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Procedures and importance of • Quality and quantity of fertilizer and methods of application (Pond

• Fish farmers’ resources
Let Us Define

Important Facts
Acclimatization – the process of adjusting the fish to its new
-Be patient - never rush the acclimation procedure. The total
Environment; adapting fish to a new environmental condition.
acclimation time for your new arrival
Stocking – the process of releasing fish in the culture facilities
should take no longer than one hour.
Stock – cultured or raised fish
-Always follow the acclimation procedure even if your new arrival
appears to be dead. Some fish and
Depletion – the loss or lacking of one thing
invertebrates can appear as though they are dead when they arrive
Fingerling – a young fish much bigger than fry and generally around 2
and will usually revive when the
above procedure is followed correctly.
Fry – a newly hatched fish attaining a size of around 2 cm long or more
-Never place an airstone into the shipping bag when acclimating your
Hectare – equivalent to 10,000 m2
new arrival. This will increase
Cannibals – animals that eat their own kind
the pH of the shipping water too quickly and expose your new arrival to
Equilibrium – a state in which opposing forces or actions are balanced lethal ammonia.
so that is not stronger or greater than the other
-In some instances, your new tank mate will be chased and harassed
by one or all of your existing
tank mates.
The purpose of acclimation is simple: the water that the fish
or corals are packaged in has different temperature, pH, and salinity
parameters than your aquarium. Fish, and especially invertebrates
Monitoring and regulating water parameter
(including corals), are very sensitive to even minor changes in these
parameters, so proper acclimation is the key to ensuring their successful
1. Temperature
relocation. We recommend either of the two acclimation methods
explained below, and wish to remind you the acclimation process -is critical during stocking of fish. Sudden changes in temperature can
should never be rushed. Also, remember to keep your aquarium lights result to mortality in aquatic animals. Optimum water temperature for
off for at least four hours after the specimens are introduced into the nile tilapia is 28-35 oC. A laboratory thermometer is used to monitor the
aquarium to help them further adjust. Though not a requirement of our appropriate water temperature during stocking.
acclimation procedures, we highly recommend that all aquatic life be
quarantined in a separate aquarium for a period of two weeks to 2. Dissolved Oxygen
reduce the possibility of introducing diseases and parasites into your
aquarium and to ensure they are accepting food, eating properly, and All fishes regardless of species and culture conditions need oxygen for
are in optimum health before their final transition to your main display. growth and survival. Lack of oxygen results in poor growth and out-
break of diseases of mortality. Generally, most warm water species of
fish need dissolved oxygen at a level of one part per million (ppm) for
survival and about 3 ppm for comfort. Dissolved oxygen of five part per
Pointers to Consider in Stocking Fingerlings: million is the most ideal for growth and excellent in maintaining fish
1. Acclimatize fingerlings to their new environment

a. Do not expose containers/bags with fish to direct sunlight.

3. Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH). The pH of the water is a measure
b. If bags are placed in Styrofoam boxes, open in dim light to avoid
of the concentration of hydrogen ion in the water. Water may be acid,
startling of the fish.
alkaline or neutral. The measure of the alkalinity and the acidity of the
water is expressed by its pH value.
c. Allow the plastic bag to float in the holding facility or in the pond for
30 minutes to equalize water temperature in the bag and the tank or
pond water.
4. Salinity
2. Release the fish when conditions are right.
the amount of salt present in the water as expressed in parts per
a. The best time to release the fingerlings is early in the morning or late
thousand (ppt). It can be measured with the use of hydrometer
in the afternoon (cooler part of the day).
orrefractometer. A hydrometer is simple and inexpensive. Salinity is
determined by collecting small amount of pond water where the
b. When stocking, the fry containers are partially submerged and tilted
hydrometer is floated. A refractometer is an expensive device but very
to one side to allow water to flow in. The fish are allowed to swim out.
useful. With a drop of pond water place on the refractometer, the
This way the fingerlings are released without agitation.
salinity can be determined through direct reading.
c. Fingerlings should not be released into the pond, fish pen or cages if
water quality is poor, or lake current is strong.
5. Water Turbidity
3. Stocking density - one of the several factors that affects fish growth.
The number to be stocked per unit area depends on the species of fish
This is a term for the suspended dirt and other particles in water.
cultured and the size of fish to be stocked. However, in selecting the
Suspended particles in the water column determine the nature
proper stocking density, the following factors should be considered:
ofturbidity. Turbidity maybe of different kinds as follows:
• Market demand
Mineral turbidity is caused by high quantities of silt and/or clay particles
which turn the water light brown or reddish depending on the color of
• Productivity of the pond
the particles. This is common in shallow ponds and lakes where slight
• Quality of feeds used wind disturbance stirs up the bottom sediments.

1. Clay particles prevent fertilizer effects.

2. Inhibit plankton growth by reducing light penetration.

3. High turbidity usually causes acidity; low nutrient levels and reduced
primary production.

Controlling mineral turbidity

o A settling basin

o A water filter

o Organic matter spread throughout the pond at the rate of 20 kg for

every 100 square meter.

Plankton turbidity is caused by a high content of phytoplankton

and zooplankton in the water, turning it to various shades of green,

brown, blue-green or yellow-green depending on the plankton species
dominating the area.

Controlling plankton turbidity

o Water filter

o Adequate liming

o Adequate fertilization

6. Total Hardness

Hardness is a measure of total soluble salts such as calcium and

magnesium ions that are dissolved in water. Hardness is related to pH of
the water, but unlike the pH, hardness stays constant throughout the
day. Hardness should be between 50 and 300 ppm in the pond for best
fish growth. Determination of total hardness is done typically with
ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid. The principle is that EDTA form a
chelated soluble complex when added to a solution of certain metal
cat ions.

7. Transparency - a measure of the depth of light penetration into the


8. Ammonia - is an inevitable water quality problem under high biomass

loading. it is produced mostly from the decomposition of nitrogenous
organic compounds such as feeds, dead fish/shrimps or dead algae.
ammonia occurs in equilibrium as NH3NH+4. this equilibrium is pH and
temperature dependent. NH3 is ready absorbed in the body making it
toxic while NH+4 in non-toxic.

*9. *Water Depth

Water in the pond is kept at certain levels for optimal fish growth. In
general, a pond water depth of 1 meter is considered best for culture of
tilapia, carps, and shrimps; traditional milkfish ponds can do with just 40-
60 cm of water.

Water Quality Instruments Unit of

Parameters Measurement
Water Depth Meter Stick Centimeter,
Meter or
Temperature Thermometer Degree Celsius
Transparency/Turbidity Secchi Disc Meter, Feet,
Dissolved Oxygen D.O. Meter ppm
Salinity refractometer ppt
PH (hydrogen ion pH Meter pH
Hardness Colorimeter/Ethylene ppm
Diamine Tetra acetic
Acid (ETDA)
Ammonia Ammonia Tester Kit ppm