e f e r e n c e 6 3 ) .

Figure 17.- Axial d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean v e l o c i t y


.L
.-

Hd -
p r o f i l e p a r a m e t e r s r e g and b f o r
2 f u l l y expanded j e t (from
reference 6 5 ) .
.4

0.

-.4
n

1.00
1 -Bpllll
b
a
v
.e
.4

0.
L-1.0-
UC- -.4

--.e
-1.2 t u
0 10
I I II 3
20
II IIII
30
I, I I I I , I ,, , , I , , , , I , ,
50 €4 70
,,
I
$j

0. 1 Figure 20.- Comparison of p r e d i c t e d (kW) and


measured plume s t a t i c p r e s s u r e f o r
Md = 2 nozzle a t Mj = 2.24 (from
reference 6 3 ) .

Figure IS.- Mean v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s x l R j from


0.98 t o 6 6 . 1 6 f o r & = 2 f u l l y
expanded n o z z l e (from r e f e r e n c e 6 5 ) .

30
t- o 1.0 (with subsonic doh)
0 1.5
8o
- A 2.0
Nu, = O.33(RqJ1/' + 17.

1'7[
1.6
I -SCIPVIS
-+-Measured
kW,Mf
'
= 0.15
1 Nuo
60

40-
-
-

20 -
r
I
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O c ! " " l " " l " " i " "


50 100 150 1 0
(ReJ1/'
Figure 23.- Wedge hot-film probe variation with
freestream Reynolds number (from
reference 66).

SClPVlS kW,Mf = 0.15


Figure 21.- Variation of predicted (kW) and .20 Meosured (Hot Film)
measured s'onic line (from reference
63). g(X) = 3/3

5# NICKEL F I L M

'i 0.
0 5 10 15 20 25
X/RI
.13 - tFigure 24.- Axial evolution of longitudinal
MM turbulent component along jet lipline
l
i for a sho& containing supersonic jet
plume (from reference 63).

b H l N QUARTZ SUBLAYER

Figure 22.- Profile view of hot-film wedge probe


anemometer (from reference 66).

(I.st BASED ON EXIT CONDITIONS: R/R] =1

I
.1 I 5
St=fD/Uc

31
b. St BASE0 ON LOCAL CONDITIONS: R / R j = l
I R/DI'9 = =30°
72

'Q-'.os .I 1 10 so
I MACH 1 .O NOZZLE-,

st=cx/ur

-
Figure 25.- Universal turbulent v e l o c i t y Spectruro
in annular mixing region (from
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN - ANN ARBOR on September 18, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1984-2275

reference 6 7 ) .

-maIT 70
MACH 1.5 NOZZLE
F 5.m

6o .01 .l 1
Sf = fDj/Vj

Figure 27.- Acoustic far f i e l d s p e c t r a at e -


30'
for a shock free and shock c o n t a i n i n g
jet of equivalent m c h d n i c a l power
(from reference 42).

s1 * ffilU,
a) SECOND SHOCK C E U

1 1.14 ISHOCK FRELI-

Figure 28.- Typical computed pressure contours


f o r shock-vortex i n t e r a c t i o n in two
dimensions (from reference 6 0 ) .
b) THIRD SHOCK CELL

Figure 26.- Universal turbulent spectrum in shock

-
c o n t a i n i n g plume f o r Q
a t Mj
-
2 nozzle
2.24 (from reference 4 2 ) .

32
!-END OF COMPRESSION

-0.5
-0.26 0.80 0.26 0.60 8.75

I C m-Sec >
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F i g u r e 31.- Hot-film p r o b e f n e a r f i e l d microphone


axial c o r r e l a t i o n t r a c e s through

band) f o r M,j -
t h i r d shock c e l l (2.0 Wz 1/10 f p
2 . 0 n o z z l e a t Mj *
2 . 2 4 (from r e f e r e n c e 4 2 ) .

(XIDI - 8.25

F i g u r e 29.- Schematic r e p r e s e n t s t i o n of t h i r d
shock c e l l f o r k = 2 nozzle a t
MJ n 2 . 2 4 s h o v i n g h o t - f i l m a x i a l
and r a d i a l l o c a t i o n s (from r e f e r e n c e
42).

3.8 0
? 1st CEU
D
3rd CELL

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


0
lXlDl . 8.25
SONIC
D
0
LINE
Figure 32.- E s t i m a t e of p r o b a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r
shock noise generation from axial
t i m e d e l a y i n f o r m a t i o n (from
reference 4 2 ) .

8.e

F i g u r e 30.- Radial h o t - f i l m p r o b d n e a r f i e l d

u n i t s f o r tQ - 2 n o z z l e a t Mj
2 . 2 4 (from r e f e r e n c e 4 2 ) .
-
microphone c o r r e l a t i o n s in p h y s i c a l

e..,.. .",.I 0, ,.I

F i g u r e 33.- Sound 8ource and a p p a r e n t l o c a t i o n


f o r shock noise (from r e f e r e n c e 6 0 ) .

33
-L Md

1.5 - A 2.0 (SCIPVIS. kW)


. - Equation 12
-
____---- L
L. 1.0 -
-
AP -
-
- .A0 .
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1.51
0 MA = 2.0

a) OVEREXPANDED CONDITION

-
-
a.
f0 1.0

0.
1.o 1.5 2.0 5
i'
Figure 36.- Prediction of peak spectrum value

2.0
at e -
frequency for broadband shock noise
900.

XI0
1.5
b) UNDEREXPANDED CONDITION
Equotlon 3
fD
- 1.0 (USING SCIPVIS)
Figure 3 4 . - Major region for broadband shock
noise emission (from reference 60).
.S

0.
0 M 60 120 150 1 0
0
Figure 37.- Prediction of peak spectrum value
frequency for broadband shock noise
at various angles to jet axis.
\A
34
"t
70

6o 0 10 20 30 40 50
b

6o 0 10 20 30 40 50
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60
--L
50 0 10 20 30 40 50
mr d

Figure 38.-
for sonic choked nozzle at e
and RID 80.
-
Prediction of shock noise intensity

- 90" 60

10 20 40
30 50
D FREQUENCY IkHz)
f

-
Md -B EQUA. 13
I
./ n 1.0
0 1.5
0.6
2.0
-
------ i A
Figure 40.- Doppler shifted power spectral
densities with amplitude corrections
for convergent nozzle with tab at e =
A 2.0 3.0
-
75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 degrees:

-
( a ) 6 = 1.34, n = 0.5; ( b ) B
n = I; (c) 6 = 0.8, n 2; (d)
1.1,

6 = 0.6. n = 2.5 (from reference 71).

Mj -Md

Figure 39.- Prediction of shock noise intensity

-
for supersonic exhaust nozzles at 8
90" and RID 80.
- B

Figure 41.- Estimate of broadband shock noise


directivity factor exponent (from
reference 71).

35
-
St
I,.
Pr = 3.12 , Vf =0

0.59
0.63

n
0 CIRCULAR SONIC NOZZLT
n CIREUUR C-D NOZZLE
TrPW
1707
172a
Vi('/.)

ONCLf .10 I R E 1 IDEGREESI


2403
2417 I
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(a) Far field acoustic data.

1.2
St
1.17 \ 1.0
1.26
0.8

E
G
E 0.6
*
4

i
0.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
&tal Distance. XtD-,

(b) Laser velocimeter plume survey. L

St
- Figure L3.- Importance of broadband shock noise
for typical engine total temperature
1.87 (from reference 76).
2.01

100 110 110 1% ((0

Sound pressure level. dB

Figure 4 2 . -
free (Md -
Directivity comparisone between shock
1.5) and shock
containing sonic nozzle 0 with
identical mechanical power for high
frequency spectral components (from
reference 65). (a) Far field acoustic data.

36
(b) Laser v e l o c i m e t e r plume s u r v e y .
F i g u r e 46.- Near f i e l d o n e - t h i r d o c t a v e band
F i g u r e 44.- Importance of broadband shock noise -
( S t = 0.25) pressure level contours
for % 1.5 n o z z l e ; (a) p r e d i c t e d
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i n s u b s o n i c s i m u l a t e d forward f l i g h t ( a z i m u t h a l mode m = 0); Lb) measured


(from r e f e r e n c e 76). (Yu and Dosanjh”) (from reference
86).

90”
110

100

90

F i g u r e 45.-
SPL dB re. 2 x N/m7

P r e d i c t e d ( a z i m u t h a l mode m = 0 ) and
measured (Yu and Dosanjh”)
30r
20 -
(b) Predicted.

d i r e c t i v i t y f o r St = 0.25 component YlD


from shock f r e e % = 1.5 nozzle
(from r e f e r e n c e 86).

F i g u r e 47.- Near f i e l d o n e - t h i r d o c t a v e band


sound p r e s s u r e level contours f o r
~e = 5 . 2 ~ 1 0 6 , % = 2 nozzle f o r
20.0 40.0 60.3 S t = 0.2 component (from r e f e r e n c e
Axial distance. K I I “ 67).

37
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r Figure 4 9 . -
Sound pressure level, dB

Effect of Reynolds number on


d i r e c t i v i t y of overall sound pressure
l e v e l s a t #D = 40 (from refrence
67).
30
(a) Measured. /

20

YID

10

30 r (b) Predicted.

/(c) Re - 5.2 x LO6; H = 2.0.


LO -
I I I YJU
.2 .4 .6 .8
st 10 -
Figure 4 8 . - E f f e c t on a c o u s t i c spectrum wlth
advancing Reynolds number (from
referenc 6 1 ) .
-
n/D

Figure 50.- Near f i e l d one-third octave band


pressure level contours f o r Re
5.2~106,
-
= 2 n o z z l e for st =
0.4 component (from reference 6 7 ) .
v
38
Mj = 1.37 TEST %-UP
e= 60-

85 1WITHOUT SCREECH SUPPRESSION

J
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Figure 51.- Effect of screech suppression on j e t


noise component using B stage s c r e e c h
of choked s o n i c n o z z l e .

120

POWER 110
SPECTRA,
4 dB loo

90
80 L

.3 1 10 30
FREQUENCY, kHz

> CENTER
PLUG

Figure 52.- Jet and shock noise reduction by


porous plug n o z z l e concept (from
r e f e r e n c e 93).

Figure 53.- Jet and shock noise reduction by


inverted v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e coannular
concept ( f r o m reference 9 5 ) .

39
RH 1 3/W
Md= Mj= 1.66
9 = 30°

-
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1 10 60
55 .l
FREQUENCY, k H z

Figure 54.- Typical 2-0, C-D m d e l nozzle with 2 Figure 56.- Acoustic power spectral dnesity in
to 1 aspect ratio where M,j = 1.66. t w azimuthal planes at low angles to
2-D C-D nozzle axis.

110 -

100 -
N
I
\ 90-
m
U -
d 80 -
ln
a
Sound pressure level, d8 70 -

60 -
Figure 55.- Acoustic field directivity showing
azimuthal dependence of detected
sound preasure field for 2-0 C-D
nozzle.
4 I
1
FREQUENCY, k H z
10
I

Figure 57.- Acoustic power spectral density i n


two azimuthal planes at high angles
to 2-D C-D nozzle axis.

40